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Chapter 11 Questions

Multiple Choice 1. Frederick Douglass argued that: a. slaves were truer to the principles of the Declaration of Independence than were most white Americans. b. the United States should adopt a gradual emancipation plan that would eliminate slavery within forty years. c. free blacks would be better off if they moved to Liberia, where a colony of former American slaves had been founded. d. blacks should not serve in the U.S. army during the Civil War because of the racial discrimination they faced. e. free African Americans should “let down their buckets where they were” and accept inequality, at least for a period of time. ANS: A 2. The U.S. slave population by 1860 was approximately: a. 1 million. b. 2 million. c. 3 million. d. 4 million. e. 5 million. ANS: D 3. Which of the following was NOT true of the South and slavery in nineteenth-century America? a. The Old South had developed into the largest and most powerful slave society the modern world has known. b. The rate of natural increase in the slave population had more than made up for the ban on the international slave trade that was enacted in 1808. c. In the South as a whole, slaves made up only 10 percent of the population. d. The amount of money invested in or represented by slavery in the United States exceeded that of the nation’s factories, banks, and railroads combined. e. The Industrial Revolution promoted slavery because it required intensive production of cotton. ANS: C

sorghum d. c. What economic effect did southern slavery have on the North? a. Southern slavery drained resources from the North and helped keep the whole nation in a depression during the 1850s. and Maryland. e. and Mississippi to Kentucky. planters who established textile operations on their plantations. . b. e. Virginia. the lower Mississippi River Valley to the upper Mississippi River Valley. ANS: A 7. Southern slavery helped finance industrialization and internal improvements in the North. tobacco b. older states like Virginia to the Lower South. In the nineteenth century. c. b. rice ANS: D 5. ANS: D 8. 25 percent ANS: B 6. Louisiana. indigo c. cotton e.4. but the institution had little effect otherwise. d. 50 percent d. c. d. preachers who wove heart-wrenching stories of slave suffering into their sermons. b. the West Indies to the Mississippi River Valley. which explains why northerners opposed slavery. Approximately how much of the world’s cotton supply came from the southern United States? a. A few New York shipping companies benefited from slavery. early New England factory owners. The internal slave trade in the United States involved the movement of hundreds of thousands of enslaved persons from: a. Texas. The term “Lords of the Loom” refers to: a. 90 percent b. master artisans who produced cloth in the South. the Lower South to the Upper South. Many northerners profited from investing in real-estate partnerships that controlled southern plantations. 33 percent e. 75 percent c. what product was the world’s major crop produced by slave labor? a. It was minimal. d.

lay mainly on the periphery of the South. Richmond. The South produced nearly two-fifths of the nation’s manufactured goods. Slavery helped to discourage the immigration of white workers to the South. Neither the Upper South nor the Deep South had major industrial centers. Which of the following was NOT true of the South and its economy in the period from 1800 to 1860? a. e. especially cotton textiles. The Upper South was less economically diversified than the Deep South. d. Virginia. ANS: A . owned a substantial number of slaves. d. 25 percent c. like New Orleans and Baltimore. b. what percentage of southern white families were in the slaveowning class? a. In 1860. c. Slavery proved very profitable for most slave owners. were highly self-sufficient but still bought most of their supplies from stores. Southern cities. an influential 1840s novel about slavery. ANS: B 11. were all directly involved in the market economy from the start of the nineteenth century. 10 percent b. Committed to slavery. Southern banks existed mainly to finance plantations. is considered to be the heart of the Deep South. b. Several Upper South states did not join the Confederacy at the time of the Civil War. e. e. 55 percent e. b. with notable exceptions such as New Orleans. all states in both the Upper South and Deep South seceded from the Union. ANS: A 9. Which of the following is a true statement relative to the Upper South and the Deep South? a. ANS: C 10. generally worked the land using family labor. 40 percent d. Southern farmers in the backcountry: a. d. c. 75 percent ANS: B 12. c. were fortunate that their land was far better for farming than that owned by planters.e.

