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12/12/94 — A. Ruina

Not given here are the conditions under which the formulae are accurate or useful.

Basic Statics

Free Body Diagram

The FBD is a picture of any system for which you would like to apply mechanics equations and

of all the external forces and torques which act on the system.

Action & Reaction

If A feels force F FFFF FFFFF and couple M MMMM MMMMM from B.

then B feels force −F FFFF FFFFF and couple −M MMMM MMMMM from A.

(With F FFFF FFFFF and −F FFFF FFFFF acting on the same line of action.)

Force and Moment Balance

These equations apply to every FBD in equilibrium:

Force Balance

¸ .. ¸

All external

forces

F FFFF FFFFF = 0 0000 00000

Moment Balance about pt C

¸ .. ¸

All external

torques

M MMMM MMMMM

/C

= 0 0000 00000

• The torque M MMMM MMMMM

/C

of a force depends on the reference point C. But, for a body in

equilibrium, and for any point C, the sum of all the torques relative to point C must

add to zero ).

• Dotting the force balance equation with a unit vector gives a scalar equation,

e.g. {

F FFFF FFFFF} · i iiii iiiii = 0 ⇒

Fx = 0.

• Dotting the moment balance equation with a unit vector gives a scalar equation,

e.g. {

M MMMM MMMMM

/C

}· λ λλλλ λλλλλ = 0 ⇒ net moment about axis in direction λ λλλλ λλλλλ through C = 0.

Some Statics Facts and Deﬁnitions

• The moment of a force is unchanged if the force is slid along its line of action.

• For many purposes the words ‘moment’, ‘torque’, and ‘couple’ have the same meaning.

• Two-force body. If a body in equilibrium has only two forces acting on it then the

two forces must be equal and opposite and have a common line of action.

• Three-force body. If a body in equilibrium has only three forces acting on it then the

three forces must be coplanar and have lines of action that intersect at one point.

• truss: A collection of weightless two-force bodies connected with hinges (2D) or ball

and socket joints (3D).

• Method of joints. Draw free body diagrams of each of the joints in a truss.

• Method of sections. Draw free body diagrams of various regions of a truss. Try to

make the FBD cuts for the sections go through only three bars with unknown forces

(2D).

• Caution: Machine and frame components are often not two-force bodies.

• Hydrostatics: p = ρgh, F =

_

p dA

Cross Section Geometry

thin-wall

annulus annulus

Definition Composite (circle: c

1

= 0) (approx) rectangle

A =

_

dA

A

i

π(c

2

2

− c

2

1

) 2πct bh

J =

_

ρ

2

dA

π

2

(c

4

2

− c

4

1

) 2πc

3

t

I =

_

y

2

dA

(I

i

+ d

2

i

A

i

)

π

4

(c

4

2

− c

4

1

) πc

3

t bh

3

/12

¯ y =

_

y dA

_

dA

y

i

A

i

A

i

center center center

Q =

_

y dA = A

¯ y

A

i

¯ y

i

b(

h

2

4

−y

2

)

2

Stress, strain, and Hooke’s Law

Stress Strain Hooke’s Law

Normal: σ = P

⊥

/A = δ/L

0

=

L−L

0

L

0

σ = E

[ = σ/E + α∆T ]

tran

= −ν

long

Shear: τ = P

/A γ = change of

formerly right angle

τ = Gγ

2G =

E

1+ν

Stress and deformation of some things

Equilibrium Geometry Results

Tension P = σA = δ/L δ =

PL

AE

[δ =

PL

AE

+ αL∆T]

Torsion T =

_

ρτ dA γ = ρφ/L φ =

TL

JG

τ =

Tρ

J

Bending M = −

_

yσ dA = −y/ρ = −yκ u

=

M

EI

and

Shear in

dM

dx

= V ,

dV

dx

= −w u

=

d

2

dx

2

u =

1

ρ

= κ σ =

−My

I

Beams

V =

_

τ dA τ =

V Q

It

τt∆x = ∆MQ/I

Pressure pAgas = σA

solid

σ =

pr

2t

(sphere)

Vessels

σ

l

=

pr

2t

(cylinder)

σc =

pr

t

(cylinder)

Buckling

Critical buckling load = P

crit

=

π

2

EI

L

2

eff

.

pinned-pinned clamped-free clamped-clamped clamped-pinned

L

eff

= L L

eff

= 2L L

eff

= L/2 L

eff

= .7L

Mohr’s Circle

Rotating the surface of interest an angle θ in physical space corresponds to a rotation of 2θ on

the Mohr’s circle in the same direction.

C =

σ

1

+σ

2

2

=

σx + σy

2

R =

σ

1

−σ

2

2

=

_

(σx − C)

2

+ τ

2

xy

=

_

_

σx − σy

2

_

2

+ τ

2

xy

tan 2θ =

τ

σ−C

=

2τ

σx − σy

Miscellaneous

• Power in a shaft: P = Tω.

• Saint Venant’s Principle: Far from the region of loading, the stresses in a structure

would only change slightly if a load system were replaced with any other load system

having the same net force and moment.

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