Total Ocean Monitoring Enterprise (TOME

)
Michael N. Lovellette, Ph.D. Naval Research Laboratory michael.lovellette@nrl.navy.mil

UNCLASSIFIED
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited UNCLASSIFIED

06-17-2010

TOME OV-1

TOME: Total Ocean Monitoring Enterprise

UNCLASSIFIED

2

TOME
• TOME is a multi-sensor buoy deployed in U. S. Coastal areas supporting

• Missile Defense
• Maritime Domain Awareness • Search and Rescue and Coastal Ocean Monitoring
• TOME provides an acoustic launch confirmation • 30 second MDA requirement sets sensor spacing by time of flight in water • TOME sensors provide data to Maritime Domain Awareness Applications
• S2A (MASTER) & CMA

50 km

~70 km

• TOME Payload (*JCTD may be less due to funding) • Acoustic • HF surface wave radar • SARCR (AIS, GPS, and Iridium) • VHF interferometer • Software Programmable Package (SRP) - Radar receiver (ELINT) • * ADS-B • * Camera • * Meteorological & Oceanographic UNCLASSIFIED 3

TOME SV-1

UNCLASSIFIED

4

What is TOME?
Situation
- As defined in the National Plan To Achieve Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) (October 2005), MDA is “the effective understanding of anything associated with the Maritime domain that could impact the security, safety, economy, or environment of the United States.” - The extremely dynamic nature of Marine Domain Awareness (MDA) along our coast means that while Commander, U.S. Northern Command (NORTHCOM) and the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) have a reasonable knowledge of large cooperative vessels through Automatic Identification System (AIS), Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tag tracking systems, and National Technical Means (NTM) they do not have extensive knowledge and awareness of other non-emitting and smaller craft operating off the U.S. coastline. - The overarching limitation to comprehensive MDA in U.S. coastal areas is providing low-cost, persistent pervasive multi-sensor data on U.S. coastal approaches to National Command Authority, NORTHCOM, DHS, and tactical users.

Problem
- There exists limited awareness and effective understanding of vessels that do not emit electromagnetic signals and for emitting targets, it is difficult to correlate transmitted data with actual target behavior. - Decision-making authorities require information necessary to identify and react to potential threats to national security arising in the maritime domain. Threats must be identified as early and as far off-shore as possible, requiring awareness of U.S. coastal waters out to the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ – out to 200 nautical miles) and even on the high seas. - NORTHCOM Integrated Priority List (IPL) items #2 and 3 identify requirements for Homeland Surveillance and Incident Awareness and Assessment and Ballistic Missile Defense. Enhanced Maritime Domain Awareness through expansion of sensors identified in Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Wide Area Surveillance System Alternatives Analysis. - NORAD-USNORTHCOM needs an Integrated Priority List capability to rapidly detect/confirm over the horizon maritime missile launch, maintain persistent maritime surveillance, and detect, identify, and track uncooperative non-emitting targets in near real time.

Key Technical Ideas
-Provide persistent ISR capabilities - “Tripwire” technologies for National Technical Means - Provide unambiguous and continuous track of maritime surface vessels to enhance MDA for CONUS ocean areas - Early warning hostile maritime missile launches -Detection, identification, and tracking of uncooperative non-emitting maritime targets operating in CONUS ocean areas and U.S. maritime approaches -Deployment of a buoy network to provide position information and persistent relay capability of signal data on contacts to enable processing, fusion, and addition of intelligence to the maritime COP.

Enable surveillance/detection of maritime targets beyond the Horizon.

UNCLASSIFIED

5

LEAP Program Reduces Risk

The NAVSEA Littoral Expeditionary Autonomous Power Buoy (LEAP) provides risk reduction for TOME
The NAVSEA Littoral Expeditionary Autonomous Power Buoy (LEAP) is developing a wave powered buoy for a sensor platform and HF radar track formation using the Tactically Integrated Sensor System

UNCLASSIFIED

Integrating existing technology into a new capability

6

TOME Payload Specifications
• SARCR Payload • AIS Receiver
• Input power: 2W • Frequencies: 161.975MHz at 25kHz; 162.025 at 25kHz • AIS Data Rate: 9,600 bits/s

Acoustic Payload
• • • • Input power: 35W Bearing accuracy: 1 - 5º Range: 5 – 10nmi for passing ships with single sensor, higher with vector sensor array Max. range accuracy (single buoy): 10 – 20m; TOME will process ~ 100 – 200m

