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0, E. BALJE
Engineering Consultant, Hollywood, Calif. Mem. A S M E
Part B—Compressor aid Pump Performance
The similarity concept, presented in Part A of this paper, for describing the characteristics of turbines is used to provide design and performance information on pumps and compressors, based on state-of-the-art knowledge. This information is preliminary in many cases because of incomplete knowledge on loss interrelations for compressors and pumps. The similarity concept is expanded to describe a technique which allows finding the optimum match for turbomachines operating in flow systems using several turbocomponents.
IN P A R T A of this paper a similarity concept for turbines and positive-displacement expanders was presented, which led to the conclusion that the maximum obtainable efficiency of these machines, together with the optimum design geometr3r, based on the state-of-the-art knowledge, can be presented as function of the similarity parameters specific speed N, and specific diameter D, for constant values of Reynolds numbers Re and Mach numbers M . Since only these four parameters, or equivalent values, are needed to describe the characteristic of turbomachines comprehensively, it is evident that this concept can be used to provide fairly complete information for the design of efficient turbomachines. In this part of the paper it is attempted to provide similar information for pumps and compressors and to expand the similarity concept for finding the optimum match of turbocomponents operating in closely coupled flow systems. Since a detailed description of the interrelations would exceed the scope of a technical paper, only high lights and major design trends are discussed. Due to space limitations only the design-point performance is presented; i.e., no reference is made to the criteria which affect the "off-design" performance of these machines. It is to be noted that the information presented in this part is also subject to the limitations discussed in the introduction of Part A of the paper; namely, the incomplete knowledge of the
C o n t r i b u t e d b y the Gas T u r b i n e Power Division and presented at the W i n t e r A n n u a l M e e t i n g , N e w Y o r k , N . Y . , N o v e m b e r 2 7 - D e c e m b e r 2, 1960, o f T H E AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGI-
interrelation between geometry and losses, so that many of the presented diagrams have to be labeled preliminary.
In retaining the definitions used in Part A, the specific speed is defined by N3 = N Vv, H ad'A (1)
with Vi denoting the volume flow at the inlet of the machine, and Had the head, actually produced by the pump or compressor. Likewise, the definition of the specific diameter reads D. = DHj/> Vl'A (2)
These parameters are again interrelated with other commonly used characteristic values, such as the head coefficient Hai
g 60 2
and "gulp factor" <p~ =
where <P = Cm-l «2
NEERS. M a n u s c r i p t received at A S M E Headquarters, A u g u s t 29, 1960. Paper N o . 6 0 — W A - 2 3 1 .
denotes the flow factor (see Fig. 1 for notations).
G* q S* V* S* A
= = = — = =
weight modulus, ft-lb/lb coefficient suction specific speed volume modulus, ft^lb/ft 3 degree of prerotation drag ratio
X* = drag coefficient v = drag-area ratio a* = cavitation sensitivity
N = net o — oxidizer P = pump iS = cavitation suppression tk = = tank w = wet 2 = after compressor rotor
JANUARY 1 96 2 / 1 0 3
In addition to N o m e n c l a t u r e in Part A .
b — blade C = compressor /, F = fuel
Journal of Engineering for Power
Copyright © 1962 by ASME
Downloaded 26 Nov 2012 to 18.104.22.168. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright; see http://www.asme.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm
DENOTES EFFICIENCY RELATED TO STATIC E X H A U 8 T PRESSURE AND TOTAL INLET PRESSURE A 3 S U a l t l 0 cm-i » cm-5 Fig. This usually causes the hydraulic diameter to decrease. these diagrams can be computed on the basis of loss considerations2 or can be obtained by plotting pump and compressor test data as a function of specific speed and specific diameter. It is interesting to note from Fig. o p t.7. Part A.e. • n s " "S^v. 3 Peak efficiencies of radial compressors a n d p u m p s 104 / JANUARY 1962 Transactions of f fie A S I E Downloaded 26 Nov 2012 to 141. The procedure for obtaining A"3Z)3-diagrams for compressors and pumps is similar to the procedure outlined in Part A for turbines. 2 for radial compressors. D Hod ^4 y V T 5 Ro * DUJVI 1 Ps N=r 7 3. see http://www. it can again be concluded that the efficiency of compressors is a unique function of the similarity parameters N„ £>„. . and optimum impeller exit angle /32 as function of Ns and D„ whereby for convenience lines of constant head coefficient qLUj are added. n8 =10 40 30 80 Reference [13). and consequently the losses 3 N u m b e r s in brackets designate References at end of paper.4. 1 Compressor velociiy triangles and geometries DS . W W MS^e _0_ vYo l v% do Fig.3 to 1. \ V = f 1 /BOC D s = Hod = ft lb/lb D = tt = 1 0 „ /p. particularly in the 2 COMPRESSOR . is presented in Fig. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright. which show the calculated maximum efficiency as function of N 3 . and M. The reason for the decrease in with decreasing specific speeds becomes apparent by the following considerations: The channel. 3 that vane-type diffusers are of particular benefit for low-specific-speed designs as indicated by test data on centrifugal pumps [l] 3 reproduced as dashed and dotted lines.. 2 is calculated for a peripheral Mach number of M * = 1. It is apparent from the previous comments that such a diagram can only be valid for the design Mach number.4% Design Criteria for Radial Compressors By using the arguments discussed in detail in Part A.e.org/terms/Terms_Use. A typical diagram. forD. • 3 . I 8UIDE VANES VANES WITHOUT REF. i. The tendency is to decrease the impeller-discharge width with increasing design pressure ratios in order to obtain favorable velocity vectors. specific speeds of 90 to 130. 2 Approximate AtjDs-diagram for radial compressors inlet a s s u m e d ) (swirl-free ^nax [VJach-Nurnher Effects Fig. . and different Mach numbers M*. Rc.62 and K = 1. optimum diameter ratio e. showing lines of constant efficiencies r.low-specific-speed regime. i. This diagram indicates that maximum efficiencies are to be expected for /32 < 90°. and that the optimum diameter ratio is mainly a function of the specific diameter.213.5 is equivalent to a design pressure ratio of p3/pi = 3 for gad = 0.5.. A significantly increased efficiency for low M*-values in the lowspecific-speed regime is evident.169. 3. and specific diameters of 1. so that lines of constant efficiencies and optimum geometry can be presented as function of A'a and D.. whereby the peripheral Mach number is defined by M* = K + 1 <jRT = Pi V _ ! (5) PUMPS Re = 1 0 ° PUMP3 WITH GUIDE REF. Fig.25. assuming swirl-free inlet (cti = 90°).cfm . particularly the hydraulic diameter of the impeller exit area and subsequent diffuser.. I R» = 10® It is evident from equation (5) that M * = 1. for constant values of M * a n d Re.asme. This is demonstrated by the solid lines in Fig. is affected by the density change of the gas occurring in the impeller. computed by loss analysis.
