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2.

2: Addition Property of Equality

Objectives: *Check the solution to an equation by substitution. *Use the addition property of equality to solve an equation.

Think & Share


(TB p. 93)
When light comes into contact with any object, it is reflected, and transmitted. For a certain type of glass, 88% of the light hitting the glass is transmitted through to the other side, whereas 6% of the light is absorbed into the glass. To find the percent of the light that is reflected by the glass, we can solve the equation

88 + R + 6 = 100
How are we going to solve this problem?

Definitions: The solution set for an equation is the set of all numbers that when used in place of the variable make the equation a true statement. Two or more equations with the same solution set are said to be equivalent equations.

Addition Property of Equality


For any three algebraic expressions A, B, and C, if A = B then A + C = B + C

In words: Adding the same quantity to both sides of an equation will not change the solution set.

Identity Property of Addition The Identity Property of Addition states that for any number x, x + 0 = x

5+0=5

+0=

Inverse Property of Addition The inverse property of addition states that for every number x, x + (-x) = 0 4 and -4 are considered opposites.

4 + -4 = 0

-4
+ 4

Use Opposite Operations or undo Operations


*Addition is opposite of subtraction (addition undoes subtraction) Subtraction is opposite of addition (subtraction undoes addition)

Solve the equations below.


1) x - 3 = 11 +3 +3 x = 14 4) 11 = x - 5 +5 +5 16 = x

2) y - 5 = 14 +5 +5 y = 19
3) n - 2 = 16 +2 +2 n = 18

5) 16 = n - 3 +3 +3 19 = n
6) 12 - 3 = k 9=k

Solve the equations below.


7) x - 8 = 9 +8 +8 x = 17 10) 5 - (2) = t 3=t

8) 13 = n - 4 +4 +4 17 = n
9) k -23 = 17 +23 +23 k = 40

11) n - 22 = 30 +22 +22 n = 52


12) 12 = w - 9 +9 +9 21 = w

Translate the sentence into an equation and solve. 13) The difference of k and 11 is 32. k - 11 = 32 + 11 +11 k = 43 14) Six less than t is 12 . t - 6 = 12 +6 +6 t = 18

Copy and complete the transformation. 15) x - 5 = 9 17) 16 = y - 7


x-5+ 5 =9+ 5 x = 14 16) n - 13 = 40 n 13 + 13 = 40+ 13 n = 53 16+ 7 = y 7 + 7 23 = y 18) 5 = k - 2 5+2=k- 2 + 2 7 = k

Solve the equations below.


1) x + 2.1 = 7.9 - 2.1 - 2.1 x = 5.8 4) 11 - 4.2 = t 6.8 = t

2) 16 = n - 3.4 +3.4 +3.4 19.4 = n


3) k - 30 = 17 +30 +30 k = 47

5) n + 8.3 = 12 -8.3 -8.3 n = 3.7


6) 5.43 = w - 4.7 +4.7 +4.7 10.13 = w

Applications:
Define a variable, write an algebraic equation, and solve.

1.) Matt scored 85 on his last test. This is 16 points higher than he scored on his first test. What was his score on the first test? Let t = first test score

85 16 t 16 16 69 t

first test score 69

2.) A gazelle can run at a speed of 50 mph. This is 10mph slower than the speed of a cheetah. What is the speed of a cheetah?
Let x = the speed of a cheetah

50 = x - 10 +10 +10
60 = x Cheetahs speed = 60

3.) The Sears Tower is 110 stories tall. This is 8 stories taller than the Empire State Building. How many floors is the Empire State Building? Let x = the # of stories in Empire State
110 = x + 8 -8 -8

102 = x
# Floors in Empire State = 102

4.) A submarine is 50 meters below the surface of the ocean. A scuba diver is 5 meters below the surface. Write an equation to find their difference in elevation and solve.
Let x = difference in elevation -50 + x = -5 +50 +50 x = 45

Difference in elevation = 45

Problem Set 2.2 (pp. 97-99)


Find the solutions for the following equations. Be sure to show when you have used the addition property of equality.

3.) x + 2 = 6

x+22=62 x=4
a + = -1/4 - a = -1/4 2/4 a = -3/4 x + 2.3 2.3 = 3.5 - 2.3 x = -5.8
-5 + 2= x 2 + 2 9 5 5 5 -25 + 18 = x 45 45 -7 = x 45

5.) a + = -1/4 7.) x + 2.3 = -3.5

19.) -5 = x 2 9 5

Problem Set 2.2 (pp. 97-99)

Simplify both sides of the following equations as much as possible, and then solve.

21.) 4x + 2 -3x = 4 + 1
23.) 8a 1 7a = 3 + 1 2 4 8

4x 3x = 5 - 2 x=3

8a 7a = 3 + 1 + 1 4 8 2 8a 7a = 6 + 1 + 4 8 8 8 a = 11 8 29.) -2.5 + 4.8 = 8x 1.2 7x -2.5 + 4.8 + 1.2 = 8x 7x 3.5 = x

Problem Set 2.2 (pp. 97-99)

The following equations contain parenthesis. Apply the distributive property to remove the parentheses, then simplify each side before using the addition property of equality.

35.) -3(x - 4) + 4x = 3 -7 -3x + 12 + 4x = -4 -3x + 4x = -4 -12 x = -16 43.) -3(2m 9) + 7(m-4) = 12 - 9 -6m + 27 + 7m 28 = 3 -6m + 7m = 3 -27 + 28 m=4 57.) 4x+ 4 = 5x 2 3 3 4 + 2 = 5x - 4x 3 3 2=x

Problem Set 2.2 (pp. 97-99) Individual Practice: Homework Multiples of 4 Nos. 4, 8, 12,60 *Applying the Concepts (63-66)