GPS Receiver
• Input power: 1.5W • Frequencies: 1,575.42MHz • Accuracy: < 5m (1-sigma), < 10m (2-sigma)

CODAR Buoy Payload
• • • • Input power: 100W Average transmitter power: 40W Transmit antenna: Vertical monopole, length 22 feet Waveform: CW, 100% duty cycle, with amplitude and phase modulation set to GPS start time for transmitter differentiation Frequencies: 13.0 or 25MHz, remotely selectable Bandwidth, resolution: 50kHz sweep, 3 km range resolution; 100kHz sweep, 1.5 km range resolution

IridiumModem
• Input power: 4 W • Frequencies: 1,616 – 1,626.5 MHz • Link margin: 13.1dB

• • •

Onboard Processor
• Input power: 1.5W • Bus: PC/104


VHF Interferometer Software Reconfigurable Payload (SRP)

UNCLASSIFIED

7

How is the team going to do it?
• Demonstration and Assessment Strategy

• • • •

Objective to demonstrate desired multilateral buoy network wide area surveillance capabilities Ability to detect, identify, and track uncooperative non-emitting maritime targets operating in CONUS ocean areas and U.S. maritime approaches Ability to push data to processing / integration suite for fusion and analysis Driven by the Desired Capabilities, the CONOPS, and the proposed Capabilities Solution Two-Phase Incremental Technical and Operational Demonstrations, FY12-13 - Conduct technical component tests and demonstrations:
Reduces risk via test-fix-test approach and warfighter input Performs repetitive evaluations of CONOP / TTPs, threats and environment, scenarios Performs integration test and demonstration Serves as “dress rehearsals” for operational demonstrations (OD) Two TDs: October 2011 and October 2012 Performed following deployment of various buoys to demonstrate technical capabilities Conducted by NMCOP users in order to provide independent operational assessments ODs will include control group assessments OD-1 / LJOUA: April 2012 (LEAP+ buoy network) OD-2 / JOUA: April 2013 (LEAP+ and TOME buoy network)

- Conduct operational demonstrations

UNCLASSIFIED

8

Helping Optimize Multi-static Geometry

• •

Network of 4 Backscatter Radars Augmented by Buoy Transmitter
Darker red shows greatest total-vector & ship surveillance accuracy based on GDOSA GDOSA Plots for Coverage and Accuracy: MATLAB Tool

UNCLASSIFIED

Monostatic and Bistatic Target Geometry

Monostatic Geometry at 13 MHz (SNR contours in green; range cells in white)

Bistatic Geometry at 13 MHz (SNR contours in green; range cells in white)

UNCLASSIFIED

10

CODAR Performance (1)
Monostatic Range @ 6dB SNR
H (m) 0.3 0.9 1.5 2.1 2.7 3.4 4.0 Range (km) 97 88 80 76 72 70 68

M/V Oleandar measured at approximately 40dBsm

UNCLASSIFIED

11

CODAR Performance (2)

Monostatic Range @ 6dB SNR
H (m) 0.3 0.9 1.5 2.1 2.7 3.4 4.0 Range (km) 47 42 38 36 34 33 32

UNCLASSIFIED

12

CODAR Performance (3)

Monostatic Range @ 36dB SNR
H (m) 0.3 0.9 1.5 2.1 2.7 3.4 4.0 Range (km) 96 86 78 76 72 70 68

UNCLASSIFIED

13

Core Technologies and TRL

Technology

Pre-JCTD
6 7 9 6

FY13
9 9 9 8

Sensor Platform
Buoy Platform CODAR Radar SARCR Pallet Acoustic Sensor

Communications and Networking
Communications (Mobile Adhoc Networking) Communications (Iridium) 7 9 9 9

Data Fusion
HF Radar Tactically Integrated Sensors (TIS) C2 6 9 9 9

Display / Analysis

8

8
14

UNCLASSIFIED

DHS Program Highlights
• Ingest ship position reports from existing CODAR shore stations.
• Report generation is a component of LEAP

• • • •

Produce an unclassified version of the Mongoose Fusion Engine. Generate ship tracks from stations participating in the DHS COE. Validate against AIS data. Prepare data for ingestion into S2A.

