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Maningo, HT-IIII) Copied w/ permission by: Allan C. Labad-English Teacher/SPED Coor. I – READING COMPREHENSION: BIOGRAPHY
BETTER TO BE FEARED THAN LOVE, SAYS FORMER SINGAPORE LEADER Former Singapore Prime Minister Lee Kwan Yew believes that it is better for a leader to be feared than love. “If nonody is afraid of me, I am meaningless,” said the man who governed Singapore from 1959 to 1990. The former Singaporean leader also believes that it is not necessary to tell everything to the people at all time. “My job is to persuade my people to the right way. And sometimes, it may be necessary not to tell them all the facts because it will scare them.” Lee says also that he has “never been concerned or obsessed with opinion polls or popularity poll.” He believes that a leader who is concerned with his popularity is a weak leader. Lee is credited with developing Singapore from a mere British trading outpost into one of the world‟s richest countries. Lee is a lawyer who studied in Britain. After thirty years of power, Lee rEsigned and turned over his position to Prime Minister Go . At present, Lee is a senior minister in the Singaporean government. English Workbook (Macabenta) LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What kind of leader is Lee Kwan Yew? What are some of the beliefs of Lee Kwan Yew? Why is it not good for a leader to tell everything to his people according to Lee Kwan Yew? Do you agree with the beliefs of Mr. Yew? Why? How many years did Lee Kwan Yew governed Singapore? NOUNS
FOCUS ON FORM:
Nouns are names of persons, places, things, ideas, or state of being. Everything that can be seen by our naked eyes is noun. Proper nouns are the specific names of nouns and start with a capital letter while common nouns refer to gneral names of nouns and start with a small letter. Noun Gender Nouns like father or mother, rooster or hen, indicate whether the person or animal is male or female. This sex distinction in nouns is called gender of which there are four categories: 1. Nouns which denote males belong to the masculine gender. Actor king stag 2. Nouns which denote females belong to the fiminine gender. Mistress wife hen a. The feminine gender may be formed from the masculine by adding –ess. God-goddess heir-heiress priest-priestess Lion-lioness emperor – empress giant-giantess b. Gender may also be expressed by the addition of certain words connoting the masculine or feminine before the noun. Boy friend male cousin lady doctor c. Gender may be expressed by a different word. Sir – madam bull- cow dog –bitch 3. Nouns that refer to objects without life are in the neuter gender. Barangay vinta sea land 4. Nouns which can be either masculine or feminine belong to the common gender. Baby child helper With regards to nouns in this category, there sometimes are for living thing – three words, one masculine, one feminine, and one for common gender. Masculine Feminine Commom Father mother parent Brother sister sibling Stallion mare horse Boar sow pig SOMETHING TO DO A. Substitute the opposite gender of the underlined noun: 1. There was no priest in the parish. 2. No emperor ruled the Philippines. 3. A king ruled the kingdom. 4. The sons of the rulers were considered freemen. 5. The rajah‟s child was a prince.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
If a datu had no son, his nephew might succeed him. There were no stage actors in primitive society. There were shepherds of small flocks. Aprince gave fine stallions as gifts to the emperor. The early Filipinos believed in many gods.
B. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate noun. Male Fmale Offspring 1. bull cow ___________ 2. ___________ doe ___________ 3. ___________ hen ___________ 4. boar __________ piglet 5. ___________ hen ___________ 6. ___________ goose ___________ 7. stallion __________ ___________ 8. tiger __________ ___________ 9. ___________ duck ___________ 10. lion __________ ___________ THE SCRIBE IN ME List down at least ten (10) qualities of a good leader. Use nouns or adjectives in a ½ sheet of paper
II. READING COMPREHENSION: A FABLE
THE DONKEY IN THE LION’S SKIN Wandering through the forest one day, a donkey found a lion‟s skin. “How magnificient!” he said to himself. He put it on and turned around “Ah! How grand I look!” He set off to find the other animals. They would really admire him in his new lion‟s skin. Soon he found his friend, the cow. She quitely eating grass in the meadow. “Look at me! I‟m a lion!” the donkey brayed at the cow. “I‟m the king of the animals. Hee-haw! Hee-haw!” “How stu-u-u-pid” the cow moved. “You may think you look like him! But as soon as you open your mouth, silly, everyone can tell you‟re a donkey!” LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. Is it right for the donkey to wear the lion‟s skin? Why? 2. Why is it that the cow called the donkey stupid? FOCUS ON FORM : PERSONAL PRONOUNS Cas es Per son st 1 nd 2 rd 3 Mas culi ne Fem inin e Neu ter Nominative Singular d You He Plural We You They Objective Singular Me You Him Plural Us You Them Possessive Singular My, mine Your, yours His/her Plural Our, ours Your, yours Their/theirs
SOMETHING TO DO A. Rewrite the text below. Replace the nouns need to be replaced by pronouns. Alice‟s older sister Marrieta appears to be brighter than Alice. Marrieta is a consistent honoe student; Alice is not. Marrieta has special talents too. Marrieta writes for the school paper. Marrieta has a part-time as a receptionist in a telegraph office. In the other hand, Alice goes home after class and helps her mother with the household chores. Alice observes that her parent‟s attention is always on Marrieta. Their parents talk to Marrieta about their plans for sending Marrieta to a college in Manila. Alice is beginning to feel that there is a favoritism in the family. Alice feels that she is no longer loved. This has make Alice unhappy THE SCRIBE IN ME: Write a compostion telling about youreself. Suggested title : „ALL ABOUT MY LIFE”
LAUGHTER, THE BEST MEDICINE DON COJAZZI says that the best place to discover people‟s temperament is in a cheap restaurant. Or, to be exact, in a cheap restaurant where a thirsty man who has ordered a glass of beer, brought to him with a big fly struggling in it. Is a customer an Englishman? He puts the glass down the table; calmly rings the bell and calmly orders; “Another glass of beer, cool, and clean, please.” Having drunk the beer, he pays and goes out, neither moved or upset. If anyone is upset, it is the waiter, not because of the fly but because of the tip he didn‟t receive. Is the glass of beer served to a Frenchman? He sees the fly and goes mad. He slams down the glass, swears and shouts at the owner and the waiters, goes out slamming the door and in the street continues on ranting against the restaurant, the beer and the fly. An Italian comes in, looks at the fly, and smilingly flicks his middle finger at it to chase it off the surface of the beer. He jokes with the waiter: “Look, I asked you for a drink and you‟ve brought me something to eat.” But he drinks it all just the same and leaves, forgetting to pay the bill. Now it‟s the turn of the German. He sees the fly, raised the glass to the height of his nose and frown, shuts his eyes, put back his head a little, and being highly disciplined, sends down both the beer and the fly in a single gulp. Last of all the Eskimo. He is much amused to see the fly in the foam of the beer and take out his eyeglasses, so wholly taken up with the sight of the fly in the foam of the beer. He‟s never seen a fly -3-
before and thinks that the one before him is a favorite local delicacy – a specialty. So he eats the fly and throws away the beer. LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. What are the different reactions shown by different men of different nationalieties to the presence of the fly in their drinks? 2. Where is the punchline in the joke above in each set of jokes? 3. If you were the the to find a fly in your drink in a restaurant what will you do? FOCUS ON FORM : ACTION VERBS
An action verb is a verb that tells what action someone or something is performing. In the following examples, the verbs tell what actions has been or are being performed by Henry and Marianne. Henry painted the chair . Marianne watered the plants. The person or thing that performs the action is called the subject of the verb. In the above exampless, Henry and Marianne are the subjects. Verbs such as painted, watered, shouted and moves represent visible action. Some action verbs however, represent mental actions. When people forget or believe, they are forming mental actions. Mental actions - Jefferson thought about the problem. Other verbs such as sleep or relax also seem to show little action, but they are still action verbs.
SOMETHING TO DO a. Underline all action verbs in the sentence. 1. Guia quickly turned the pages of the book. 2. He encoded his report in the computer. 3. The teacher discussed poetry in the class. 4. The teacher, as well as her students sing the national anthem. 5. The bank robbers fled from the scene in a get-away car. 6. Christopher shut the door of their classroom. 7. The wind whispers the sweetness of God‟s love. 8. or screams out the might of God‟s justice. 9. The ocean roars mightily of God‟s power. 10. Look at the most beautiful sunset in the world. b. Underline the verb once if it is visible action and twice if it is mental. 1. Celine sings a melodious song. 2. Concepcion worries about the new price of oil. 3. Lara daydreams during classes. 4. Fiction writers imagined their characters. 5. I just nod my head in approval. 6. Aga sat beside Charlene . 7. I soon remembered the formula. 8. If only Owen knows the truth. 9. Do you believe in reincarnation. 10. I salute you! c. On each sentence, add an action verb on the blank. Then label each visible or mental. Example: _______ The stars _________ in the sky. Visible The stars twinkled in the sky. -4-
Viruses may be spread from an infected organism to a healthy organism. STRUCTURE OF A VIRUS A virus us a poisonous substance that can transmit specific diseases. 2. Skill Builders for Efficient Reading Phoenix Learning Package. Someone ________ it was almost midnight. enlarge to more than 100. Nucleic acid. 6. How does a virus infect its host? When a virus enters a cell. Eventually. Viruses reproduce only when in or on living material. it takes over the cell. Genes in a normal cell are DNA molecules that control the cell‟s life activities.. please give me the directions how to locate your house. to study viruses. A coat protein surrounds this core. Some viruses can be seen with the unaided eye. 3. either as DNA or RNA. The waitress ______ at the soggy mess. the cell bursts and releases the new viruses. -5- . The ping-pong ball ________ of the table. the cell bursts and releases the new viruses. Once released. It acts like a gene by controlling the cell‟s chemical reactions. Point of origin : Your school. 4. It is made of nucleic acid and protein. They ________ about life on the planet Mars. the new viruses can infect other cells. or core of a virus. Viruses have been seen in the laboratory on chick embryos and other kinds of living tissues. How did the pilot _____ where to land? Supposing I am a stranger of Tagum City.000 times have been made with the aid of an electron microscope. spherical. Discovery of the polio virus was made in experiments with viruses in monkey kidney tissues. They search for a cell that allows them to reproduce. 10. Therefore. it is necessary to grow them in living tissue. The normal activities of the cell – the cell begins producing only more viruses. These pictures show that viruses can be rod like. A virus is made of nucleic acid and protein. 128-129 LET’S TALK ABOUT IT Put a check mark before each correct statement: a. Viruses have been described as genes in search of a cell. 5. and the cell becomes the “slave”. b. Viruses are so small that they can be seen only with the help of an electron microscope. pp. Virus DNA acts like a gene when inside a healthy cell. Photographs of viruses. The virus becomes the “master”. Eventually. A dog house _______ its occupant from the rain. The carpenter _______ the pine boards. or hexagonal in shape. is the center._________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ THE SCRIBE IN ME 1. It is not a cell. 9. Why don‟t you _______ for a minute? 7. 8. A hexagonal virus has a tail or stalk. Virus DNA takes control of the cell away from the cell‟s own genes. No one ______ the dismal weather. The witches ______ their terrible brew.
Viruses may be spread from one infected organism to another. Some of these sounds are discharged 700 times a second. d. 2. -6- . d. They can also judge between right and wrong. Verb Phrases : I will write a song today. Can change its shape FOCUS ON FORM: VERB PHRASE A verb phrase is a main verb plus one or more helping verbs. Their language may contain at least 50. 5 Their brains can handle four conversations at one time. He has hade some curious claims about them. spherical. a. 9. 7. As many as three helping verbs may precede the main verb in a verb phrase. or hexagonal c.000 words. 6. Mr. They can even communicate among themselves.. Lilly. Shouldn‟t you go with us? THE FORMS OF BE (HELPING VERBS) Am Are Is Was Were am being are being is being was being were being can be could be may be might be must be Shall be Should be Will be Would be have been has been had been could have been may have been might have been must have been should have been will have been Would have been HELPING VERBS OTHER THAN BE Do Does Did have has had shall should will Would can could may might Must SOMETHING TO DO Directions: Find the verb phrase in each sentence: 1. Notice in the following examples that a verb phrase is interrupted by other words. Rod-like. Marfil can surely help you with your math problem. Single verb : I wrote a song today. 4. Check all the accurate descriptions of a virus. Dolphins may have developed larger brains than humans. This song might have been written by me. Always has a tail or a stalk. Helping verbs are often called auxiliary verbs or auxiliaries because they add meaning to other verbs. small. Dr. b. A virus is not a cell. 8.c. Helping verbs are verbs that can be added to another verb to make a single verb phrase. buzz and whistles. 3. a scientist from California has been experimenting with dolphins for more that 20 years. They can use series of clicks. I should have written a song today.
she will not be alowed to go out more than once or twice all her lifetime. she waits until he arrives. 14. She may have to wait for a long time. Ulysses S. 2. he can have as many slave concubines as he can afford. who is carried to the home of her fiance where the marriage will take place. she almost never goes out of the house. there is no courtship before marriage.10 . During this period. the two eat together alone while the members of the family wait outside. The Moorish ideal of beauty in women is plumpness. a tiny mouth and eyes as big as possible. he goes to the girl‟s father and arrange all matters pertaining to the wedding. The engagement may last for months. LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. When he comes in. 12. All is arranged by the fathers. after having made a choice. A Moslem can have only a maximum of four legal wives and he must treat them equally and their children equally. First come the musicians playing shrill pipes and bearig small drums like tambourines. The box is heavy because it contains the bride. Usually. 11 . her mother might visit her. 13. When the bride arrives at the house. For the rest of her life. shrieking and pounding out loud music. plumpness is fashionable.200 times a day. Why do you suppose Moorish girls marry so young? 3. MOORISH MARRIAGE CUSTOMS A Moorish wedding begins with a procession. The Coliseum in Rome was originally known as the Flavian Amphitheater. If you were forced to marry a man or a woman whom you have never met before what will you do? FOCUS ON FORM : TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS An action verb is transitive if it directs action toward someone or something named in the same sentence. Next come more musicians followed by a group of eight men carrying a paper box on long poles. The bride and groom have never seen each other. some of them limping and supported by canes. with her husband‟s consent. Once a year. The arrangement is mainly financial. However. A mother bird may feed its fledglings over l. she is her husband‟s slave. 15. -7- . Give as many interesting details as you can about a Moorish wedding. there is nobody there except a female Negro servant who lifts her out of the box because her fet must not touch the ground. Then come the bearded elders of the bride family. a very small nose. This is the bride‟s one and only meal with her husband. ever afterwards whe will eat only with the women. the girl is deliberately fattened because to the Moroccans. the father of the groom looks arouund to size up available young ladies from thirteen to fifteen years old.Chewing gum was first produced in 1848. Then. To the Moslem Moors. She will not go to see members of her family even if they live in the same town. These are followed by a woman dressed in red and white striped cloth bearing aloft green and yellow candles. The groom‟s father pays the girl‟s father whatever sum is agreed upon.An average person‟s liver can weigh three and a half pounds. Yawning is commonly caused by lack of air in the lungs. The groom himself is not at home. Grant was actually christened Hiram Ulysses Grant THE SCRIBE IN ME Explain how viruses reproduce.
Transitive Intransitive Robert polished the shoes. Transitive: To find out whether a verb in a sentence is transitive or intransitive. 2. Jenny quickly turn the pages. The trees blew gently in the breeze. THE SCRIBE IN ME Write a first-person narrative of a famous person. 5. Intransitive The wind blew gently over the fields and lands. For a few extra pesos a week. 18.400 windows. I discovered that the actual process of writing was easy. A human eye winks in one fortieth of a second 3. Irene baked something for the party. 8.. lightning struck the massive acacia tree. Michael Jordan broke three Olympic records. Kent smiled happily. If there is no answer. Suddenly. she sells used clothing. 19. 13. 14. the verb is transitive. 6. Eagles keep the same nest throughout their lives. -8- . The camera took clear pictures. the verb is intransitive. 20. picture is the object of took. The action is not directed toward any noun or pronoun in the sentence. (Waited what? No answer) SOMETHING TO DO Directions: Identify whether the verb is transitive or intransitive: 1. 17. If there is an answer. 10. ask Whom? Or What after the verb. The word that receives the action of a transitive verbis called the object of the verb. 9. 16. My brother always drives carefully. 7. Intransitive verbs do not have objects. The bird cage swung from a golden chain.. In the following examples. The making of a writer takes years of painstaking work. I wrote about imagined experiences of body and mind. I even carefully plotted the compelling beginning. Kissy combed her hair before the dance. The Empire State building has 6. I wrote about my friends and myself. . the anti-climax or the hearthbreaking climax.An action verb is intransitive if t does not direct action toward someone or something named in the same sentence. She usually visits her nephews on Saturdays. Minerals are chemical elements or compounds of different chemicals. 11. (Polished what? Shoes) Lorraine waited for the bus. The papers scattered all over the lawn. and something is the object of baked. 12. 4. I placed my characters in contemporary events. 15.
