# Basic Concepts in Ductile Detailing of Steel Structures

• • •

Overview of Presentation

What is Ductility ? Why is Ductility Important ? How Do We Achieve Ductility in Steel Structures ?

Michael D. Engelhardt University of Texas at Austin

What is Ductility ?
Ductility: The ability to sustain large inelastic
deformations without significant loss in strength.

F F ∆ ∆
Ductility

∆ F

Ductility = inelastic deformation capacity

F
Fyield

Ductility: - material response
- structural component response (members and connections) - global frame response

F
Fyield

Ductility

Ductility: Qualitative Description
θ
M

M

No Ductility Less Ductile

More Ductile

displacement rotation curvature strain etc.

θ

Ductility: Quantitative Descriptions

Ductility: Quantitative Descriptions

M
Mp

M
Mp

θyield

θmax

θ

θyield
Ductility Factor:

θmax

θ

µ

=

θmax θyield

Ductility: Quantitative Descriptions

Ductility: Quantitative Descriptions

M
Mp

θp

M
Mp

θp

θyield
Plastic Rotation Angle:

θmax

θ

θyield
Rotation Capacity: R =

θmax θp θyield

θ
=µ-1

θp = θmax - θyield

Ductility: Quantitative Descriptions

Ductility: Difficulties with Quantitative Descriptions
Consider a more realistic load - deformation response......

M
Mp

M

θyield

θmax

θ
Based on:

Ductility: ductility factor

µ

plastic rotation angle rotation capacity R etc.

θp

θyield θmax

θ

M

M

θyield

θ

θyield

θ

What is

θyield ?

What is

θyield ?

M

Mmax

M
0.8 Mmax

θmax

θ

θmax

θ

What is

θmax ?

What is

θmax ?

Ductility: Difficulties with Quantitative Descriptions

M M
Mp

θmax

θ
Many definitions of ductility

θ

What is

θmax ?

Many definitions of θyield and θmax

Ductility: Difficulties with Quantitative Descriptions

Ductility: Difficulties with Quantitative Descriptions

θ

40000 Bending Moment (kip-inches) 30000 20000 10000 0 -10000 -20000 -30000 -40000 -0.08 -0.06 -0.04 -0.02 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 Rotation Angle (rad)

How should ductility be measured ??

What is Ductility ?
Ductility = inelastic deformation capacity

How is ductility developed in steel structures ? F F ∆ ∆
Ductility = Yielding

∆ F

Many ways to quantify ductility When quantifying ductility.......
Clearly define measure of ductility Clearly define θyield and θmax Use consistent definitions when describing ductility demand and ductility supply

F

Loss of load carrying capability: Instability Fracture

Why is Ductility Important?
     
Permits redistribution of internal stresses and forces Increases strength of members, connections and structures Permits design based on simple equilibrium models Results in more robust structures Provides warning of failure Permits structure to survive severe earthquake loading

Why Ductility ?
     
Permits redistribution of internal stresses and forces Increases strength of members, connections and structures Permits design based on simple equilibrium models Results in more robust structures Provides warning of failure Permits structure to survive severe earthquake loading

Example: Plate with hole subjected to tension

Example:

P

6"

P P L 1/2" x 6" σ
X 50 ksi

P

σmax 50 ksi

P

1" dia. hole

σ
50 ksi

σ
50 ksi X

σmax = 2.57 σavg
50 ksi = 2.57 x
Material "A"

P 2.5 in2

Material "A"

Material "B"

ε

ε

ε

Pmax = 49 k

Example:

Example:

P

50 ksi

P

P

50 ksi

P

σ
50 ksi

σ
50 ksi

50 ksi =
Material "B"

P 2.5 in2

Material "B"

ε

ε

Pmax = 125 k

Example: Flexural Capacity
4"

P

P M M
12"

σ
50 ksi X

σ
50 ksi

Material "A"

Material "B"

ε Pmax = 49k Pmax = 125k

ε

σ
50 ksi X

σ
50 ksi

Material "A"

Material "B"

ε

ε

4"

4"

12"

12"

σmax = 50 ksi
σ max =
M = 50 ksi S

σmax =

50 ksi

σ
50 ksi X

S = 96 in3
Material "A"