UNCLASSIFIED

15

TOME Transition Strategy
Hardware (H/W):
- Utilize existing manufacturing specifications and facilities for buoy and sensor production - Based upon existing core and network computing hardware / systems that enable display and fusion of metadata associated with track determination

Software (S/W):
- Leverage existing software systems and capabilities, such as TIS and MONGOOSE. - Utilize existing data guards for transferring collected and processed data to the Fusion system. - Re-use existing web services developed at Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) for MDA JCTD’s CMA and S2A. - Re-use web portal displays developed at NRL for MDA JCTD’s CMA and S2A.

Parameters
Detection Capability Reporting Capability Missile Defense Capability Processing Capability

Entrance Criteria Threshold
Detection Range from U.S. Coast: 100nm Update Frequency: <15 min; Data Throughput: 2.4 kbps Reporting Event: <45 sec; Event Classification: 50% correct ID, SRBM, CM explosion All target information displayed on C2 system

UNCLASSIFIED

16

TOME Schedule

UNCLASSIFIED

17

What is TOME going to do?
TOME Operational View (OV-1)
Description: NORAD-NORTHCOM
- Fuse data from several sensor systems - Present information in various formats - Refine “Tripwire” technologies for National Technical Means - Integrate additional sensor systems - Fusion algorithm (data for emitting and non-emitting vessels) - Automation, Service Oriented Architecture - Interagency cooperation - Persistent ISR

TOME System View (SV-1) DHS

- Provide a low-cost means to continuously detect and track surface craft over a broad coastal surveillance area - Area coverage from 12 – 200nmi from shore - Provide surveillance 24/7/365 - Provide unambiguous and continuous track of maritime surface vessels - Provide vessel tracks to the maritime COP - Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) applications

UNCLASSIFIED

18

Summary
• The TOME data buoy array address the CCDR and DHS requirements to: - Detect, locate, and report on uncooperative, non-emitting maritime targets operating in CONUS ocean areas; - Report on course and speed of the detected maritime targets; - Detect and report on hostile maritime missile launches within the CONUS ocean area; - Merge the information from varied sources and sensors into an overall common operational picture for national and regional waters. • TOME: - Fuses data from several sensor systems - Presents information in appropriate formats - Refines “Tripwire” technologies for National Technical Means - Integrates multi sensor systems - Enables fusion algorithms (data emitting and non-emitting vessels) • To: - Provide a low-cost means to continuously detect and track surface craft over a broad coastal surveillance area - Provide surveillance 24/7/365 - Provide unambiguous and continuous track of maritime surface vessels - Provide vessel tracks to the maritime Common Operational Picture (COP)

Expanded Data Collection for Maritime Domain Awareness!
UNCLASSIFIED 19

Questions

UNCLASSIFIED

20

Back-up Slides

UNCLASSIFIED

21

Tome Quad Chart
Operational Problem:
Lack of a persistent pervasive maritime sensor web to provide data to existing Maritime Domain Awareness applications. Lack of a maritime launch confirmation to NORAD in near realtime

Capabilities Solution:
Integrating current low-cost COTS available technologies consisting of a Power Buoy, HF Radar, Acoustic Sensor, AIS, Meteorological Systems, and Communication System

OV-1:

Potential Technologies:
TRL Buoy Platform Sensor Platform Acoustic Sensor HF Radar Communications (Iridium) Communications (MANET) Tactically Integrated Sensors (C2) Display / Analysis Today 6 9 6 6 9 7 9 8 FY13 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

Participants:
User Sponsor: NORAD-NORTHCOM, DHS (Proposed) Lead Agency: NRL, USN OM: Hal Moore, NORAD-NORTHCOM J54 (Proposed) TM: Michael Lovellette, NRL XM: John Berry, PEO LMW PMS-480 (Proposed) Proposed Stakeholder: USCG NTIO (Proposed)

Transition:
Extended use of prototype five (5) buoy node: Follow-on development, production, fielding, and sustainment:

Funding:
TBD Total

FY11 9,830 9,830

FY12 7,808 7,808

FY13 7,456 7,456

Schedule:
Technical Demonstrations: 3Q FY11 / 3Q FY12 Operational Demonstrations: 3Q FY12 / 3Q FY13 Operational Utility Assessments: 4Q FY11 / 1Q FY13 Extended Use: 3Q FY13 Transition to POR: 4Q FY13

Point of Contact:
Dr. Michael Lovellette, Technical Manager, Naval Research Laboratory, michael.lovellette@nrl.navy.mil, (202) 404-7460