Such effects can occur at the impeller inlet when the relative approach velocity Wi. see http://www. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright. Aside from the Mach-number effect due to density changes. 5 . These losses are proportional to the gas density at impeller discharge.e.4 and pressure ratios of 3:1 and 4:1.. equation (4). comparatively large wheel-disk friction losses. It follows. defined as AV I 2/1. This means that lines of constant inlet Mach number M„_. Since radial machines usually are reaction (p > 0) machines. Only a few data appear to be available presently on the effect of the Reynolds number on the obtainable efficiency. This is particularly noticeable for radial compressors with large diameter ratios t\ i.asme.213. . indicating a decrease in i7. Additionally. For drag pumps the head coefficient can be expressed by the relation 1 A (10) thus rendering M * = 0 equivalent for mach nes handling incompressible media. It is evident from equation (7) that the relative Mach number is interrelated with the peripheral Mach number.25. low-specific-speecl designs. yielding for e. y 2 .org/terms/Terms_Use. therefore. Some typical lines for M H = 1 and 1. (see also reference ). to increase with increasing pressure ratios.2 (usually considered as limiting value) are shown in Fig. 1. A the ratio of the drag coefficient of the stator to the drag coefficient of the rotor X* fl . Smaller efficiencies than quoted in these diagrams are to be expected for R e * < 10r'. 600 1000 Fig.. Figs. By using the arguments presented in Part A for rotary-displacement compressors.a relation which indicates that the pressure ratio and inlet Mach number are interrelated with Ns and Ds. low-specific-speed designs have comparatively large disks and. 4 Limiting M a c h lines in approximate N s D s . can be quoted in an A'SDSdiagram for constant pressure ratios. n (12) 1 + (« + 1) + 2402 (<r2 eA-2)2 A .„nx with decreasing Reynolds numbers. i..e. _L_ c RELATED PRESSURE PRESSURE m TOTAL „j indicating that high-specific-speed compressors have high relative inlet Mach numbers and that the Mach number increases with increasing pressure ratios. which can be computed by solving equation (8) for Ars. that lines of constant efficiency and optimum geometry can be presented in the form of an NSDSdiagram. which is particularly critical for vanetype diffusers in high-pressure-ratio compressors. which increases with increasing Mach numbers as indicated by the approximate relation Reynolds-Number Effects Another restriction on the validity is the Reynolds number. Fig. = Tf DENOTES TO STATIC AMD ASSUMING EFFICIENCY EXHAUST INLET cm_. More detailed considerations indicated that A depends predominantly on the design geometry. = and ct. a Mach-number effect due to sonic effects has to be accounted for. 2 and 4 are calculated for a peripheral Reynolds number of Re* = 10®. channel geometries.. it follows that the friction losses increase with increasing pressure ratios.d i a g r a m for radiai compressors (swirl-free inlet a s s u m e d ) Similar considerations and expressions result for the Mach number at the diffuser inlet. so that the pressure ratio of the machine can also be expressed as a function of M„_i. it results for the head coefficient JANUARY 1962 / 1 0 5 (8) Journal of Engineering for Power Downloaded 26 Nov 2012 to 141. Pump and Compressor N S D S -Diagram ^ 7i [ 1 + 2q„ip M* 2 (6) The similarity considerations can be extended also to drag pumps and compressors as well as rotary-displacement compressors. Vz Pi when ip denotes a flow factor defined by the ratio of peripheral flow speed to peripheral wheel speed. The conditions at which these effects have to be anticipated can be expressed by the relative Mach number at the rotor inlet defined as J U l = M * -\/(e~2 + <p2) (7) iincl the efficiency by Vh • 1 f A (11) - 1 yi . consequently.. and that this effect is felt particularly' in low-specific-speed designs.169. restricting the maximum feasible specific-speed regime for high-pressure-ratio compressors to comparatively low values. = 90° A'. 4 by dotted lines for k = 1.cfm . and v an area ratio. i. exceeds the sonic velocity. 4 J where AR denotes the frictional rotor area and Am the mean through-flow area. A typical relation is shown in Fig. whereas ip is again interrelated with Ns and D„. It is evident from this diagram that the inlet Mach number becomes a limiting criterion for pz/pi > 4.e.h " " ) denoting the ratio of the relative inlet velocity to the critical velocity.
