BASICS OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

PRESENT TENSE BE, DEMONSTRATIVES, POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES, PRESENT CONTINOUS, CAN, PREPOSITIONS

FIRST BIMESTER

PRESENT TENSE BE

The verb BE has three forms: AM, IS, ARE, which we have to use according to the pronoun or subject.
TO BE

Occupations

Nouns

Adjectives

Places

She is my sister. It is a city. You are a student.AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES Subject I You He She It We They Verb Form AM ARE IS IS IS ARE ARE Example I am a teacher. They are doctors. We are friends. . He is in the lab.

as you can see in the following chart. are. The only different is to add NOT after am. She is not sad They are not in the school . is.NEGATIVE SENTENCES You can make negative sentences similar to the sentences before.

NEGATIVE SENTENCES I am not I`m not He She It We You They is not He`s not = He isn’t She’s not = She isn’t It’s not = It isn’t We’re not = We aren’t You’re not = You aren’t They’re not = They aren’t are not .

.YES / NO QUESTIONS    In English we have to kind of questions: Yes/No questions and Wh-questions. The Yes / No Questions are called that because the answers always start with Yes or No Remember to answer Yes/No questions you have to pay attention to the subject.

they are students. they aren’t Yes. / No they are not students. she is tall and thin. she is not tall and thin . Are John and Peter students? Yes. Mary is tall and thin.YES / NO QUESTIONS Affirmative Statement: Yes / No question: Short Answers: Full /Complete Answers: Affirmative Statement: Yes / No question: Short Answers: Full /Complete Answers: John and Peter are students. she isn’t Yes. / No. Is Mary tall and thin? Yes. she is / No. they are / No.

. In this kind of questions you never answer Yes or No.QUESTIONS   The wh-questions look for information accoding to the question word. The answer is a statement with the information according to the question word.WH . because they are asking for some information.

Where is he? In the house.QUESTIONS Wh-word What Information about… Things Name Occupations Activities People Places State Form / manner Example What is this? It is a book.WH . What is he doing? He’s working Who is the director of the school? Carlos Samaniego. How is Loja? It is small. Who Where How . What is your name? Roberth. How are you? I am sad. What do you do? I am a driver.

He is in the lab. She is my sister. You are not a student. she is not It is a city. I am not Yes. It is not a city. it is / No. we are not Yes.REVIEW Statement I am a teacher. Negative Statements I am not a teacher. it is not Yes. she is / No. They are not doctors. Yes/No Question Am I a teacher? Are you a student? Is he in the lab? Is she my sister? Short Answers Yes. you are / No. You are a student. Is it a city? Are we friends? Are they doctors? Yes. they are / No they are not . He is not in the lab. We are not friends. you are not Yes. I am / No. he is not Yes. She is not my sister. They are doctors. he is / No. We are friends. we are / No.

DEMONSTRATIVES We use THIS / THESE when the objects are near to the speaker. This is a blackboard THIS +Singular Nouns These are papers THESE + Plural Nouns .

That is a lake. THAT + Singular Nouns Those are mountains THOSE + Plural Nouns .DEMONSTRATIVES We use THAT / THOSE when the objects are far from the speakers.

 .  What are those? Those are books  Are those books? Yes. it is an airplane.  Is that a bird? No.DEMONSTRATIVES Questions What is that? That is an airplane. they are books.

tries curry – curries cat .flies try .PLURAL NOUNS Noun ending s. x.taxes bush .faces day – days consonant + y Change y to i then Add –es Add -s most others . ch or sh Forming the plural Add -es Examples boss .bosses tax .cats face .bushes fly .

wives half .halves wolf .knives life .potatoes tomato .o Change f to v then Add –s Change f to v then Add –es Add –es knife .lives wife .IRREGULAR PLURAL Noun type Forming the plural Examples Ends with -fe Ends with –f Ends with .loaves potato .tomatoes volcano volcanoes .wolves loaf .

mice sheep deer fish (sometimes) Unchanging .IRREGULAR PLURAL Noun type ALL KINDS Forming the plural Change the vowel or Change the word or Add a different ending Singular and plural are the same Examples man .teeth mouse .children person .feet child .people tooth .men foot .

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES I You He She It We They My Your His Her Its Our Their + NOUN .

POSSESSIVE ADJTECTIVES His shirt is new Her pants are blue This is our house This is her cat .

POSSESSIVE FORM ‘S Kevin’s wife is Rose. His wife is Rose. Charlie’s book is black. The Child’s mother is happy .

PREPOSITION OF PLACE IN (dentro de) In the house In a room In a car in a shop in a town in a garden ON (sobre una superficie) AT (lugar específico) On a shelf on a wall On a plate on the table On a balcony on a door At the bus station at home At the door at the top At work at the end of .

that means activities that are develop in the moment of speaking Subject BE I Am Is -ING FORM Singing Singing He She It We You They Are Singing .PRESENT CONTINOUS  The present continous tense is used to describe activities that happen now.

PRESENT CONTINOUS AFFIRMATIVE I am dancing You are eating He is sleeping She is reading It is running We are walking They are studying NEGATIVE I am not dancing You are not eating He is not sleeping She is not reading It is not running We are not walking They are not studying YES/NO QUESTIONS Am I dancing? Are you eating? Is he sleeping? Is she reading? Is it running? Are we walking? Are they studying? .

.walking .saying go . 1 vowel + 1 consonant 1 vowel + 1 consonant + E[anything else] How to make the -ING form Double the consonant.going walk .losing live – living say . then add –ING Remove E..swimming hit .RULES Verb ending in.hitting get – getting coming lose . then add – INGcome Add –ING Examples swim .

CAN / CAN’T  Can is used to show ability They can dance He can’t play the piano He can play football He can swim He can skate .

it can’t Yes. he can / No. we can / No.NEGATIVE AND QUESTIONS AFFIRMATIVE I can cook NEGATIVE I can not cook YES/NO QUESTIONS Can I cook? Can you dance? Can he play? Can she swim? Can it run? Can we sing? SHORT ANSWERS Yes. he can`t Yes. you can / No. she can’t Yes. they can / No.you can´t Yes I can / No I can’t Yes. they can’t You can dance You can not dance He can play She can swim It can run We can sing He can not play She can not swim It can not run We can not sing They can walk They can not walk Can they walk ? . she can / No. we can’t Yes. it can / No.

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