UNCLASSIFIED

22

Who cares?
COCOM Sponsor – NORTHCOM
Priority – TBD - Operational Manager (OM): Hal Moore, NORAD-NORTHCOM J54 - Deputy OM: Matthew Binsfield, NAVSEA NUWC Division Keyport, Code 44 - Technical Manager (TM): Michael Lovellette, NRL Code 7655 - Deputy TM: Craig Bleile, NAVSEA NUWC Division Keyport, Code 44 - Transition Manager (XM): John Berry, PEO LMW PMS-480 - Oversight Executive: ODUSD(CSO) Chris Vogt, Maritime Domain Awareness (proposed)

Summary Funding Table

Yellow $$ cells are formula driven

Total Ocean Monitoring Enterprise (TOME) JCTD
Organization Commitment Type of Funding Funding Description Program Element Project # FY10 FY11

(Dollars in Thousands)
FY12 FY13 Total

Navy NORTHCOM Other

TBD TBD TBD

DUSD (AS&C)

Committed

N/A N/A N/A N/A Total Service & Defense Agency (committed) RDT&E/6.3 Cash TBD TBD Total Cash Committed Funding: Stated JCTD Cash Requirement: Delta to Cash Requirement: 0% Red
2 Funding Description 3

Cash Cash Cash

TBD TBD TBD

$9,830 -$9,830

$7,808 -$7,808

$7,456 -$7,456

$0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $25,095 -$25,095 0% 0%

Service/Agency Committed: Percent Cash Committed: Funding Risk (Cash):

AS&C Percentage Total: Cash Only AS&C Percentage Cash:
Program Element

DinK Section
Organization (Note 1) Commitment Type of Funding Project # FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 Total

ONR DHS PMS-480

TBD TBD TBD

Equipment

DinK TBD N/A DinK TBD N/A DinK 0604755N N/A Total Cash & DinK Committed Funding: Stated JCTD Cash & DinK Requirement: Delta to Cash & DinK Requirement:

$1,000 $6,000 $7,000

$1,000 $4,000 $5,000

$0

$0 $2,000 $10,000 $12,000 $0 $0

Other Participants
- DHS S&T Borders and Maritime Security Division; Tom Tomaiko - USCG, ISR, R&D & NTIO; Daniel C. Schneible

UNCLASSIFIED

23

TOME Buoy “Laydown”
6000 km of Coast with Buoys every 70.4 km ~ 85 Buoys per line 50 km radius Provides worst case 30s water acoustic delay

Point-to-point radio between buoys and Iridium from buoys to shore

70.4 km

Coastal Sensors SeaSonde Variant

50 km L+ T

T

L+

L+

L+

L+

L+

T

UNCLASSIFIED

Unclassified

24

TOME Sensor Suite
A buoy-based system must contend with the environment and provide needed services to the maritime users in addition to a new surveillance role: e.g. Weather, Navigation and Search/Rescue support
BASELINE SURVEILLANCE BUOY SYSTEM
CODAR HF RADAR W/ HF MODEM (LEAP) VHF & AIS RCVRS (SHIP TRANSPONDERS) ACOUSTICS (AIR & WATER) (LEAP+) METEOROLOGICAL SYSTEMS SRP SENSOR DATA EXFILTRATION SYTEM

Provide timely persistent pervasive multisensor data on U.S. Coastal approaches to National Command Authority, CoComms, and tactical users.

ENHANCED BUOY SYSTEMS
TILTMETERS TIMING / LOCATION / NAVIGATION POWER SYSTEMS COMMUNICATIONS RELAY ALL-SKY CAMERA FLUXGATE COMPASS

UNCLASSIFIED

Observability
• Current sensing capabilities are limited by geometry, geography and time • Sensors need to observe the areas of interest either “around the curvature of the earth” or as unattended in situ capability • This presentation explores surveillance of the US maritime borders via in situ techniques. Required attributes include providing significant value to nondefense missions, low cost procurement and operations, and continuous unattended operations

Threat timelines (500km) are: Go-Fast Boat 500 min Jet Aviation 50 min Cruise Missile 35 min Ballistic Missile 8 minutes

500km buffer around CONUS (Pacific, Gulf and Atlantic coasts) implies ~ 5 Million km2 of search volume
UNCLASSIFIED 26

Realtime CODAR Data

XMTR 1 MONT

Range cell 70 is a bistatic solution from the point marked XMTR. Range cell 23 is a monostatic solution from the 1 MONT site (1600 UT / 0800 LT)

Range cells 62 and 15 are identical to the cells in the left panel, one hour later (1700 UT / 0900 LT).