6 by clashed lines and dotted lines (see also reference ). 2 and 6 for radial and axial machines are defined by relating the head / / „ j to the ratio of total inlet pressure to static exhaust 12S Xc = 1 - b( 1 +B+ h)r Yc/ (15) + Likewise it results for the efficiency V = Vc /\lh i 16 (1 e~2) « .-diagrams can also be computed for rotarydisplacement compressors. operating as compressors or pumps. Since the flow passing through these pump types is considerably smaller than the flow passing through full-admission centrifugal pumps. the partial-emission pump. it appears logical that the counterpart of the partial-admission turbine. ( 1 + 1 V ^ ' d . see http://www. Therefore it may be expected that these devices show better efficiencies than drag pumps or centrifugal or pitot pumps in the low-specific-speed regimes.Xc) p. Fig. optimum efficiencies for these devices should be expected at comparatively large specific diameters. Lines of constant efficiencies for rotary-displacement machines. Some tentative values for the performance criteria of these pumps arc shown in Fig. and pumps  and drag compressors and rotary-displacement compressors in terms of specific speed and specific diameter. radial compressors. This demonstrates the multistage character of drag compressors. Since qad is a function of specific speed and specific diameter.5 to 0. in contrast to turbines. 6 indicates the regime where both arrangements have equal efficiencies. namely. and M * a function of the pressure ratio.Fig. In analyzing briefly the flow mechanism in these pump types . 6 and 14 of Part A in more detail. In comparing Figs.cfm ./pl . shown in Fig.x . It is to be expected that the mixed-flow type compressor will yield optimum solutions for specific speeds between 150 and 300 as indicated by the shaded area in Fig.. For specific speeds below 30.25. equation (5). without subsequent diffuser grid) give better efficiencies according to [51 than rotors with subsequent diffusers. The optimum geometry is indicated in the form of 6A_m„x-values revealing that the optimum hub ratio increases with increasing specific speeds.asme. optimum efficiencies of pumps and compressors for 106 / JANUARY 1962 Transactions offfieA S IE Downloaded 26 Nov 2012 to 141. whereby head coefficients in excess of unity are obtained. equation (3).\P i M (16) It is evident from equation (16) that the efficiency depends on M * 2 which in turn depends on qai as indicated by equation (13). or its special version. 6 by dashed lines. It is interesting to note that for extreme high specific speeds (A'„ > 3000) axial machines consisting only of a rotor (i.169. 6. 14 in Part A (ArsZ)s-diagram for single-disk turbines).e. 6. Fig.6 should be expected from these devices. 5 Reynolds-number correction for centrifugal p u m p s .opi regime. the drag compressor or drag pump yields higher efficiencies than the conventional centrifugal machines. it appears that head coefficients in the vicinity of 0. it results that jV s D. whereby for the high-specificspeed regime the axial type is optimum.213. whereas for the lower specific speeds. according to test (reference ) O f ail = \ with 1 + * vi i ] U - «-> (13) Yc/VcJ K + 1 Yc and = - 1 (14) specific speeds between 60 and 400. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright. are adapted from . The data for axial compressors. the spoon-type or pitot pump. It is important to realize that the efficiencies quoted in Figs. namely. ) 1 (1 . 6. Calculated values for Roots type compressors and gear pumps are shown in Fig. 6 is a summary of the data computed for axial compressors. The dash-dotted line in Fig. which quotes good agreement between test values and calculated data for the Ds. should be expected at comparatively low specific speeds and comparatively small specific diameters. should show acceptable efficiencies in the specific-speed regime of 10 to 20.org/terms/Terms_Use. This diagram reveals a situation quite similar to Fig. the radial machine yields maximum efficiencies.
-values. at l a r g e i V s .169. s h o w s lines of c o n s t a n t diameter.e. see http://www.213.org/terms/Terms_Use.600 8001000 3000 6000 10000 Fig. small D e v a l u e s . pressure. T h i s e f f i c i e n c y is d e n o t e d r/.s p e e d r e g i m e . Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright. a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e m e r i d i o n a l l e a v i n g v e l o c i t y c .„-3 in F o r t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of m u l t i s t a g e a r r a n g e m e n t s .25. 6 A p p r o x i m a t e NsD a -diagram for singie-disk p u m p s and low-pressure-ratio compressors 6ooo Fig. an e f f i c i e n c y d e f i n i t i o n w h i c h r e lates t h e p r o d u c e d h e a d t o t h e t o t a l e x h a u s t pressure is m o r e c o n - venient.. I t is e v i d e n t t h a t i > Fig. p a r t i c u l a r l y in m u l t i s t a g e d axial c o m p r e s s o r s . 7 t h e e x h a u s t d u c t is e q u a l t o t h e m e r i d i o n a l inlet v e l o c i t y cm-particularly i. large s p e c i f i c .cfm . which indicate considerably h i g h e r e f f i c i e n c y v a l u e s f o r axial c o m p r e s s o r in t h e l o w s p e c i f i c i. 7 Preliminary NsDs -diagram for single-disk pumps and low-pressure-ratio s h o w i n g total efficiencies icoco compressors.v a l u e s .e.. JANUARY 1 96 2 / 1 0 7 Journal of Engineering for Power Downloaded 26 Nov 2012 to 141.asme..
