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**DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS - I
**

Subject Code: AU46 Faculty: RSS No. of Hours: 52

B.E Mechanical

4th Semester Course Information

Class #

Chapter Title / Reference Literature Chapter : 1 Introduction T1: page 13 – 35 T2: page 44 – 74 R1: page 3 – 29 R2: page 13-15, 70 – 72 Chapter : 2 Design for static strength T1: page 182 – 212 T2: page 103 – 107 R1: page 13 – 53 R2: page 67 – 92

Topics to be covered

Materials and their properties, Design considerations, codes, standards, stress- strain diagram, Definitions – stress, strain, shear stress, biaxial and triaxial loads, Stress tensor, Principal stress Static loads – Types of loads and problems, Theories of failure and problems. Members under combined loads, Stress concentration – explanation and examples, Reduction of stress concentration, Determination of stress concentration factor, combined stress concentration factor, Problems Introduction, S-N diagram, low cycle fatigue, high cycle fatigue, Endurance limit. Modifying factors – size effect, surface effect, stress concentration effects; Fluctuating stresses, Fatigue strength under fluctuating stresses, Goodman and Soderberg relationship; stresses due to combined loading, cumulative fatigue damaged. Derivation of instantaneous stress due to axial, bending and torsion loading, effect of inertia.

% of Portions covered Reference Cumulativ chapter e

1-6

10%

10 %

7 – 14

15%

25%

15– 20

Chapter : 3 Design for fatigue strength T1: page 227 – 275 T2: page 114 – 125 R2: page 117 – 156

10%

35%

21 – 25

26 – 31

Chapter : 4 Impact Loading T1: page T2: page T3: page R1: page R2: page Chapter : 5 Design of Shafts T1: page 565 – 576 T2: page 465 – 473 R1: page 465 – 481 R2: page 234 – 246 Chapter : 6 Fasteners T1: page 301 – 317 T2: page 493 – 498 R1: page 269 – 340 R2: page 247 – 255

5%

40%

32 – 40

Torsion of shafts, design for strength and rigidity, with steady loading, ASME and BIS codes for design of transmission shafting, shafts under fluctuating and combined loads design of rigid flange coupling and bushed pin type flexible coupling. Key types, Stresses in Keys, Pins and Retainers. Threaded Fasteners – Stresses, Effects of initial tension, effect of compression, effect of fatigue loading, impact loading, shear loading and eccentric loading.

20%

60%

15%

75%

41 – 48

49 – 52

Chapter : 7 Power Screws T1: page 291 – 300 T2: page 266 – 273 R1: page 441 – 450 R2: page 163 – 185 Chapter : 8 Mechanical joints: T1: page 336 – 352 T2: page 171 – 227 R1: page 213 – 256 R2: page 213 – 229

Mechanics of power screw, stresses in power screws, Efficiency and self locking.

15%

90%

Cotter and knuckle joints, Riveted Joints – Types, rivet materials, Failures of Riveted joints, Efficiency, Boiler Joints, Tank and Structural Joints, riveted brackets. Welded joints – Types, strength of butt and fillet welds, Eccentrically loaded welds.

10%

100%

Text Books: T1: Mechanical Engg. Design by Joseph. E Shigley & Charles R MirchKe. Tata 6th Ed 2003. Mc Graw Hill Edition 2001 T2: Design of Machine Elements by C.S.Sharma and Kamlesh Purohit, PHI 2003. Reference Books: R1: Machine Design by Maleev & Hartman, CBS Publishers & Distribution, New Delhi R2: Design of Machine Elements – V.B.Bhandari,. Tata McGraw Hill Pub. New Delhi R3: Theory and Problems of Machine Design by Hall Holowenko, (Schaum series) R4: Machine Design by Robert L Norton, Pearson Education Asia, 2001 R5: Design of Machine Elements by M.F.Spotts, PHI 2003. R6: Machine Design by Paul H- Black, D.E.Adams McGraw Hill, 2001 Design Data Hand Books: Design Data Hand Book – K.Lingaiah, McGraw Hill, 2nd Ed, 2003 1. Design Data Hand Book – K.Mahadevan & Balaveera Reddy, CBS Publication 2. Machine Design Data Hand Book by H.G.Patil, Shri Shashi Prakashan, Belgaum

A flat bar shown in figure 3 is subjected to an axial load of F equal to 50KN.QUESTION BANK 1. (7) 4. Assuming that the clamp is made of steel casting with an allowable stress of 120 MPa. A C–Clamp carries a load P=20000N. Explain the influence of stress concentration in the design of machine elements. (8) 5. Determine the critical stress in the machine component shown in the figure 2. (3) Chapter – 1 Introduction Chapter – 2 Design for Static Strength 1. (8) . Assuming that the stress in the bar is limited to 200N/mm2. Discuss the factors influencing selection of appropriate value for the factor of safety (8) 4. find the maximum stress induced. *Define Standardization. A stepped shaft has maximum diameter 45 mm and minimum diameter 30 mm. The cross section of the bracket is rectangular having b = 3t. (6) 11. (5) 2. if the tensile stress in the material of the bracket is limited 30 MPa. A load of 10KN is applied at the center of the crank pin. A wall bracket as shown in figure 5 is subjected to a pull of 5KN at 60o to the vertical. find its dimensions. Explain the maximum normal stress. (i) Determine the safety factor with respect to initial yielding according to maximum shear stress theory and maximum distortion energy theory (ii) Draw the sketch showing the location of maximum normal stress and maximum shear stress planes. Determine the maximum normal stress and maximum shear stress at section A. maximum shear stress and von Mises theory of failures. Neglect the effect of transverse shear. Discuss the factors influencing selection of an appropriate material for a machine element. The cross-section (Figure 6) of the clamp at x-x is rectangular having width equal to twice thickness. Explain the term ‘factor of safety’. Determine the cross section of the cantilever beam of square cross – section if the allowable stress in the material of the beam is limited to 80MPa. A weight of 1 KN is dropped from a height of 50 mm at the free end of a cantilever beam of effective length 300 mm. TR/Jp = 200 MPa. If the shaft is subjected to an axial load of 10KN. (11) 9. State the standards used in machine design. Determine the dimensions ‘b’ and ‘t’.1. Determine the thickness of flat bar. A round steel bar having σy = 800 MPa is subjected to the loads producing the calculated stresses of P/A = 70MPa. A for the crank shown in figure. taking stress concentration into account. (12) 6. Write full note on stress concentration factor. * List the factors which govern the selection of a material for a machine component (3) 5. (12) 7. (09) 8. (10) 2. My/J = 300 MPa and 4V/3A = 170MPa. Also determine the stress at section zz. (5) 3. The fillet radius is 6 mm. (05) 10. (8) 3.

A tension member shown in figure 7. Obtain the magnitude of normal and shear stresses at the extreme fibers on the cross section AA of a clamp loaded as shown in figure 11 (12) 18. (10) 14. Determine the diameters of a round rod to sustain a combined torsional load of 1500 Nm and a bending moment of 100 Nm by the following theories of failure. (iii) Locate the stress element on the top surface of the shaft at A and find the principal stresses and the maximum shear stress at the same point. (8) 20. The rod is made of carbon steel C40. supports an axial load P. (15) 17. (i) Maximum shear stress theory (ii) Octa hedral shearing stress theory (12) 19.2 as shown in figure 8. so that the maximum stress will not exceed that of the first member. σ2 = 70MPa 13. (ii) Von Mises or distortion energy theory for failure. A round rod of diameter 30.12. Determine normal stresses at the extreme fibers on the cross section AA of a Cclamp loaded as shown in figure 12.0 mm is to sustain an axial compressive load of 20 kN and a twisting moment of 150 Nm. Explain six theories of failure. It is necessary to replace this member by one having a 15 mm hole as shown. Selecting a suitable material and assuming an appropriate value for the factor of safety. *A machine part is statically loaded and has yield strength of 350 MPa. Take a value of 2. σ2 = -70MPa (c) σ1 = 70MPa. (iii) Total energy theory for failure. Material selected for the rod has a value of 300 MPa and 180 MPa for the normal stress and shear stress at yield respectively. σ2 = 0MPa (b) σ1 = 70MPa. For the following stresses calculate the factor of safety using the following theories of failure: (i) Maximum normal stress theory. Determine factors of safety as per following theories of failure . Determine the factor of safety if it is made of steel having yield strength of 320N/mm2. (ii) Maximum shear stress theory (iii) Von mires theory (a) σ1 = -70MPa.8 and D/d is 1. (ii) Compute the maximum torsional stress and the maximum principal stress in the crank at a section 80mm from the pin-end. bending moments and turning moments that act on the crank and on the shaft. A rod of circular cross section is to sustain a torsional moment of 300 KNm and a bending moment of 200 KNm. Find the value of the max. Determine the thickness t and radius r at the fillet of the second member. Explain the following theories of failure (i) Maximum principle stress theory for failure (ii) Maximum shear stress theory for failure (iii) Octahedral shear stress theory for failure (9) 22.50 for the factor of safety. (15) 16. determine the diameter of the rod as per the following theories of failure: (i) Maximum shear stress theory for failure. Stress on the fillet if the stress concentration factor for the filleted flat bar in tension is 1. (10) 15. (12) 21. Figure 9 shows a crank shaft loaded by a force Fy = 1500N (i) Draw separate free body forces. Label the directions of the co ordinates axis on these diagrams.

Calculate the stresses at each of three holes. (8) (i) (ii) (iii) 3Ø 10 Ø 5Ø . * A rectangular plate 15mm thick made of brittle material is shown in fig below.Maximum principal strain theory for failure Maximum Elastic energy theory for failure Distortion energy theory for failure (12) 23.

8. Take factor of safety 2.65 (14) 9. A stepped shaft shown in figure 13 is subjected to the transverse load. 0. The shaft is made of steel with ultimate tensile strength of 400 MPa. A round rod of diameter 1. (12) 6. The free end of the beam is subjected to a transverse load that fluctuates between 8 KN down to 5KN up. Neglecting stress concentration and column effect determine (i) the maximum equivalent shear stress.1d. (7) 7. This stepped rod is to sustain a twisting moment that fluctuates between +2. Determine maximum stress induced in the following cases taking stress concentration in case (i) A rectangular plate under an axial load of 10KN.90. determine the width of rectangular cross section.95.5KNm together with a bending moment that fluctuates between +1KNm . The rectangular cross section of the beam has a depth of 200 mm.50 for the factor of safety. 8. Shear stress concentration factor is 1. Determine the diameter of the solid circular shaft taking a value of 2. Selecting carbon steel C 30 as material for the beam and selecting a value of 2. The actual torque transmitted by shaft is ± 60% of the mean torque calculated.50 for the factor of safety. (14) 2. size factor = 0. The shaft is machined. and surface factor = 0.80 and the notch sensitivity is 0. Determine the diameter of the shaft required selecting suitable material. Surface factor. The material selected for the shaft has a shear stress value of 100 MPa at endurance limit and a shear stress value of 120 MPa of the yield limit. A cantilever beam of rectangular cross section has a span of 800 mm.Chapter – 3 Design for fatigue strength 1. A steel member of circular cross section is subjected to a torsional stress that varies from 0 to 35 MPa and at the same time it is subjected to an axial stress that varies from 14 MPa to 28 MPa. The maximum bending moment occurs at the same instant as that of maximum torque. (figure 14) (3) (ii) The circular shaft with a step under transverse load of 10KN as shown (figure 15) (3) (iii) The shaft under a twisting moment of 50Nm. A shaft of circular cross section is subjected to a turning moment that fluctuates between 800 KNm and 600 KNm and also a bending moment that fluctuates between + 500 KNm and – 300KNm. Determine diameter of shaft based on the factor of safety of 2. size factor and load factor can be taken as 0.1d.95 and 0. (ii) the design factor of safety based upon yield in shear.2 d’ to ‘d’ has a fillet radius of 0. The material has an endurance limit = 260 MPa and a yield strength = 480 MPa. Stress concentration factor is given to be 1. Determine the diameters of the shaft and the radius of fillet to transmit a power of 60 KW at a rated of 1000 RPM limiting the maximum shear stress induced to 65MPa.85 and 1. (figure16) (3) 4.90. The size factor may be taken as UNITY and the surface has a mirror polish. Surface factor and size factor are respectively 0.5KNm and +1. A stepped shaft with its diameter reduced from ‘1.85. (14) 3. Explain the significance of Goodman’s line and soderberg line in design of members subjected to reversal of stresses.2d is reduced to a diameter d with a fillet radius of 0. (8) 5.0 respectively. A shaft can transmit power of 20 KW at 1000 RPM. Shaft is also subjected to a variable bending moment of 500 N-m to 1000 N-m.

(5) 5. Assume that actual stress concentration factor =1. The material has an ultimate strength of 412 MPa. Take E= 70MPa.1 x 105 MPa.5 times of the width. Check for stresses. A horizontal piece of commercial shafting is supported by two bearing 1. Determine a suitable value for d. A 600 mm diameter pulley is keyed to the shaft 600mm to the right of left bearing and drives a pulley with a horizontal belt directly behind it. (14) 3. size correction factor = 0. and surface correction factor = 0.0 mm.0m. Kb= Kt = 1. diameter.5. A cantilever beam of span 800. Take E = 2. Three identical pulleys of 500 mm diameter and weighing 500 N each are mounted on a line shaft supported on two bearings 4000 mm apart.5 m apart. namely steel. The rod is made of carbon steel C40. a) Draw the moment diagram b) Calculate the diameter of the solid shaft required c) Calculate the torsional deflection in degrees (20) 2. Chapter – 5 Design of Shafts 1. Derive an expression for shock/impact factor. dropped onto it from a height of 40. Allowable stress in shear for shaft.0 mm has a rectangular cross section of depth 200. The free end of the beam is subjected to a transverse load of 1KN. Explain the influence of stress raiser on impact strength (06) 2. Determine i) ii) iii) the equivalent normal stress due to axial loading the equivalent normal stress due to bending and the total equivalent normal stress due to axial loading and bending (12) Chapter – 4 Impact Loading 1. (14) 10. A keyed gear 20o involute and 200 mm in diameter is located 400 mm to the left of right bearing and is driven by a gear directly behind it. (12) 3.9. The tension ratio of the belt is 3:1. selecting a suitable material and assuming an appropriate value for the factor of safety. The material has an allowable yield stress of 50 MPa. The pulley A is mounted at 300 mm to the right of left bearing and receives 30KW at 200RPM from a pulley vertically below it. Allowable bearing pressure for rubber bush is 0. At the same time there is an alternative stress due to axial loading that varies from 14 MPa (compression) to 28 MPa (tension). (5) 4.0KNm. A 5 Kg block is dropped from a height of 200 mm on to a beam shown in figure 4. The driver transmits 50KW at 350 RPM. whose depth is 1.85. The pulley B is mounted 1000 mm to the right of left bearing and . determine the width of the rectangular cross section. Motor transmits 10 KW at 1440 RPM. (8) 6. key and bolts are 40 MPa. Find the maximum stress due to impact in the bolt and in the beam shown in figure 10.and –1.3 MPa. with the slack side on top. Design a bush type flexible coupling to connect motor and centrifugal pump shafts. calculate the height of drop if the maximum instantaneous stress produced is not to exceed 120 MPa. Assume the same material. for both the members.*A cantilever beam of circular cross-section is subjected to an alternating stress at a point on the outer fiber in the plane of the support that varies from 21 MPa (compression) to 28 MPa (tension). A weight of 1400 N is dropped on to a collar at the lower end of a vertical steel shaft of 3m long and 25 mm. Determine the dimensions of the rectangular section. yield strength of 309 MPa.

Determine the stress induced in shaft and the angular deflection between bearing. Do not neglect the weight of the shaft. bolt and key material = 50 MPa. Taking di/do = 0. Assume bearing pressure on the bushes as 0. The maximum tensile or compressive stress in not exceed 50 MPa. Pulley A weighs 200 N and pulley B 400 N. The allowable shear stress for the material of the shaft is 42N/mm2 (42MPa). 15. adopting a working shear stress of 45 MPa. The inside dia. It is necessary to reduce the weight of the shaft by 70%. find the diameter of the shaft and the shear stress induced.delivers 6KW to a pulley through a belt drive inclined backward at 45o to the vertical. of the hollow shaft being half the external diameter. Determine the diameter of the shaft. (10) 12.5 KW at 720 RPM. (06) 6. Design a cast iron protective flange coupling to connect two shafts in order to transmit 7. (14) 5. bolt and key material = 33MPa. 7. (10) 11. The shaft is also subjected to an end thrust 1. Design a cast Iron flange coupling (protected type) to connect two shafts and transmits a torque a 5000 Nm.5 m apart the transmits 10000 KW at 90 rev/min. The following permissible stresses may be used. Compare the weight. The tension on the tight side of belt A is 2000 N. 13. The remaining power is taken out through another pulley C which is mounted at 3000 mm to the right of left bearing and drives a planning machine the drive being 30o to the front of the vertical. State the advantages of hollow shafts over solid shafts in transmission of power (5) . Shear stress for cast iron = 15MPa.3.(20) 4. determine the inner and outer diameters of the shaft. The shaft must not twist more that 1o on a length of 15 diameters. Permissible shear stress for CI = 16MPa. allowable shear stress in the material of the pins as 45 N/mm2 and allowable bending stress in the material of the pin is 80 N/mm2. Consider heavy shock condition. 14. what would be the dimensions of a hollow shaft made of the same material as the solid shaft.2 m hollow shaft is subjected to bending moment 900N-m and turning moment 600 N-m. A shaft is mounted between bearings located 9. The angle of lap for all pulleys may be taken as 180o and the coefficient of friction is 0. A shaft is required to transmit 1 MW power at 240RPM. (10) 9. and that on the slack side of belt B is 900N. The working stress in shear for the shaft material is 80N/mm2. If the modulus of rigidity for the material of the shaft is 80 KN/mm2. A 250mm diameter solid shaft is used to drive the propeller of a marine vessel. the following permissible stresses may be used permissible shear stress for shaft. Design a bushed pin type flexible coupling to transmit 90 KW at 1440 RPM for connecting two shafts of diameter 60 mm. Both the shafts have the same material and length. If the shaft carries a central load of 900N and is simply supported between bearing 3 meter apart. Permissible shear stress for shaft. the shaft transmits 10 KW at 400 rpm. The shaft of uniform diameter as shown in figure 17 carries belt pulleys at A and B with vertical belts. Write a brief note on materials and heat treatments used for the shaft. 10. (5) 8. Estimate suitable diameter for the shaft. A 1. The shaft weighs 66000N has an outside diameter of 450 mm and inside diameter of 300 mm. determine the diameter of the shaft. It is supported in bearings at C and D.7 and material of the shaft to be cold rolled steel. strength and stiffness of a hollow shaft of the same external diameter as that of solid shaft. Crushing stress for bolt and key material = 60 MPa.2KN. A line shaft is to transmit 600 KW at 500RPM.35N/mm2.

(20) 19.0 mm long receives power of 25 KW through a belt drive located at its right extreme end. Whereas A is at a distance of 300mm from the left extreme end of the shaft. (20) 17. determine the diameter of the solid circular shaft. The other gear which receives power form this gear is placed just above this gear. The shaft receives a power of 40KW through a belt drive situated. The teeth are of involute profile with a pressure angle of 20o.0mm. The gear mounted on the shaft has a pitch diameter of 250mm and weighs 500 N. The power is transmitted out of the shaft through a gear drive located on the shaft at a distance of 500. The weight & diameter of the pulley are respectively 800N and 400.0. (20) 18. Assume 25% over load. B is at a distance of 300mm from the right extreme end. The ratio of tensions in the belt is 2. Both the gears have 20o involute teeth. inclined at 60o to it. the remaining power is given out through a gear drive located at a distance of 400 mm from the right support. A power transmission shaft is supported on two bearings 2000. Selecting appropriate material and assuming a suitable value for the factor of safety determine the diameter of a solid shaft for the purpose.0 mm to the right of the left bearing. The shaft operates at 750 RPM. The belt is directed towards the observer below the horizontal and inclined at 45o to it. Select suitable materials and factors of safety. Design a protected type of CI flange coupling to connect two shafts of the same diameters and transmit 150 KW at 100 RPM. Draw to scale the coupling designed giving all important dimensions. The pulley mounted on the shaft has a diameter of 400 mm and weighs 1000N. The belt on the pulley moves below towards the observer making an angle of 30o with the vertical. Design a rigid flanged coupling to transmit a power of 40 kW at a rated speed of 100RPM (10) . The pulley on the shaft has a diameter of 500mm and weighs 800N.0 mm to the left of the right bearing.16. A power of 30KW is given out through a belt drive located at a distance of 600mm from the left support. Design a protected type CI flange coupling for a steel shaft transmitting 15 KW at 1200 RPM. A power transmission shaft 1800 mm long is supported at two points A and B. The gear which receives from this gear is located exactly behind. The driven gear is located exactly above. B is at the right extreme end. take the maximum torque to be 20% more than the full-load torque. Assuming working stress in shear 40 MN/m2 and in tension at 80 MN/m2 and in tension as 80 MN/m2 for the shaft material. 22. The weight and pitch diameter of the gear mounted on the shaft are respectively 600N and 300. The driver gear has a pitch diameter of 200 mm and weighs 500N.0 mm apart. A power transmission shaft 1200. The driver gear is located exactly behind. The pressure angle is 20o. The shaft is supported at two points A and B. A gear C with 450 mm pitch circle diameter delivers 30% of the power horizontally to the right gear D with pitch circle diameter of 300 mm delivers the remaining power downward to the left at an angle of 30o below the horizontal. The belt moves towards the observer below the horizontal.0 mm. Selecting a suitable material and assuming an appropriate value for the factor of safety. The ratio of the belt tensions is 3. The power is taken out through a gear drive located at distance of 400mm form the left support. Design the shaft of uniform diameter. 21. While A is at the left extreme end. at a distance of 600. (14) 20. A 60 cm pulley A receives 15 KW at 500 RPM from below at angle of 45o as shown in the figure 18. The ratio of belt tensions is 3.50 for the factor of safety. Determine the diameter of the solid circular shaft selecting carbon steel C40 as material & assuming a value of 2. The gear mounted on the shaft here has a pitch diameter of 300mm and weighs 700N. A power of 50 kW is received at 500 RPM through a gear drive located at the left extreme end of the shaft.