σ
50 ksi

Mmax = 96 in3 x 50 ksi = 4800 k-in ε

Material "B"

ε

4"

50 ksi

4"

M
12"

M σ
X 50 ksi

12"

σ
50 ksi
50 ksi

σ max =

M = 50 ksi Z

Material "A"

Material "B"

σ
50 ksi

Z = 144 in3
Material "B"

ε Mmax = 4800 k-in

ε Mmax = 7200 k-in

Mmax = 144 in3 x 50 ksi = 7200 k-in ε

Example: Beam Capacity
L = 30 ft. w

Example: Beam Capacity
w

250 k-ft

M
500 k-ft

wL2 8

M
500 k-ft.

M
500 k-ft.

M
500 k-ft.

wL2 = 750 k − ft 8
Beam "A"

Beam "A"

Beam "B"

wmax = 6.67 k / ft.
θ

θ

θ

Example: Beam Capacity
w

L = 30 ft. w
500 k-ft 250 k-ft
wL2 8

M
500 k-ft

M
500 k-ft.

M
500 k-ft.

Beam "A"

Beam "B"

M
500 k-ft.

wL = 1000 k − ft 8
Beam "B"

2

θ

θ

wmax = 8.89 k / ft.
θ

wmax = 6.67 k / ft.

wmax = 8.89 k / ft.

Why Ductility ?
     
Permits redistribution of internal stresses and forces Increases strength of members, connections and structures Permits design based on simple equilibrium models Results in more robust structures Provides warning of failure Permits structure to survive severe earthquake loading

Lower Bound Theorem of Plastic Analysis
A limit load based on an internal stress or force distribution that satisfies: 1. Equilibrium 2. Material Strength Limits for Ductile Response (σ ≤ Fy , M ≤ Mp, P ≤ Py , etc) is less than or equal to the true limit load.

Lower bound theorem only applicable for ductile structures

Implications of the lower bound theorem ............
For a structure made of ductile materials and components: Designs satisfying equilibrium and material strength limits are safe. As a designer, as long as we satisfy equilibrium (i.e. provide a load path), a ductile structure will redistribute internal stresses and forces so as to find the available load path.

Example of lower bound theorem: Beam Capacity
L = 30 ft. w

M
Mp = 500 k-ft.

Ductile flexural behavior

θ

What is the load capacity for this beam ??

wmax = 8.89 k / ft.

L = 30 ft. w

L = 30 ft. w

What is the load capacity for this beam ?? By lower bound theorem: Choose any moment diagram in equilibrium with the applied load. The moment cannot exceed Mp at any point along the beam. The resulting load capacity "w" will be less than or equal to the true load capacity. Moment diagram in equilibrium with applied load "w" Possible lower bound solutions......

wL2 8

L = 30 ft. w

L = 30 ft. w

500 k-ft
wL2 8

M

M
wL2 8

wL2 = 500 k − ft 8

500 k-ft

w = 4.44 k / ft.

(≤ 8.89 k / ft. )
wL2 = 500 k − ft 8

w = 4.44 k / ft.

(≤ 8.89 k / ft. )

L = 30 ft. w

L = 30 ft. w

250 k-ft

500 k-ft
wL 8
2

M
500 k-ft

M
500 k-ft

wL2 8

wL2 = 750 k − ft 8

w = 6.67 k / ft.

(≤ 8.89 k / ft. )

wL2 = 1000 k − ft 8

w = 8.89 k / ft.

(= true wmax )

Examples of lower bound theorem Flexural capacity of steel section:
Fy

Examples of lower bound theorem Flexural capacity of a composite section:
0.85 fc'

C
d

C
d

T
Fy

T
Fy

σ ≤ Fy
Equilibrium: C=T Mn = C * d = Z Fy

σsteel ≤ Fy
Equilibrium:

σconc ≤ 0.85 fc'
C=T Mn = C * d

Why Ductility ?
     
Permits redistribution of internal stresses and forces Increases strength of members, connections and structures Permits design based on simple equilibrium models Results in more robust structures Provides warning of failure Permits structure to survive severe earthquake loading

Why Ductility ?
     
