The Zeeman effect (pron.

: /ˈzeɪmən/; IPA: [ˈzeːmɑn]), named after the Dutch physicist Pieter Zeeman, is the effect of splitting a spectral line into several components in the presence of a static magnetic field. It is analogous to the Stark effect, the splitting of a spectral line into several components in the presence of an electric field. Also similarly to the Stark effect, transitions between different components have, in general, different intensities, with some being entirely forbidden (in the dipole approximation), as governed by the selection rule

In optics, a caustic or caustic network [1] is the envelope of light rays reflected or refracted by a curved surface or object, or the projection of that envelope of rays on another surface.[citation needed] The caustic is a curve or surface to which each of the light rays is tangent, defining a boundary of an envelope of rays as a curve of concentrated light.[citation needed] Therefore in the image to the right, the caustics can be the patches of light or their bright edges. These shapes often have cusp singularities.

Diffraction refers to various phenomena which occur when a wave encounters an obstacle. In classical physics, the diffraction phenomenon is described as the apparent bending of waves around small obstacles and the spreading out of waves past small openings. Similar effects occur when a light wave travels through a medium with a varying refractive index, or a sound wave travels through one with varying acoustic impedance. Diffraction occurs with all waves, including sound waves, water waves, and electromagnetic waves such as visible light, X-rays and radio waves.

In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency,[1] or alternatively when the group velocity depends on the frequency. Media having such a property are termed dispersive media. Dispersion is sometimes called chromatic dispersion to emphasize its wavelength-dependent nature, or group-velocity dispersion (GVD) to emphasize the role of the group velocity. Dispersion is most often described for light waves, but it may occur for any kind of wave that interacts with a medium or passes through an inhomogeneous geometry (e.g., a waveguide), such as sound waves. A material's dispersion is measured by its Abbe number, V, with low Abbe numbers corresponding to strong dispersion.

Examples of dispersion
The most familiar example of dispersion is probably a rainbow, in which dispersion causes the spatial separation of a white light into components of different wavelengths (different colors). However, dispersion also has an effect in many other circumstances: for example, GVD causes pulses to spread in optical fibers, degrading signals over long distances; also, a cancellation between group-velocity dispersion and nonlinear effects leads to soliton waves.

Urate crystals. Calcium pyrophosphate crystals. This effect was first described by the Danish scientist Rasmus Bartholin in 1669. with the crystals with their long axis seen as horizontal in this view being parallel to that of a red compensator filter. who saw it in calcite. Material dispersion comes from a frequency-dependent response of a material to waves. and are thereby of negative birefringence. in contrast.[2] Crystals with anisotropic crystal structures are often birefringent. For example. a photonic crystal). Their combination leads to signal degradation in optical fibers for telecommunications.[8] or a crystal of known birefringence is added to the sample for comparison. More generally. Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light. .[7] In practice. urate crystals appear yellow and calcium pyrophosphate crystals appear blue when their long axes are aligned parallel to that of a red compensator filter. In general. as well as plastics under mechanical stress. although they are not strictly additive. Birefringence is utilized in medical diagnostics.g. Waveguide dispersion occurs when the speed of a wave in a waveguide (such as an optical fiber) depends on its frequency for geometric reasons. the decomposition of a ray of light into two rays when it passes through a birefringent material.. both types of dispersion may be present. "waveguide" dispersion can occur for waves propagating through any inhomogeneous structure (e. whether or not the waves are confined to some region. show weak positive birefringence. because the varying delay in arrival time between different components of a signal "smears out" the signal in time.[1] These optically anisotropic materials are said to be birefringent.Sources of dispersion There are generally two sources of dispersion: material dispersion and waveguide dispersion. Birefringence is also often used as a synonym for double refraction. Needle aspiration of fluid from a gouty joint will reveal negatively birefringent monosodium urate crystals. These appear as yellow. independent of any frequency dependence of the materials from which it is constructed. The birefringence is often quantified by the maximum difference in refractive index within the material. material dispersion leads to undesired chromatic aberration in a lens or the separation of colors in a prism.

the emitted light has a longer wavelength. .In ophthalmology. who first studied them in 1717. or other mechanical action (mechanoluminescence). Fluorescence has many practical applications. it is possible for one electron to absorb two photons. chemical sensors (fluorescence spectroscopy). and.[9] Likewise. most commonly. zona imaging uses birefringence on oocytes to select the ones with highest chances of successful pregnancy. Electroluminescence (EL) is an optical phenomenon and electrical phenomenon in which a material emits light in response to the passage of an electric current or to a strong electric field. In most cases. and the emitted light is in the visible region. scanning laser polarimetry utilises the birefringence of the retinal nerve fibre layer to indirectly quantify its thickness. named after Isaac Newton. than the absorbed radiation. Birefringence characteristics in sperm heads allow for the selection of spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. this two-photon absorption can lead to emission of radiation having a shorter wavelength than the absorbed radiation. fluorescent lamps. and therefore lower energy. Kasha-Vavilov rule Mirror image rule Stokes shift The phenomenon of Newton's rings. fluorescent labelling. dyes. It is a form of luminescence. termed "resonance fluorescence". gemology. and thus invisible to the human eye. including mineralogy. This is distinct from black body light emission resulting from heat (incandescence). The emitted radiation may also be of the same wavelength as the absorbed radiation. which is of use in the assessment and monitoring of glaucoma. sound (sonoluminescence). Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation. biological detectors. when the absorbed electromagnetic radiation is intense. is an interference pattern caused by the reflection of light between two surfaces – a spherical surface and an adjacent flat surface. from a chemical reaction (chemiluminescence).[1] The most striking examples of fluorescence occur when the absorbed radiation is in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. However.[10] Birefringence of particles biopsied from pulmonary nodules indicates silicosis.

which are used in endoscopes and telecommunications.[1] and can be observed for celestial objects such as the surface of the Moon and the asteroids. is a relationship between the albedo of an astronomical object. alternating bright and dark rings centered at the point of contact between the two surfaces. but not when passing from air to glass Total internal reflection is the operating principle of optical fibers. The Umov effect. This can only occur where light travels from a medium with a higher [n1=higher refractive index] to one with a lower refractive index [n2=lower refractive index]. the light beam will be partially refracted at the boundary surface. Rayleigh scattering is a function of the electric polarizability of the particles. . Newton's rings appear as a series of concentric. also known as Umov's law. but is most prominently seen in gases.[1] is the elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the light. named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh. The effect was discovered by the Russian physicist Nikolay Umov in 1905. which is the reason for the blue color of the sky and the yellow tone of the sun itself. no light can pass through and all of the light is reflected. When a light beam crosses a boundary between materials with different kinds of refractive indices. or reflected from the high snowfields in mountain regions long after sunset. and partially reflected. An afterglow may appear above the highest clouds in the hour of deepening twilight. The particles produce a scattering effect upon the component parts of white light. The particles may be individual atoms or molecules. Rayleigh scattering of sunlight in the atmosphere causes diffuse sky radiation. For example. The critical angle is the angle of incidence above where the total internal incidence occurs. If the refractive index is lower on the other side of the boundary and the incident angle is greater than the critical angle. Rayleigh scattering.e. However. the ray is closer to being parallel to the boundary) than the critical angle – the angle of incidence at which light is refracted such that it travels along the boundary – then the light will stop crossing the boundary altogether and instead be totally reflected back internally. it will occur when passing from glass to air. and the degree of polarization of light reflecting off it. if the angle of incidence is greater (i. It can occur when light travels through transparent solids and liquids. An afterglow is a broad high arch of whitish or rosy light appearing in the sky due to very fine particles of dust suspended in the high regions of the atmosphere. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that happens when a ray of light strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface.When viewed with monochromatic light.

[1][2] It occurs due to the deviation angles of the primary and secondary rainbows. around the times of sunset and sunrise. A blue moon is a second full moon in a single calendar month. A very similar effect can be seen during a total solar eclipse. a horizontal red glowing band can sometimes be observed on the opposite horizon. but are possible over cloud tops and mountain tops as well. The rarity of this astronomical event derives from the length of the lunar cycle. such as over the ocean. The Belt of Venus or Venus's Girdle is the Victorian-era name for an atmospheric phenomenon seen at sunrise and sunset. above the sun. so most months contain only one full moon. the observer is. Green flashes and green rays are optical phenomena that occur shortly after sunset or before sunrise. or is very nearly. Green flashes are a group of phenomena stemming from different causes. They usually are seen at an unobstructed horizon. usually for no more than a second or two.Airglow (also called nightglow) is the very weak emission of light by a planetary atmosphere. Alpenglow (from German: Alpenglühen) is an optical phenomenon. which happens every two to three years. This shadow is often visible from the surface of the Earth. . The Arch's light rose (pink) color is due to backscattering of reddened light from the rising or setting Sun. this optical phenomenon causes the night sky to never be completely dark (even after the effects of starlight and diffused sunlight from the far side are removed). Both bows exist due to an optical effect called the angle of minimum deviation. 29. surrounded by a pinkish glow (or anti-twilight arch) that extends roughly 10°–20° above the horizon.53 days [1]. When the Sun is just below the horizon. the Earth's shadow or "dark segment". the glow is separated from the horizon by a dark layer. This atmospheric phenomenon can sometimes be seen twice a day. and some are more common than others. when a green spot is visible. The Earth's shadow or Earth shadow (also sometimes known as the dark segment) are names for the shadow that the Earth itself casts on its atmosphere.[1] Green flashes may be observed from any altitude (even from an aircraft). The refractive index of water prevents light from being deviated at smaller angles. Shortly after sunset or shortly before sunrise. In the case of Earth's atmosphere. Often. Alpenglow is easiest to observe when mountains are illuminated but can also be observed when the sky is illuminated through backscattering. as a dark band in the sky near the horizon. Alexander's band or Alexander's dark band is an optical phenomenon associated with rainbows which was named after Alexander of Aphrodisias who first described it in 200 AD. or it may resemble a green ray shooting up from the sunset point.

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