Determine the size of the bolt taking allowable stress for the bolt material to be 80 MPa. For the system shown in figure 22 find the maximum stress in the weld.3. The diameter of the flange is 500 mm and a load of 200 KN acts at a distance of 250 mm from the frame. The stress concentration for the key way in the shaft is 1.Chapter – 6 Fasteners 1. The static pressure in the cylinder is 6N/mm2. If the tensile stress in the bolt is not to exceed 63 MPa. (12) . Using a factor of safety of 5. The initial tightening load on the bolt is 5 KN. Find the size of the bolt. (20) 8. A flanged bearing is fastened to a frame by means of four bolts spaced equally on 400mm bolt circle as shown in figure 20. (12) 2. The key is made of steel having an ultimate shearing stress of 350N/ mm2. Determine the power capacity ratio of the two system: one a 24 mm diameter shaft with a 48 x 6 x 6 mm key and another a 24 mm diameter shaft with a 6 mm dia pin. determine the width of key required. if the shear stress of the material of the rivet is 100 N/ mm2. (6) 6. (12) 5. Figure 21 shows the cylindrical head of a pressure vessel using 10 bolts and a confined gasket. Determine the bolt size. A 100mm shaft rotating at 100 RPM transmit 300 hp power is taken off through a gear whose hub is 200 mm long. (6) 3. Select a rectangular parallel key for transmitting a power of 50 KW at a rated speed of 500 RPM to mount a hub of length 60mm on a solid circular shaft of diameter 50 mm. Determine load capacity of the riveted joint loaded as shown in figure 19. Select the size of the metric bolts for a factor of safety of 3. (08) 4. A bolt in a steel structure is subjected to a tensile load of 9 KN. and that for the pinned shaft is 1.75. Assume only torsional load and the same material for all parts. 7.

15. A shaft straightner is designed to exert a load of 25 KN. (8) 6.12. select an appropriate material and assume a suitable value for the factor of safety.5 mm. what is the maximum shear stress induced in the screw of the turn buckle if the rope is to be tightened to a tension of 8 KN. What are power screws? State their applications. A machine weighing 20KN is to be raised by a single start square threaded 50mm diameter.0mm. (14) 3. (10) 10. A turn buckle is used to tighten a wire rope. (iii) Bearing pressure on threads. (4) 7. determine : (i) Power required to drive (ii) height of the bronze nut required if allowable bearing pressure is 17MPa.Chapter – 7 Power screws 1. If the coefficient of friction between the threads is 0. The screw has trapezoidal metric thread. The threads are single right and left hand square in section. Root Dia. having nominal diameter of 30 mm and a pitch of 6 mm. The coefficient of friction between the screws and nuts is 0. The two screw rods are driven through bevel gear drives by a motor. Outer dia. A weight of 500KW is raised at a speed of 6m/min by two screw rods with square threads of 50 x 8 cut on them.5 MPa Find: (ii) Size of screw (iii) Height of nut (10) 5. Assuming suitable coefficient of friction. Also determine efficiency of straightner. Pitch – 1.75mm. Select thread proportions for the screw rod of a screw press to sustain an axial compressive load of 40 KN for an unsupported length of 350.853 Coefficient of thread friction – 0. determine the power required to lift the machine.1.2. It utilizes a square threaded screw having outside diameter of 75mm and pitch of 6 mm determine the force required to operate the handwheel of 300 mm diameter if the coefficient of friction for threads is 0. against a load of 20KN. Using an allowable compressive stress of 80N/mm2 and bearing pressure on the threads 17. The outside diameter of the screw is 38mm and the pitch is 8. (10) 2. for a travel of 200mm (iv) Screw rod (v) Nut (vi) The hand lever 8. A split nut used with a lead screw is propelled at a speed of 5 m/min. along the spindle of a square thread (single start). Determine: . 9.25 Friction circle radius of collar – 6mm Maximum thrust on the screw – 4 KN Determine: (i) Length of handling if the operator exerts a force of 80N at the end of the handle (ii) Maximum shear stress induced in the body of the screw and where does it exist. The following data applies to a C clamp shown in Figure 23. – 9. 8mm pitch screw jack at a maximum speed of 600m/min. (10) 4. The axial thrust is absorbed by a collar of 100mm outside diameter and 70 mm inside diameter. The thrust collar of the screw has inside diameter of 30mm and out side diameter of 60mm. of screw – 12mm. A 15KN screw jack with a maximum extension of 150 mm has double square threads. Design the following parts of 20 KN screw jack selecting suitable materials and assuming appropriate values for the factors of safety. The coefficient of collar friction is 0.12 Coefficient of collar friction – 0.

safe working stress both in tension and shear are 80 MPa and 60 MPa respectively.(i) The torque required to raise the load (4) (ii) The speed of rotation of the screw rod assuming the threads are of double start (2) (iii) The maximum stresses induced on the cross section of the screw rod (4) (iv) The efficiency of screw drive (3) (v) The length of nuts for the purpose of supporting the load (vi) check for overhaul (2) 11. (10) 2. (12) 4. 84 MPa in shear and 200MPa in crushing. A bracket as shown in figure 26 carries a load of 40000N. τ shear stress = 50MPa crushing stress σc = 120MPa. Calculate the size of weld. if the allowable working stresses are 112 MPa in tension. The allowable stresses are σt = 70MPa. Assume that the resistance of the rivets in double shear is 1. Design the longitudinal and circumferential joints for a boiler whose diameter in 2 meters and is subjected to a pressure of 1 MPa. 8.5m in diameter when working pressure is 1 MPa. if the allowable shear is not exceed 80MPa. τ = 60MPa. A steel bracket is welded to a structure and loaded as shown in figure 25. (08) Chapter – 8 Mechanical Joints 1. Diameter of the boiler is 1 m. Use the following data: . σc = 120 MPa. (10) 7. (20) 6. Sketch and explain the types of riveted joint failure.875 times that of single shear. Design and draw a fully dimensioned neat sketch in two view of a double riveted butt joint with double cover plates for the longitudinal seam of a boiler 1. Design a sleeve type of cotter joint to connect two tie rods subjected to an axial pull of 60KN. Two lengths of mild steel flat tie bars 200 mm x 10mm are to be connected by a double riveted double cover butt joint using 24 mm diameter rivets. The longitudinal joint is a triple riveted butt joint with an efficiency of about 85% and the circumferential joint is a double riveted lap joint with an efficiency of about 70%.Design a turnbuckle to take an axial load of 100KN. Calculate the size of the weld. A knuckle joint is required for a rod which has to withstand a tensile load of 100 KN. An eccentrically loaded bracket welded to its support is loaded as shown in figure 24. Select a double riveted butt joint with a required efficiency of 75%. The material of which the turn buckle is to be made has a design normal stress of 165 N/mm2 and design shear stress of 100N/mm2. Take the following allowable stresses. (8) 9. 10. σt = 80 MPa. Design the longitudinal joint for a boiler for a steam pressure of 2 MPa. (10) 3. Determine the size of the weld required. Design the joint. Suggest the suitable dimensions for the entire joint. Cast steel material used for the sleeve has the allowable stresses σt = 70 N/mm2 and τ = 45 N/mm2 5. The pitch in the outer rows of the rivets is to be double that in the inner rows and the width of the cover plates is unequal. taking the permissible stress in the weld to be 84 N/mm2. The allowable stress of C – 30 material used for rods and cotters are σt = 65 N/mm2. σc = 75 N/mm2 and τ = 35 N/mm2. Find the diameters of the rod and the pin.

The design stresses of the materials of the main plate and the rivets are as follows: .1 x 105 MPa and Poisson’s ratio = 0. For practical reasons the pitch of rivets is to be restricted a value not less than 3 d and not more than 3. have a pitch which is twice the pitch of rivets in the inner rows.0 mm subjected to an internal pressure of 0. which are in single shear. σt = 120 MPa. The allowable stresses are as follows: Tensile stress of the material of the plates = 80 MPa Shear stress of the material of the rivets = 60 MPa Crushing stress of the material of the rivets = 120MPa Sketch the joint. (10) 13. Also determine the various strengths & efficiencies of the joint. (10) 15. Design the joint if the allowable crushing stress for rivet and plates is 60 MN/m2. Find the joint efficiency. 100 mm internal diameter and 150 mm diameter at the junction of the two tubes has a radial pressure of 31 MPa at the junction. A triple-rivetted butt-joint with equal cover plates is used to connect two plates 16 mm thick. (12) 11. which are in single shear.25. Normal stress at yield = 300 MPa Shear stress at yield = 150 MPa Allowable bearing pressure = 40 MPa (12) 17. A joint efficiency of 75% can be assumed at this stage. Design a triple riveted butt joint with unequal widths of cover plates to join two plates of thickness 10mm. Material selected for the main plate and rivets has the following safe values: Design normal stress for material of the main plate = 120 MPa Design shear stress of the material of the rivet = 80 MPa Design Crushing stress of the material of the rivet = 160 MPa Sketch the joint and determine the various efficiencies. Allowable shear stress for rivets: 45 MN/m2. The extreme row of rivets. is twice the pitch of rivets in the inner rows which are in double shear. The allowable stress for the material of the joint are as follows: σt = 120 MPa and τ = 80 MPa (10) 16. Take E = 2.5 d where d is the diameter of the rivets. Design a cotter joint to sustain an axial load of 80 KN. Find the difference in the diameters to be allowed for shrinkage when a compound cylinder 200 mm external diameter. The pitch of rivets in the extreme rows. σc = 160 MPa and pb = 60 MPa (10) 19. A bracket supporting a load is welded to a stanchion by four fillet welds of 6mm size as shown in the figure 28. Design a triple riveted butt joint to join two plates of thickness 10 mm. (14) 18.Allowable stress in tension for steel plate = 80MPa Allowable stress in shear for rivets = 60 MPa Allowable stress in crushing for rivets = 120 MPa.90 MPa. Design a knuckle joint to transmit an axial load of 120 KN. What is the maximum value of P if the normal stress on the throat section is not to exceed 98 MN/m2? (10) 14. (10) 12. The material selected for the joint has the following design stresses. Material selected for the joint has the following mechanical properties. Design a socket and spigot type of cotter joint to sustain an axial load of 100kN. Draw to scale two views of the designed joint giving all dimensions. Design a longitudinal butt joint with equal widths of cover plates for a pressure vessel of diameter 1200.

differentiability and problems Analytical functions and problems Cauchy-Riemann equations in Cartesian form Cauchy-Riemann equations in Polar form Problems Consequences on C-R equations Problems Conformal transformations: z2. 9.Pg#651 Topics to be covered COMPLEX VARIABLES Introduction Definition of Limit. 31. SPECIAL FUNCTIONS Series Solution of Bessel’s Differential equation Problems Recurrence relations Generating function Problems Orthogonality Property and examples Bessel’s integral formula and examples Series Solution of Legendre’s differential equation Problems Generating functions . 28. 623 R1. 23. Pg#500 R1. 34. 17.for plate material in tension σt = 12MPa for rivet material in compression σc = 160 MPa for rivet material in shear τ = 80 MPa Draw neat sketches of the joint in two views. 27. No. 13. 29.Pg#592. 4. of Periods : 65 Chapter title Chapter 1 Complex Analysis T1. 20. poles Calculation of Residues and problems Residue theorem and examples. 18. 22. 8. pg#194 14 21.3% Chapter 2 Special Functions T1. ez and z + a2 / z Bilinear transformations Problems Complex integration: Line integral Problems Cauchy’s theorem – corollaries Cauchy’s integral formula Problems Taylor’s series and examples Laurent’s series and examples Singularities. 3. 15. 19. 30.8% .29 (10) ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS – IV – MAT41 Subject Code : MAT 41 Peri ods 1 2. (10) 20. Rodrigue’s formula Recurrence relations Problems Referenc e Chapter Cumulat ive 21 32. 21. 10. 6. 33. Suggest a suitable weld size for a welded joint loaded as shown in figure.5% 35 53. 5. 14. 7. 11. continuity. 32. 16. 24. 25. 26.3% 21 32. 12.

58. conditional probability Problems Baye’s rule and problems Discrete and continuous random variables PDF and CDF Binomial distribution and problems Poison distribution. Chapter 3 Statistics and Probability T1.5% 47 72.Pg#822 . R1. 64 65 11 16.245 Chapter 4 Sampling distributio n T1. JOINT PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION AND MARKOV CHAINS Concept of Joint Probability and Joint distribution Discrete and independent random variables Expectation and variance Problems Introduction to Markov Chains Probability vectors and problems Stochastic Matrices and problems Fixed points and regular Stochastic Matrices Higher transition probabilities Stationary distribution of regular Markov chains Absorbing states 12 18.S. 46. 49.1 19. Pg#733. 50.3% 07 10.59.85. 41. Exponential distribution and problems Normal distribution and problems SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION Sampling. 63. 48. Erwin Kreyszig Schaum’s Outlines :Probability Edition 38th 8th 2nd Publisher Khanna Wiley McGrawHill Year 2004 2001 2000 . 38. 42. Pg#1049 R2. 60. 57. 62. 59. 53. 45.9% 65 100% Literature Book Type Text Book Reference Books Code T1 R1 R2 Title & Author Higher Engineering Mathematics. 52. Sampling distribution.1% 55. 43. Grewal Advanced Engineering Mathematics. 44. 51. 37. 61.35.177. 40.78 0 R1. 56. 47.Pg#110 4 Chapter 5 Joint Probability Distributio n& Markov Chains R2. 39. 54. B. Standard error Type-I and Type-II errors and problems Testing of hypothesis for means large samples Testing of hypothesis for means small samples Level of Significance and problems Confidence limits for means Large and Small samples Student’s t-distribution.Pg#224 282 Orthogonality Property and problems STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY Curve fitting by the method of Least squares Problems Correlation and problems Regression Probability. 36.8% 54 83.

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Show that the function f (z ) =| z |2 is continuous at every point but is not differentiable at any point other than origin. prove the following ⎛ ∂ψ ⎞ ⎛ ∂ψ ⎟ +⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎝ ∂y 2 ⎛ ∂2 ∂2 ⎞ 2 ⎟ ′ 2 (a) ⎜ + ⎜ ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ⎟ | f (z ) | = 4 | f (z ) | ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ∂ ⎛ ∂ 2 (b) ⎜ | f (z ) | ⎟ + ⎜ ⎜ ∂y | f (z ) | ⎟ ⎟ =| f ′(z ) | ∂ x ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 ⎛ ∂ ∂ ⎞ ⎟ (c) ⎜ ⎜ ∂x 2 + ∂y 2 ⎟ log | f (z ) |= 0 ⎝ ⎠ (d) If f (z ) = u + iv is analytic and φ is any differentiable function of x and y. z = x − iy + 2 =4 2 ∂z∂z ∂x ∂y 10. u & v are harmonic functions. Show that an analytic function constant modulus is constant. prove that 2 2 2 2 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪⎛ ∂φ ⎞ ⎛ ∂φ ⎞ ⎫ ⎛ ∂φ ⎞ ⎛ ∂φ ⎞ 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ = ⎨⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎬ | f ′(z ) | x y u v ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ 2 2 (e) If f (z ) = u + iv is analytic. y) z= x+ iy. Show that an analytic function with constant modulus is constant. given (a) u =2x(1-y) (b) u = ex (x cosy – y siny) (c) x sinx cushy – ycosx sinhy (d) v=exsiny sinxsiny (e) v= cos2x + cosh2y x (f) u + v = 2 x + y2 . If f (z ) = u + iv is an analytic function. 13. show that ∇ 2 | f (z ) |2 =| f ′(z ) |2 9. Prove that ∂2F ∂2F ∂2F Here F=F(x. 5. Show that the function f ( z ) = z is continuous at every point but not differentiable at any point. 2. ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y 4.QUESTION BANK COMPLEX ANALYSIS (20 marks) Analytic Functions: 1. 3. If f(z) = u + iv is analytic then the families of curves u= c1 and v= c2 here c1& c2 are constant are orthogonal. Show that an analytic function with constant real part is constant. Find the analytic function f(z)=u + iv. 6. 2 2 ∂x ∂y 2 11. show that ∂ 2u ∂ 2u + =0 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂v ∂ 2v + = 0 i. If f (z ) = u + iv is analytic and ψ is any differential function of x and y prove that 2 2 2 ⎧ ⎞ ⎪ ⎪⎛ ∂ψ ⎞ ⎛ ∂ψ ⎞ ⎫ 2 ⎟ + = ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎬ | f ′(z ) | ⎨ ⎟ u v ∂ ∂ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎪ ⎪ ⎠ ⎭ ⎩ 8. If f (z) is analytic on an open set S and f ′(z ) = 0 for all z ∈ S show that f (z) is constant. 12.. The necessary sufficient condition for the function f(z)= u + iv to be analytic is ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂u = =− . 7. If f(z) = u +iv is analytic u and v satisfy Laplace’s equation.e .

Prove that 2. given cos 2θ (a) u = r 2 cos 2θ − 4 sin θ (b) u = . Evaluate 8. show that u and v satisfy the function (a) (b) (c) ∂ 2ϕ 1 ∂ϕ 1 ∂ 2ϕ + + =0 ∂r 2 r ∂r r 2 ∂θ 2 ∂ 2u 1 ∂u 1 ∂ 2u + + =0 ∂r 2 r ∂r r 2 ∂θ 2 ∂ 2 v 1 ∂v 1 ∂ 2 v + + =0 ∂r 2 r ∂r r 2 ∂θ 2 16. B.cn are ‘n’ non overlapping simple closed curves within C and f(z) is analytic on these curves in the region bounded by them then prove that ∫ f (z )dz = ∫ f (z )dz + ∫ f (z )dz + . If f(z) is analytic within and on a simple closed curve c in the complex plane and a is f (z ) 1 any point c then prove that f (a ) = dz 2πi z − a ∫ c 6.r ≠ 0 r2 Complex Integration 1. If f(z) is analytic within and on a simple closed curve C and a is any point within C then n! f (z ) f n (a ) = dz 2πi (z − a )n +1 ∫ c 7.E. Obtain the Taylor’s and Laurent’s series for the function f(z)= 11. θ ) + iv(r . where C is a circle of unit radius with center at z2 −1 (i) z= 1 10. If z = reiθ and f (z ) = u (r .. Evaluate (ii) z=-1 ∫ c c z +1 dz. (b) 1<|z|<2 (c) |z|>2 (1 + z )(z + 2) 2 1 for (a)|Z|<1 12.c3…. Prove that ∫ f (z )dz = ∫ (udx − vdy ) + i ∫ (udy + vdx ) c c c ∫ f (z )dz = 0 c 3. =− ∂r r ∂θ ∂r r ∂θ 14. θ ) is analytic function. Find the analytic function f (z ) = u + iv. Evaluate 9. f (z ) = u (r .... + ∫ f (z )dz c c1 c2 cn 4.. Mechanical z2 in the region (a) 1<|z|<3 (z − 1)(z − 3) (b) |z- 4th Semester Course Information . z2 ez 3 ∫z dz where C is the circle |z|=1 ∫ c z2 +1 dz . Verify the Cauchy’s theorem for the function f (z ) = 3 z 2 + iz − 4 with c as the square having vertices at 1 ± i .PESIT (g) u − v = cos x + sin x − e −y 2 cos x − e y − e − y ∂u 1 ∂v ∂v 1 ∂u = . where C is a simple closed contour enclosing the origin. θ ) prove that 15. θ ) + iv(r . If c1. Obtain Laurent’s expansion for f (z ) = 1|<2.c2. -1 ± i 5.