demonstrating trends and should not be interpreted as "limiting" values. i.26 A 5 ki + kb represent average values. efficiency. which in turn depends on design details of the preceding rotor. and 7 are mostly calculated on the basis of a loss analysis which necessarily contains simplifying assumptions since the knowledge on the individual losses is in many cases far from complete.The data presented in Figs.1 to 0. In order to recognize additional interrelations equations (21).2 and k-0 = 0. It reveals that a suction specific speed of S* = 385.3. and 7 can only ( h \ki + k-J V I J 24.e.. denotes the cavitation-suppression head. see http://www. it becomes evident that the pump or compressor efficiencies reflect the aerodynamic perfection of the channel design. A'r - nt'Ti h A'5 ki + 1.ki + kr. (24). Another frequently used parameter is the suction specific speed S* = N h . considered standard practice of commercial pumps  is obtained at ki = 0.169. have been used as cornerstones for the diagrams and verified to some extent the analysis. The efficiency rjD of the diffuser section is in this respect of considerable significance for compressors and pumps. 6. (25). Equation (17) is graphically shown in Fig. namely. particularly for low reaction.55 (a typical value for centrifugal pumps with ft = 90°) indicating a sizable influence of the diffuser -f = 53 . (19) Some interesting interrelations can be developed by introducing equation (18) into equation (19) yielding for eh = < * > and = 90° S* = 390 (fit kt + A-5(l + <fiV) (20) Comments on Peak Efficiencies It is important to note that the efficiency values shown in Figs. 2. particularly the shape of the inducer. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright..1 to 1. Since the actually obtained diffuser efficiency depends to a large degree on the flow profile in front of the diffuser section. 3 /e 3 ) on t. Available data on compressors and pumps.e. comparatively large A-s- Transactions of the A S M E Downloaded 26 Nov 2012 to 141. and (26) are graphically presented in Fig.90 <"" = W T T f a ) = / W ) (21) 'S " mas — 242 / V h y / k i + ki (22) 1h A more general solution for eh = < * > is obtained when 90° is considered also. 6. (22).25.asme. only a comparatively narrow range of the Ar5Ds-diagrams presented in this section is substantiated by test points so that the diagrams have to be labeled "preliminary. whereby the degree of prerotation may be expressed by the term 5* (23) = For this case an optimum degree of prerotation exists. quoted in Figs." whereby typical values are ki = 1. as evidenced by the relation Vh = Vn (1 t/ d )(1 p) (17) yielding It is evident from the structure of equation (20) that an optimum <£e-value (or NsDa3/e3) exists for the maximum suction specific speed which is found after differentiation I ks 24. This value usually can be expressed as a function of the approach velocity and the relative inlet velocity yielding (18) 2</ 108 / JANUARY 196 2 2g Equations (22) and (26) reveal that the maximum suction specific speed is only a function of ki and ki and independent of the similarity parameters. This diagram shows that S*mns increases considerably with decreasing Avvalues but is fairly insensitive to ki. 8 for p = 0.. high-specific-speed devices. 2. Thus the absolute ^-values. particularly [5) for high-specific-speed devices. 6.32.org/terms/Terms_Use. (A r a Z). the cavitation aspect as expressed by the cavitation sensitivity <r* = HJHnd is of particular importance when H. usually obtained with good aerodynamic channel designs of the different components.. whereby ki and especially ki can be considered to be dependent predominantly on the pump inlet conditions. 4.e. and 7 are average values. i.09 <2°> ki + h ki + k. VF.925 . Cavitation Limitations For pumps.35 (25) and 390 h Va-4 + h ( k .-.. 2. + A-J 1.213. 9 by showing S*m*x. by' considering preswirl (in direction of rotation). h ki Fig.cfm .35 \ e3 / op (<?£) when riR denotes the rotor efficiency. i. However.93 7R •^^. 8 Influence of component efficiencies on hydraulic efficiency of compressors and p u m p s + h (24) which yields (^e)opt = -^/o.5 h . and 5* opt as a function of A-5 for two values of kt.
9 Suction specific-speed relations Fig.d i a gram. whereby only comparatively small degrees of presv irl have to be applied as evidenced by the small 5*opt-values.169.x.25.2 . Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright. showing a minimum suction sensitivity in the shaded regime in Fig. This implies a comparatively large flow deflection coupled with a small curvature radius. not considered in the efficiency calculations so that slightly different efficiency values may have to be expected in this regime. ks = 0. and after accounting for the influence of the hub ratio eh. This means that certain iV. 1 .This is demonstrated in Fig. 6. however. therefore. sv. 2. 4 This means that pumps. The lines a* = constant shown in Fig. designed for best efficiency (optimization criterion for r} = constant lines in Figs.25 3 Fig. after considering the interrelation between N„ Ds. Assuming. 10. The shaded regime in Fig.values.d i a g r a m for single-stage pumps JANUARY 1 96 2 / 1 0 9 Journal of Engineering for Power Downloaded 26 Nov 2012 to 141.Y* s* (28) 600 . 6 and 10) will show7 maximum suction specific speed only in a comparatively narrow regime of A7.org/terms/Terms_Use. e3 240 7r2iVsI> 3 (27) for ek = co. to be expected that smaller kt and consequently larger suction specific speeds (apparently up to S* — 550 according to ) can be obtained with a more gradual flow deflection.cfm . 10 by showing lines of jS*„ as = constant superimposed on the constant efficiency lines in Fig. / ' /A 60 . quoted in Fig. 6 by the lines of a* = constant and becomes evident when it is considered that JV.v a l u e s quoted in Fig. 9 that a significantly increased suction specific speed can be obtained by using preswirl. Actually. in general.-regimes exist for which highest suction specific speeds are obtained. 10. are curved. namely. 10 are calculated for eh = c a • Forei ^ co the . 10 may then be interpreted as the iY s D s -regime where.asme. however. since this parameter is direct!}' related to the similarity parameter. 10 Suction specific-speed relations in preliminary N s D s . T h i s can be a c c o m p l i s h e d b y using the arguments of the cascade theory.m. 500 300 230 200 150 / NSD3 l£3 >PII0° This means that a* increases with increasing specific speeds and that lines of a* = const should be vertical lines in the A ' ^ .225 for eh = 2.15 . M o r e precise knowledge of the interrelation between kt and blade g e o m e t r y w o u l d be required before the regime of m a x i m u m suction specific speed can be quoted m o r e accurately. It is also evident from Fig. 6. It is interesting to note that the regime of maximum specific speed coincides with high pump-efficiency envelopes for high1 T h e <S'*max-lines in Fig. see http://www. It is.. T h e r e are.S*max-values have to be reduced b y [1 — (e/eh)-]1'2 and the (¥>e)oPt-values decrease b y 1 — ( e / e h U s i n g the e A . for N s < 2000.2). This is shown in Fig. reasons to believe that A's < 0 .3 = const is retained. when the assumption fca — 0. larger D e v a l u e s and lower S "max-values would result for axial p u m p s than indicated in Fig. e. implying a comparatively large local depression in the inducer. and Devalues and that the suction specific speeds for designs which fall not within this regime will be less than S*. Of particular significance is the existence of a (^>e)opt-value. 3 is a m o r e realistic assumption f o r well-designed axial rotors.213. the q u o t e d suction specific speed ft* results. 6. and e. only the lower iS*max-line (o?i = 90°) is rigorous since the efficiencies are based on a zero preswirl assumption.g. The upper jS*max-line presumes a slight degree of preswirl. pump designs with maximum suction specific speeds can be expected.