UNCLASSIFIED

27

DHS Vessel Tracking Demonstration

R/V Endeavor

UNCLASSIFIED

Examples of Multi-static Coverages Within New Jersey Seasonde Network

Locator map showing the five Long-Range SeaSonde sites on New Jersey and New York / Long Island coasts

UNCLASSIFIED

29

Examples of Multi-static Coverages Within New Jersey Conventional Backscatter Method

Example of simple backscatter radar coverage from Tuckerton SeaSonde

UNCLASSIFIED

30

Examples of Multi-static Coverages Within New Jersey Bistatic Buoy Method #1

Receiver in Southern New Jersey utilizing signal from a buoymounted transmitter ~170 km offshore

UNCLASSIFIED

31

Examples of Multi-static Coverages Within New Jersey Bistatic Buoy Method #2

Long Range SeaSonde located on Long Island also utilizing signal from buoy

UNCLASSIFIED

32

Where are we today with TOME?
• • TOME is expected to brief at the Joint Capabilities Technology Demonstration (JCTD) Candidate Review Board (CRB) in May 2010. The JCTD program guidelines are currently in transition: • Almost certain there will be a requirement for a Operational Demo at the end of the first year. • Places emphasis on the LEAP+ configuration to meet that reqt. • Still possibility for TOME specific buoy for year two demo. The current baseline LEAP+ configuration will include CODAR transmitter, SACR package (Iridium modem, GPS, AIS receiver, onboard processor), VHF interferometer, Software Reprogrammable Payload (SRP) – ELINT receiver , and acoustic package. The TOME configuration will be identical to LEAP+ with the addition of a CODAR receiver and any additional sensors (ADS-B, camera, meteorological, and oceanographic) available within the program budget. NRL is looking to receive funding from DHS to support ingestion of the CODAR specular data into S2A starting in FY11.

• •

UNCLASSIFIED

33

TOME Payload Pallet
• • • • • To simplify integration NRL would like to define a TOME sensor pallet Single module to contain all NRL payloads. OPT owns outside of module, NRL inside. Power, command interface, limited telemetry interfaces. Feed-thrus for RF and acoustic interfaces. SWAP:
• • • • ~1.5 ft3, should accommodate a 6u CPCI form factor chassis Max. power for thermal analysis 150 W – will power manage to available from platform. Secondary command link when Iridium Modem cannot be used. Telemetry: Input I & V, temp

UNCLASSIFIED

34

Previous CODAR Buoy Architecture

December 2002 Fall 2006 September 2003

UNCLASSIFIED

35

TOME Technology is COTS Available
DSC Receiver

Interface to sensors

Future HF Radar location ?

AIS 1 Receiver

AIS 2 Receiver

General Transmitter

Power supply unit

Internal GPS

Sample CODAR coastal installation 2.5 KW power, 19.2Kb/s communications support needs. The ordinary application is to monitor seastate and currents in the surveillance volume. Shore-side ADS-B Ground station Transceiver Modest R&D investment will be required to re-establish 10m buoy, suitable ship and aircraft for multiple detection/tracking logic. sensors Buoys will have significant limitations in the historic existing technology into current / wave monitoring role. Anticipate 1 s detection new capability “sweeps” based on CODAR waveforms.

Sample Aid to Navigation AIS Transceiver

Integrating a

UNCLASSIFIED

36

POWERBUOY COMPACT CONFIGURATION

Antenna RF Reflective Cover Float Upper Spar Flotation Stowed (LCS) Configuration

Payload Enclosure Truss
Battery Enclosure

Lower Spar Telescoping Section

Heave Plate

On Deck Configuration

Deployed Configuration

UNCLASSIFIED

37

Single Monostatic System

Monostatic Bistatic Systems Transmitters 1 0

Number of Looks 1

UNCLASSIFIED

38

Monostatic Network

Monostatic Bistatic Systems Transmitters 5 0

Number of Looks 5

UNCLASSIFIED

39

Multi-static Network

Monostatic Bistatic Systems Transmitters 5 0

Number of Looks 5

5

5

25

UNCLASSIFIED

40

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful