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RESERVE BANK OF INDIA
Reserve Bank of India was established on 01.04.1935 under RBI Act 1934 on the recommendations of John Hilton Young commission 1926 (Royal Commission on Indian Currency and Finance). RBI is Central Bank of our country and it is nationalised w.e.f 1st January, 1949. Initially it was a shareholders’ bank which was taken over by the Central Government under Reserve Bank(Transfer of Public Ownership) Act 1948 with a paid up capital of Rs 5 Cr. RBI’s Central Office is in Mumbai. FUNCTIONS OF RBI: a. Issuance of currency: RBI is the sole agency/authority in India to issue bank notes under signature of Governor, RBI. Bank Note means Rs.2 and above. (One rupee note and all coins will be issued by Central Government. One rupee note will be signed by Finance Secretary) Coins will be minted at four stations i.e. Mumbai, Kolkata, Hyderabad and Noida b. Banker to the Government: Manages public debt and transacts government business. c. Bankers bank: Controls the banks and acts as a lender of last resort by providing financial assistance in various ways d. Controller of credit to control inflation and money supply e. It ensures liquidity position of banks requirements. through maintenance of CRR/SLR
Nationalization of Banks
A significant milestone in Indian Banking happened in the late 1960s when the government nationalized, on 19th July, 1969 14 major commercial Indian Banks, followed by nationalization of 6 more commercial Indian banks in 1980. The stated reason for the nationalization was more control of credit delivery. After this, until the 1990s, the nationalized banks grew at a leisurely pace of around 4%. New Bank of India was amalgamated with Punjab National Bank in 1993.
What is a reverse repo rate? This is the exact opposite of repo rate. Privatisation and Globalisation took place and banking industry picked up a lot in its business. it reduces the repo rate. etc. What is a repo rate? Repo rate is the rate at which banks borrow funds from the RBI to meet the gap between the demand they are facing for money (loans) and how much they have on hand to lend. If the RBI wants to make it more expensive for the banks to borrow money. As a result. This helps stem the flow of excess money into the economy Reverse repo rate signifies the rate at which the central bank absorbs liquidity from the banks. . The RBI uses this tool when it feels there is too much money floating in the banking system If the reverse repo rate is increased. banks would prefer to keep their money with the RBI (which is absolutely risk free) instead of lending it out (this option comes with a certain amount of risk) Consequently.During 1990 and 2000 Liberalisation. while repo signifies the rate at which liquidity is injected. banks would have lesser funds to lend to their customers. Net BANKING. if it wants to make it cheaper for banks to borrow money. it increases the repo rate. development of Alternate delivery channels like ATM. it means the RBI will borrow money from the bank and offer them a lucrative rate of interest. Technological advancement started by migrating from manual to computerisation of records. similarly. Mobile Banking. Narasimhan’s Commitee recommendations on prudential norms for Non Performing Assets were adopted which resulted in healthy growth of banks asset portfolio. After 2000 till date banks growth started galloping through Online Banking. The rate at which RBI borrows money from the banks (or banks lend money to the RBI) is termed the reverse repo rate.
and thereby. If the RBI hikes the bank rate (this is currently 9 per cent). This serves two purposes. What is call rate? Call rate is the interest rate paid by the banks for lending and borrowing for daily fund requirement.What is bank rate? This is the rate at which RBI lends money to other banks (or financial institutions The bank rate signals the central bank’s long-term outlook on interest rates. inflation by tying their hands in lending money. hikes its own lending rates to ensure it continues to make a profit. by stipulating • • • Minimum margin for lending against selected commodities Ceiling on level of credit Minimum rate of interest to be charged on advances against particular commodities. What SLR does is again restrict the bank’s leverage in pumping more money into the economy. Banks make a profit by borrowing at a lower rate and lending the same funds at a higher rate of interest. What is CRR? Cash Reserve Ratio. If the bank rate moves up. Since banks need funds on a daily basis. What is selective credit control? Also known as qualitative control is used to regulate Cost and quantum of credit to selected sectors. they lend to and borrow from other banks according to their daily or short-term requirements on a regular basis. refers to a portion of deposits (as cash) which banks have to keep/maintain with the RBI. It ensures that a portion of bank deposits is totally risk-free and secondly it enables that RBI control liquidity in the system. long-term interest rates also tend to move up. in turn. the interest that a bank pays for borrowing money (banks borrow money either from each other or from the RBI) increases. It. and vice-versa. banks are required to invest a portion of their deposits in government securities as a part of their statutory liquidity ratio (SLR) requirements. . What is SLR? Besides the CRR.