E. 2.x + 2x + 2x + x in terms of Legendre’s polynomials. Show that --3/2 (x) = 2 d x J n ( x) J n−1 ( x).Rn ) here R1 . Find the bilinear transformation that transforms the points z1 = 1. = x[ J2 n (x) . 3.a2. R2 . dx d −n x J n ( x) = x-n J n+1 (x) .an inside c then prove that PESIT ∫ f (z )dz = 2πi(R + R 1 c c 2 + R3 + .. Find the fixed points of the transformation. Hence deduce that Pn (-1) = (-1)n 2 3 4 Express 3 ... 18.. 4th Semester Course Information B. z3 = -1 onto the points w1 = 2.. ∫ z(z − 1)(z − 2) dz 3z − 4 where C: |z|=3/2 ∫ c 2z + z dz.Rn are residues of f(z) at a1.. where (i) C: |z|=2 (ii) C: |z-1|=1 z2 −1 2 16.a3…. z2 = i. Find the series solution of Legendre's differential function. 9. 6. 17. Show that e −ax J 0 (bx)dx = 0 ∫ 1 a + b2 2 16. If C is a simple closed curve and f(z) is analytic within and on simple closed curve c except at finite points a1.n2)y =0.cosx } Show that (a) J 3/2 (x) = πx [ [ ] ] (b) J 10. ∞ π ∫ 15. Show that sin (x sinθ) = 2ΣJ2n-1(x)sin (2n-1)θ 1 cos(nθ − x sinθ )dθ 13.. Show that dx 2 {(Sinx )/x .J n + 1 (x) ] d n Show that x J n ( x) = xn J n-1 (x) . Show that y = c1 Jn(kx ) + c2 J-n (kx) is the solution of x2 y2 + xy1 + (k2 x2 . Mechanical .a2. By using Rodrigue’s formula verify that Pn (x) satisfies Legendre’s differential equation. Find the series solution of Bessel's differential equation. 3.……an 14. LEGENDRE POLYNOMIALS: (10 marks) 1.. 8. Find the images of (i) x-y = 1 (ii) x2 – y2 = 1 under the transformation w = z2. Prove that J n(x) = [ πx {(Cosx)/x +sinx} ] 14. Verify that y = xn Jn(x) is the solution of x y2 +(1-2n)y1 + xy =0. 4. State and prove orthogonal property of Bessel's functions.13.. 5. 7. Show that (a) J ½ (x) = πx πx Show that 2n J n(x) = x [J n-1 (x) + J n + 1 (x) ] Show that J n'(x) = x [J n-1 (x) . w2 = i.J2 n-1 (x)] dx 11. Show that the transformation w = z2 transforms the circle | z-a | = c to a cardioid or a limacon. Show that cos (x sinθ) = J0(x) +2ΣJ2n(x)cos 2nθ 12. Prove that J − n (x ) = (− 1)n J n (x ). 2 2 Sinx (b) J -½ (x) = Cosx.. 2. 4. BESSELS FUNCTIONS: (10 marks) 1. where n is a positive integer. Show that (a)Pn (1) = 1 (b)Pn (-x) = (-1) n Pn (x) . R3 . w3 = -2. Evaluate 15.a3.

12.21 6.98 4.26 5. 2. Fit a parabola y = ax 2 + bx + c to x: 20 40 60 12 x: y: 0 15 22 80 20 24 25 30 the following data. Find the coefficient of correlation.Pn − 1 (x) dx = (4n 2n 2n 2 − 1) −1 ∫ x . Later it was discovered it had copied down the pairs (8.r2 σ x σ y and explain the significance when r = 0.Pn (x). 6) respectively. Prove that Pn (x ) = dn n (x − 1) 2 n 14. Σ x = 125. 10 12 16 28 25 36 41 49 40 50 9.2x P'n (x) + P'n-1 (x) Show that −1 1 ∫ x .8 33. 12) & (6.5 & r = 0. 7. 4th Semester Course Information B.1 6.5 9.8 find the value of x corresponding to y= 75 & y corresponding to x = 70. 14) & (8. Sub A : 77 54 27 52 14 35 90 25 56 60 Sub B: 35 58 60 40 50 40 35 56 34 42 5. Find the lines of regression for the following data: x: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 y. 6. Prove that P ' n ( x ) = xP ' n −1 ( x ) + nPn −1 ( x ) STATISTICS: (10 marks) 1. x: 10 12 14 16 18 20 y: 20 25 30 35 40 45 6. 5.3 46. σx = 7.9 22. 100 120 y: 5. Fit a curve of the form y=axb for the data x: 1 2 3 4 5 6 y: 4.P'n-1 (x) Show that Pn (x) = P'n+1 (x) . If θ is the angle between two regression lines show that 1. 7.Pn (x).E. Show that there is a perfect correlation between x & y . If the mean of x is 65.1 14. Obtain the correct value of the correlation coefficient. tan θ = r σ x2 + σ y2 8. mean of y is 67. Show that 11.8 7. Show that ∫ x . Σ y = 100.5 The following table gives the marks obtained by a student in two subjects in ten tests. A computer while calculating the correlation coefficient bet x & y from 25 pairs of observations got the following constants n = 25.Pn + 1 (x).P' n (x) dx = (2n − 1) 1 n 2 n! dx 13. 8) as (6. Σy2 = 460& Σ xy = 508.0 3. Express x 3 + 3x 2 − 4 x + 5 in terms of Lagendre’s Polynomials. Mechanical .Pn − 1 (x) dx = (2n − 1)(2n + 1)(2n + 3) 2 −1 1 1 2n (n + 1) 10. Show that Pn (x) = ⎣ π ⎢ 0 1 ⎡ x ± x 2 − 1 cosθ ⎤dθ ⎥ ⎦ π ∫ Show that [ (2n+ 1) x Pn (x)] = (n+1) Pn+1 (x) + n Pn-1 (x) Show that Pn (x) = xP'n (x) . Fit the straight line of the form y= a + bx to the given data 5 10 15 17 2.PESIT 5. Σ x2 = 650. σx = 3. 8. 9.

16.1 8. Find the probability that it was a product of C. B & C are 2. Estimate y for x = 2. P(A∩B) = 1/4.8 5. 6. 1 red & 2 green marbles respectively. Fit a straight line to the data: (a) x: 0 1 2 3 4 y: 1 1. If a patient dies what is the chance that his disease was not diagnosed correctly. for the following data: x: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 y: 87 97 113 129 202 195 193. Define probability mass function and probability distribution function for a discrete random variable.1 19.3 4.5. find the variance of x.5 respectively. 3 machines A. When are two events said to be (a) mutually exclusive (b) mutually independent. Obtain the mean and variance for the following distributions: Binomial. Define a sample space and probability of an event. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information PESIT (b) . In a partially destroyed laboratory record of correlation data only the following results are legible. variance of y is 16. The chance that a patient will die after correct diagnosis is 40% and the chance of death after wrong diagnosis is 70%. 2 marbles are drawn from a bag chosen at random and they are found to be 1 white & 1 red. 7. 5. Fit an exponential curve of the form y = abx. 2. The probabilities of solving the problem individually are ½.E. The two regression lines are x = 4y + 5 & 16y = x + 64 find the mean values of x. Four cards are drawn from a pack of 52 cards without replacement. There are 3 bags which contains 1 white. 1/3. Define Geometrical distribution. Define (a) a random variable (b) Discrete and continuous random variable 11. Exponential and Normal. 12. State & prove Baye's theorem. Find the probability that (a) they are all of different suits (b) no 2 cards are of equal value. find (a) P(A/B) (b) P(B/A) (c) P(A∪B) (d) P(Ac) 3. regression equations are y = x + 5. The percentage of defective items produced by A. 15. Find the probability that a leap year selected at random will contain 53 Fridays. 16x = 9y . 11. An item is chosen at random & is found to be defective. (a) If he fires 5 times what is the probability of hitting a target at least twice. & 1. ¼.. 10. Find the chance that in the next 6 trials there will be at least 4 successes.8 3. 14. & 1/5 respectively.5 6. B & C manufacture 40%. (b) How many times must he fire so that the probability of hitting a target B. The chance that a doctor will diagnose a disease correctly is 60%. 3 red & 1 green and 3 white.94. A class consists of 6 girls & 10 boys If a committee of 3 is chosen at random find the probability that (a) exactly 2 boys are selected (b) at least 1 boy is selected (c) exactly 2 girls are selected. PROBABILITY: (10 marks) 1. y & r.10. An experiment succeeds twice as often as it fails. 50% & 10% of the total production of a factory respectively. 8. 4.3 x: 1 2 3 4 5 y: 14 13 9 5 2 13. Poisson. 4 14. The probability of a man hitting a target is 1/3. P(B) = 1/3. 2 white. 9. uniform distribution. A certain problem in mathematics is given to 4 students for solving. Fit a second degree parabola of the form y = ax2 + bx + c for the data: x: 1 2 3 4 5 y: 1. If A & B are events P(A) = ½.9 14. 4. Estimate y for x = 8. 12. 13.8 . Exponential distribution. Find the probability that (a) the problem is solved (b) the problem is solved exactly by one of them. 2red & 3 green. Find the probability that the balls came from the second bag.

10% are shipped in perfect condition but do not arrive on time and 20% are not shipped in perfect condition what is the distributors expected profit per item. 33.E(X)2 . The mean marks of 1000 students is 34. 32. If 70% of such items are shipped in perfect condition and arrive on time.17 0.m.24 0.at least once is more than 90%. 26. 29. If 8 employees are chosen by lot to serve on a committee.Assuming that the marks are normally distributed find the no. Find the probability that (a) one plane does not return (b) at the most 5 planes do not return. (iv) V(c) = 0 (v) V (aX + b) =a2 V(X). The chance that an aero plane fails to return from the flight is 5 %. A group of 20 airplanes are sent on an operational flight. Find the probability that (i) it needs filling within 8 days & (ii) it will serve for more than 10 days. 19. Find E(x) & V(x) for the following probability distribution: x: 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p: 0. of students obtaining marks (i) bet 30 & 60 (ii) bet 70 & 80. 28. A quality control engineer inspects a random sample of 3 batteries from each lot of 24 car batteries that is ready to be shipped.12 0. What is the probability that the 8th child born is the first one to have a defective heart? 23. 17.4 0. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information PESIT .5. Among 300 employees of a company 240 are union members while the others are not.008 30. Given that 2% of the fuses manufactured by a firm are defective.D 16. 20.05 0. find the probability that a box containing 200 fuses has (a) at least 1 defective fuse (b) at most 3 defective fuses. The duration of time that an overhead tank will serve without refilling is found to follow an exponential distribution with mean 10 days. If the probability that a target is destroyed on any one shot is 0.E. find the probability that 5 of them will be union members. 0 < x < 1 random variable X having the density function f(x) = ⎨ Find the . A distributor makes a profit of $20 on an item. What is the probability that it will be destroyed in the 6th shot only and not before.20 0. If it is shipped from the factory in perfect condition and arrives on time but it is reduced by $2 if it does not arrive on time & $12 regardless of whether it arrives on time if it is not shipped from the factory in perfect condition. & 10 p.m. 25. If it plays 4 games.D of a normal distribution of marks in an examination where 44% of candidates obtained below 55 & 6% above 80 and rest between 55 & 80. The distribution of 2 independent random variables X & Y are given below: X 0 1 Y 1 2 3 P(X) 0. buses ply every 30 minutes between 6 a. what are the probabilities that an inspectors sample will contain (i) none of the batteries with defects (ii) only one of the batteries with defects (iii) at least 2 of the batteries with defects.14 0.2 0. If such a lot contains 6 batteries with slight defects.1 0. what is the probability that he will have to wait for at least 20 minutes? 24. 18. B. 31. A cricket team has probability 2/3 of winning whenever it plays.01. Show that (i) E(c) = c (ii) E (aX + b) = a E(X) + b (iii)V(X) = E(X2) . 27. Determine the probability that out of 2000 individuals (a) exactly 3 (b) more than 2 individuals will suffer a bad reaction.5 Find the joint probability distribution of X & Y.(iii) below 20 (iv)above 80. Find the mean & S.4 & S. If the probability of the birth of a child with a defective heart in a certain city is 0. find the probability that it wins (i) 2 games (ii) at least one game. 22.001.8 P(Y) 0.5. The probability that an individual suffers a bad reaction from a certain injection is 0. elsewhere ⎩0 average profit per automobile and also E(X2). If a dealers profit in units of $1000 on a new automobile can be looked upon as a ⎧2(1 − x). If a person reaches a bus stop on this route at a random time during this period. On a certain city transport route. 21.

**PESIT 34.The following table gives the joint probability distribution of 2 random variables X &Y
**

X/Y -1 0 1 -1 0 0 0.2 1 0

0.1 0.1

0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1

Find the conditional probability of X given Y = 0. 35. The joint distribution of two random variables X and Y is given by the following table. X /Y -4 2 1 1/8 1/4 5 ¼ 1/8 Determine (i) the marginal distributions of independent random variables? 7 1/8 1/8 X and Y. (ii) E (X) and E(Y) (iii) are X and Y

Sampling Distribution: (20 marks) 1. A Sample of 5 measurements of the diameter of a sphere was recorded as 6.33, 6.37, 6.36, 6.32, 6.37mm. Find unbiased and efficient estimates of (i) the population mean (ii) the population variance. 2. For the frequency distribution given below find the unbiased and efficient estimates for the mean and variance

Xi fi

60 02

61 00

62 15

63 29

64 25

65 12

66 10

67 04

68 03

3. The sample mean of a population was recorded as 184.67 with a probable error of 0.236. Find the 99.74% confidence limits for the true (population) mean. 4. The S.D of life time of 200 electric bulbs was computed to be 80 hours. Find (i) 95%& (ii) 99% confidence limits for the S.D of all such bulbs. 5. How large a sample should one take in order to be (i) 99% & (ii) 99.74 % confident that a population S.D will not differ from a sample S.D by more than 2%. 6. A die is thrown 9000 times and a draw of 3 or 4 observed 3240 times. Show that a die cannot be regarded as an unbiased one. Also find the limits between which the probability of throw of 3 or 4 lies at 99.74% level of confidence 7. A mean of a sample of size 900 is 3.4.Can the sample be reasonably as a true random sample for a large population with means 3.25 and S.D 1.61 8. Ten screws are chosen at random from a population and their lengths are found as (in mms) 63,63,66,67,68,69,70,70,71,71. On the basis of this information can we say that the mean length in the population is 66mm at 95%confidence level? 9. Find 99% confidence limits for the correlation coefficient, which is computed to be 0.60 from a sample of size 28

TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS: 1. An electrical firm manufactures light bulbs that have a length of life that is approximately normally distributed with a mean of 500 hours and a S.D of 40 hours. Test the hypothesis Ho: μ ≠ 800 of a random sample of 30 bulbs has an average life of 788 hours. Use 5 % level of significance. 2. Test the hypothesis that the average content of containers of a particular lubricant is 10 liters if the contents of the random sample of 10 containers are 10.2, 9.7, 10.1, 10.3, 10.1, 9.8, 9.9, 10.4, 10.3 & Use 0.01 level of significance and assume that the distribution of contents is normal.

B.E. Mechanical

4th Semester Course Information

PESIT

3. A random sample of size n1 = 2.5 taken from a normal population with a S.D σ1 = 5.2 has a mean x1 = 81. A second random sample of size n2 = 36 taken from a different normal population with a S.D σ2 = 3.4 has mean x2 = 76 . Test the 4. hypothesis that μ1 = μ2 against the alternative μ1 > μ2 at 5% level of significance. A large automobile manufacturing company is trying to decide whether to purchase brand A or B tyres for its new models. To help arrive at a decision, an experiment is conducted using 12 of each brand. The tyres are run until they wear out. The results are Brand A : x1 = 37,900kms, s1 = 5100kms Brand B : x 2 = 39,800kms, s 2 = 5900kms . Test the hypothesis at the 0.05 level of significance that there is no difference in the 2 brands of tyres. Assume the population to be approximately normally distributed. a) Tests of Hypothesis b) Type I and Type II errors find 5. Explain the following mean and variance of the Chi square distributions.

JOINT PROBABILITY AND MARKOVCHAINS (20 marks)

x ⎤ ⎡1 − x P= ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ y 1 − y⎦ ⎡1 / 2 1 / 4 1 / 4⎤ ⎥ 2. Find the unique fixed probability vector of the regular stochastic matrix ⎢ ⎢1 / 2 0 1 / 2⎥ ⎢ 1 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 0 o ⎤ ⎡ 1 (0 ) 3. If P= ⎢ ⎥ is the transition matrix with initial probability distribution p = (1 / 3,2 / 3) . 1 / 2 1 / 2 ⎣ ⎦

1. Show that the vector (y, x) is a fixed point of the stochastic matrix

Define and compute.(a) p (3)21 (b) p (3) (c) p (3)2 4. A salesman’s territory consists of three cities A, B &C. He never sells in the same city on consecutive days. If he sells in a city A, the next day he sells in city B. However if he sells in either B or C then the next day he is twice as likely to sell it in city A or in other city. Show that in the long run he sells 40% of the time in the city A, 45% of the time in city B and 15% of the time in the city C 5. A software engineer goes to his workplace everyday by motorbike or by car. He never goes by bike on 2 consecutive days but if he goes by car on a day then he is equally likely to go by car or by bike the next day. Find the transition probability matrix for the chain mode of transport he uses. If car is used on the first day of a week find the probability that after 4 day s (i) bike is used (ii) car is used. 6. A gambler’s luck follows a pattern. If he wins a game, the probability of winning the next game is 0.6. However if he loses a game, the probability of losing the next game is 0.7. There is an even chance that he wins the first game. If so, (a) Find the transition matrix M of the Markov process. (b) Find the probability that he wins the second game. (c) Find the probability that he wins the third game. (d) Find out how often, in the long run, he wins. Define stochastic ⎡0 3 4 ⎢ 1 matrix ⎢ 1 2 ⎢ 2 0 1 ⎢ ⎣ matrix. Find the unique fixed probability vector for the regular stochastic 1 ⎤ 4⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦

B.E. Mechanical

4th Semester Course Information

PESIT

APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS – ME 43

(2 hours / week for both IV ‘A’ and IV ‘B’ sections) Faculty :Dr.T.R.Seetharam Lecture Coverage syllabus 1–2 Topics To be Covered % of

Review of Basic Thermodynamics – Applications of I & II law for closed and open systems, Important property relations for ideal gases, properties of pure substances ; Use of tables & charts Gas Power Cycles: Introduction; Air – standard cycles for IC engines – analysis of Carnot,Otto,Diesel & Dual- combustion cycles ; Gas Turbine Cycles – Simple Brayton cycle, modified Brayton cycle for improvement in work output & thermal Efficiency, deviations of practical cycles from ideal cycle Vapour Power cycles- Carnot vapour power cycle and its limitations; Simple Rankine cycle; effects of pressure & temperature on performance of Rankine cycles; modifications of simple Rankine cycle to increase net work output & thermal efficiency – Reheat cycle, Regenerative cycle, types of feed water heaters used in regenerative cycles; Reheat-Regenerative cycle; practical vapour power cycles . Refrigeration – Definition of Refrigeration, refrigerated space, refrigerant Refrigeration cycle, refrigeration effect; units of refrigeration effect – Ton of refrigeration; COP ; Carnot refrigerator – analysis and its limitations; Air refrigeration plant – Bell-Coleman / Reversed Brayton cycle; practical air refrigeration cycles

Nil 08

3–6 7- 11

08

12 – 17

12 18 - 20

06

21 - 23 Vapour compression refrigeration cycle – analysis, effects of sub-cooling and superheating on the performance ; desirable properties of refrigerants for vapour compression cycle; steam jet refrigeration 06 24 - 25 Psychometrics – Thermodynamics of air-water vapour mixture – definitions Of moist air, dry air, specific humidity, relative humidity, dries – bulb and wet – bulb and dew point temperatures; adiabatic saturation temperature, saturated unsaturated air, enthalpy of moist air, construction and use of psychometric chart

04 26 - 28 Thermodynamic analysis of psychometric processes like heating, cooling Heating & humidification, cooling and de-humidification, adiabatic mixing Air streams, summer and winter air conditioning 08 B.E. Mechanical

4th Semester Course Information

Assume that the minimum temperature in the cycle to be 27 C.5.4 bar. The pressure (i) pressure and temperature at salient points of the rejected per unit mass of air. (ii) heat supplied and heat and thermal efficiency. 1.5 m3 .8. 4th Semester Course Information B. The maximum temperature in the cycle is limited to 1000 C.5.7. The minimum pressure in the cycle is 1 bar. a temperature of 27 C and a pressure of 1 bar at the beginning of the compression process. 1. Calculate the compression ratio and the thermal efficiency. (iv) power developed by the engine if there are 200 cycles per minute. the pressure was found to be 3. At the end of the compression process the pressure is 10 bar. (iii) net work output mean effective pressure. Problems on Otto Cycle 1. In an air standard Otto cycle the maximum and minimum temperatures are 1400 C and 15 C respectively. (iii) MEP. In an air standard Carnot cycle heat is transferred to the working fluid at 1110 k and heat is rejected at 273 K. (iii) power output form the cycle if the number of cycles per minute is 200. (ii) Thermal efficxiency of the cycle. (vi) maximum work output and (vii) thermal efficiency corresponding to maximum work output. the clearance volume is 50 cm3. A Carnot power cycle using air as the working emperature limits of 900 K and 300 K. Determine (i) the thermal efficiency and (ii) the m e p. substance. If the temperature at the commencement of the compression process is 27 C and the maximum temperature in the cycle is 1000 C determine (i) the compression ratio. (v) compression ratio corresponding to maximum work output.2. while the stroke volume is 350 cm3. Problems on Carnot Cycle PESIT 1. 1.6. and (iii) 1. Mechanical . it is found that the pressure inside the cylinder after 1/8th of the compression stroke is completed is 1.ME 43: Applied Thermodynamics Tutorial 1: Problems on Gas Power Cycles A. Find cycle. An engine working on Otto cycle has a volume of 0. When the temperature of the sink is reduced by 70 C.E. The volume of air at the beginning of isothermal expansion is 0. Determine (i) the compression ratio. The maximum pressure and temperature in a Carnot cycle is limited to 20 bar and 400 C. (iii) net work output per unit mass of air. The heat supplied is 800 kJ / kg. Heat added is 200 kJ /kg.5 bar. Also calculate the ratio of maximum pressure to the minimum pressure in the cycle. (ii) cycle efficiency. The heat transfer to the working fluid is 105 kJ / kg. Determine (i) percent clearance. works between the limits are 60 bar and 1 bar. 1. Find (i) the minimum temperature in the cycle.1 m3. the efficiency of the cycle is doubled. Determine the temperature of the source and the sink. B.(ii) air standard efficiency. After 5/8th of the compression stroke is completed. (iv) mep.4. The volumetric ratio of isentropic compression is 6 and the volumetric ratio of isothermal expansion is 1. A Carnot engine converts 1/6 of the heat input into work. (iii) net work output per unit mass of air and (iv) mep. From the p-v diagram of an engine working on Otto cycle.1. 1.3. (ii) air standard efficiency. In an engine working on Otto cycle.