The science laboratory. your natural curiosity can help you discover a lot of things. 2 tbsp. Active Mike introduced the new manager. As you go through it. and when the doer of the actiuon is known but shouldnot be mentioned. Here‟s how she did it. There are two things to remember about the form of the verb in the passive construction. She mixed 1 tbsp. and ¾ cup water for evry kilo of fish meat. Rceiver emphasized : Prformer unknown : Prformer Unimportant: SOMETHING TO DO: Identify each verb as active or passive. When the action is more important than the doer. try to learn to observe cause and effect relationships through your reading. Here is a lesson which provides you the opportunity to think and work scientificaly. salt. ½ tbsp backing powder. 3.) LET’S TALK ABOUT IT Can you rewrite the procedure without mentioning the doer. ___________ 2. (This was a sign that the fish balls were done and ready for frying or storing. a) When the sentence is changed from active to passive (and vice versa) the verb does not change in tense. She mixed the ingredients througly. flour. writing an discussion activities. 2. Chow King is opening a new branch in Tagum City. She scraped the meat of fleshy fish like torcillo or dalagang bukid. your garden. ___________ 3. This skill will help you distinguish facts from superstition. Te car will be sold . even if you may not be drawn to a career in science. the vast open fields and the library can serve as your observatories.BE SCIENTIFIC Have you ever stopped to wonder what causes natural phenomena such as thunderstorm. This new film is praised by the critics for its honesty. She allowed the fish balls to come to the surface. A bicycle was abandoned near the hospital. Passirve Eric Hoffer writes with conviction Use the passive voice to emphasize the receiver of the action rather than the performer of the action. When the doer of the action is not known. She formed the miture into balls. and a bright full moon? A person with a questioning mind has the potential of a scientist. Learning Experience A : Remedios was asked to prepare some fish balls for the high school fair. His bizarre behavior was ridiculed by his peers. b) The verb form in the passive construction is composed of the auxiliary verb be in the appropriate tense + the past participle of the principal verb. a long dry spell. . However. ___________ 1. Let‟s try it! GRAMMAR IN FOCUS : ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE The passive form of the verb has definite uses: 1. listening. -9Emmanuel was shocked by the remark.
6. Those trees in front of the finance office was plated by Emmy b. first used 1925 1947. 14. 8. 13. invented in 1668 1709 – somebody invented the piano gas light. The voters will forget the sins of the candidates after a few weeks. inventor reflecting telescope. invented INTERESTING FACTS … on E-mail . invented in1792 Alessandro Volta. 1. 6. 3. inventor of the electric battery. The shot frightened the child. 5. __________________________________________________________________ 4. His mother disallowed him as a punishment. The judge gave the suspect a harsh sentence. Model : he store will deliver the canned goods immediately. __________________________________________________________________ 7. The publisher has published the offender lightly. __________________________________________________________________ 9. 10. __________________________________________________________________ THE SCRIBE IN ME Write these sentences highlighting the event and not the doer. He has deposited his money in the nearest bank. he canned goods will be delivered by the store immediately. 9. Reporters swarmed around the scene of the crime. People almost everywhere can speak English. Isaac Newton. 1. 7. Diane will have returned from her vacation by now. We heard the cries of children in the distance 4. ________________________________________________________________ 2. You must study your lessons very well before the test. This wildlife sanctuary protects the butterflies. thermometer. Galileo galilei. 3. 2. 5. . CHANGE the following sentences to passive voice. 11. They have not sen him for over a year. __________________________________________________________________ 10. 6. 5. 12. 1880 sewing machine. __________________________________________________________________ 6. The activities about the school opening will be posted at the gate. 7. __________________________________________________________________ 3. A Brazilian architect designed this building. __________________________________________________________________ 5. By tonight the letter will have been read by the board. Billy is being called up for duty. 15. We will discuss the problem when we meet again. 4. the polaroid camera. 9. 2. 1. The winner was given a certificate by the mayor.10 - .___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 4. 7. 10. 8. 8. invented 1830 radar. __________________________________________________________________ 8. The letter was typed by Greg on his new word processor. Someone has taken my book.
