ANATOMI DALAM PERGERAKAN MANUSIA

ANATOMI DALAM PERGERAKAN MANUSIA
• SISTEM RANGKA Tulang Rawan Ligamen Tendon  SISTEM SENDI  SISTEM OTOT

PENGENALAN TULANG
 206 Tulang dalam tubuh orang dewasa  Jumlah berat sistem rangka seorang dewasa merupakan 14 % daripada jumlah berat badannya - Meliputi tulang tengkorak, tulang badan, tulang anggota  Bahan Asas : Protein & Mineral ( Kalsium & Posforus )  Komponen : 50 % Air & 50 % Bahan Pejal ( Organan 2/3 , Bukan Organan 1/3 )

KANDUNGAN TULANG
 Bahan Organik : Sel-sel tulang, serat dan bahan dasar termasuk glikoprotein, glikosaminoglikin  Bahan Bukan Organik : garam mineral seperti kalsium karbonat dan kalsium fostat.  Kalsium dan fosfurus adalah bahan-bahan mineral yang membentuk struktur badan manusia.  Gabungan kedua-dua bahan ini menjadi tulang keras dan tegap.  Setiap tulang merupakan organ kepada sistem rangka.  Pembentukan tulang adalah dari tisu-tisu yang kuat dan aktif  Terbentuk dan bertindakbalas mengikut fungsi.  Saiz & bentuk yang membezakan antara tulang

TENDON
• - Merupakan tisu bergentian yang berwarna putih - Ia adalah jalur tisu yang kuat - Tendon melekatkan otot pada tulang - Tendon bersifat tidak kenyal tetapi tidak boleh melentur Cth. : melekatkan bisep pada tulang radius melekatkan otot trisep pada tulang ulna

RAWAN
 Pejal tetapi elastik. Cth. : cuping telinga, hujung hidung, hujung tulang  Peranan :- Rangka penyokong dalam peringkat embriomenyerap hentakan

LIGAMEN
 Merupakan tisu bergentian yang berwarna putih atau kuning pucat  Tisu ini adalah liat dan kuat  Ligamen menghubungkan tulang-tulang yang bersendi -merupakan tisu yang menghubung satu tulang dengan tulang yang lain

JENIS-JENIS TULANG
Tulang panjang (Long Bone) Tulang pendek (Short Bone) Tulang leper ( Flat Bone) Tulang tidak tentu bentuk ( Irregular Bone) Tulang bulat (Round Bone)

Tulang Panjang (Long Bone)
 - Berbentuk panjang dan lurus - Kedua-dua hujung membengkak (epiphysis) . Contoh : humerus, femur, radius, ulna dan tibula.

Tulang Pendek (Short Bone)
• Berbentuk kiub dengan panjang dan lebar hampir sama.

Contoh : tarsals carpals, meta tarsal phalanges.

Tulang tidak tentu bentuk (Irregular Bone)
• - Mempunyai berbagai bentuk. - Bercantum dengan tulang-tulang yang lain. Contoh Veterbrae

Tulang bulat (Round Bone- Sesamoid bone)
• - Bersaiz kecil Contoh : patella

Tulang Leper (Flat bone)
• Mempunyai permukaan yang lebar Contoh : scull, scapula, sternum, pelvis.

FUNGSI TULANG
• • • • • Penyokong Pergerakan Perlindungan Penghasilan Darah Merah Tempat Menyimpan Sumber Mineral

Penyokong
• Membentuk sistem rangka tubuh • Memberi perlekatan kepada otot dan ligamen • Menyokong tisu-tisu lembut

Pergerakan
• Pelekatan otot untuk membantu proses pergerakan dan proses kontrasi bagi menghasilkan pergerakan Contoh : memegang, melentur, menarik, dan menolak.

Perlindungan
• Melindungi organ-organ penting daripada mengalami kecederaan.

• Contoh : skull atau cranium – melindungi otak. ribs – melindungi jantung dan paru-paru.

Penghasilan Sel Darah Merah
• Sel-sel darah merah serta sebahagian sel darah putih dihasilkan melalui proses Hemopoiesis atau Hemotopaisis • Tempat Menyimpan Sumber Mineral
– Menyimpan fosforus, sodium, kalsium, potessium dan mineral lain bagi menghasilkan ostoblas (sel pembina tulang)

JOINTS – Areas of the body where two or more bones meet.
BONE
CARTILAGE – Strong, flexible tissue found in joints. LIGAMENTS – Tissue connecting bone to bone. MUSCLE TENDON – Tissue connecting muscle to bone.