35 = constant.5.1. If the temperature of air at entry to the engine is 27 C.2.7 kPa. find the thermal efficiency and the relative efficiency based on the air standard Otto cycle. corresponding to positions where 3/10th and 9/10th of the stroke have been executed. in terms of the compression ratio.32 = constant and the expansion process is according to the law pv1. Find the compression ratio if the compression and expansion indices are 1. and (iv) specific air consumption in kg/kWh. Determine (i) heat supplied per kg of air.6. Initial pressure and temperature of air are 1 bar and 27 C. and (ii) MEP 2. The maximum temperature in the cycle is 1000 K.4. D. the pressures at two points on the compression curve are 1.30 = constant. (iii) thermal efficiency.3.4 bar.5. The bore and stroke of the engine are 16 cm and 20 cm respectively. maximum cycle temperature ratio and the ratio of specific heats. The compression ratio is 7. The expansion curve is isentropic. 1.3 respectively. The cyclider bore is 250 mm and the stroke is 400 mm. PESIT 2. (ii) the net work output per unit mass of air. The initial pressure and temperature are 1 bar and 30 C. Assume the specific heats of air to be constant and γ = 1. determine the cycle efficiency and the relative efficiency based on the air standard cycle. The compression curve in an Otto cycle may be approximated by the equation pV1. At the beginning of the cycle the pressure and temperature of air are 0. The maximum and the compression pressures in a dual cycle are 64 bar and 32 bar respectively. Heat addition takes place up to 10 % of the stroke. Tutorial 2 : Gas Power Cycles (continued) C.98 bar and 300 K respectively. An air standard diesel cycle has a compression ratio of 18 and the heat transfer to the working fluid is 1800 kJ/kg. air is compressed isentropically from 26 C and 105 kPa to 3. Find (i) pressure and temperatures at salient point of the cycle. At the beginning of the compression process the pressure and temperatures are 1 bar and 300 K respectively. Derive an expression for the air standard efficiency of a cycle similar to Otto cycle except that the compression process is isothermal. (iv)MEP. The heat added at constant pressure is twice that at constant volume.6939 kJ/(kg – K). In an air standard diesel cycle. The compression ratio of an air standard diesel cycle is 14 and the cut-off ratio is 2.8.2. and (iv) temperature at the start of the heat rejection.38 and 1.7 bar and 13.10. The entropy change during heat rejection is − 0. 2.35. (iv) relative efficiency 2. Determine (i) air standard efficiency. In a diesel cycle. The compression curve is polytropic with index n = 1. (ii)MEP. Determine (i) thermal efficiency and (ii) MEP 2. If the cut-off ratio is 1. (iii) maximum temperature in the cycle.E.7. Problems on Diesel Cycles 2.65 bar.4. find B. Find (i) the pressure and temperature at salient points of the cycle. (ii) thermal efficiency. The compression and expansion ratio of an oil engine working on a dual cycle is 9 and 5 respectively. (iii) thermal efficiency.9. Assume that the compression process is according to the law pv1. An oil engine works on a diesel cycle with compression ratio of 20.1. Problems on Dual Combustion cycles 2. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information . respectively. The pressure in the cycle after 1/3rd of the compression stroke is completed is 1. If 60 % of the energy addition occurs at constant volume while 40 % occurs at constant pressure.

2. Hence show using T-s diagram that the diesel cycle is more efficient than the dual cycle under the same maximum and minimum temperatures as well as the same amount of heat addition.000 kJ/kg.10. and has the same total energy addition as for diesel cycle except that this energy is equally divided between the constant volume and constant pressure processes. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information .4 and cp = 1. The energy addition during combustion is 550 kJ /kg. (iv) thermal efficiency and specific air consumption in kg/(kWh).148 kJ/kg – K and γ = 1. Compare the efficiencies of the two cycles. The air at the start of the compression is at 101 kPa and 20 0C. (ii) the suction pressure. A dual combustion cycle operates between the same temperature limits. The maximum temperature in the cycle is 800 0C. If an ideal regenerator is incorporated in the cycle to heat the air coming out of the second stage compressor. The calorific value of the fuel used is 42.333 for products of combustion. compute(i)the temperatures at the salient points of the cycle. and the maximum pressure in the cycle is 53 bar.8. (iii) thermal efficiency of the plant. the pressure is 5600 kPa. There is a pressure drop of 2 % of the inlet pressure in the combustion chamber. The compression ratio for an engine working on dual cycle is 7. compute (i) the net work output from the cycle. compute (i) the isentropic efficiencies of the compressor and turbine and (ii) the overall cycle efficiency.Assuming that cp and γ remains same throughout the cycle and equal to those values for air determine (i) Net work output per unit mass of air.The compressor inlet conditions are 1 bar and 15 0C.000 kJ/kg. The cylinder diameter is 25 cm and the stroke is 30 cm.Also assume that for air cp = 1. At the end of the constant volume process. and (iv) thermal efficiency. Air enters both the stages of compression at 15 0C and enters both the stages of turbine at 900 0C.4.E. The conditions of air at compressor inlet are 1 bar and 17 0C. The pressure ratio is 10 and the maximum allowable temperature is 1350 K.1. If the compression ratio is 15. and (ii) thermal efficiency.(i) the compression ratio. In a dual cycle.34. 2.0 kg / s. 3. two thirds of the total energy added occurs at constant volume. An air standard Brayton cycle has air enter the compressor at 27 C and 100 kPa.9. Assume that the plant consumes 5.. the turbine efficiency is 90 % and the combustion efficiency is 95 %. (ii) Air-fuel ratio.The pressure ratio of an open gas turbine cycle is 6. and (v) power output form the plant for a mass flow rate of air of 1. (iii) work output from the cycle if the expansion index is 1. (ii) the thermal efficiency.2.2 kg/min of fuel supplied and the calorific value of the fuel used is 42. The compressor efficiency is 85 %. (iv) specific fuel combustion in kg / kWh. Determine (i) pressure and temperature at salient points of the cycle. (iii) net work output and work ratio. (iii) the amount of heat added. 2. A diesel engine works between the temperatures of 1250 C and 25 C. 3. (ii) compressor and turbine work per unit mass of air.005 kJ/kg – K and γ = 1. The isentropic discharge temperature for the air flowing out of a compressor is 195 0C while the actual temperature is 240 0C. Assume standard conditions of air at the start of the compression process. The overall pressure ratio of the cycle is 4. If heat is added at constant pressure during 3 percent of the stroke. Determine the thermal efficiency of a gas turbine cycle having two stages of compression and two stages of expansion. 3. If the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber is 75:1 and net power output is 650 kW. what would be the improvement in the B.3. and (iv) the mean effective pressure Tutorial 3: Gas Power Cycles (Gas Turbine Cycles) PESIT 3.

The intercooler in between the two stages of compression has an effectiveness of 83 %. The pressure drop through the regenerator and first combustion chamber is 0. Assuming that the intermediate pressure between the two stages of compression is same as that at the exit of the first stage expansion and equal to the geometric mean of the high and low pressures of the unit. Calculate the power output from the plant and the cycle efficiency. The intercoolig between the compressor stages is perfect and the working fluid is reheated to Tmax in between the stages of expansion. Mechanical . the gas temperature at the entry to both the turbines is the same. Assume that a regenerator with an effectiveness of o. There are two stages of compression with perfect intercooling and two stages of expansion. Pressure ratios in all the compressor stages are equal and expansion ratios in all the turbine stages are equal. The low and high pressure limits are 1. The pressure drop through the intercooler is negligible.In a gas turbine unit with two-stage compression and two-stage expansion.5. (ii)power output for an air flow rate of 1 kg/s. 1250 k.15 bar. Compressor pressure ratio Turbine inlet temperature Isentropic efficiency of compressor Isentropic efficiency of turbine Mechanical transmission efficiency Combustion efficiency Heat exchanger effectiveness Pressure losses :(i) Combustion chamber pressure (ii) Heat exchanger air side loss pressure (iii) Heat exchanger gas side loss 4.6. The work output from the first stage turbine is used to drive the two compressors. What would be the power output and cycle efficiency if an ideal regenerator is incorporated in the cycle? 3.If ‘t’ represents the maximum cycle temperature ratio in the cycle show that t = (r a) (m+n)/mn where r = ratio of maximum pressure to minimum pressure in the plant and a = (γ – 1) / γ. What would be the net work output and cycle efficiency if the compressor and expansion stages have efficiencies of 80 % each and the regenerator effectiveness is 75 % 3.04 bar PESIT 3. The air from the first stage turbine is reheated back to 1250 K and then expanded in the second stage. while the pressure drop through the second combustion chamber is 0.99 0.0 1100 K 0.80 is incorporated in the cycle.E. Assume the compressor efficiency is 0.80 2 % of compressor delivery 3 % of compressor delivery 0.1 bar.thermal efficiency of the cycle. 4th Semester Course Information B.7.98 0. calculate (i) the air fuel ratio if the calorific value of the fuel used is 38650 kJ/kg. Determine the specific work output.84 for both trhe stages and turbine efficiency is 0.8.02 bar and 7 bar. The maximum temperature permitted in the plant is Tmax.85 0. specific fuel consumption and cycle efficiency for a gas turbine power plant using a regenerator having the following specifications. 300 K and 5 bar. An ideal gas turbine power plant operates with ‘m’ number of stages of compression and ‘n’ number of stages of exp[ansion.87 0. A Brayton cycle works between 1 bar.89 for both the stages. The maximum and minimum temperatures in the cycle are 25 C and 1000 C. 3.05 bar. The exhaust pressure of the second turbine is 1.

Compressor efficiencies = 0.30. The pressure drop in the regenerator and the reactor reduces the air pressure at the turbine inlet to 31.bar. enthalpy of combustion of fuel = − 42. the air is heated in a nuclear reactor to 945 K.5 bar respectively. 3. (b) the total work required to drive the compressors and hence the output of turbine T1. Tutorial 4 : Vapour Power Cycles B. regenerator effectiveness = 0.95. After passing through a regenerator with an effectiveness of 0. After expansion to 5. the air passes through the regenerator and a cooler.80) again at 20 C.T3.30 T1 = 20 C. (e) the overall cycle thermal efficiency. PESIT 1 2 C1 3 C2 4 5 6 T1 CC1 T2 9 7 Inter cooler 10 Regenerator 8 CC2 Fig. T8 = 1050 K.5.88.88.98. the compressor inlet and exit conditions are 5 bar and 32. and (c) the heat transfer at the reactor and the net air flow rate if the net power output from the plant is 650 kW. Pressure ratio for each compressor = 3.T7 and T9. pressure ratio across the combustion chamber = p6 / p5 = 0. pressure ratio across the regenerator = p5 / p4 = 0.9.83. Pressure drop for gases leaving the turbine and flowing back through the regenerator = p10 / p9 = 0. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information .The states of the flowing gas at various points along the circuit are numbered.10. (b) the turbine and compressor power.25 bar in the turbine with an efficiency of 0. The schematic diagram of a gas turbine power plant is shown in Fig. Calculate (a) the cycle thermal efficiency.97.T5.000 kJ/kg.95.98. T6 = 1110 K. combustion efficiency = 0. (c) the air fuel ratios at the two combustion chambers. Intercooler effectiveness = 0. In a closed cycle gas turbine plant. Calculate (a) T2. turbine efficiencies = 0. P 4. and (f) the specific power output from the plant in kW/(kg – s) of air flow through the compressor. pressure drop across intake = p1 / p∞ = p∞ / p10 = 0.4 : Figure for problem P1.3.E. P1.97. before being ready to enter the compressor ( efficiency = 0.5. The following are the data referring to these states. pressure ratio across the intercooler = 0.T4.85.96.(d) the net work output from the plant.84.

7 bar respectively.04 bar.87.5. and the efficiencies of the high and low pressure stages are equal. In a reheat – regenerative steam power plant cycle.85 respectively.2 0C. B. In a reheat cycle. (ii) the overall thermal efficiency of the cycle.1.. the steam is reheated to 300 0C and then it expands in an intermediate stage to 1 bar. The steam expands in the turbine to a pressure of 0.The condensed steam from the low pressure heater is fed to the intake of the feed pump through a drain cooler.1 bar other things being the same. (iii) total power output from the three stages for a mass flow rate of 1.88.05 bar. (iii) the net work out put. (iv) the thermal efficiency.86. the steam expands in a low pressure turbine to 0.0 bar. In the pipe line between the boiler exit and turbine inlet. determine the overall cycle efficiency of the plant. The reheated steam expands in an intermediate stage and again emerges as dry saturated steam at a lower pressure. 4. 0. the boiler exit conditions are 25 bar and 300 C. to be reheated a second time to 280 C.87 and 0.90. (iii) specific steam consumption in kg/kWh. Assuming the feed water in each heater to be heated to the saturation temperature corresponding to the bled steam pressure for that heater and that the temperature of the condensate from the heaters at the exit of the drain cooler is 30. 4. (v) quality of steam entering the condenser and (vi) steam rate in kg/kWh. During expansion steam is bled at two stages where the pressures are 5 bar and 0.4. the condensed steam from the high pressure heater is being led to the steam space of the low pressure heater through a steam trap. What would be the corresponding values when the condenser pressure is decreased to 0.4. Steam expands in a turbine from 30 bar. the HP turbine receives steam at 20 bar and 300 0C. and (iv) net power output from the cycle for a mass flow rate of 1. Find the stream conditions at the turbine inlet. and 0. This is now reheated to 280 C without any pressure drop. Steam at 50 bar and 350 C expands to 12 bar in a high pressure stage and is dry saturated at the stage exit. The isentropic efficiency is 0. the efficiency of the turbine being 0. determine (i) the thermal energy input in the reheater. Steam for feed heating is to be extracted at 2. A fraction of the steam is now extracted for feed water heating. Finally. and (v) thermal efficiency of the cycle 4. there is an energy loss of 42 kJ/kg and a drop in pressure of 0. If the efficiencies of high. find: (i) efficiency of the high pressure stage. find the overall thermal efficiency of the plant and the specific steam consumption. After expansion to 7 bar. The steam is reheated to 300 C before it is expanded in the second turbine to 0. the actual enthalpy drop across the turbine and the final condition at discharge from the turbine.3.6. 4. Assuming the work output is the same for the high and intermediate stages. The heaters are of closed type.E. drawn on an h – s chart. 360 0C to a condenser pressure of 0. intermediate and low pressure stages are respectively 0.2.82 and the steam condition at any point in the turbine may be assumed to be on a straight line joining the initial and final states.7. Assumiing the high and low pressure turbines to have efficiencies of 0.2 bar. while the remaining steam expands in a LP turbine to a final pressure of 35 mm of mercury.0 kg/s. 4. 4. Steam conditions at the boiler exit are 10 bar and 300 C.08 bar. (iv) condition of steam entering the condenser. Determine (i) the pump work.05 bar. Determine the improvement in thermal efficiency which will result if one stage of regenerative feed heating is added to a simple Rankine cycle which has the boiler exit condition of 14 bar and 300 C and a condenser pressure of 0.09 bar at the turbine exit.0 kg/s. (ii) the turbine work. (ii) pressure of steam at exit of the intermediate stage. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information PESIT . the exit pressure of steam at the end of the first turbine is 5 bar. A simple Rankine cycle dry saturated steam at 20 bar enters the turbine and the condenser pressure is 1 bar.

On the basis of optimum design.For the high pressure heater. The condensed steam is cascaded back into the condenser through a steam trap. The low pressure feed water heater receives steam at 0.1.5 for cooling determine (a) the ratio of maximum temperature to minimum temperature in the cycle . There are two open feed water heaters. Determine (i) The COP of the cycle.2.82 and the condition of steam at any point in the turbine to be on a straight line on the h – s diagram connecting the steam states at inlet and exit. Find the mass flow rates of steam to each feed water heater per kg of steam generated in the boiler.08 bar. steam is extracted at 4 bar and heats the water from 89.(ii)heat rejected by air per unit mass in the intercooler.9. Isentropic efficiency of compressor = 85 %. 4. the air is cooled to 30 C before expanding it back to 1 bar. (b) refrigeration effect in tons and (c) COP if the cycle is used as a heat pump. Tutorial 5 : Refrigeration Cycles A. 5. determine (i) refrigeration effect per unit mass of air. Determine the power required for the actual plant for the same refrigeration effect 5. An ideal Rankine cycle with regenerative heating operates between the pressure limits of 10 MPa and 40 kPa.PESIT 4. In an actual plant using the above cycle. Assume the turbine efficiency to be 0. the compressor takes in air at 1 bar and 10 C. A reversed Carnot cycle is used for heating and cooling. Temperature of steam at turbine inlet is 500 0C. determine (i) the pump work to turbine work. and (iii) air circulation rate per ton of refrigeration. In a two-stage regenerative feed heating system. Draw a schematic for the system and indicate all the salient points on the Mollier diagram. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information . the air flow rate is 1700 kg / h and the relative COP of the actual plant is 0. and (iv) cycle thermal efficiency.E. (iii) the mass of steam bled out for each feed water heater per unit mass of steam generated in the boiler. An ideal air refrigeration cycle has the following specifications: Pressure of air at compressor inlet = 101 kPa.3 In an air refrigerating machine.5 0C. (ii) Power required to produce 1 ton of refrigeration.65.4:. After compression to 5. find the power output of the plant in kW. Temperature of air at turbine inlet = 27 C. and (ii) COP of the cycle. Isentropic efficiency of turbine = 85 %. (ii) the ratio of heat rejection to heat addition. Temperature of air at compressor inlet = − 6 C.5 bar. If the total steam generation is 18.5 0C to 89. Problems on Air Refrigeration cycles 5. Also determine the overall cycle efficiency of the plant and specific steam consumption. If the COP is 3. Pressure of air at compressor exit = 404 kPa. Temperature of air at turbine inlet = 27 C. Its condensate is pumped by a drain pump into the boiler feed line. 5. Temperature of air at compressor inlet = −6 C.An air refrigeration system is to be designed according to the following specifications: Pressure of air at compressor inlet = 101 kPa. Pressure of air at turbine inlet = 404 kPa.5 0C to 140 0C.9 bar and heats the feed water from 33. 320 0C and 0. The work supplied is 10 kW.000 kg/h. the steam conditions at the turbine inlet and exit are 20 bar.8. Assuming ideal conditions. Relative pressure drop in each heat exchanger = 3 % B.