Permits redistribution of internal stresses and forces Increases strength of members, connections and structures Permits design based on simple equilibrium models Results in more robust structures Provides warning of failure Permits structure to survive severe earthquake loading

Building Acceleration

Building: Mass = m

F = ma
Earthquake Forces on Buildings: Inertia Force Due to Accelerating Mass

Ground Acceleration

Conventional Building Code Philosophy for EarthquakeEarthquake-Resistant Design

To Survive Strong Earthquake without Collapse:

Objective:

Prevent collapse in the extreme earthquake likely to occur at a building site.

Design for Ductile Behavior

Objectives are not to: - limit damage - maintain function - provide for easy repair

H
H
Helastic

H

3/4 *Helastic Ductility = Inelastic Deformation 1/2 *Helastic

Available Ductility Required Strength

H

1/4 *Helastic

MAX

Achieving Ductile Response....

Ductile Limit States Must Precede Brittle Limit States How Do We Achieve Ductility in Steel Structures ?

Example
gusset plate double angle tension member

double angle tension member

P P P
Example:
Ductile Limit State: Brittle Limit States: Gross-section yielding of tension member Net-section fracture of tension member Block-shear fracture of tension member Net-section fracture of gusset plate Block-shear fracture of gusset plate Bolt shear fracture Plate bearing failure in double angles or gusset

P

Gross-section yielding of tension member must precede net section fracture of tension member Pyield = Ag Fy Pfracture = Ae Fu

Gross-section yield: Net-section fracture:

double angle tension member

double angle tension member

P

P

P

P

Pyield ≤ Pfracture Ag Fy ≤ Ae Fu
Ae Fy ≥ Ag Fu

The required strength for brittle limit states is defined by the capacity of the ductile element

Example:

Gross-section yielding of tension member must precede bolt shear fracture

Gross-section yield: Pyield = Ag Fy Fy Fu
= yield ratio Steels with a low yield ratio are preferable for ductile behavior

Bolt shear fracture:

Pbolt-fracture = nb ns Ab Fv

Fv =

0.4 Fu-bolt -N 0.5 Fu-bolt -X

double angle tension member

double angle tension member

P

P

P

P

Pyield ≤ Pbolt-fracture

The required strength for brittle limit states is defined by the capacity of the ductile element

Example:

Bolts: 3 - 3/4" A325-X double shear Ab = 0.44 in2 Fv = 0.5 x 120 ksi = 60 ksi Pbolt-fracture = 3 x 0.44 in2 x 60 ksi x 2 = 158k Angles: 2L 4 x 4 x 1/4 A36 Ag = 3.87 in2 Pyield = 3.87 in2 x 36 ksi = 139k

The ductile element must be the weakest element in the load path

double angle tension member

double angle tension member

P

P

P

P

Pyield ≤ Pbolt-fracture Pyield = 139k Pbolt-fracture = 158k

Pyield ≤ Pbolt-fracture

OK

Pyield = 3.87 in2 x 54 ksi = 209k Pbolt-fracture = 158k Pyield ≤ Pbolt-fracture
Bolt fracture will occur before yield of angles non-ductile behavior

What if the actual yield stress for the A36 angles is greater than 36 ksi? Say, for example, the actual yield stress for the A36 angle is 54 ksi.

double angle tension member

double angle tension member

P Pyield ≤ Pbrittle
Stronger is not better in the ductile element (Ductile element must be weakest element in the load path) For ductile response: must consider material overstrength in ductile element

P

P Pyield ≤ Pbrittle
The required strength for brittle limit states is defined by the expected capacity of the ductile element (not minimum specified capacity)

P

Pyield = Ag RyFy

Ry Fy = expected yield stress of angles

Achieving Ductile Response....

Achieving Ductile Response....

Ductile Limit States Must Precede Brittle Limit States
Define the required strength for brittle limit states based on the expected yield capacity for ductile element

Connection response is generally non-ductile..... Connections should be stronger than connected members

The ductile element must be the weakest in the load path Unanticipated over strength in the ductile element can lead to non-ductile behavior. Steels with a low value of yield ratio, Fy / Fu are preferable for ductile elements

Achieving Ductile Response....