13. showed itself in politics.” e. grow specifically cotton or sugar cane. rose about 80 percent. ANS: C 15. c. was complicated by the strong antislavery movement among poor farmers in the 1850s. own at least twenty slaves. 6 to 10 c. Andrew Johnson of Tennessee and Joseph Brown of Georgia rose to political power: a. own at least ten slaves. as members of the small but influential southern Republican Party. as self-proclaimed spokesmen of the common man against the great planters. after gaining popularity for creating public education systems in their states. benefited in part from a sense of unity bred by criticism from outsiders. e. own at least fifty slaves. because of their membership in and identification with the planter class. rose less than 10 percent. led to numerous violent uprisings in the southern hill country. d. b. as proponents of gradual emancipation plans in order to destroy the “slavocracy. From 1840 to 1860. The relationship between rich southern planters and poor southern farmers: a. b. 15 to 20 d. a person had to be engaged in southern agriculture and: a. ANS: C 17. ANS: E 14. d. in the 1850s. the price of a “prime field hand”: a. was strained by planters’ insistence that farmers participate in the slave patrols. 25 to 30 e. d. a majority of southern slaveholders owned how many slaves? a. live in a large mansion. c. e. b. 1 to 5 b. which kept the size of the planter class about . at least 35 ANS: A 16. b. as most poor farmers became Whigs and most wealthy planters became Democrats. To qualify as a member of the planter class. c. which made it harder for southern whites to enter the slaveholding class. In 1850.

b. b. was roundly criticized by southern newspaper editors. the South’s proslavery argument: a. e. the paternalist ethos: a. claimed that slavery was essential to human economic and cultural progress. declined about 15 percent as the supply of slaves in the internal slave trade increased. Jones of Georgia NOT do? a. d. the development of domestic ideology d. reflected the hierarchical society in which the planter took responsibility for the lives of those around him. ministers. became so inexpensive that the slaveholding class grew to include nearly two-thirds of southern whites. ANS: A 18. the secession crisis ANS: D 19. suffered because southern slaveholders lived among their slaves. ANS: A 20. c. so that the groups’ constant exposure to each other made southern slavery more openly violent than elsewhere. What event is credited with helping to ingrain the paternalist ethos more deeply into the lives of southern slaveholders? a. Nat Turner’s Rebellion b. declined because labor-intensive agricultural work became less popular in the South. c. organize religious instruction of slaves e. e. help improve slave housing b. help discourage severe punishments for slaves c. What did the Reverend Charles C. was based entirely on secular evidence. declined after the War of 1812. By the late 1830s. e. d.the same. the closing of the African slave trade e. as southern society became more centered on market relations rather than on personal relations. brought southern society closer to northern ideals. c. had not yet been accepted by major southern political figures. help improve slave medical care ANS: C 21. rested on the premise that slavery was a necessary evil. the nullification crisis c. d. urge an end to slavery d. encouraged southern women to become more active and better educated so that they could help their husbands in their paternal roles. In the South. and .

e. the freed slaves grew less sugar cane. ANS: D 25. who regularly . involved gradual emancipation accompanied by recognition of owners’ legal rights to slave property. Birney c. Denmark Vesey e. the freed slaves could not take care of themselves and many begged their ex-masters to support them. agreed that slavery was not a necessary evil but something actually positive and good. e. John C. many of those freed had moved to the United States where they could obtain only menial jobs. many newly freed slaves moved to West Africa where they became reenslaved later. competed for power in Andrew Jackson’s administration.academics. Who said that the language in the Declaration of Independence—that all men were created equal and entitled to liberty—was “the most false and dangerous of all political errors”? a. was inspired by the emancipation of slaves that occurred as a result of the American Civil War. c. ANS: D 22. b. followed a pattern very different from that established in the northern United States. b. James Madison b. resulted from violent slave revolts that rocked Latin America from 1822 to 1855. The end of slavery in most Latin American nations: a. ANS: B 24. Calhoun and George Fitzhugh: a. Defenders of American slavery claimed that British emancipation in the 1830s had been a failure because: a. fought a famous duel that demonstrated the southern commitment to the idea of defending one’s honor. Calhoun d. b. d. did not happen until the United States made emancipation an aim of the Spanish-American War. c. were known as two of the most vicious slaveholders. which hurt the economy of the Caribbean. John C. c. Solomon Northup ANS: C 23. d. of the violence it spawned in the West Indies during the 1840s. d. James G.