u/c0. a relation for the wet weight can be derived 5501 IIP K. is an important criterion. V. used for turbines.7? imD. which means that a cavitation suppression head of Hs = 60 ft is required for cavitation-free operation. Thus the number of basic parameters needed to describe completely the characteristics of turbomachines remains equal for compressor and pumps. equation (6). propellaut properties. for example.125 7 X (31) (RT. and the rotor stress and pump weight by using equation (51) of Part A in conjunction with Fig. of 2 to 5. and that instead the suction specific speed or its equivalent (see also reference . This may be demonstrated by a brief discussion of an open-cycle system. and equation (14) of Part A in conjunction with Fig. pressure _ m y ^ 7/<n> when I denotes the required duration. duration. This distinction is significant since in the regime of incipient cavitation additional parameters  have to be considered. the inlet volume flow Fi has to be used instead of the discharge volume flow Fj. Hence. The lines of constant turbine-velocity ratio. and pressure ratio. mixed-flow pumps. The required tank weight can be determined from stress considerations which lead to the relation Gik which indicates that the wet weight per HP is independent of HP (as long as Reynolds-number influences can be neglected) and becomes a minimum where the turbine efficiency is a maximum and specific diameter is a minimum. specific diameter. and efficiency for axial turbines. K- 1 YTRT1 (30) A r2 IIP after expressing the rotor diameter (which indicates the turbine weight Gt) by Ds and after replacing the turbine back pressure by N s . pj the fuel pressure.) Yr ) Equation (31) reveals that the optimum specific speed increases with net output. the specific-speed results to Ars = 60. impeller diameter of D — 7. respectively. Equation (30) reveals that an optimum specific speed exists which depends on output.1 1. 6) can be computed. of the tank material. 14 of Part A. yf the specific weight of the fuel. Fig. which depends on specific diameter." meaning that ArsDs-diagrams for "highest suction-specific-speed designs" (instead of 7jm„N as in Fig. By using equation (29) together with equation (14) of Part A and observing that G. In order to evaluate these relations. consisting of a pressurized fuel tank containing a liquid monopropellant and a turbine which expands the decomposition products of the propellaut for generating power. indicate that the turbine-velocity ratio for this condition would be about 0. yielding AV Application ot N S D S -Diagram The procedure for using the design charts is similar to the one described in Part A of this paper. 7tk the specific weight. means that a radial pump will yield the maximum efficiency at a specific diameter of Ds = 2. Equation (32) also reveals that the wet weight per HP increases somewhat more than linearly with duration and that an optimum pressure ratio exists as a function of duration.Pi/ih)(p//pi)yikC N K K . i?. depending on the tank shape. that the Mach number ceases to be one of the basic parameters for turbomachines handling incompressible medii.6 in. The tip speed can now be found by using equation (3) in conjunction with the ?„j-value in Fig. Part A) becomes a basic criterion. and duration but decreases with increasing efficiencies and increasing specific diameters. Such diagrams will show slightlj' altered efficiency envelopes and geometry lines except for the shaded regime in Fig. occurs.213. according to Fig. the similarity parameters are also useful for establishing major design trends for optimized systems.1. The cavitation sensitivity of this design is a* = 0. H a d . the wet weight Gw. fuel and gas properties.1 YTRTIV C*A r2 (l (i?r1)2-5Y/0o YtV) 550 2 HP KyJvtKvs/vt)7tk r)2N. for incompressible medii. which. This means that the desired rotor-tip speed is about half of the gas spouting velocit}' c„. the tank weight Gtk plus fuel weight Gf plus turbine weight G. First the specific speed is calculated from equation (1) for the desired head and volume flow. 2 of Part A. = 2 ft 3 /sec.25. also presented in Fig.cfm . The optimum specific speed AVo is found by differentiating equation (30). The foregoing considerations make it evident that the suction specific speed is another "optimization criterion.asme./ k' 1 YT KN2D.5. It is important to note that the suction specific speed S* used in this paper defines the conditions at which no cavitation.e. It has to be kept in mind that for compressors and pumps. it is evident from equation (32) that the most feasible value for the specific diameter has to be determined. and C* a factor which depends mainly on the geometry of the tank and has values 110 / JANUARY 1962 Transactions offfieA S IE Downloaded 26 Nov 2012 to 141. rotative speed. 14 of Part A. for these applications a proper compromise between efficiency. Selecting. 20 of Part A.169. which depend on the fluid properties and which are not represented by the similarity parameters discussed so far. It is also evident. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright.e. a value which in many cases will cause excessive rotor stresses. V 550HP D. according to Fig.org/terms/Terms_Use. i. and N = 5100 rpm. c 0 the allowable stress of the material. not even incipient cavitation. 14 of Part A quotes the interrelation between specific speed. particularly when considering that M * = 0 = const. thus demonstrating that for these pump types high suction specific speeds can be achieved at high efficiencies. 6. specific diameter. Since the efficiency should be as high as possible. a relation for the minimum wet weight per HP results: Gw HP K 1 550< YTRT. For such a system.. Aside from using the A r s D s concept for optimizing individual turbocomponent designs. 77ad = 600 ft.Vtk„(l V71 K1 Yt T)YT)(Vl/pz)(pf/Vl)yikC* )'" (RTi)"-ls -f (32) Systems Optimization Self-Contained Turbine Power Unit. i.V '(i - YTv)(. 10. it is evident that the optimum specific diameter would be around values of unity. and lowspecific-speed axial pumps. 6. see http://www. Introducing equations (31) into equation (30). and HP as indicated by equation (19) of Part A.specific-speed centrifugal pumps.. = 550 X HP 1/rjHad.2. tank-material properties.