9:-In a refrigerator using ammonia as the refrigerant. The vapour before entering the compressor is just dry and saturated.8 bar expand behind a piston to 1 bar. What will be the tonnage of the unit? B. After expansion.5 bar.10.5:-An air refrigerator unit uses a reciprocating compressor and a reciprocating expander. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information PESIT .The evaporator operates at − 30 0C and the condenser pressure is 1. The compressed air is cooled to a temperature which is 10 C above the ambient temperature of 30 C before being expanded isentropically in an expander.(a) Draw the schematic layout of the plant.8 bar and (d) the actual COP of the plant. assuming the clearance volume to be zero. 5.E. compute (i) the COP of the unit.35= constant.14.6:-In an ideal air refrigeration cycle. It is then expanded in a turbine and after expansion the air flows through the regenerative heat exchanger where it exchanges heat with the air coming from the intercooler. Then the cold air is passed through the cold chamber before it enters the compressor.8:-In a vapour compression refrigeration system using ammonia. (ii) the mass flow rate of ammonia. 5.25. 5.(b) obtain an expression for the COP of the cycle in terms of the pressure ratio of the compressor and the temperature ratio of the compressor inlet temperature to the turbine inlet temperature. (ii) Power required in kW. Determine (a) the power required to drive the unit if the mechanical efficiencies of the expander and the compressor are both equal to 85 %. (c) energy rejected by air to the ambient during the cooling process at 4.An air refrigeration unit takes in air from a cold chamber at 5 C and compresses it from 1 bar to 6. The index of compression is 1.28 = constant.4 MPa. 5. There is a cooling requirement of 50 tons. If there is no sub-cooling of the refrigerant after condensation. The vapour entering the condenser is 60 0C and the compressor piston sweeps a volume of 400 lit/minute.8 bar according to the law pv1. the evaporator temperature is − 15 0C and the condensation temperature is 30 0C. (b) capacity of the refrigerator in tons. the condensation and the evaporator temperatures are 330C and − 12 0C respectively.9:.Capacity of the plant = 1 ton Determine (a) COP of the cycle. Neglecting the clearance volume of the compressor and expander find the COP and the amount of air circulation per minute if 2000 kg of ice at 0 C is to be formed per day from water at 25 C. The expansion is according to the law pv1.Repeat part (i) and (ii) of the above problem if the refrigerant after condensation is found to be subcooled by 6 0C. Assume that the compression in the compressor occurs polytropically with a compression index of 1. Problems on Vapour Compression Refrigeration Cycles 5. (iii) the refrigeration effect in tons and (iv) the COP 5. (ii) the ideal power required to produce 1 ton of ice at 00C per day from water at 27 0C and (iii) the actual power required if the actual COP of the unit is 50 % of that of the Carnot COP working between the same evaporator and condensation temperature. If the refrigerant is RB. If the liquid emerging from the condenser is sub-cooled by 4 0C compute (i) the isentropic efficiency of the compressor. 5 kg / min of air at 30 C (ambient temperature is 25 C) and 4.7 :. the air enters a cold chamber where its temperature rises to 0 C and the it is compressed back to 4. An ideal vapour compression refrigerator uses a sub-cooling cum superheating heat exchanger where the refrigerant vapour coming from the evaporator in dry saturated state is superheated by 10 0C by absorbing heat from the saturated liquid refrigerant coming from the condenser. air after compression in the compressor is first cooled in an intercooler and then passed through a regenerative heat exchanger. and (iii) air circulation rate 5.

© Specific humidity. Assume the total pressure of air to be 101. determine (i) the mass flow rate of the refrigerant. Warm air is to be cooled by an adiabatic humidification process. Find the heat transfer rate required to warm 40 m3/min of air at 32 0C and 90 % RH to 50 0C. the air is at 45 0C and 30%RH.325 kPa. (iv) the power required to drive the compressor. (b) The final relative humidity. When the DBT is 35 0C. A sample of air has DBT of 35 0C and 25 0C respectively. (d) Enthalpy of air per kg of dry air. Moist air is at a temperature of 21 0C under a total pressure of 736mm of Hg. 6. (b) Humidity Ratio. Assuming the make up water is added at 15 0C determine the heat supplied during the process. Calculate: (a) Relative humidity. 6.4. Determine: (a) The amount of water added to the air. Find: (a) Partial pressure of water vapour. Determine the amount of water added per kg of dry air.325 kPa.325 kPa and 25 0C. Calculate: (a) Humidity ratio. The barometer reads 760mm of Hg. The final temperature is 30 0C . PESIT B. (b) Change in specific humidity. Moist air at 40 0C.7. (b) Humidity ratio. The use of steam tables only is permitted. Determine: (a) The final relative humidity.8. 6. (b) Relative humidity.12. 6.3. (e) Specific volume of air per kg of dry air.9. (ii) the COP. 6. © Dew point temperature. Relative humidity and Enthalpy of the sample. The dew point temperature is 15 0C. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information . (b) The dew point temperature. At the beginning of the process. and a relative humidity of 60% initially is cooled at a constant mixture pressure to 20 0C.E.101. Tutorial 6 : Air Conditioning 6.1. (iii) the degree of subcooling. © Specific humidity. Air at 15 0C and 80%RH is conditioned to 25 0C and 50%RH. 6.2. The pressure and temperature in a room are 101. 6. Solve the problem using steam tables only and compare the answers with those obtained using psychrometric chart. WBT is 23 0C and the barometer reads 750mm of Hg. (d) Density. If the relative humidity is 40% determine: (a) Saturation pressure of water vapour at the dry bulb temperature. 6. Air is to be conditioned from a DBT of 40 0C and a RH of 50% to a final DBT of 200C and a final RH of 40% by a dehumidification process followed by a reheat process.6. (d) Degree of saturation. (e) Enthalpy of atmospheric air. Relative humidity and Enthalpy if the air were adiabatically saturated.5.

For the mixed stream calculate: (a) Specific Humidity. 6.11.6 m3/min of a mixture of recirculated room air and outdoor air enters a cooling coil at 31 0C DBT and 18.Assume that the entire process is carried out at a constant pressure of 101. Krishna / Ramachandra L.5 0C WBT. Class # Chapter title/ Reference Literature Chapter : 1. The effective surface temperature of the coil is 4.13. specific weight. (d) Specific Volume. 6. specific gravity.0 properties of fluids T1: Page : 3-17 T2 : Page : 13.47 m3/s and heating required in kW. The surface area of the coil is designed so as to give 12. It is meant to supply conditioned air at 20˚ C Dry bulb temperature and 66% RH. the Temperature of the conditioned air and heat transfer per rate for the following humidifying process. 20˚ C and 30% RH. capillarity Reference Cumulativ Chapter e 1-2 3 12% 12% B.325 kPa. 39. PESIT 6. (c) Refrigeration in tons for an air flow rate of 0. The appended figure shows the air condition in a central air conditioning plant.005 kg of water vapor / kg of dry air as it enters an insulated room with a flow rate of 60 m3 / min. Assuming that the humidifying water is at 12˚ C. The return air is 300 kg / min. While the make up air is 20 kg / min taken from atmosphere. (b)Temperature.36 R1 : Page : 1-31 % of portions covered Topic to be Covered Introduction to fluid mechanics.E. (b) The temperature of air leaving the dehumidifier. Determine the dry and wet bulb temperatures of air leaving the coil and the coil bypass factor. Determine RH.4 0C. (b) The amount of the humidification per hour. flows at a rate of 15 m3/min and mixes adiabatically with another stream of air at 35˚ C and 80% RH at 20 m3/min.Mass density. properites of fluids . (c) Relative Humidity. Surface tension. specific volume.12.A Stream of air at atmospheric pressure. (c ) The heating coil capacity and (d) The COP of the refrigeration from unit. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information . 6.10. Atmospheric air at 12˚ C and 25 % RH is to be conditioned to a humidity ratio of 0. Find: (a) The heat transfer at the cooling coil. provided with a refrigeration circuit.5 kW of refrigeration with the given entering state of air. FLUID MECHANICS – ME 45 Faculty : V. (a) Constant Dry Bulb Temperature (b) Constant Relative Humidity (c) Adiabatic evaporative process. Determine: (a) The amount of water to be removed from air.

Euler's equation of motion R1:Page # : 233-240 along stream line.Derivation from R8:Page # : 132. Numercial problems Fluids flow concepts. R4:Page # : 43-85 R5:Page # : 104-138 Buoyancy and floatation.0 Dimensional analysis T1:Page # : 156-173 T2:Page # : 138. R5 : Page : 1-29 Viscosity and Newton's law of R8 : Page : 1-25 viscosity. velocity potential function for 2D flow. # : 502-549 R4:Page # : 464-478 R5:Page # : 230-258 R8:Page # : 245-281 Raleigh's method. manometers: Simple and Differential Chapter : 2. Types of fluid flow. Buckingham pi theorem. R1:Page # : 31-134 Numerical problems. R4:Page # : 171-189 Page # : 212. Relationship between stream function and velocity potential function. 301 R1:Page Dimensional homogenity.Dimensions of physical quantites. Numerical problems 12% 40% 11-12 16% 28% 13-14 15-16 17-19 20-21 Chapter # : 3.0 Fluid kinematics T1:Page# : 320-334 T2:Page# : 204-218 R1:Page# : 139-182 R4:Page# : 104-141 R5:Page# : 31-57 R8:Page# : 36-44 22-23 Chapter # : 4.E. Euler's equation and Bernoulli's equation for real fluids. Stream function for 2D flow. Stream line.220 R5:Page # : 76-92 Bernoulli's Priniciple . Similitude. Chapter # : 5. Flow net. Lines of flow path line. General energy and Momentum T2:Page # : 250-276 equation. Numerical fluid statics Problems T1:Page # : 23-61 Hydrostatic forces and location of T2:Page # : 142-144 hydrostatic forces on submerged & Page # : 59-77 plane surfaces and curved surfaces. Determination of metacentric height by experimental and analytical methods. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information . Numerical problems. Important dimensionless numbers. R8:Page # : 51-80 Stability of floating bodies.fundamentals. Numerical Problems. Stream tube Continuity equation in cartesian coordinates.PESIT 4-5 6 7-8 9-10 R4 : Page : 9-36 Bulk Modulus.0 Fliud Dyanmics 8% 48% 24-25 26-27 Introduction-Forces acting on a fluid T1:Page # : 85-110 mass. Streak line. Metacentre. Pascal's law of pressure. Compressibility. Classification of fluids & regimes of flow Pressure variation in a static fluid.0 U tube manometers. 172 12% 60% 28-29 B.

0 Sonic velocity. venturimeter. R5:Page # : 406 442 Chapter # : 10. speed of sound wave.0 Fluid flow measurements T1:Page # : 337357 T2:Page # : 602-623 R1:Page # : 241-260 R4:Page : 223.E. R8:Page # : 511-570 8% 76% 36-38 39-40 41-42 8% 84% 43-44 8% 92% 45-46 47-48 8% 100% 49-50 Literature Book Type Text Book Code T1 Title and Author Fliud Mechanics by Streeter Edition 7th B.PESIT Chapter # : 6. Chapter # : 7. skin friction & form drag. Orifice meter. bodies T1:Page # : 210-222 T2:Page # : 9971000 R1:Page # :552-556 and Page Calculation of laminar boundary layers thickness. numerical R1:Page # :347-366 problems Chapter # : 9.0 Flow past immersed Lift & Drag. T1:Page # : 182-199 T2:Page # : 391-417 Darcy's & Chezy's equation.minor loss Flow through pipes in pipe flow. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information . Mach number. Energy line & Hydraulic gradient line.Poisuille's Flow equation T1:Page # : 410-417 T2:Page # : 443-449 R1:Page # :420-450 Laminar flow between parallel R4:Page # : 318-416 stationary plates.0 Friction loss in pipe flow . V-notch. laminar flow through pipes . compressible flow T1:Page # : 262-271 R1:Page # : 636-642 R4:Page # : 442-460 R5:Page # : 535-552 Numerical problems. Numerical problems. Numerical problems R5:Page # : 362-378 R8:Page # : 598-602 Chapter # : 8. 8% 68% 34-35 Viscous flow. Reynolds number.246 R5:Page # :155 -171 30-33 Application of Bernoulli's equation. Boundary layer concept. Pitot tube.Hagen .0 Laminar and Viscous critical Reynolds number. displacement & momentum # :591-624 R4:Page # : 347-377 thickness. Introduction to Isentropic flow.

8. Calculate the power lost in the bearing for a sleeve length of 90 mm. 7.5 mm.R.E.PESIT T2 Reference Book Fliud Mechanics and Hydraulics by Jagadishlal Dr.9 poise. 9. (6) 4.1 m2 area is pulled at 400mm/s relative to another plate located at 0. (3) 2. 1. Give its SI unit? (4) 3.Gasiosek and John. Pressure (i) (ii) Specific mass (iii) Specific Weight Relative density (iv) (v) Kinematic Viscosity Surface tension (vi) (vii) Capillarity (2 marks each) What do you understand by the term capillarity? (2) Mention the fluids in which this fluid phenomenon is observed (2) Derive an expression for the capillary rise.A. (6) A flat plate 0. and rotates at 190 rpm. What is the power lost in friction.Garde and Dr. The shaft is of diameter 0.J.L. Find the force and power required to maintain this velocity. R1 R2 R3 R4 A Text Book of fluid Mechanics and Hydralics by Dr. Hence define Absolute viscosity. if the shaft revolves at 240 rpm? Find also the torque developed. (6) Explain the terms Compressibility and Bulk Modulus of Elasticity.J. * Define the following fluid properties giving their SI units.K. Distinguish between Real and Ideal fluids. The oil film enclosed between the shaft and the bearing has a viscosity of 0. (6) The dynamic viscosity of an oil used for lubrication between a shaft and sleeve is 6. the fluid separating the two being water with μ = 1 centi-Poise. 6. * State Newton’s law of viscosity.Douglas. Mechanical .15 mm from it. Bansal Fluid Mechanics by Agarwal Fluid Mechanics by Binder Engineering Fluid Mechanics by K.4 m. The thickness of the oil film is 1.0 poise. Janul and M.R. (2) 4th Semester Course Information B.Mirajgaoker Introduction to fluid Mechanics and Machinery by Som and Biwas Fluid Mechanics by John F..Kumar R5 R6 R7 R8 Engineering Fluid Mechanics by Dr. A standard bearing 500 mm long and 151 mm in diameter encases a shaft of 150mm outer dia.Swaffied Fluid Mechanics by White 2nd 4th 5th QUESTION BANK Chapter I: Properties of Fluids 5. * Define a fluid.A.

6 poise. of a certain liquid are 5. μ =8.075 N / m and α = 600. Calculate the absolute viscosity of the fluid in i) Ns/m2 ii)poise. The surface tension of water drop let in contact with air at 200 . If the equation of velocity distribution of a fluid over a plate is given by v = 2y-y2 in which ‘v’ is the velocity n m/s at a distance ‘y’ measured in meters above the plate. (6) 17.216s-1. Determine the height of water which will rise in the tube. The tube is held vertically and is partially filled with liquid of surface tension 0. (6) 16. Also determine the shear stress at these points if the absolute viscosity. where σ = Surface tension. (c) Rising of a ship as it sails fresh water to sea water.05 N/m and zero contact angle. *Differentiate between (a) Density and relative Density (b) Absolute viscosity and Kinematics Viscosity (c) Absolute pressure and Gauge pressure (d) Simple manometer and differential manometer. *Give technical reason for (a) Viscosity of liquids decreases on heating whereas viscosity of gases increases on heating (b) Water will wet clean glass but mercury will not. * Determine the bulk modulus of elasticity of a liquid if the pressure of the liquid is increased form 70N/ cm2 to 130n/cm2.0196 N / cm2. 20.* With the help of a neat plot ( stress vs. 19. Calculate the diameter of the droplet.* A bubble of air is released at a depth of 1m in tank of water. * Give technical reasons for the following : (a) certain insects are able to walk on the surface of water.15%. (6) 12. * Distinguish between Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids. 18. What will be the % age increase in the value of height if the dia of the glass tube is 2mm. rate of strain) show the characteristics B. Prove that the relationship between surface tension and pressure inside a droplet in excess of inside pressure is given by P=4 σ/d. (4) 11. If the diameter of the bubble at the time of release is 0. A Capillary tube having an inside dia of 4mm is dipped in water at atmospheric temperature of 200 C.2 N/m2 and the velocity gradient is 0. 21.* State Newton’s law of viscosity. ( 4) 13. Calculate the mass density of the liquid if the estimated difference in the level of two menisci is 12. The Kinematic viscosity and S. what is the velocity gradient at the boundary and at 75 mm from it. the shear stress in 0. PESIT (4) 22. If the mass density is 959. (b) Spherical shape of drop a drop of a liquid. (d) A needle heavier than water can float if it is placed lengthwise on the surface of water.071 N / m. * Explain how certain insects are able to walk on the surface of water. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information . calculate the gauge pressure inside the bubble( Surface tension for the air water interface is 0. find the kinematic viscosity of the oil. The pressure inside the droplet of water is 0. 15. d = dia of droplet.42 kg/m3. * What are the characteristics of the fluid properties to which the following phenomena are attributed? (a) Rise of sap (liquid) in a tree. (4) 24.E. (2) 21.58 Stokes and 2 respectively. Take surface tension of water as 0. * At a certain point in castor oil film.G. (b) Viscosity of liquids decreses on heating whereas that of gases increases.073 N/m).5mm. greater than the outside pressure. A U-tube is made up of two capillaries of bore 1mm and 2mm respectively. (4) (4) 14.10. The volume of the liquid decreases by 0. (2+6) 23.2mm. by means of a graph. is 0.

* Show that for a vertical Lamina immersed in a liquid. (6) (2) 17.75 (ii) m of Hg of SG 13.12m. What is the corresponding difference of pressure in N/m2. If the difference of levels of water columns in the two limbs is equal to 0. (8) 3. (4) 15.8.behaviour for the following materials. Atmospheric pressure measured at a place showed 700 mm of Hg. (a) Elastic solid (b) Ideal fluid (c) Newtonian fluid (d) Ideal plastic (e) dilatant Fluid (f) Pseudo plastic fluid. which has the form of an inverted ‘U’ tube. What is the absolute pressure of that fluid in terms of the following units.6 . Find the reading shown by the differential Hg gauge.6 ( 2+ 4) 2. 19. Find the force exerted on the gate and the position of center of Pressure. (6) 18. *Petrol of SG 0. Prove BM = I / V .8 flows upwards though a vertical pipe. (4) (2) 10. (6) 23. the center of Pressure always lies below the centroid. *Explain the method of determining the metacentric height of a floating body experimentally. * (a) Distinguish between Pressure head and Pressure intensity (b) Convert a Pressure head of 15m of water to (i) m of oil of SG 0. The space above the water in the two limbs of the manometer is filled with toluene of SG 0. (4) 21. (6) 13. (i)N/m2 (ii) m of H2O. * Define the terms Gauge Pressure. Give examples. A triangular gate which has a base of 1. * What are the conditions of equilibrium of a floating body . A and B are two points in the pipe. The pressure of a fluid is recorded as 60mm of Hg vacuum. If the difference of pr. * Derive an expression for the total pressure and center of pressure for an inclined surface immersed in a liquid. * Define Metacentre and metacentric height . What is the atmospheric pr. A flat angular ring of 30m ext. (6) 14. B being 300 mm higher than A.56. Distinguish between a simple and differential manometer. (6) 7. intensity in N/m2 and in metres of H2o if the SG of Hg is 13.55 has an outer diameter of 0. Specific Gravity of Wood is 0. (4) 4.5m and an altitude of 2m lies in a vertical plane. between A and B is 0.18 N/mm2.Is the equilibrium stable ? Locate the metacentre with reference to water surface. Give its applications. * With usual notations. A hollow cylinder of specific gravity 0. dia and 15 m int. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information . Two pressure points in a water pipe are connected to a manometer. State and prove Pascal’s Law.6m and an inner diameter of 0. (6) 22. It is required to float in oil of specific gravity B.Explain with reference to the metacentric height . dia is immersed in water such that its top most edge is 1m below and the lower most edge is 2m below the free surface of water obtain the location of center of pressure of the ring and the total pressure. (6) Chapter II: Fluid Statics PESIT 1. (8) 9. (6) 16.875. Find the thrust on the surface and the depth of center of pressure. The vertex of the gate is 1m below the surface of a tank which contains oil of SG 0. A wooden cylinder of diameter “d” and length 2d floats in water with its axis vertical . Show that the pressure at a point depends on the head of liquid above it in a static liquid 8. * Derive an expression for hydrostatic force on an inclined submerged plane surface and depth of centre of pressure. 6. A trapezoidal plate having its parallel sides equal to 2a and a at distance H apart is immersed vertically in a liquid with 2 a side uppermost and at a distance H below the surface of the liquid. (6) 12.E. (6) 20. * Define the terms Total Pressure and Center of Pressure 11. Connections are led from A and B to a ‘U’ tube containing Hg. (3) (3) 5. Indicate their relative positions on a chart. Vacuum Pressure and absolute Pressure. * Explain with sketches the stability of a submerged body.3m and has its ends open.

