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# Math 228: Mathematical Fluid Dynamics

Homework 1 Assigned: Wed. Jan. 18, 2012 Flow Kinematics
kinematics: the science of pure motion, considered without reference to the matter or objects moved or the force producing or changing the motion. [i.e. u is given]

Due: Wed. Jan. 25, 2012

– OED

0. Reading: Acheson, sections 1.2, 6.4 (pp. 212–214), also watch the NCFMF ﬁlm on Flow Visualization . 1. Acheson, page 25, problem 1.8. 2. Consider the two-dimensional velocity ﬁeld, u(x, y, t) = x , 1+t v (x, y, t) = −y cos(t).

Obtain the analytic expressions for y = y (x) and plot the curves together on a single xy graph: (a) The pathline for a particle starting from (1, 1) at t = 0. (b) The instantaneous streamline at t = 0 for a particle starting from (1, 1). (c) The streakline at t = 0 for all particles that would have passed through the point (1, 1). 3. Consider the phase plane system of linear ordinary diﬀerential equations, dx = ax + by, dt dy = cx + dy, dt

where a, b, c, d are real-valued constants. This system can also be written in vector form as dx = Dx, dt x= x y , D= a b c d .

Interpret this ODE system as describing a two-dimensional ﬂuid ﬂow, dx/dt = u with u(x) = Dx. (a) (b) (c) (d) Decompose the ﬂow into area dilations, strains, and rotations. What is the rate of change of area for this ﬂow? What is the vorticity for this ﬂow? Consider the two linear ﬂow ﬁelds,    11  8 1 4 5 5   D1 =  D2 =  1 8 1 1 − 5 5 i. Show that the D’s share the same eigenvalues. ii. Write down the solutions x(t), y (t) for each ﬂow starting from initial condition x(t = 0) = (2, 1). iii. Use (a) to describe the qualitative diﬀerences between the two ﬂows. iv. Use (ii) to determine the asymptote line, y = kx, that is approached for t → ∞. v. Determine the eigenvectors of the rate-of-strain tensor (E) for each ﬂow. These eigenvectors point in directions called the principal axes of the ﬂow. Show the asymptotes in (iv) are principal axes in directions of stretching. vi. The two following ﬂows also share the same eigenvalues, D3 = 2 −1 8 −2 D4 = 0 2 −2 0 .

How do the x(t), y (t) pathlines diﬀer in these two ﬂows?

x1 (t). Derive the general expression for the local instantaneous area strain rate in a 3D ﬂow u = u(x. Consider the velocity ﬁeld. Let these points be adjacent corners of a parallelogram with edge vectors. remain on the circle for all times. (c) Show that points starting on the unit circle. |a| = (a · a)1/2 a × b = −b × a ˆ a = |a|a ˆ = a/|a| (unit direction vector) a (a × b) · (c × d) = (a · c)(b · d) − (a · d)(b · c) (and other versions of the product rule) (and other versions of the chain rule) d db da ·b+a· a·b = dt dt dt d da f (a(t)) = ∇f (a) · dt dt (b) Write the lengths of the edges as h = |p| and k = |q|. x2 . where θ is the angle between the edge vectors. x2 (t). The edge vectors can then be written ˆ . t) = yz + t. Recall that the area of a parallelogram with edges p. Find the stagnation points of the ﬂow and classify the linearized behaviors in their neighborhoods (i. p = x1 − x2 and q = x3 − x2 . y. the eigenvalues of D and whether the equilibrium point is a node. Area = A(t) = |p × q| = |p||q| sin θ. A dt Hint: some miscellaneous vector algebra/calculus. (b) Stagnation points (also called equilibrium points or ﬁxed points) are positions where the ﬂow velocity is zero. and ∇u(x2 ). Simplify the answer as much as possible. q ˆ . you can imagine that this approach to calculating the 3D problem for the volumetric strain rate of a parallelepiped.e. will be MUCH more laborious (DO NOT TRY IT). z. k ) → 0 with in terms of unit direction vectors as p = hp ˆ and q ˆ held ﬁxed. x3 in the xy plane. x2 + y 2 = 1. Show that this velocity ﬁeld is incompressible and irrotational for all times. t) using the following steps: Consider three points moving with the ﬂow. z. (d) What information does calculating ∇ · (y 2 u) give you about the existence of periodic solutions in the ﬂow according to the Bendixson-Dulac theorem? (look it up) 5. u(x. t). 1 . q = kq ˆ .1 Given how complicated this “2D” problem is. 6. y. Volume = V (t) = |r · (p × q)|.3 . v (x. 0). part (b) yields the divergence ∇ · u = ux + vy . y. Your answer will be in terms of p. Write the velocity gradient tensor. w(x. and x3 (t). Take the limit of (a) as (h. y. t) = xz + t. u = (u(x. (a) Evaluate 1 dA . saddle. with x1 .4. Consider the two-dimensional steady ﬂow described by the autonomous phase plane system: dx x2 − y 2 =1− 2 dt (x + y 2 )2 dy 2xy =− 2 dt (x + y 2 )2 (a) Show that the ﬂow is incompressible and irrotational. y. A and u at x1. t). z. center.2. Hint: p Da ˆ f (x0 ) = lim ˆ) − f (x0 ) f (x0 + ha h a |a| (the limit deﬁnition of the derivative) (the directional derivative) h→0 Da ˆ f (x) = ∇f · (c) Show that for a 2D ﬂow. q. Your answer will be in terms of p ˆ. or spiral). q is given by the length of the cross product vector. t) = xy . v (x.

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