Hence the / (1 ' YTr. This compromise is found by the following consideration: The speed restriction means that certain limiting -»/c„-values exist. 11 in the form of a weight modulus G* = 550iHP/G„. It is evident from this diagram that the bipropellant system is superior for long durations in spite of the large volume and.org/terms/Terms_Use.kC* These relations reveal that the optimum back pressure decreases with increasing duration and is independent of the net output (as long as Reynolds-number influences are neglected) and that the optimum rotative speed decreases with increasing durations and increasing net outputs. particularly for units with small outputs and limited rotative speeds. Fig. consequently. 13 shows the volume modulus for the different systems which clearly demonstrates the advantage of the monopropellant system over the bipropellant system. for example. yielding = P3 ~° D tion also reveals that now the monopropellant system has a higher weight modulus than the bipropellant system for t < 2000 sec. It is evident that the weight of the flanges and "nuts and bolts" might be a multiple of the weight of the tank walls. decreasing with decreasing outputs as shown in Fig. Restricting. 12 by showing the ratio of the "parasitic weight" (turbine + tank weight) to wet weight.asme.25. no precise numerical values for the affected net-output regime can presently be quoted. a comparatively small wall thickness and. 11. comparatively low tank weights are calculated for lowduration units. when the net output is 10 HP and for t < 12. small tank weight results. it results that now the weight modulus depends also on the output. This influence may be felt in low-output machines. the maximum rotor-tip speed with ?(max = 1400 fps.)k„T^r / I RTi « y \'A ) (33) <W/p. whereas the optimum back pressure is found by introducing equation (31) into equation (19) of Part A after having solved it for p3. 11 indicate the ideal weight modulus for other power-generating systems. and specific diameter has to be found from the A' s D s -diagram. and compressed-gas storage have a larger (ideal) weight modulus than the propellant system only at low durations. Hence points in the A r s D s -diagram where the lines of u/c„ — constant form a tangent on the lines r/ = constant indicate the optimum operating conditions. Another simplification is the neglection of Reynolds-number influence. Hence the shown wet-weight figures in many cases will only have theoretical significance in the form of a reference value and do not necessarily represent actually obtainable values.)(p//p. A closer examina- HYDRAZINE LIQUID OXYGEN lOOO. With this assumption. T .169. for example. Determining now the numerical value of (u/co) m3X from the turbine pressure ratio and characteristic fuel values. see http://www. The short lines on the right-hand side of Fig. It is evident from equation (32) that minimum wet weights occur at operating conditions where highest efficiencies are obtained at smallest specific diameters. according to . It is important to note that the values. 11. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright. • 2 6 6 0 " R I D E A L WEIGHT MODULUS (REFERENCE 8 — SOLID P K O P E U .213. the optimum Devalue and the corresponding efficiency are readily determined so that equation (32) can be evaluated for the minimum wet weight after the proper turbine-weight factor and the characteristic fuel data are introduced. affecting the turbine efficiency and optimum back pressure and thus the unit weight. Likewise.ratio. large tank required for the liquid hydrogen. typical G„/HP-values can be calculated which are presented in Fig. Due to lack of pertinent information on the Reynolds-number effect on high-pressure-ratio turbines.2 7 0 0 " R LIQUID HYDROGEN . The optimum speed is found by solving equation (31) for the speed N. This diagram indicates that for low-duration units the parasitic weight constitutes an extremely large percentage of the wet weight. can contain only to V> of the power of the monopropellant system in the same volume. which might be unsatisfactory for structural reasons. P / p ' 3 0 0 . One of the most restricting assumptions is that the tank weight is determined by stress considerations exclusively. revealing that the bipropellant system. 11).)Y. It is to be emphasized that equation (32) has been derived with simplifying assumptions. the flywheel with uniform stress disk with rim. This parameter is shown as a function of duration. the rotative speed to 50. For low durations. can only be correct when the optimum rotative speed and optimum turbine back pressure are applied. the optimum rotative speed becomes extremely high so that it is of interest to investigate the effect of rotative speed on the weight modulus. 1 "I U max = Optimum-weight modulus for open-cycle systems using pressure-staged single-disk turbines with 1400 fps Journal of Engineering for Power J A N U A R Y 1 96 2 / 1 1 1 Downloaded 26 Nov 2012 to 141. presented by the upper two lines in Fig.cfm . T. . Additional information for the propellant systems is presented in Fig. for low tank pressures. A N T — GASOLINE ENGINE — Aj-ZnELECTROCHShaCAL CELL — UNIFOflM S T R E S S DISC WITH R I M —C O M P R E S S ® 8AS S P H E R I C A LC O S m i H E R DURATION t (SEC) Fig. indicating the decrease of the weight modulus with duration for a typical monopropellant (solid lines) and a typical bipropellant (dashed lines) (upper two lines in Fig.000 rpm.000 sec in cases where the net output is 1 HP. Restricting. revealing that the electrochemical cell. meaning that the allowed wall thickness would only be sufficient to contain the fuel pressure. It is also to be noted that no allowance has been made for cryogenic equipment which will be required in some cases to keep the bipropellant fuels at the required low temperatures. in spite of its superior weight modulus at long durations. consequently.