If the diameter of the cylinder is ‘d’ and length ‘l’. A weight of 294.8 ρw H1 ρ3=0. A wooden cylinder of specific gravity 0. 27.E. Find the metacentric height and position of C. (6) 31.G of the ship .0.05 H2 ρw=1000kg/ m3 32. the centre of buoyancy is 2. in the Figure below.The ship is tilted through 5 . Find the L / D ratio for the cylinder to float with its longitudinal axis vertical. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information . *Determine the pressure difference Pa-Pb for the system shown below.3kN is moved across the deck through a distance of 6.6 and diameter D and length L is required to float in oil of specific gravity 0. indicating the pressure on the faces. (8) 24.5m side and hinged in the middle as Shown. (3) (2) 25. What is the significance of Metacentric height .8. *Derive the criterion for stability of a floating body. The moment of inertia of ship at water surface is 75% moment of inertia of the circumscribing rectangle. The gate is a square of 0. required to keep the gate closed. (8) 29. show that ‘l’ cannot exceed 0. For the element derive the hydrostatic equation in the form p=γ h.* Determine the minimum force F. A ship 60m long and 12m broad has a displaced water of 19620kN. 26. The centre of the gate is 1m below the water surface.5m .2m H2=0.9.6 is required to float in an oil of specific gravity 0. where ‘p’ is the pressure intensity at a depth ‘h’ from a liquid surface of specific weight ‘γ’.Find also the depth to which it will sink . Take specific weight of sea-water as (6) 10104N/m3 .6 Diameter D H1=0. *A wooden cylinder having a specific gravity of 0.75m below waterline.84 Calculate the maximum height of the cylinder so that it shall be stable when floating with its axis vertical . (6) 28. Explain the terms buoyancy and centre of buoyancy . *Draw a rectangle parallelopied element of a fluid at rest. (4) PESIT Diameter Diameter D ρ1=. (10) 30.817d for the cylinder to float with its longitudinal axis vertical. B.

H is 5m and the width of the tank. Explain in brief Lagrangian method and Eulerian method of studying fluid in motion. R is 2m.5m 33. What do you understand by the term continuity equation. * Define the terms : 1)Velocity potential 2) Stream function (4) 7. The tank is open at the top.E. 4. the level of water in the tank. iv) Laminar and turbulent flow. * Obtain an expression for the continuity equation for a three dimensional flow. (6) 6. The radius of the cylinder. * Define the following : (i) Path line (ii) Streak line (iii) Stream line (iv) Stream tube (8) 5.* calculate the horizontal and vertical forces. * Distinguish between i) Steady flow and unsteady flow ii) Uniform flow and non uniform flow iii) Compressible and incompressible flow.5 H D Hing F Wate H=1m D=0.PESIT Gate ( 0. 3. (8) H=5m W=5m R=2m H W R Chapter III: Fluid Kinematics 1. due to the gauge pressure of water On the cylinder portion of the tank shown below.5*0. W is 5m. Determine whether the continuity equation is satisfied by the following velocity components for incompressible fluid: B. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information . (8) (4) 2.

Vo and D as repeating variable find all the revelant π groups.m) Where. * Compare and contrast the following: (a) Path line vs.1) at t=1s. * The rate of discharge Q of a centrifugal pump is dependent upon density ρ of the fluid. *Assuming that the rate of discharge Q of a hydraulic machine is dependent upon the mass density ‘ρ’ and viscosity μ.u = x3 . * By Buckingham’s π theorem. (8) (b) Experiments are to be conducted on a model ball that is twice as large as the actual golf ball. (8) 9. the pressure P & the viscosity of fluid μ. 2. mass density. streak line.x3 /3. (8) 11. The fluid in both cases is air at STP. Obtain an expression for the stream function. (3) 4.E. μ is the viscosity of air and m is the mass of the ball. Derive an expression for Q by using Buckingham's π theorem. show using Buckingham’s π theorem that it can be represented by Q= ND3 φ [9H/N2D2. (4) 8. (2) 12. is known to be a function of the following: L=ƒ (Vo. dynamic viscosity. (4) 10. ρ is the density of air ω is the angular speed of the ball.z3 . w = -3 x2 z . D is the diameter of the orifice . [i] Euler's Number [ii] Weber Number 7.1. (2) 5. 11.ω. What is similitude.1). * What you mean by upper critical and Lower Critical Reynolds number. diameter of rotor & discharge. rotating at speed N. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information . the diameter of the impeller D. 3D flow. The velocity components in a two dimensional flow field for an incompressible fluid are as follows : u = y3 / 3 + 2 x .y3 . Using Buckingham's π. For dynamic similarity find the ratio of the initial velocity of the model to that of the actual ball.*The distance traveled by a golf ball in still air.theorem.z2 x . (a)using ρ. pump speed N (rpm). (6) 9. (4) Chapter IV: Dimensional Analysis PESIT (3) 1. (2) (2) (b) 1D vs.μ. Express η in terms of dimensionless parameters.* Given V= (xy+2zt)I+(2y2+xyt)J+(12xy)k where x. determine ax the x component of the acceleration of the fluid particle at (1. * Briefly explain [a] Geometric Similarity [b] Kinematic Similarity [c] Dynamic Similarity (3) 3. (6) 8. Express the pressure drop in terms of dimensionless parameters. The drop in pressure due to an obstruction in a pipe depends on the pipe diameter. μ / ς VH ® where H is head causing the flow. v =y3 . angular velocity. μ / . D is the diameter of the ball ‘d’ is the diameter of the dimples.D. average velocity. * State Buckingham’s π theorem. (2) B. L . ς is the mass density and g is the acceleration due to gravity.* The stream function for 2D incompressible flow is given by: ψ= xy3+x2y (a) Find φ if it exists.2 y .(10) 10. μ is the viscosity .3 y2 z + z3/ 3. Define the following non-dimensional numbers.x2 y and v = x y2 . Viscosity of fluid and the characteristic length of obstruction. (6) 6. show that the velocity through a circular orifice is given by V = √ 2 g H X Φ 〈 D / H . (4) (b) What is the equation of the steam line passing through (1. ν/ND2] H being the head and ν the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. in a fluid of viscosity μ and density ρ in a turbulent flow.d. Vo is the initial velocity of the ball.y and z are in metres and t in seconds. 12. Write a note on Model studies. The efficiency η of a fan depends on density. obtain an expression for the frictional torque T of a disc of diameter D.

0.9.62kN/m3.6m.G 0. traveled by the jet and head H over the orifice .98. while the datum head at A and B are 25m and 28m. For the Euler’s equation of motion. which forces are taken into consideration?.39m from vena-contracta. Distinguish between venturimeter and orifice meter.8 changes in diameter from 300mm at position A to 500mm diameter at position B which is 5m higher. Derive an expression for the velocity for the same pitot's tube. calculate the total energy at point A in m of oil. * Explain with a neat sketch the working of pitot's tube with inverted U tube differential manometer. A pipe of diameter 0. * Draw neat sketches of venturimeter and orifice meter labeling all the main parts. In order to determine experimentally the co-efficients of contraction. (2) 2. Mention the devices that work on the above principle. If it discharges 0. (4) 3. (3) 9. Write Bernoulli’s equation of motion. determine Cc. (6) 5. * Derive Euler's equation along a streamline and reduce it to Bernoulli's equation.0385 m3/ s. Name the different forces present in a fluid flow. Clearly explain the meaning of the terms in it. 5. The pressure at inlet is 150KN/m2 and vacuum pressure at the throat is 400mm of Hg. (6) 6.25 diameter pipe carries an oil of SG 0. H= 3. Derive an expression for the discharge through a venturimeter. What do you understand by Vena-Contracta. Cv and Cd. A horizontal venturimeter with a inlet diameter 200mm and throat diameter 100mm is used to measure the flow of water.*Derive Bernoulli’s equation using an infinitesimal stream tube. State the assumptions made. Q=0. vertical distance y. Find the discharge of water through the meter. A pipe line carrying oil of S. Obtain an expression for the coefficient of velocity for a sharp edged orifice located in the side of a tank in terms of horizontal distance x. Calculate the discharge of the oil. (10) (2) 6. Take Cd of venturimeter as 0. Mechanical 4 Semester Course Information .* A 0. A jet of water issuing from a 25mm dia orifice in the side of a tank drops 0. * Mention the advantages of V-notch over rectangular notch. Take Cd= 0. * State and prove Bernoulli’s theorem making clearly the assumption’s made. (3) th B. Distinguish between orifices and notches. 7. * Derive an expression for discharge over a V-notch.42mm.3m carries water at a velocity of 20m/s.E.G. (6) Chapter VI: Fluid flow measurements 1. Cv and Cd.PESIT Chapter V: Fluid dynamics 1. (2) (4) 13. How are they related. (6) 10. the following data were collected. (3) 2. determine the loss of head and direction of flow. What is a venturimeter. Clearly state all the assumptions made. Obtain Cc. If the point A is 3.98. If the pressures at A and B are 200KN/m2 and 152KN/m2 respectively and the discharge is 150l/s. (6) (8) 4. 8. (8) 4. Define the hydraulic co-efficients of an orifice. 14. Dia of jet at vena-contracta =78.5m above the datum line.07m. A 30 mm X 15 mm venturimeter is provided in a vertical pipeline carrying oil of S. (8) (2) 7. Find the loss of head between A and B. (8) 8. (6) 11.8 at the rate of 120 l/s and the pressure at a point A is 19. velocity and discharge for a 100mm dia sharp orifice in the side of a tank .00131m3/s under a head of 1. (4) 12. The pressure at the points A and B are given as 350KN/m2 and 300 KN/m2 respectively.48m in a horizontal distance of 1. The differential U-tube manometer shows a gauge deflection of 25 cm. (4) 3. 9.

What is a compound pipe. Write the expressions for the loss of head due to the following in pipes: Entrance to the pipe. Two reservoirs are connected by three pipes laid in parallel. *Define Reynolds' Number. (4) 16. sudden contraction.E.6 litres 17.5m. the flow is collected in a vertical cylindrical tank 0. Determine the flow through the pipe in litres / min if f = 0. 4.407 H5/2. (8) Chapter-VII: Flow through pipes & Chapter-VIII: Laminar & Viscous Flow PESIT 1. sudden expansion. Two reservoirs are connected by a pipe 2250m long and 0. Write short notes on Water hammer.15. What is its physical significance? (4) 2.2m. (10) 5.65m in 16. The mass density of the liquid is 900kg/m3. Determine the discharge through the pipe if f = 0. * Distinguish between Laminar and Turbulent flow.*The inlet and throat diameters of a vertically mounted venturimeter are 300mm and 100mm respectively. when the head over the notch is 0. (4) 14.9m dia.225m in diameter the difference in water levels being 7. (4) 7. (5) 6.* Derive the head vs. Assuming f to be the same for all pipes. Derive an expression for the equivalent size of a compound pipe.0075. A horizontal pipe 50mm diameter carrying glycerine has shear stress at the pipe boundary as 196. based on the following points (a) Cost and ease of manufacture (b) Accuracy (c) Energy loss (d) Sensitivity ( output manometer deflection per unit flow rate) (4) 19. Determine the Cd of the notch. In an experiment on a 900 V-notch . determine the discharge through each of the larger pipes if the smallest pipe is (6) discharging 1m3/s. Also find the % increase in the discharge if for the last 600m a second pipe of the same diameter is laid alongside the first.7m3/s and such that head the head shall be 75mm for a discharge of 5. (6) 3. discharge relation equation for a V notch. Derive an expression for the loss of head due to friction for the laminar flow between two parallel plates. mean velocity and Reynolds' number. The throat is below the inlet at a distance of 100mm.5m. The pressure intensity at the inlet is 140 kPa while at the throat is 80kPa. Assume that 2% of the differential head is lost between the inlet and the throat. *Compare a Venturimeter and an orifice plate.s N/m2. (3) 13. (6) 9. derive Darcy’s equation for the head loss. * For turbulent flow through a pipe. It’s Cd is same as that of a similar (in material and sharpness of edges only) right angled V-notch for which Q=1. Pipe fittings. Mechanical 4 Semester Course Information . Exit from the pipe. (6) 20. Two reservoirs are connected by a pipe 2250m long and 0. * What are minor and major losses? Derive an expression to evaluate the loss of head due to sudden contraction. (8) 11. * Explain the terms (i) Critical Reynolds number Critical velocity (ii) (iii) Transition Zone (6) th B. their diameters being d.03. 2d & 3d respectively and they are of the same length l. It is found that the depth of water in the tank increases by 0. Find the depth and top width of a V-notch capable of discharging a maximum 0. (6) 12. State all the assumption made. Calculate the flow rate. (6) 8. / s.225m in diameter the difference in water levels being 7.8s. (6) 18. For the flow of fluid through a circular pipe show that the friction factor f = 16/Re. Determine the pressure gradient. (6) 10.

(6) 20. Derive an expression for velocity of sound in a fluid in terms of bulk modulus. (8) B. 17.2 m/s. The viscosity of water at 15o C is given as 0. What is its significance. laminar.065 N/m2 and temperature .15. Derive an expression for the compressible flow of a fluid for (i) Isothermal process (ii) Adiabatic process. K = 1. find the velocity of projectile.*Starting from an appropriate control volume derive the expression for the velocity distribution for steady.*In the Chezy equation V=C(RS)1/2. in terms of the inlet dynamic pressure ½ ρV12 Clearly state all the assumption made. Define Mach No. explain the physical meaning of the terms C. Find the velocity of bullet in standard air if the Mach angle is 30o. (8) 5. (8) 18. Assume temperature of air as 15o C.* Derive the Darcy Weisbach equation for the loss of head due to friction in a pipe 16. if the average velocity is 0. (4) 3.E. R = 287 J / Kg K. The value is kept half open and the entry loss into the pipe is negligible PESIT Ho smooth pipe Rough pipe Vexit Value kept half Chapter X: Introduction to compressible flow & Chapter IX: Flow past immersed bodies 1.01 poise.6 mm apart. What should be the dia of the supply pipe.*For the system shown below qualitatively sketch the hydraulic and energy grade lines. The loss of head due to friction in the pipe line is 12m.4. fully developed flow of an incompressible fluid in a circular pipe. (2) 19. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information .*What are hydraulic gradient and total energy lines. Determine the maximum velocity . the pressure loss per unit length. Water at 15o C flows between two parallel plates at a distance of 1. show that the friction factor ƒ=2gDhf/LV2 is 64/Re for this flow. Take R = 287. 4. (4) 2.*Derive the expression for the energy loss due to a sudden expansion in a pipe from area A1 to area A2(>A1). (10) Further. If the Mach angle is 300C.4 for air.70C. Take Chezy’s constant as 45. A projectile travels in air of pressure 0. Shear stress at the plates. (4) 6.*Water is supplied to a town having a population of 1 lakh from a reservoir 6 km away from the town and it is stipulated that half of the daily supply of 150 litres per head should be delivered in 8 hours. 21.14 J/ kg o K and k = 1.R and S.

Assuming R = 1. (a) How long after it flies directly overhead will the sonic boom be heard? R for air is 287 J/kg/K and the ratio of specific heats. assuming that. The density and pressure at that altitude are 0.15 respectively.(10) 18. if the shape of the Velocity profile remains the same and δ remains at 1cm but U∝ is doubled. the air is isentropically brought to rest at the Nose.1.*The velocity distribution in a boundary-layer is given by: u=U∝sin(π/2y/δ) 0≤y≤δ u=U∝ y≥δ (a) Determine the displacement and momentum thickness if δ=cm and U∝=10m/s (b) What would happen to the answer of part (a) above.8 Mach at an altitude of 20Km above the ground How far ahead the plane will be when one hears the sonic boom on the Ground? (8) 19.6kg/m3 respectively.7. (4) 21. (6) 8. (6) (b) Calculate the pressure felt at the nose of the aircraft. Define : Boundary layer thickness. Define [a] Drag [b] Lift [c] Drag Co-efficient [d] Lift Co-efficient 14. Derive an expression for velocity of propagation of elastic wave in an isothermal medium. (b) Lift force and drag force (c) The physical significance of displacement thickness and momentum thickness. 20. Momentum thickness. drag and skin friction drag.*A Supersonic plane travels at 1. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information . Determine: (a) Lift force (b) Drag force (c) Resultant force (d) Power excited by air stream on the plate. * Explain (i) Lift (ii) Drag (iii) Wake region (iv) Boundary layer separation (8) 13. L B.282 N/m3 The plate is kept at such an angle that the coefficient of lift and drag are 0.4 and R = 2875/ kg-K. The specific weight of air is 11. Displacement thickness. 16.0 is observed directly over head at a height of 10 km.6.*Distinguish between the following: (a) form.75 And 0. (6) 10. An aeroplane is flying at an altitude of 15 Km where the temperature is -500. * Explain the effect of area variation on one dimensional compressible fluid flow. γ is 1. *Distinguish between friction drag and pressure drag. The speed of the plane corresponds to a Mach No.(6) * These questions have appeared in past VTU question paper PESIT KINEMATICS OF MACHINE–ME 44 Faculty: Sunith Babu. (8) 11.*An aircraft is flying at a uniform speed of 1Km/s at a height of 2 Km. determine the speed of the aeroplane. (6) 9. Define [a] Aero foil [b] Cord length [c] Angle of attack (5) 15.4.*Experiment were conducted in a wild tunnel with a wind speed of 50 km/hr on a flat plate of size 2m long and 1m wide. *Sketch the nature of propagation of disturbance in compressible flow when Mach number is more than one and hence define mach angle and mach cone. (6) 17. How much distance it would cover before the sonic boom is heard on the ground? 12. in the Reference frames of the planes.E. * A jet fighter flying at Mach number 2.

11. (III) Intermittent motion mechanisms – Geneva mechanism and Ratchet & Pawl mechanism. Single slider crank chain & Double slider crank chain and % Of Portions Covered 1. 19. 10. Mobility of Mechanism. 18. Inversion. 16. 9. 7. 13. 21.0 Mechanism T1: 22 .0 Kinematic chain and Inversion T1: 20 .0 Topics to be covered Definition – Link or element. 15. Relative velocity and accelerations of coincident particles on separate links. 14.19 R1: 3 – 14 Chapter #: 1. Mechanism.PESIT Class # Chapter Title / Reference Literature Chapter #: 1.123 Chapter #: 3. 12. (IV) Toggle mechanism. Coriolis components of acceleration 15 % 40 % B.30 R1: 15 . Kinematic chain.30 R1: 95 . Four bar chain. Introduction T1: 1 .E. 5 6. 4. (II) Straight line motion mechanisms – Peacellier’s mechanism and Roberts’s mechanism. 17. Whitworth mechanism and Crank & slotted lever mechanism.21 4% 4% 8% 12 % Their inversions Mechanisms: (I) Quick return mechanisms – Drag link mechanism. 3. 2. Pantograph.23 Velocity and Acceleration Analysis of Mechanisms (Graphical Methods): Velocity and Acceleration Analysis by vector polygons – Relative velocity and acceleration of particles in a common link. 20.0 Velocity and Acceleration Analysis of Mechanisms T1: 31 . Paring of element with degrees of freedom. Machine Kinematic Chain and Inversion: Kinematic chain with three lower pairs. Grubler’s criterion (without derivation).52 R1: 21 . Hooke’s joint and Ackerman steering mechanism 13 % 25 % Chapter #: 2. 8. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information .

Arc of Contact.0 Chapter #: 4. Path of Contact.PESIT 22. Chapter #: 5.E. 24.0 Spur Gears Law of gearing. 34. 29. Comparison of involute and cycloidal teeth 15 % 75 % T1: 326 . 44. 43.221 Chapter #: 7. Back lash.73 R1: 24 – 71 Definition. Involutometry. Contact ratio. 31. Characteristics of involute action.0 Gear Trains Chapter #: 6. 26. 40. Differential mechanism of an automobile 12 % 87 % B. 35. Definitions. Kennedy’s Theorem Determination of velocity using instantaneous center method Analysis of Velocity and Acceleration of single slider crank mechanism by using Klein’s construction 12 % 52 % Velocity Analysis by Complex No And Loop Closure Equation R2: Velocity and Acceleration Analysis by Complex Numbers: Analysis of A) Single slider crank mechanism by 1) Loop closure equations 2) Complex numbers B) Four Bar mechanism 1) Loop closure equations 2) Complex numbers 8 % 60 % 30. 23. Epicyclic gear trains. Compound gear trains for large speed reduction. 38. T1: 383 . 39. 33. 42. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information .383 R1: 163 – 187 Simple gear trains. 27. 25. Methods of avoiding interference. 32. 41. 36. 37. 28.414 R1: 201 . Algebraic and tabular methods of finding velocity ratio of epicyclic gear trains. Interference in involute gears.0 Velocity Analysis by Instantaneous center method & Klein’s construction T1: 53 . Tooth load and torque Calculations in epicyclic gear trains.