General Trends: As Fy Elongation (material ductility) Fy / Fu

Be cautious of high-strength steels

Ref: Salmon and Johnson - Steel Structures: Design and Behavior

Achieving Ductile Response....

Achieving Ductile Response....

Be cautious of high-strength steels
High strength steels are generally less ductile (lower elongations) and generally have a higher yield ratio. High strength steels are generally undesirable for ductile elements

Use Sections with Low Width-Thickness Ratios and Adequate Lateral Bracing

Effect of Local Buckling on Flexural Strength and Ductility
M

Moment Capacity

θ

Plastic Buckling

Mp Mr

Inelastic Buckling Elastic Buckling

M
Mp

Increasing b / t

θ

Moment Capacity

Mp Mr

Moment Capacity

Plastic Buckling Inelastic Buckling Elastic Buckling

Ductility

λps λp

λr

Width-Thickness Ratio (b/t)

Plastic Buckling

Mp Mr

Inelastic Buckling Elastic Buckling
Noncompact Sections

Slender Element Sections

Ductility

Ductility

λps λp

λr

Width-Thickness Ratio (b/t)

λps λp

λr

Width-Thickness Ratio (b/t)

Moment Capacity

Mp Mr

Moment Capacity

Plastic Buckling Inelastic Buckling Elastic Buckling
Compact Sections

Plastic Buckling

Mp Mr

Inelastic Buckling Elastic Buckling
Seismically Compact Sections

Ductility

Local buckling of a seismically compact moment frame beam.....

Local buckling of noncompact and slender element sections

5000 4000 3000 Bending Moment (kN-m) 2000 1000 0 -1000 -2000 -3000 -4000 -5000 -0.05 -0.04 -0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 Drift Angle (radian)

Local buckling of a seismically compact EBF link.....
Mp

Mp
RBS Connection

Ductility

λps λp

λr

Width-Thickness Ratio (b/t)

λps λp

λr

Width-Thickness Ratio (b/t)

Effect of Local Buckling on Ductility
200

For ductile flexural response: Use compact or seismically compact sections
bf

150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 -200 -0.08 -0.06 -0.04 -0.02 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

Example: W-Shape

tf h tw

γ

Lateral Torsional Buckling

Beam Flanges
Compact:
bf Es ≤ 0.38 2t f Fy bf Es ≤ 0.30 2t f Fy

Lateral torsional buckling controlled by:

Lb ry

Seismically Compact:

Lb = distance between beam lateral braces ry = weak axis radius of gyration
Beam lateral braces

Beam Web Compact:
Es h ≤ 3.76 tw Fy

Seismically Compact:

Es h ≤ 2.45 tw Fy

Lb

Lb

Effect of Lateral Torsional Buckling on Flexural Strength and Ductility: Ductility:

θ
M

M
Mp

Increasing Lb / ry

θ

Effect of Lateral Buckling on Ductility For ductile flexural response: Use lateral bracing based on plastic design requirements or seismic design requirements

Achieving Ductile Response....

Recognize that buckling of a compression member is non-ductile
⎞ ⎟ ry ⎟ ⎠

Plastic Design:

⎡ ⎛ M1 Lb ≤ ⎢0.12 + 0.076 ⎜ ⎜M ⎢ ⎝ 2 ⎣

⎞⎤ ⎛ E ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎥ ⎜ F ⎠⎥ ⎦⎝ y

Seismic Design:

⎛E Lb ≤ 0.086 ⎜ ⎜F ⎝ y

⎞ ⎟ ry ⎟ ⎠

Experimental Behavior of Brace Under Cyclic Axial Loading Pcr δ P Pcr W6x20 Kl/r = 80

δ
δ P

How Do We Achieve Ductile Response in Steel Structures ?

How Do We Achieve Ductile Response in Steel Structures ?

Ductile limit states must precede brittle limit states
 Ductile elements must be the weakest in the load path  Stronger is not better in ductile elements  Define Required Strength for brittle limit states based on expected yield capacity of ductile element

• • • • •

Provide connections that are stronger than members Avoid high strength steels in ductile elements Use cross-sections with low b/t ratios Provide adequate lateral bracing Recognize that compression member buckling is non-ductile