cfm .3 0 0 . Plotting equation (34) as a function of the compressor pressure ratio for different temperature ratios. In cases where these losses become of significant magnitude. . for radial compressors and radial turbines.org/terms/Terms_Use. the interrelation reads Z c N^T = J ^ ( T ^ Y \Tr-cJ \YCJ Y'75 / 1 (34) T(Pl-c V I . 11 and 13 may not be realized in all eases. T | " 2 7 0 0 ° R LIQUID OXYGEN 4 LIQUID HYDROGEN |0» Fig. a diagram as reproduced in Fig. for example.NrnOK. as shown in Fig. For a typical single-spool arrangement. 12 Umax = I05 10" DURATION I [soc] 10° 10° Weight ratios for open-cycle systems using pressure-staged singie-disk turbines with 1400 fpS HYDRAZINE P y p 3 ' 1 0 0 0 . Since in such an arrangement both components have the same weight flow and about the same pressure ratio. 15. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright. 13 Umax = O p t i m u m . the only remaining variables are the specific diameters. 0 0 0 rpm HYDRAZINE.25. 14 is obtained.169. These 112 / JANUARY 1962 Transactions offfieA S IE Downloaded 26 Nov 2012 to 141. • 1000. T|. see http://www. R e > 106) in Fig. Turbine Compressor Systems. a gas turbine. 0 5 0 . whereby temperature ratio refers to the ratio of turbine-inlet temperature to compressor-inlet temperature. The main value of these considerations is that important design trends can be recognized rather rapidly so that the task of optimizing the described system is simplified considerably.2660"R IDEAL VOLUME MODULUS (REFERENCE 8 ) LIQUID O X Y G E N . indicating that the specific speed of the compressor is always larger than the specific speed of the turbine when the line losses are comparatively small.asme. T. Since the A's-r/iWc-relation> s 5 x e t ' by design condition (p/p0 = 3. 15. they can be accounted for by reducing Yt and r]T in equation (34) correspondingly. 7 p .Y t V T when line losses are neglected. Having established the interrelation of the specific speeds of both components.V s D s -diagram over the turbine iV s D s -diagram. where the compressor is directly coupled with the turbine.v o l u m e m o d u l u s for open-cycle systems using pressure-staged singie-disk turbines with 1400 fpS advantage of the bipropellant system shown in Figs. Tt/Tc = 4. 2 7 0 0 °R 1 / ^ .L I Q U I D HYDROGEN Fig. it is apparent that the specific speed of the compressor and the specific speed of the turbine are directly interrelated. it is possible to obtain more detailed information for the optimum match by superimposing a transparent copy of the compressor . A problem designers are frequently facing is to find the optimum match of the compressor and turbine in.213.
increasing somewhat with the pressure ratio and decreasing with temperature ratio. including pressure ratios and component efficiency. With some simplifications. into equation (36). Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright. This information can now be converted for finding the optimum rotative speed as a function of the passing weight flow. Equation (36) also indicates that the optimum speed increases with increasing temperature ratios.-t Yc - Vc \K V H P ^ 1 / K 1 Yc V 2 S / (RTi-c)"-15 3. revealing that the optimum speed for "s-c "S-T With this relation the interrelation of the specific speeds of compressor and turbine in a turbocliarger can be quoted in the form Pa-T Ti-c . and that Ds-c < Ds-T.' (36) Introducing the specific design conditions. A somewhat different situation exists for turbosuperchargers and gas-turbine cycles with a free-wheeling power turbine. These considerations reveal that for power ranges below 50 HP the optimum pressure ratio tends to be smaller than 3:1 so that the optimum speed in this regime is smaller than indicated in the foregoing . This means that the relation N = 470.0 6.-c) N = (RT. Thus it is found that both the components match well and that the optimum match occurs at A' s -c-values of 80 to 90. decreases with increasing net outputs. Recalling now the previous comments about the optimum operating regimes for radial components having blade angles of /32 = 90°..4 DS 3. N.asme. V(p. This is true only for a limited HP-range (due to Reynolds-number and Mach-number influences) so that actually an additional optimization is required. until the maximum-efficiency regime of the turbine coincides with the maximum-efficiency regime of the compressor.-c)1^ I —Yc 80 (35) which can be rewritten in terms of net output HP iV / N = single-spool gas turbines. Fig. it is found 'T • 'c '- 7 5 * » 1. 14 Interrelation of specific speeds for single-spool g a s turbines Representing this graphically7 as a function of pressure ratio and temperature ratio.213.0 »T • «C "S-C I" Ns-T 3. 15 M a t c h i n g of single-spool g a s turbines Journal of Engineering for Power JANUARY 1 96 2 / 1 1 3 Downloaded 26 Nov 2012 to 141. which indicates the optimum pressure ratio as a function of component efficiency. yielding.0 10 y —• c / Mr IX TC Ro > ^ P ' / p ^ COMPRESSOR =4: 10® Fig.-T 1 y cTi-c VcTI-T . having single-stage radial machines as components. v can only be correct as long as Pi/Pz = 3 represents the optimum pressure ratio. 16. it results Ar = 470.25.000/HP. but not the pressure ratios of the components. increasing compressor-inlet pressures and inlet temperatures. i.V : Pi-C (38) Ti- (VCVT)° P y p \ COMPRESSOR Fig.e. it is found that the specific-speed ratio is smaller than unity.169.can now be adjusted by the overlay technique. It is to be noted that equation (35) describes the optimum rotative speed as a function of several parameters. after some simplifying assumptions.000/IIPy. In these arrangements the rotative speeds and weight flows are the same.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm . 16 Interrelation of specific speeds in single-spool turbosuperchargers \ Fig. the pressure ratio required by the turbine in a turbosupercharger can be expressed by the relation 1 (37) V (Pi-c) \Vt V / I — — Jl-c I f T. see http://www. by neglecting the change of the ratio of specific heats. quoted previously. and selecting Tc = 520 R and pi-c = 15 psia.