Chapter #: 8.162 Types of followers.S Ravindran Sudha Publication / Fourth / 2004 Guidelines for Quick Study* [ACTUAL EXAM PATTERN MAY VARY] Chapters 1 and 2 are theory type hence maintain descriptive answers in the exams with neat sketches Chapters 3 and 8 are to be solved in the Drawing Sheets hence practice problems in Drawing Sheet only Chapters 4 5 6 7 mainly contains problems of 15 to 20 marks while theory only 5 marks B. Rao New Age / Second / 2003 Prescribed Reference Books: R1. 46. S.E. Follower motions including SHM. 49.0 Cams T1: 195 . Disc cam with reciprocating follower having knife edge. 52.PESIT 45. Velocity and Acceleration time curves for cam profiles. Roller and flat faced follower. Uniform acceleration & retardation and cycloidal motion 13 % 100 % Learning Resources for the Subject Prescribed Text Books: Code T1. S. Title Author(s) Publisher / Edition / Year Theory of Machines – S. 50. Uniform velocity. disc cam with oscillating roller follower. 51. Rattan Tata Mc Graw Hill / Eighteen / 1998 T2. 48. 47. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information . Mechanism and machine J. Kinematics of Machines A. Displacement.238 R1: 124 .

Find the maximum torque which will B. . Describe the following quick return mechanism* (10) (i) Drag Link (ii) Witworth 13.PESIT QUESTION BANK LINKAGES AND MECHANISMS: 1. The driven shaft operates against a study torque of 150 Nm and carries a flywheel whose mass is 45 kg and the radius of gyration is 140 mm. What is a Pantograph and what are its uses? With neat sketches explain its working principle * (6) (iii) Double slider crank chain and its inversions (iii) Crank and slotted lever mechanism 17. Two shafts are connected by a Hooke’s joint. Define Kinematic chain and how does it differ from a mechanism * 6. * 3. Define a Kinematic pair. Explain the working of an Ellipse Trammel and show how is it useful in drawing an ellipse (10) 11. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information 23.E. Acceleration. Define the following (i) Lower pair (ii) Higher pair* (4) (4) 5. Distinguish between complete. The driving shaft rotates at a uniform speed of 300 rpm and the angle between the shafts is 200. 21. 20. Write short notes on Kinematic chain with three lower pairs* (6) 9. Explain the construction of Oldham’s coupling and state for what purpose it is used* (6) 12. Explain the following terms with examples (i) Element (ii) Link (iii) Kinematic pair (iv) Mechanism (v) Inversion (vi) Machine (vii) Mobility (viii) Degree of Freedom* (16) (4) 2. 19. Describe Roberts approximate straight line motion mechanism with suitable sketches* (4) 16. Find the maximum and minimum speed of the driven shaft and its max. Differentiate between (i) Machine and Mechanism (ii) Machine and structure*(8) 7. What are its uses * (4) What is a double Hooke’s joint? (4) 22. Define mobility of a mechanism and write the Grubler’s mobility equation for planar mechanism* (4) 8. incomplete and successful constraint of the relative motion between the two links (4) 4. State and prove the condition that must satisfy by the steering mechanism of a car in order that the wheel may have pure rolling motion when rounding a curve? (10) Describe toggle mechanism. A Hooke’s joint connects two shafts whose axes are inclined at 1500. c) Sketch & explain the working of a ratchet Mechanism (10) 25. Describe Peacellier’s mechanism with a suitable sketch* (6) 15. What are straight-line motion mechanisms? How are they classified* (6) 14. The driving shaft rotates at a uniform speed of 120 rpm. Explain the various types of Kinematic pairs. Sketch and explain the following* (12) (i) Four Bar Chain and its inversions (ii) Single slider crank chain and its inversions 10. State the condition to be satisfied in double Hooke’s joint in order to provide a uniform velocity ratio (8) Write short notes on Ackermann steering gear * What is Hooke’s joint and what are its application* (6) (4) What is intermittent mechanism? Explain the following intermittent motion Mechanism (i) Geneva (ii) Ratchet* (6) 24. 19.

(10) Derive analytically the expression for the velocity and the acceleration of the piston in 7. (10) which the crank makes with the IDC. At the instant shown. Mechanical 4 Semester Course Information 1. (10) For the four bar mechanism shown in figure – 3. The crank rotates at 150rpm. Find the velocity and acceleration of both piston and the angular velocity and angular acceleration of the connecting rod when the crank is 300 from IDC by Klein’s construction method. speed of the engine = 450rpm CW. (10) 8. By kleins construction determine: i) Velocity of piston ii) Acceleration of the piston iii) Angular acceleration of the Connecting rod.6 m and the connecting link BC = 1. AB = BC = AC = 0. the angular acceleration of the link AR. The crank rotates at 400 rpm.5cm x-x is parallel to AB. Find the degree of freedom of the following mechanism shown in figure – 1 * (4) 27. If the crank OP rotates at an angular velocity of 2. determine the acceleration of C and 5. AD is fixed 4.E. The crank of a slider crank mechanism rotates CW at a constant speed of 300 rpm. Find the velocity and acceleration of point ‘P’ midway between B and C When the angle BAD =1350 and AB rotates at a speed of 300 rpm. (16) A four bar chain mechanism ABCD is made up of 4 links pin jointed at ends.3m. The links AB. In a with worth quick return mechanism as shown in figure – 2. at a crank angle of 450 from IDC position. (16) 2.5 m/s/ find the magnitude and direction of (i) Velocity of C and (ii) angular velocity of ABC. angular acceleration of link 3 when crank 2. The crank is rotating at a speed of 10 rad/s and the crank is at 450 from IDC. OA = 150mm. In a slider crank mechanism.VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION IN MECHANISMS: PESIT be exerted by the driving shaft. The crank AB rotates at 100 rpm and an angular acceleration 100rad/sec2 at the instant when the crank AB makes an angle of 600 to the horizontal. * (08) Determine the velocity and acceleration of the piston by “Kleins Construction” for a 6. link. A link ABC of a mechanism shown in figure – 4 is in motion. Find the velocity and the acceleration of the piston and angular velocity and angular acceleration of the connecting rod when the angle. is 300. (4) b) A four bar chain ABCD as a fixed link AD = 1m. steam engine for the following specification: Stroke of piston = 600mm. The crank of a reciprocating engine is 90mm long and the connecting rod is 360mm long. b) The crank of a reciprocating engine is 60mm long and connecting rod is 240 mm long. The crank is 150mm and the connecting rod is 600mm long. The driving rank AB = 0. a reciprocating engine mechanism. determine the acceleration of the slider. 9. BC & CD are 90mm. RS. the crank is 50mm long and the connecting rod is 150mm long. rotates at 20 radians per second. RS = 430mm. . Determine (I) linear velocity and acceleration of the mid point of the connecting rod (ii) Angular velocity and acceleration of the connecting rod. AR = 165mm.2m. The Follower link CD = 0. At what value of ‘α‘ will the total fluctuation of speed of the driven shaft be limited to 24 rpm (12) 26. ‘A’ moves with 0.6 m/s in the direction shown and ‘B’ moves with a speed of 0. which is 250 mm long. Derive analytical expressions for velocity and acceleration of the piston in a reciprocating engine mechanism. (10) 3. OP = 240mm. a reference line (08) 10. (10) a) Write a brief note an instantaneous center of rotation. (15) th B. Ratio of length o connecting rod to crank length = 5. 180mm & 180mm long respectively. Find the angular velocities and angular accelerations of links BC & CD. position of the crank = 45 degree with IDC.5 rad/sec & has an angular acceleration of 20 rad/sec2.

It has a connecting rod of 160mm long. the crank is 50mm long and the connecting rod is 150mm long. AD is fixed link. which is 250 mm long.6. direction and sense. (10) 17. What is Coriolis component? Derive the expression for the same * (06) 24. Determine the velocity of point K in the mechanism shown in figure –8 (6) 16.(16) 14. The crank is rotating at a speed of 10 rad/s and the crank is at 450 from IDC. A pin jointed 4-bar mechanism ABCD is shown in figure . The driving rank AB = 0. The Follower link CD = 0. Find the velocity and acceleration of point ‘P’ midway between B and C When the angle BAD =1350 and AB rotates at a speed of 300 rpm. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information . and the fixed Link AD = 300 mm. II) the angular acceleration of link 3 and 4. Find the acceleration of the point c in magnitude. determine I) the acceleration of the point c. In the mechanism shown in figure – 9.2m. by KLEIN’S construction. For the four bar mechanism shown in figure – 12 determine the acceleration of C and angular acceleration of link 3 when crank 2. Determine the magnitude & direction of I. The crank O2B rotates at 300rpm (ccw). O2B=150mm. BC & CD are 90mm. PESIT B. The crank rotates at 400rpm. rotates at 20 radians / sec* (10) 23. A four bar chain ABCD has a fixed link AD = 1m. BC = 180 mm CD = 180 mm.An oscillatory cylinder mechanism is shown in the figure 5. (10) 19. The crank of a reciprocating engine is 60mm long and connecting rod is 240mm long. Link AB makes 60 degree with Link AD and rotates uniformly at 100 rpm.3m. Angular velocity of cylinder ii. * (12) 25. shown in figure. Find also the angular acceleration of link 3. Determine the following when the crank is at 60 degree from the inner dead center 1) Velocity of slider 2) Angular velocity of connecting rod 3) The Position and velocity of a point P on the connecting rod having at least absolute velocity. Angular acceleration of the cylinder. By kleins construction determine: Velocity of piston ii) Acceleration of the piston iii) Angular acceleration of i) the Connecting rod * (15) 20. 180mm & 180mm long respectively. Locate all the instantaneous centers and find the angular velocity of link BC and Linear velocity of link CD. 12.10 is rotating clockwise at a constant speed of 100 rad/sec. (10) 18. Also state whether the magnitude of angular velocity. What is instantaneous center? Locate all the instantaneous center for a single slider crank mechanism and show how velocity of slider is determined? (08) Velocity and acceleration analysis by complex method: 11. For the phase. Locate all the instantaneous centers for the toggle mechanism shown in figure –7 (4) 15. Determine the acceleration of the piston when the crank has turned through 45 Degree from the inner dead center position and moving towards center at 240 rpm by the following methods 1) complex algebra analysis 2) Klein’s construction and compare the values and get the error % figure – 11 * (20) 22.E. crank rotates at 3000rpm. A four bar chain mechanism ABCD is made up of 4 links pin jointed at ends. Velocity of A3 a point on the system iii. O2O4=600mm. The links AB. Is increasing or decreasing at the instant A3 & A4 are coincident points of piston & A3B=400mm. The crank AB rotates at 100 rpm and an angular acceleration 100rad/sec2 at the instant when the crank AB makes an angle of 600 to the horizontal. when the crank is 30 degrees from inner dead center. Find the angular velocities and angular accelerations of links BC & CD * (20) 21. LINK AB = 150mm. (15) cylinder respectively. The crank of a slider crank mechanism is 480 mm long and rotates at 20 rad/sec in the counter clockwise direction. Find the velocity and acceleration of the piston and the angular velocity and angular acceleration of the connecting rod.6 m and the connecting link BC = 1. In a slider crank mechanism. The crank of an engine is 20cm long and connecting rod length to crank radius is 4. (15) 13. The crank 02A of the four bar mechanism shown in figure .

* (20) PESIT SPUR GEAR 1. The angle of link AB with fixed is 60degree. (15) In a 4 bar mechanism ABCD link. calculate the length of action and contact ratio. If the pressure angle is 200. Derive the formula for the length of arc of contact for two meshing spur Gears of involute profile* (6) 12. if the tooth thickness at some other point is known (10) 17. 2. In an internal combustion engine mechanism. The teeth have 200 involute pressure angle and module is 5mm. 4. 8. 10. (10) 15. A pair of gears having 40 and 20 teeth are rotating in mesh the speed of smaller being 1800rpm. Find (I) the nearest B. Explain the phenomenon of interference. Derive an expression for minimum number of teeth necessary for a pinion to avoid interference. addendum length is 5mm and the module is 5mm (20) 20. State the condition for no Interference (4) 13. (6) What are the general Characteristics of spur gearing* (4) Draw a neat sketch of spur gear and explain the various terms (6) Define the following (i) Pitch circle diameter (ii) Circular Pitch (iii) Module (iv) Addendum (v) Dedendum (vi) Pressure angle* . the crank radius is 100mm and the length of the connecting rod is 450 mm. Find the addendum (10) 21. Sketch the different types of gear trains and explain briefly (20) 19.75 times the circular pitch. 3. 6.E. Two equal spur gears of 48 teeth mesh together with pitch radii of 100 mm. The AB has an angular velocity of 10rad/sec and angular acceleration of 30rad/sec2 both clock wise. 5. The number of teeth on each of two equal spur gears is mesh each other are 40. Determine the velocity of sliding between the gear teeth faces at the point of engagement. Assume the gear teeth 200 involute form. in (CCW) direction. AB=300mm. Describe the various methods of avoiding interference (4) 14. 9. Determine the angular velocity and angular acceleration of link BC and CD by RAVEN’S approach. and the addendum is 4.BC=360mm.50. The pinion transmits 375 KW at 1800 rpm.CD=360mm and the fixed link AD=600mm.25 mm. at the pitch point. What is Backlash? Derive an expression for backlash if the center distance is pulled apart at a distance Δc. 7. If the arc of contact is 1. Derive an expression for the length of path of contact for a pinion on rack (6) 16. Normal tooth pressure is not to exceed 9810N/cm width. The teeth's are of involute form with standard addendum of 1 module and pressure angle is 22. What is Involutometry? Derive an expression for the tooth thickness at any point on the involute. Define the following (i) Path of Contact (ii) Arc of Contact (iii) Contact Ratio* (12) 11. The following are the particulars of a single reduction spur gear the gear ratio is 10: 1 and the center distance is 275mm. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information What are toothed gears? State their uses* (4) What are the advantages and disadvantages of gear drives (4) How are gears classified* (4) State and prove “Law of gearing”* (6) What are the common curves used for tooth profile* (2) Discuss the merits and demerits of involute curve and cycloidal curve for the profile of gear tooth. 2. (10) 18. the crank is rotating at 10 rad/sec.1. at the point of disengagement if the smaller gear is the driver. Determine the magnitude and direction of 1) Velocity of the piston 2) The angular velocity of the connecting rod when crank is at 45 degree from the inner dead center by complex algebra method verify the same by Klein’s construction.

gear ratio is 2. Determine the minimum number of teeth and the velocity ratio to avoid interference. a module 12. 9. * (15) The following data refers to two mating involute gears of 200 pressure angle. 2. Compounded & Reverted gear trains * (6) Explain Epicyclic gear trains (2) Explain Bevel gear differential* (4) Explain Spur gear differential (4) Obtain the expression for the length of path of contact for two involute profile gears in mesh (10) In an epicyclic gear train of ‘ SUN & PLANET’ type the sun wheel has 15 teeth and is fixed to the motor shaft rotating at 1500 rpm. Prove that gears have interference. if the motor transmits 2Kw. 3. three in number has 45 teeth's gears with fixed annulus ‘A’ and rotates on a spindle cared by an arm which is fixed to the output shaft. Number of teeth on the pinion is 20. The planet ‘P’ also gears with the sun wheel ‘S’ Find the speed of the output shaft. * (08) PESIT GEAR TRAINS 1. If the wheels have the same pitch and the shaft A makes 800rpm. What do you understand by gear trains (2) Explain Train Value? How is it related to velocity ratio? * (4) Name different types of Gear Trains and give examples (4) Explain Simple. 11. The number of teeth on wheel B. (15) Two spur gears wheels have 24 and 30 teeth and a standard addendum of 1 module. Mechanical . and the standard addendum is one module. 8. which projects from a disc keyed to a shaft A co-axial with F. 24. Derive the expression used. A compound wheel DE gears with the two internal wheels: D has 28 teeth and gears with C while E gears with B.5 mm an addendum 12. If the pressure angle is 180 and the pinion rotates at 90 rpm. * (14) A pair of gear has 16 teeth and 18 teeth. The compound wheel revolves freely on a pin. 4. 25. The planet P. 26. B.22. The teeth are of involute form of module 6mm. standard diameter pitch if no interference is to occur (ii) the number of teeth in each wheel (iii) the width of pinion* (20) A spur Pinion 100 mm in diameter has a torque of 200Nm applied to it. the pressure angle is 20 degree. C&D are 4th Semester Course Information 10. Determine the tangential force FT and the separating force FR. * (5) Two Gear wheels mesh externally and are to give a velocity ratio of 3. (20) An internal wheel B with 80teeth is keyed to shaft F. In a reverted epicyclic gear train the arm A carries two wheels B & C and a compound wheel DE.5mm and a pressure angle 14. A fixed internal wheel C with 82 teeth is concentric with B. find the backlash between the gears. Calculate the path of contact and arc of contact. module 12mm. 23. The pressure angle is 200. The wheel C gears with wheel D. Sketch the arrangement. 7. Show the forces action on the wheels separately. Find the maximum velocity of sliding during approach and the recess and the length of arc of contact. Find i) The minimum number of teeth on each wheel to avoid interference.E.5 degrees. 6. The spur gear in mesh with it is 250 mm in dia. speed of the pinion is 250rpm. 27. 5. The length of path of contact iii) The maximum velocity of sliding iv) number of pairs of teeth in contact* (16) The following data refers to two mating involute gears of 200 pressure angle: Number of teeth on pinion – 20 Module – 12mm If the center distance between the gears is increased by 2mm. Find the torque required to fit the annulus. If the addendum on each wheel is such that the path of approach and the path of recess on each side are half of the maximum permissible length. What is the speed of the (15) shaft F.

r. TD=48. 13. determine the speed and direction of the wheels B and F. find the speed of F when I) Wheel A is fixed and II) Wheel A makes 15rpm (CCW) by tabular column method. has teeth cut both internally & externally. 6. 2. ii) Follower to return to its initial position during 150 degree of cam rotation. The wheel C is fixed. Fand the compound wheels C. 16. determine the speed planet gear B (10) Figure – 13 shows an epicyclic gear train Wheel E is fixed and Wheel C and D are integrally cast and mounted on the same pin.12. The wheels B and E rotate on a pin fixed to the arm L. All wheels have the same module and the number of teeth are Tc = 28. Cams a) Base Circle b) Pitch circle 3) Pressure angle (6) What are the different types of follower motions (4) Derive an expression for velocity acceleration & displacement when the circular arc cam is operating on an flat faced follower (i) When the contact is on the circular flank Derive an expression for velocity acceleration & displacement when the tangent cam is operating on an radial translating roller follower When the contact is on straight flank When the contact is on circular nose (4) Draw the outline of a cam which will transmit motion to a roller follower in the following manner I) the follower to move outwards through a distance of 65 mm during 180 degree of cam rotation. When the arm rotates at 30rpm. the gear B is connected to the input shaft. Determine the vel. 9. TC=32 & 40. 7. E gears with A and C and F gears with B and D. 75. turns freely on the output shaft. The arm A. CCW find speed of B PESIT CAMS 1. 15.5kW* (20) In the epicyclic gear train shown in figure . & the gear F is connected to the output shaft. The gear C is free to rotate on an arm driven by shaft S1 & meshes externally with the casing D & internally with pinion B. find B speed iii) iv) If the arm G makes 100 rpm CW and wheel A makes 10rpm. Of teeth TB=24.E. 17. If arm A makes 1 revolution/ sec (CCW). 30 & 90 respectively. carrying the compound wheels D & E. the sun wheel A has 20 teeth and is fixed to the frame. Find the speed and directions of the wheel C when wheel B is (15) fixed and the arm A makes 100rpm clockwise In a planetary gear system of sun and planet type. (ii) When the contact is on circular nose (10) B. iii) Follower to dwell for the remaining 30 degree of cam 4th Semester Course Information 8. Give the classification of cams and follower* (4) Discuss the types of follower displacement diagrams* (4) Write short notes on cams and follower * (4) Why a roller follower is preferred to that of Knife edge follower (4) Explain w.15 A gear C. Sketch the arrangement i) ii) Find the number of teeth on A and B If the arm G makes 100rpm clock wise and A is fixed. (10) In an epicycle gear train.t. The No of teeth on each gear is indicated in the fig. Mechanical . C = 28. 5. D rotate about the axis O. Determine the speed of output shaft.The gears have the following No. If the arm L makes 150rpm clockwise. D = 26. 4. Tf = 18. The arms C with Planet gear wheel B with 40 teeth revolve about the gear wheel A.16 the internal wheels A. Ratio between S1 & S2 when D is fixed S1 & D when D is fixed (15) In an epicyclic gear train shown in figure . (15) In the gear train shown in figure – 14. If the input speed is 100rpm(ccw) when see from right. The wheels have same pitch and the number of teeth on B and E are 18. Find the output torque & the holding torque to keep the wheel C fixed if the input power is 7. 3. Td = 26. The wheel E and F rotate on pins fixed to the arm G. 14. the internal wheel A and B the compound wheel C and D rotate independently about axis O.