c. ANS: C 29. for example). Laws specifically provided for a slave to be taught to read and write if the master so chose. a slave tried for killing her master while resisting a sexual assault. agreed on the need for slavery but disagreed as to whether it actually was beneficial to society. Because slaves were property. with permission from his or her master. who secretly criticized her husband John’s views on slavery. c. the pen name of Floride Calhoun. Southern Protestant churches encouraged better treatment of southern slaves than the Roman Catholic Church did with slaves in the Caribbean and South America. d. e.whipped their slaves. a master could kill any of his slaves for any reason. d. Which of the following statements about slavery and the law is true? a. The rising value of slaves made it profitable for slaveowners to take better care of them. slaves led vastly healthier lives in regions other than the American South. although they faced all-white judges and juries. e. e. b. a character in Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Slaves accused of serious crimes were entitled to their day in court. They did not. Laws in the South were far more protective of slaves than were laws concerning slaves elsewhere. Celia was: a. d. Why did southern slaves live in better conditions by the mid-nineteenth century than those in the Caribbean and South America? a. e. In an 1840 letter written from Canada. b. ANS: E 27. Slaves were legally permitted to possess guns if guns were necessary for their work (tasks such as scaring birds away from rice fields. testify against a white person in court. c. A slave could. fugitive slave Joseph Taper asked for divine blessings upon: . b. ANS: A 26. ANS: B 28. Southern slaves had a greater likelihood of becoming free than did other New World slaves. a slave who became famous for helping other slaves escape via the Underground Railroad. the name used to signify a southern plantation mistress in writings about the institution.

b. Prohibit any slave to marry someone from another plantation. d. tended to live in rural areas if they lived in the Lower South. to talk to one of your slaves. could testify in court and vote in most states. All of the following statements are true of the work done by southern slaves . had the same rights as whites in the North but faced far more restrictions on their freedom in the South. b. d. Bennet Barrow’s advice to slaveowners on slave discipline (based on rules for slaves at his Highland Plantation in Louisiana) included all of the following EXCEPT: a. b. e. testify in court. meaning a white man. Sea Island b. abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison. c.a. carry a firearm. Queen Victoria. ANS: E 30. President Martin Van Buren. the writer Harriet Beecher Stowe. Free blacks in the United States: a. ANS: C 34. c. b. but could carry firearms only with the approval of the local sheriff. c. his former master. ANS: A 31. be bought and sold. Allow slaves to grow some of their own food to cut down on costs. Mount Vernon c. Israel Hill d. ANS: A 32. Free blacks in the South were allowed to: a. e. What was the name of the vibrant community of former slaves freed by Virginian Richard Randolph? a. Consider all of a slave’s time to belong to the master. d. c. made up nearly one-third of the African-American population in the South. Sherman’s Land e. sometimes became wealthy enough to own slaves. Never allow a man. d. Make a slave as comfortable as possible at home. Promised Land ANS: C 33. own property. e. vote. e.

increasingly replaced skilled white laborers as the Civil War approached. it was very difficult. by 1860. c. chain gang.EXCEPT: a. got its name for tasking the abilities of slaves. c. ANS: D 36. a secret organization of slaves planning an insurrection. The plantation masters had many means to maintain order among their slaves. b. including white workers.000 worked in factories. and work on their own when they were done. d. allowed slaves to take on daily jobs. complicated work. ANS: E 35. c. d. overseer. ANS: A 38. Urban slaves: a. journeyman. was the most common form of slave labor organization in the South. some 200. what was the most powerful weapon the plantation masters had? a. was an acronym for Take All Southerners’ Knives. deputy master. slaves worked exclusively as agricultural field hands and house servants. the federal government used slaves to build forts and other public buildings in the South. On the plantation. b. most often were domestic servants. d. b. e. always was controlled by an overseer. Task labor: a. ANS: D 37. could work on their own and always kept the majority of their earnings. the threat of sale c. masters rented out slaves to do a variety of jobs. e. c. withholding food . b. According to the text. was a term coined by southerners to describe northern factory workers. e. d. had less autonomy than plantation slaves because there were more authorities to watch them. slaves sometimes were allowed to supervise other laborers. e. exploiting the divisions among slaves d. requiring slaves to attend church b. slave driver. the white employee in charge of ensuring a profitable crop for the plantation master was called the: a. set their own pace.