3 1 9 . 1955. " S t u d y of Turbine and T u r b o p u m p Design P a r a m e t e r s . and D . W r i g h t Air D e v e l o p m e n t Center. pp. F. Buelming. " Konstruction. obtained this way. ArsD5-diagrams can be computed which give valid information on the maximum obtainable efficiencies and optimum design geometries for these machines and account for the limits imposed by Mach number. CI. p p . were calculated under this contract. " D e r Einfluss der L e i t v o r r i c h t u n g auf die Ivemlinien NS-T Att Ars-„ i- - vYt) + V To 7T (1 •r)Y FVF_ Ap1 K. V . " final report. the most feasible component types and maximum obtainable component efficiencies are found. presented in Part A. " L o w Specific Speed T u r b o p u m p S t u d y . _ Nt h . Acknowledgment is due to the McCulloch Corporation for permission to use these data. reflect test information obtained by the McCulloch Corporation in a company-sponsored research and development program. The foregoing considerations deal exclusively with single-spool arrangements. 10 (high »S*-values).213. The diagrams for centrifugal pumps. 17.3 2 2 . subscript F referring to the fuel pump.cfm . NONR-2292(00) Task No. E . shown in this paper. Starkey. 8 L . vol. Office of N a v a l Research. therefore.that the ratio of specific speeds is too small to afford an optimum match between radial compressor and radial turbine. G . The similarity concept is expanded further for finding the optimum match of turbocomponents operating in closely coupled flow systems. 1957. E. vol. Reynolds number. Conclusions By expanding the similarity concept. 4. Balje. " D r a g . 195S. The author is indebted to Mr. 657-260. By observing equation (39). Wislicenus. " W A D C T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t 53-342. " TRANS. meaning that. The relations. 114 / JANUARY 1962 Transactions of f fie A S IE Downloaded 26 Nov 2012 to 141.169. 909-914.YTV K1 Yt Ap' (ATJ-tTP) 0 NP }/ r/TilpPi-T (39) when Ap denotes the desired pressure rise of the pump and yP the density of the fluid. A . O. 7 H . pump operating points should be selected which fall within the shaded regime of Fig. vol. 14 of Part A) that an axial turbine may offer a better match for a high-specific-speed-type centrifugal compressor with ft = 90°. p. " W o r k Capacities of E n e r g y Storage Systems on Basis of U n i t W e i g h t and U n i t V o l ume. Rotzoll.1 (41) when x = WF/Wt denotes the mixture ratio. K r i s a m . N R 094343) with Sundstrand-Turbo. pp. subscript o to the oxidizer pump. 1691-1693. " C r i t i c a l Considerations on C a v i t a t i o n L i m its of Centrifugal and Axial F l o w P u m p s . vol. A similar technique can be applied for finding the optimum match of bipropellant turbopumps." This then implies (as becomes also apparent from Fig.T Acknowledgments The similarity concept described herein was evolved while working on an Office of Naval Research sponsored turbine research contract (Contract No. N a u m a n n . N R 094-343. the optimum match for all three components is again found for cases where a single-spool arrangement is desired. 1707-1714. v o l . M c P h e r s o n . Balj6. E .3 O. yielding an "overlay technique" which allows finding the optimum operating conditions and design features for the turbocomponent as a function of the specification requirements. 80. C o n t r a c t N o . K . In this case two transparent pump AT5Ds-diagrams are required. it becomes apparent that a turbine-exhaust diffuser has considerable merit since it allows a better match. and W . R D O N o . and when IF. so that most likely a slight efficiency sacrifice has to be anticipated as long as (related to the static pressures) is the optimization criterion. " D e s i g n and P e r f o r m a n c e S t u d y of Small Gas T u r b i n e s U p to 1000 Shaft H o r s e p o w e r . The information. is subject to the state of the art and. Considering now the location of the ( c 3 /c 0 ) 2 lines in the radial turbine ArsD. Nichols.-0 Y = iVo AV J7T 1 Va . the N. " Y D I Forschungsheft 4GS. Turbine-Pump Systems In cases where a hydraulic pump has to be matched to a turbine. " U b e r das Yerhalten v o n extrem sclmellueufigen A x i a l m a s c h i n e n . H. resulted from a Sundstrand-Turbo sponsored project. B a l j e and E . 6 G . due to the incomplete knowledge of the interrelation between losses and channel geometry. " Untersuclnmgen an einer langsamlaufigen Kreiselp u m p e bei verschiedenen R e y n o l d s z a h l e n ." D e p a r t ment of the N a v y .org/terms/Terms_Use. 94. 11 to 13. a division of the Sundstrand Corporation. J. pp. M a r c o . namely two pump diagrams and one turbine diagram in accordance with equations (40) and (41). A S M E . Of particular importance in some applications is the cavitation sensitivity. Stahl and A . v o l . 1952. " T h e r m o d y n a m i c Aspects ol Cavitation in Centrifugal P u m p s . so that. 4 O. 10.D s-diagra-m for pumps can be superimposed over the A r s D s -diagram for turbines. 122. " TEAMS. again. for pumping liquids with a comparatively high vapor pressure. N O N R 2292 (00) T a s k N o . in many cases of preliminary nature. Stepanoff. denotes the combined (total) weight flow of both pumps.-diagram. E . pp. to compressors and pumps. it is possible to use the described technique for finding the optimum gear ratio and thus to compare the merits of multispool arrangements with the merits of single-spool arrangements. A . By superimposing three diagrams. the specific speeds of the two components are again interrelated Ns. see http://www. whereby it is presumed that both pumps produce the same pressure rise AP. The data on drag pumps. 1956. a feature which increases the performance range of the unit. presented in Figs. A S M E . 1 F. 6. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright. Wood for his valuable comments in discussing the details of this paper. Kline. S / T D N o . 2 R ." Zeitschrift des Vereinc-s Dcutscher Ingenieurc. It is also evident from these comments that the radial compressor should be of the "low-specific-speed type" and the radial turbine of the "high-specific-speed type. For cases where different rotative speeds are to be 9 O. A S M E . used for the different components. " TRANS. 5 P. 1956. 1958.asme. 1291-1304. . S. J.7eVo rjrPi-T References 1 (40) von Kreiselpumpen. presented in Fig.T u r b i n e P e r f o r m a n c e . 79. and cavitation aspects. vol. L.35." TRANS. 7S. It may be pointed out also that the efficiency alone is not always the most decisive criterion and that the difficult matching problem in many cases may be compensated for by the low cost of the radial turbine and the comparative ease of providing variable nozzles. The interrelation of the specific speed of the different components reads A'. A S M E . M .25. 78. Acknowledgment is due to the Office of Naval Research and to the Sundstrand-Turbo Division for permission to use these diagrams.
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