The motion of the follower is to take place with SHM during outstroke and with UARM during return stroke. (10) It is required to set out the profile of a cam for the following data.125sec and the Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information PESIT . 14. 15.The cam has to lift the follower with SHM during 180 degree of cam rotation. Base circle dia. * (8) Draw the profile of the cam to give the following motion to the follower—Follower to move through 30mm. minimum radius of the cam = 22 mm.M. of the cam is 30mm and the roller dia of the follower is 10mm.05 sec at the upper position. i) Follower to move outward through an angular displacement of 20 degree during 900 of cam rotation ii) Follower to dwell for 45 degree of cam rotation . if the cam speed is 1200rpm.It rises 25 mm with SHM during 600 of cam rotation. Draw the profile of the cam to full size. when cam rotates at 2000rpm. in 1/3rd revolution and to dwell during rest of the revolution . 11. Keep it fully raised through 1/6th revolution & to lower it with S. Details of the cam & the follower motion are the following: Roller dia = 10mm.The minimum radius of the cam is 25 mm.The least radius of the cam is 30 mm.The location of the pivot is 70mm to the left and 50mm above the axis of the cam. The roller diameter is 10mm & the follower axis is offset by 10mm from the axis of the shaft. * (8) A disc cam is required to lift a flat-faced follower with U. (iii) Follower to return to its starting position during 1200 of cam rotation with SHM. rotation. Determine the maximum velocity and acceleration of the follower during the outstroke. (ii) Follower to dwell in the lifted position for the next 300 of cam rotation.The cam rotates at 100 rpm in a clockwise direction .R. minimum radius of cam is 30mm . the acceleration during outstroke of the follower. The max. 16.10. Ascend of the follower takes place with SHM in 0. The least radius of the cam is 30 mm and push rod is fitted at its lower end with a roller 15 mm diameter. * (20) Draw the cam profile for the cam with reciprocating follower . The minimum radius of the cam is 30 mm & the displacement of the follower is to take place with cycloidal motion both during outward & return strokes.The time of lift is 0. then allows the follower to drop suddenly halfway & further return the follower with UARM during the remaining 180 degree cam rotation.15 sec & the time of fall is 0. the roller center is above the cam axis. the deceleration period being 1/2 the acceleration period .the axis of the roller is offset by 8mm to the right.iv) Follower to return to its initial position of zero displacement in 5 degree of cam rotation.iii) Follower to dwell for the remaining period of the revolution of the cam . B. draw the graphical cam profile.0125sec. Follower to return with cycloidal motion during 180o of cam rotation.E.10 sec with a period of rest of 0. Total lift = 25 mm . 18. Roller dia is 10mm. 12.The axis of the follower passes through the axis of the cam. Displacement of the follower is 40 mm in a direction 30 degree to the right of the vertical . Axis of the follower is offset to right of cam axis by 18mm. then dwells for 30 degree of cam rotation and finally descends with UARM during 90 degree of cam rotation. (iv) Follower to dwell for the rest of cam rotation* (15) Draw the full size cam profile for a cam with roller of 25mm dia attached to the follower to give a lift of 35mm. 17.A.H.05sec follower by a period of rest of 0. 13.M motion through 30 mm in 1/3 rd revolution. Calculate the maximum velocity & acceleration of the follower during outstroke (20) A push rod operated by a cam is to rise and fall with SHM along an inclined path. When in its lowest position. (20) A knife edged follower for the fuel valve of a four stroke diesel engine has its center line coincident with the vertical center line of the cam . During 180oof cam rotation with cycloidal motion. The follower then descends with UARM during 0. * (15) A cam rotating clockwise at uniform speed of 300rpm operates a reciprocating follower through a roller 10mm dia the follower motion is defined: (I) Follower to move outwards during 1200 of the cam rotation with equal uniform acceleration and deacceleration. * (20) The distance between the pivot center and the roller follower center is 70mm. Draw the cam profile & also determine the maximum velocity & acceleration of the follower during and return strokes if the cam rotates at 200 rpm clockwise.

2-Standards of length .5 240 2. The Follower then descends with UARM during 0.V. Do not draw the cam profile* (20) A cam rotates at a uniform speed of 300 rpm clock wise and gives an oscillating follower 75mm long. The outward and inward displacement of the follower each occupying 120 degree cam rotation and there is no dwell in the lifted position.4-Subdivision of standards 1.5-Line and end standards 1.1-Definition and objectives of metrology 1. The cam rotates in CCW direction at a constant speed of 240rpm and the base radius is 50mm (20) * Questions appeared in VTU examinations METROLOGY & MEASUREMENTS – IP42 B Faculty: S.3-Imperial standard yard. wave length standard 1.6-Comparison 1.83 150 3. Draw the displacement diagram of the follower.10-Wringing phenomena 1.87 300 0. How ever during the rise acceleration is twice the retardation.2cm.87 120 2. The duration of the dwell before and after the rise is 300. remaining period rest at the minimum lifted position.19. Mechanical 1. which makes contact with the cam.Satish/ Mukesh Patil Class # Chapter title / Reference Literature Standards Measurement: R1:34-40 R2:311 of Portions to be covered PART-A % Covered 1–4 B. Draw the full size cam profile for a cam with roller of 25mm diameter attached to the follower to give a lift of 35mm.7-Transfer from line standard to end standard 1. The angle of rotation of cam during rise and return is 1500 each. Layout the cam profile if the radius of roller follower is 1cm. 20.international prototype meter 1. The axis of fulcrum is 80mm from the axis of cam and the least distance of roller axis from cam axis is 40mm* (20) A roller follower is offset to the left by 1. * (20) 0 0 30 0.50 180 3.25 60 0.E. M-112) 4th Semester Course Information 8 . The acceleration being 3/5 times retardation. The cam rotates in CCW direction at a constant speed 240rpm and the base radius is 50mm*(20) A translating roller follower has lift of 4cm.92 330 0.125sec.05sec followed by a period of set 0.125sec and the remaining period as rest in the minimum lifted position.25 PESIT Cam rotation θo Follower (cm) Y displacement 22.75 21 0 3. Ascent of the follower takes place with SHM 0. The cam rotates in clockwise direction. an angular displacement of 30 degree in each stroke. The follower has a uniform acceleration and retardation motion for both rise and return phases. the acceleration being ¾ times retardation.92 90 1. And during return the duration of acceleration is twice the duration of retardation. The follower is fitted with a roller of 20mm diameter.the base circle radius of the cam is 3cm.11-Indian Standards (M-87. The follower moves through out by SHM.8-Calibration of end bars (numericals) 1. Axis of the follower is offset to right of cam axis is 18mm.9-Slip gauges 1.the desired displacement of the follower Y for any cam rotation θ is listed in the table given below. 21.83 270 1.

17-Types of gauges -Plain plug gauge.3-Mechanical comparators .8-Gear terminology 5.E. Angle gauges (numericals on building of angles) 4. 4th Semester Course Information 62 B. Fits.2-Measurement of major diameter 5.724 Screw thread and Gear measurement R1 : 174.10-Use of gear tooth micrometer 26 14 – 18 Comparators: R1 : 63-70 R2: 447 .4-optical comparators-principles 3. limit gauge 2. calibration.1-Terminology of screw threads 5. sensitivity.7-LVDT 3.7-Compound tolerances 2. Sine bar.11-Geometrical tolerance 2. snap gauge.3-Definition and concept of accuracy 6.5-Indian standards 2.190 R2 : 879 -1008 44 23 – 26 52 PART-B 26 – 31 Measurements Measurement systems R1: 268-270 & 6.3-Minor diameter 5.4-Principle of Interferometry 4.4-Limits of size 2.3-Principle of interchangeability and selective assembly 2.Dial indicator 3.6-Best size wire 5. Sine center.9-Back pressure gauges 3.1-Definition and Significance of measurement 6.1-Introduction to comparator 3.14-Classification of gauges 2. threshold.16-Wear allowance on gauges 2.Sigma comparators .1-Bevel protractor 4.12-Numerical problems on building of slip gauges 2.10-Types of fits and their designation (IS 919-1963) 2.2-Sine principle.2-Characteristics and classification of comparators 3.8-pneumatic comparators 3.15-Brief concept of design of gauges (Taylor’s principle) 2.519 38 19 – 22 Angular measurements and Interferometer R1 : 111 – 127 R2 : 654 .12-Positional tolerances 2.8-Accumulation of tolerances 2.4-Pitch 5.10-Solex comparators 4.4-Precision.9-Definition of fits 2.5-Autocollimeter 4.9-Use of gear tooth Vernier caliper 5.18-Gauge materials 3.Johnson mikrokator .7-Tool makers microscope 5.6-Optical flats 5.5-Angle and effective diameter of screw threads by 2wire & 3-wire methods 5.1-Definition of tolerance 2.3-Clinometers 4.5-Zeiss ultra optimeter 3.6-Concept of limits of size and tolerances 2. Mechanical .PESIT 5 – 13 System of Limits.6-Electric and electronic comparators-principles 3.13-Hole basis system and shaft basis system 2.2-Generalised measurement system 6.2-Specification in assembly 2. ring gauge. Tolerances and gauging: R1: 73-110 R2: 312-446 1.

I. Engineering Metrology . repeatability linearity.1-Mechanical 9.F.2-Analytical balance 10. Mechanical Measurements – Sirohi & Radhakrishna 3. Metrology for engineers-J.2-Cathode Ray Oscilloscope 9.Marangoni & Lienhard 2.Jain Scheme of examination: B.4-Input circuitry 8.2-Primary and secondary transducers 7.PESIT -hysteresis. Mechanical Measurements .3-Mechanical. classification of errors 7.K.1-Principle 10.Gupta Reference Books: 1.E.Hydraulic dynamometer 11.3-Gauge factor 13.2-Preparation and mounting of strain gauges 13. Engineering Metrology.4-Mcleod gauge 11.Prony brake dynamometer .C.4-Advantages of each type transducers 8.2-Thermocouple 12.1-Strain gauge 13.5-Ballast circuit 8.1-Resistance thermometers 12.R.5-Torque measurement: .Beckwith .D.3-Platform balance 10. electronic transducer 7.3-Laws of thermocouple 12.6-Electronic amplifiers and telemetry 9. Mechanical Measurements – Holeman 2.6-Optical pyrometer 13. Electrical.4-Proving ring 10.4-X-Y Plotters 10.R.Shotbolt 5. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information .4-Materials used for construction of thermocouple 12.2-Inherent problems 8.3-Electrical intermediate modifying devices 8.3-Bridgeman gauge 11.1-Transfer efficiency 7. time delay -Errors in measurements.3-Oscillographs 9.Galyer & C.5-pyrometer 12. loading effect -System response. Industrial Instrumentation-Alsutko & Jerry.1-Principle 11.5-Pirani gauge 12.Faulk 6.2-Use of elastic members 11. Mechanical measurements-Doblin 4.4-Methods of strain measurement 32 – 35 Transducers R1:271-314 Intermediate modifying devices R1: 315-326 70 36 – 38 76 39 – 40 Terminating Devices Measurement force & torque R1:368-379 of 80 41 – 43 86 44 – 46 Pressure measurements R1:380-418 Temperature measurement R1:419-455 92 47 – 49 98 50– 52 Strain measurement R1:275-312 100 Text Books: 1.1-Mechanical systems 8.

10. Write neat sketches and explain 'go' and 'Nogo' gauges.45 √D+0.* 3.001D.41 IT7=16i.The standard tolerance is given by i=0. Calculate the dimensions of plug and ring gauges to control the production of 50mm shaft and hole pair of H7d8. * B.453√D+0. 9.where D=Diameter(mm)falling in the step 18-30mm. Briefly explain interchangeability. 6. i=0.* Chapter 2: System of Limits. their tolerances. Differentiate between: i) Tolerance and allowance ii) Hole basis system and shaft basis system * 11. Explain the NPL method of deriving end standards from line standards.IT8=25i. Illustrate with examples: i) Geometrical tolerance ii) Dimensional tolerance iii) Positional tolerance 13.Upper deviation for “d”shaft is –16D0.44. clearance. What are Airy points? How do they differ from the points of minimum deflection.001D* 4. Diameter step (50-80) Fundamental deviation for e shaft = -11D0.001D * 5. interference and the class of fit. 2. What is the difference between unilateral and bilateral tolerances? Why unilateral tolerance is preferred over bilateral tolerance?* 2.* 5. Enumerate the advantages of using wavelength standard as a basic unit to define primary standards. Explain various standards of length. Explain Taylor’s principle for the design of limit gauges. A shaft-hole pair is designated as H7d8.44 Take wear allowance as 10% of the gauge tolerance. 3 IT7=16i. * 12.453√D+0.The following assumptions may be made. Fits. QUESTION BANK PART-A Chapter 1: Standards of Measurement PESIT 1. What do you understand by line and end standards? Discuss their relative characteristics. after deciding the fundamental deviations and tolerances in the following: Fit Ø 70H9e7. Define Metrology. Briefly explain selective assembly.The fundamental deviation for fit d is given by –16D0. Sketch the fit and mark the dimensions clearly. 8. Explain what is meant by: i) Interchangeable part ii) Universal interchangeability iii) Local interchangeability* 3. Determine the shaft and hole dimensions.Four questions to be set from Metrology – Part A Four questions to be set from Measurements – Part B Answer any five questions taking at least TWO questions from each part.E. IT9=40i i=0. 7. Explain Taylor's principle for 'go' and 'Nogo' gauges. Determine the type of fit. Explain different types of fits. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information . Tolerances and Gauging 1.* 4.50mm falls in the diameter step of 30-50mm.

* 10. What are the required characteristics of comparators?* 2. 4. PART-B Chapter 6: Measurements and measurement systems B. Select the sizes of angle gauges required to build the following angles: i)31deg29min24sec ii)102deg8min42sec * Chapter 5: Screw thread and Gear measurement PESIT 1. 6. Explain how Gear Tooth Vernier is used for gear measurement. 3. Explain the working of Sigma comparator with neat sketches. What is the difference between a comparator and a measuring instrument? * Chapter 4: Angular Measurements 1. How do you find effective diameter of a screw thread using two-wire method.* 5. How do you measure the following in case of a spur gear: i) Runout ii) Tooth thickness iii) Backlash * 10. What are the advantages of electrical comparator over mechanical comparator? 3. 6. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information . How is setup of angular gauges different from simple gauges? Explain with an example. Give the procedure to measure major and pitch diameter using 3 wire method. 4.Chapter 3: Comparators 1. 5. 8. Explain the working of Optical comparator with neat sketches. 7. Explain the working of Brook level comparator with neat sketches. Explain the working principle of Tool Makers Microscope. Distinguish between 2 wire and 3 wire methods of measuring and suggest the best one. 7. Explain the terminology of a simple Spur gear 11. Sketch and label the parts of a Vernier bevel protractor. * 8. Distinguish between: i) Sine bar and sine center ii) Angle gauges and slip gauges. 2. What are the various types of pitch errors on threads and explain the reasons for the same. 7. 5. * 12. Explain the working of Jhonson's Microkrater with neat sketches. * 9. Give the significance of Clinometer in angular measurement. What are the two corrections applied in the measurement of effective diameter by the method of wires?* 4. Show the arrangement of gauges. Write neat sketch and explain the principle of working of Auto Collimeter.E. ii)12o20’36” * i)57o 34’9” 3. With a neat sketch explain Universal Protactor. 6. Describe a Gear Tooth Vernier caliper and show how this is used for checking gear.* 2. Describe screw thread terminology with sketch. With a neat sketch explain Bevel protractor. Explain how sine bars are used for measurement of angle. Explain why it is preferred not to use a sine bar for generating angles larger than 45oif high accuracy is desired. * 9. Compare profile projector with tool makers microscope.

Explain any one type of elastic transducer with a neat sketch. Explain the following: i) Zero drift and sensitivity drift ii) Threshold. Explain briefly the different types of errors encountered during measurement. 7. 10. Explain the working of a pickup used for determining the level of liquid nitrogen with a neat sketch. 9. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information . Explain the following: i) Accuracy ii) Sensitivity iii) Precision 14. 9. Define transfer efficiency. PESIT B.1. Draw a neat block diagram of measurement system employed for measuring acceleration. 6. What do you understand by active and passive transducers? Give examples. 11. 8. 12. distinguish between the two fundamental methods of measurement. Define the word Transducer. Explain the principle of working of a linear variable differential transducer with a neat sketch and illustrate its characteristics. 7. Mention the advantages of electrical primary detector transducer elements over other types. 17. 8. a more sensitive instrument oscillates more 11. 10. What is a measurement? 5. * Explain with sketches: 19. 6. 13. With the help of examples. 18. What do you mean by static calibration? Sketch the calibration curve of an instrument and explain how it is obtained?* 2. Draw a block diagram of a generalized measurement system and explain the salient feature of each stage. show that. slowly than a less sensitive instrument. What are the sources of errors in instruments? Explain* 4. 15. Resolution and Hysteresis* 3.E. Discuss the relative merits and demerits of mechanical and electrical transducers.* 4.* 2. Explain the following with neat sketches: i)Mutual inductance transducer ii)Piezo electric transducer* 3. Mention six mechanical elements used as detector transducers and indicate the operations. Write a brief note an treatment of multisampling data. 5. What are the requirements and objectives of measurement? State and explain the various forms of input to the instrument. i) Hysteresis ii) Threshold iii) Repeatability iv) Sensitivity drift * Chapter 7: Transducers 1. Explain with an example the various stages of a generalized measurement system. Draw the displacement time characteristics for damped motion and explain the importance of damping. State the three basic elements of a measuring system and give an example to each of the basic elements. What are the parameters on which capacitive transducers are developed. Draw a block diagram of generalized measurement systems and explain the salient features of each stage. which they perform. Describe with a neat sketch the ionization transducer. Distinguish between: i) Digital and Analog measurement ii) Direct reading and null balancing * For Oscillating systems. 16. With a neat sketch explain the working of a transducer using electro kinetic phenomenon and indicate its applications.

Explain with a neat sketch the working and application of a Bridgeman gauge. explain the working principle of : i) Mcleod gauge ii) Knuolsm gauge * Chapter 12: Temperature measurement 1. How do you define high pressure range and low pressure range. Explain the principle of variable inductance transducer with a neat sketch. Write a note on hydraulic dynamometer 4. 18. 15. the method of torque measurement of rotating shafts using strain gauges. With a neat sketch explain resistance thermometer. With neat sketches. 4. Write short notes on: i) Electronic amplifiers ii) Telemetry Chapter 9:Terminating Devices 1. 3. 19. give examples. 3. 6. * B. Explain the principle of variable resistance transducers with a neat sketch. 16. 2. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information PESIT . Distinguish between active and passive transducers. * Chapter 8: Intermediate modifying devices 1. 14. 5. How is electric dynamometer different from mechanical ones? 5.* 4. Explain with neat sketch the working of any one device used for measurement for high pressure. Differentiate between radiation and pressure thermometer. With a neat sketch explain bi-metal strip thermometer. * 3. Explain with a neat sketch the analytical balance. * Chapter 11:Pressure measurements 1. 2. What are pyrometers? Explain any one. Explain with neat sketches the following: i) Piezo electric transducer ii) Ionization transducer * 11. 4. What are the relative merits and demerits of electrical transducers over mechanical transducers? 13. What are primary and secondary transducers? Explain with examples. * 21.* 5.E. 17. 20. 2. How resistance thermometer is used to measure temperature with advantages. Explain the principle of working of a piezoelectric transducer with a neat sketch. Give the advantages of electrical modifying devices compared to mechanical ones. With a neat sketch explain the construction and working of Cathode ray oscilloscope. 3. With neat sketches explain Mcleod and Pirani gauges.12. Explain in brief inherent problems encountered in mechanical systems as intermediate modifying devices. Write short notes on: i) Oscillographs ii) X-Y Plotters Chapter 10: Measurement of force and torque 1. Discuss briefly with sketches two types of elastic pressure transducers. With the help of a neat sketch explain the working of a prony brake dynamometer. What are photoelectric transducers? Explain any one type with a neat sketch. Explain with sketches the proper orientation of strain gauges for measurement of (i) Bending strain (ii) Torsional strain (iii) Axial strain. * 6. Explain the working of a electronic transducer with a neat sketch. Explain with a neat sketch.* 2. Explain the thermocouple way of measuring temperature. Explain with a neat sketch ballast circuit. What are active and passive transducers. 2.

7. * 3. How do you calibrate the given strain gauge? * 5. What is temperature sensitivity? Explain how is it compensated. Enumerate the necessary precautions to be taken while mounting a strain gauge on a test piece. * Chapter 13: Strain measurement 1.E. Write a note on bonding materials of strain gauges. Write a note on thermocouple materials and some forms of thermocouple construction. * 4. * *Appeared in VTU exam papers PESIT B. Mechanical 4th Semester Course Information . Explain with respect to strain gauges: i) Cross sentivity ii) Temperature compensation iii) Positioning of gauges to measure torsional strain 2.

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