b. denying a marriage between two slaves ANS: B 39. e. d. combined African traditions and Christian beliefs. meant that slave husbands refused to let their wives work in the fields. where living conditions favored their formation and survival. Slave religion: a. ANS: B 42. were headed by women more frequently than were white families. the men took on more women’s work and vice versa. were more common in the West Indies. Which of the following statements about religious life among AfricanAmericans in southern cities is true? . e. and it was better not to build strong kinship ties. a fugitive slave arriving in a free state. c. d. d. ANS: D 43. Jumping over a broomstick was a ceremony celebrating: a. Slave families: a. usually were able to stay together because most slaveowners were paternalistic. died out by the early 1820s because of strong opposition from whites. Gender roles under slavery: a. benefited from masters assigning a member of each slave quarters to serve as a slave chaplain. greatly differed from those of whites when slaves were able to work on their own. was based entirely on what slaves learned and heard from white ministers. existed without approval from masters. c. b. a slave marriage. ANS: C 40. c. avoided naming children for family members because children so often were sold. ANS: B 41. d. who thought that letting slaves learn about religion might weaken their control. surviving the Middle Passage. b. were unaffected by the ability of masters to take advantage of female slaves sexually. were the same as those that existed in white society.e. the birth of a slave baby. a slave’s promotion from field hand to domestic servant. b. e. e. were rare because there were too few female slaves. differed from those of white society because men and women alike suffered a sense of powerlessness. c.

c. b. ANS: B . ran away. The Brer Rabbit stories of slave folklore: a. c. Noah and the ark c. d. celebrated how the weak could outsmart the more powerful. David and Goliath d. e. named their children after kin. formed the basis of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. ANS: A 46. “Silent sabotage” can be defined as when slaves: a. learned how to read and write. e. borrowed heavily from English folktales but did add some African elements. smaller in scale and less frequent. free and slave. African-Americans. d. introduced the character Paul Bunyan to American culture. The formation of the Afro-Catholic Church in 1844 was a major development in black Christianity. e.a. c. Jonah and the whale e. c. bloodier and more successful. b. ANS: D 47. Free blacks could worship publicly. Blacks usually worshipped in churches where they sat side-by-side with whites. larger in scale but less frequent. ANS: B 44. were largely unknown until the making of a series of animated films in the twentieth century. but slaves were not permitted to do so. were banned from religious services. did poor work and broke tools. smaller in scale but more frequent. b. larger in scale and more frequent. Which of the following stories did NOT play a central role in black Christianity? a. secretly met to worship. d. slave revolts in the United States were: a. b. d. e. Compared to slave revolts in Brazil and in the West Indies. Daniel and the lion’s den ANS: B 45. Moses and the exodus from Egypt b. Urban free blacks sometimes formed their own churches.

was discovered. resulted in over twenty deaths of white men. b. took place in 1831 and was a success. ANS: A 49. cleverly escaped from slavery by pretending to be a sickly male slaveowner. succeeded in escaping more frequently from the Deep South because they had access to ships leaving ports like New Orleans and Charleston. and children. that inspired the gag rule. 10. d. b. ANS: A 52. were more likely to be women than men. d. who escaped to Canada were routinely returned to slavery by the British authorities. because they were trying to escape sexual assault. but Vesey escaped North to freedom.000 ANS: B 50. d. d. generally understood that the North Star led to freedom. 500 b. c. in southern Virginia. Harriet Tubman: a. led a slave rebellion in Maryland in 1849 that resulted in two dozen deaths. 5. reflected a combination of American and African influences.000 d. b. b. South Carolina. 2. c. was a fugitive slave who risked her life many times to bring others out of slavery.48.000 e. e. was a mythical character about whom runaway slaves told many stories. ANS: E 51. Denmark Vesey’s conspiracy: a. e. . reflected the belief of the conspirators that the Bible endorsed slavery. Joseph Cinqué led a slave rebellion: a. benefited from the refusal of non-slaveowners to participate in patrols that looked for fugitives. women. c.000 c. was kidnapped and made a slave in Louisiana. c. Fugitive slaves: a. 1. although born free in New York. Historians estimate that approximately ____________ slaves per year escaped to the North or Canada. that nearly captured a fort in Charleston. e. aboard the Amistad. a.

Turner escaped capture. Which statement about Nat Turner’s Rebellion is true? a. Fewer than twenty whites were killed during the rebellion. It occurred in Georgia. Turner and his followers assaulted mostly men. e. d. c.e. that established the Republic of Haiti. ANS: B 53. Many southern whites were in a panic after the rebellion. ANS: D . b.