Practice Bits 1. Reverse Repo Rate has the following characteristic: a) Borrowing by RBI from banks b) Borrowing with government security as collateral c) Short Term Borrowing d) All the above e) None of the above 4. deposit and other banking facilities to people in rural areas e) None of the above 6. Functions of Reserve Bank are: a) Bankers bank b) Banker to Government c) Lender of last resort d) Controlling financial requirements of banks through Repo/Reverse Repo e) All the above 2. Regional Rural Banks have been set up with the basic objective of: a) Providing credit to semi-urban and urban population b) Providing deposits facilities to farmers c) Providing credit and deposit facilities to rural areas d) Providing credit. The following is a mechanism for injecting liquidity by RBI to the financial system: a) Reverse Repo d) Repo b) Hike in CRR e) None of the above c) Hike in interest rate . How many Deputy Governors will be there in RBI: a) 3 b) 5 c) 7 d) 4 e) No Deputy Governor will be appointed 3. Indian commercial banks are categorised into: a) Public Sector banks d) All the above b) Foreign Banks e) None of the above c) Private Sector Banks 5.
The interest on Marginal Standing Facility sanctioned by RBI to banks is: a) Repo rate plus 1% b) Repo Rate plus 2% c) Repo Rate plus 3% e) None of the above c) C. ____________ are Local Institutions functioning like Banks a) Local Area Banks d) Financial Institutions b) Indigenous Banks e) All the above c) Private Banks 8. The first nationalisation of banks exercise was done on: a) 19.Rao b) James Taylor e) None of the above .Desh Mukh d) One percent less than reverse repo rate 16. At present the rate of interest paid by RBI to Commercial Banks on CRR is : a) 3% b) 4% c) 5% d) No interest d) Only for above Rs.07. Which of the following deposits do not attract TDS? c) Flexi Deposits 12. The Basic criteria that was considered while nationalisation of banks in 1969 was the liability base of banks is more than: a) 30 crores or more d) 60 crores or more a) Fixed Deposits d) Call Deposits b) 40 crores or more e) None of the above b) Deposit Reinvestment Deposits e) Recurring Deposits c) 50 crores or more 11.1969 d) 15.1967 b) 19.08. 1000 crore CRR balance.R. How many banks were nationalised In the second phase in 1980: a) 5 b) 6 c) 7 d) 4 e) 1 10. Who was the first governor of RBI? a) Osborne Smith d) B.07. The Cash Reserve Ratio is to be maintained by Commercial Banks in the form of: a)Cash in hand at branches c)Balance in a special account with RBI e) Any of the above options.7. b) Balance with other banks d) Funds in the currency chest 15.07. 13. 14. Increasing Cash Reserve Ratio from time to time by Reserve Bank of India leads to: a) Decrease in deposit b) Increase in lendable resources c) Any of the above b) Increasing in deposit d) Decrease in lendable resources.1967 9.1970 e) None of the above c) 19.
Who will sign One Rupee Note? a) Governor. One rupee note and all coins will be issued by: a) Reserve Bank of India c) Central and State Governments collectively d) None of the above 19.RBI b) Governors of concerned state governments c) Finance Secretary. Ministry of Finance d) Finance Minister e) None of the above 20. RBI was established in 1935 pursuant to recommendation of: a) The Hilton Young Commission b) b) All India Rural Credit Survey Committee c) Gorawala Committee d) Talwar Committee e) None of the above 18.17. What is MSF? a) Marginal Standing Facility b) Micro and Small Finance c) Medium Size finance d) Mid Term Sanction facility e) None of the above e) All the above b) Central Government Answers Q Ans 1 e 2 d 3 d 4 d 5 d 6 d 7 b 8 a 9 b 10 c Q Ans 11 e 12 d 13 c 14 d 15 a 16 a 17 a 18 b 19 c 20 a .
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