TYPES OF JOINTS
• Ball and Socket Joint: Joint with the widest range of motion.
EXAMPLES: Hip and Shoulder

TYPES OF JOINTS
• Gliding Joint: Joint with a large range of motion (up/down and side/side).
EXAMPLES: Ankle and Wrist

TYPES OF JOINTS
• Hinge Joint: Joint with limited motion (up/down).
EXAMPLES: Knee and Elbow

TYPES OF JOINTS
• Fuse or Immoveable Joint: Joint with no range of motion.
EXAMPLE: Cranium

Fused Joints

Muscles
13.8 Muscles are effectors which enable movement to be carried out

Muscle
• Is responsible for almost all the movements in animals • 3 types
Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle Involuntary controlled by autonomic nervous system

voluntary Skeletal muscle controlled by (aka striped or somatic nervous striated muscle) system

Muscles & the Skeleton
• Skeletal muscles cause the skeleton to move at joints • They are attached to skeleton by tendons. • Tendons transmit muscle force to the bone. • Tendons are made of collagen fibres & are very strong & stiff

Antagonistic Muscle Action
• Muscles are either contracted or relaxed • When contracted the muscle exerts a pulling force, causing it to shorten • Since muscles can only pull (not push), they work in pairs called antagonistic muscles • The muscle that bends the joint is called the flexor muscle • The muscle that straightens the joint is called the extensor muscle

Elbow Joint
• The best known example of antagonistic muscles are the bicep & triceps muscles
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S e c t io n t F e l x o r m u s c e l s H u m e r u s B o n e E x e t n s o r m u s c e l s

b c i e p s

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Muscle Structure
• A single muscle e.g. biceps contains approx 1000 muscle fibres. • These fibres run the whole length of the muscle • Muscle fibres are joined together at the tendons

Bicep Muscle

Muscle Structure
• Each muscle fibre is actually a single muscle cell • This cell is approx 100 m in diameter & a few cm long • These giant cells have many nuclei • Their cytoplasm is packed full of myofibrils • These are bundles of protein filaments that cause contraction • Sarcoplasm (muscle cytoplasm) also contains mitochondria to provide energy for contraction
n u c le i s t r ip e s m y o f ib r ils

•Sarcomere = the basic contractile unit

Muscle Structure
• The E.M shows that each myofibril is made up of repeating dark & light bands • In the middle of the dark band is the M-line • In the middle of the light band is the Z-line • The repeating unit from one Z-line to the next is called the sarcomere

1 myofibril

a r k lig h t M Z d a n d sb a n d s lin e lin eb

1s a r c o m e r e

Muscle Structure
• A very high resolution E.M reveals that each myofibril is made up of parallel filaments. • There are 2 kinds of filament called thick & thin filaments. • These 2 filaments are linked at intervals called cross bridges, which actually stick out from the thick filaments

T h ic k fila m e n t

T h in fila m e n t

C ro s s b rid g e s

The Thick Filament (Myosin)
• Consists of the protein called myosin. • A myosin molecule is shaped a bit like a golf club, but with 2 heads. • The heads stick out to form the cross bridge • Many of these myosin molecules stick together to form a thick filament
o n em y o s in m o le c u le m y o s inh e a d s ( c r o s sb r id g e s )

m y o s inta ils

Thin Filament (Actin)
• The thin filament consists of a protein called actin. • The thin filament also contains tropomyosin. • This protein is involved in the control of muscle contraction

a c t i n m o n o m e r s

t r o p o m y o s i n

•Sarcomere = the basic contractile unit

The Sarcomere
Z in l e T h c i kfi a l m e n ts (m y o s in ) M in l e T h nfil i a m e n ts (a c tin )

Z in l e

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I Band = actin filaments

Anatomy of a Sarcomere
• The thick filaments produce the dark A band. • The thin filaments extend in each direction from the Z line. • Where they do not overlap the thick filaments, they create the light I band. • The H zone is that portion of the A band where the thick and thin filaments do not overlap. • The entire array of thick and thin filaments between the Z lines is called a sarcomere

Sarcomere shortens when muscle contracts
• Shortening of the sarcomeres in a myofibril produces the shortening of the myofibril • And, in turn, of the muscle fibre of which it is a part

Mechanism of muscle contraction
r e a l x e d s a r c o m e r e R e l a x e d m u s c l e

C o n t r a c t e d m u s c l e

• The above micrographs show that the sarcomere c o n t r a c t e d s a r c o m e r e gets shorter when the muscle contracts • The light (I) bands become shorter • The dark bands (A) bands stay the same length

The Sliding Filament Theory
• So, when the muscle contracts, sarcomeres become smaller • However the filaments do not change in length. • Instead they slide past each other (overlap) • So actin filaments slide between myosin filaments • and the zone of overlap is larger

Repetition of the cycle
• One ATP molecule is split by each cross bridge in each cycle. • This takes only a few milliseconds • During a contraction 1000’s of cross bridges in each sarcomere go through this cycle. • However the cross bridges are all out of synch, so there are always many cross bridges attached at any one time to maintain force.
http://199.17.138.73/berg/ANIMTNS/SlidFila.htm