daily. Butterflies taste with their hind legs. 6.When a sentence is introduced by the expletive There or the adverb Here. An ostrich‟s eye is bigger than its brain. Rule 2 . use a singular verb. Rule 4 . Example: The captain. the verb is singular. Example: They were very talkative at the meeting. Example: Neither Celia nor her lawyers were there. Rule 11 .A singular subject takes a singular verb. No word in English rhymes with „MONTH. 14. Animals die more quickly from lack of sleep than from lack of food. Women blink nearly twice as much as men. Both the chairs and table in Pinky‟s room are painted pink. TYPEWRITER is the longest word that can be made using the letters only on one row of the keyboard.A collective noun subject requires a singular verb that is thought of as a unit. And no one knows why. Our nose and ears never stop growing. 8.When subjects are joined by AND or BOTH/AND. Rule 7 . along with. Almost everyone who reads this email will try to lick their elbow. GRAMMAR IN FOCUS : SUBJECT/ VERB AGREEMENT One basic principle applies to this lesson: SUBJECT IN NUMBER. the verb is plural. Elephants are the only animals that can‟t jump 3. 9. as well as. plural or a combination of singular and plural. or the same thing. Rule 10 . Rule 8 . 5. was captured by the terrorists. Neither her lawyers nor Celia was there. Scary!!! 11. Example: Each student and a teacher is required a flowerpot. it requires a plural verb .1. 2.When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns or pronouns connected by OR. Rule 9 . Rule 5 . Exception: When two subjects are joined by AND refer to only one person. including the. the verb agrees in number with the nearer one. Example: He was very talkative at the meeting. Many were late during the transport strike.When the word EVERY or EACH comes before a compound subject whose parts are joined by AND.11 - . NOR or BUT is singular and the other is plural. Example: Jack and Jill are on the hill.. Example: The owner and manager of Monterey Farms reports at 7:00 a. There are no other methods suggested. a singular verb is called for since each subject is considered separately. Example: Here is your money.The agreement of verb with its subject is not changed by any interrupting words such as. Our eyes are always the same size from birth. A snail sleeps as much as three years. whether the subject is singular. in addition to. The cigarette lighter was invented before the match. etc. 15.A plural subject takes a plural verb. Imagine!!! 12. 10. Rule 3 .The subject and the verb of inverted sentence must agree in number Example: At the end of that winding road are two bamboo bridges. 4. Singular: anybody either neither somebody anyone everyone nobody no one each everybody someone Plural : both few many several Examples: Everyone in the room is a member of the debating club. Rule 6 . The electric chair was invented by a dentist. 7.When one of the two subjects connected by OR. together with seven of his men.m.‟ 13. together with. You cannot lick your own elbow. Example: Is Jenny or James joining the game? Neither Jenny nor James is joining the game.A verb must agree in number with an indefinite pronoun used as a subject. or NOR. A duck‟s quack doesn‟t echo. the verb agrees with the following subject. VERB MUST AGREE WITH ITS Rule 1 .
are) considered as one of the childhood diseases. economics. 5. politics is a way of life. are) visible through a low-powered microscope. 4. including all the members of the family (works. The lifestyle of the farm families (differs. plural in form but singular in meaning.When the sentence is introduced by the phrase A number.E. Rule 12 . Example: Twenty pesos is more than enough for a day‟s allowance. 11. 7. differ) from that of their ancestors. A sewing machine with all its accessories and frills (was. 17. The house made of bricks (was. like) his girlfriend. 8. Example: A number of candidates are coming to school. A kilo of sugar and a bottle of vinegar (is. Example: His pants are too short for him. it requires a plural verb. were) prepared for such a warm welcome. were) transferred to the H. a whale‟s heart (beats. (helps. are) on the table. beat) only 9 times per minute 14. Rule l3 . prefer) shorter homeroom periods. are) left of our timThe first step to attain change in our society (is. 3.Unit of measurement or weight usually requires a singular verb. A number of minorities (lives. pants. as well as size. THE SCRIBE IN ME Write the activities you and the members of your family perform on Monday mornings.Certain subject/nouns ending in S. Example: The committee is planning to hire a band. pliers.When the sentence is introduced by the phrase The number. A flock of pigeon (appears. needs singular verbs such as: Mathematics. live) in boats in rivers. appear) after every storm. Shape. The head of the family. 6 . SOMETHING TO DO Direction: Underline the correct form of the verb in parenthesis: 1. etc. politics.Use plural verb with such noun as shears. work) in the field. scissors. 2. Thirty six meters (is. Example: To some. The enrolment is most public schools (increases. are) evaluating and assessing ourselves.when it is thought of as individuals. gymnastics. are) investigating the matter. Neither the president nor his aides (was. Measles ( is. Only 4 minutes (is. 20. trouser.12 merchandize ceremony impious mediocre eligible reasoning lamentable oligarchy . The committee are unable to agree on the kind of band to hire. politics. help) determine the value of a pearl.Many of the students (prefers.The members of the committee (is . There (is. 16. Rule 16 . In some parts of the world people (lives. were) sold a month ago. Normally. 12. 15. 9. 13. geriatrics. Rule 14 . are) one yard. live) in China‟s fishing village. etc. Rule 15 . are) no second chances for those who are always late. it requires a singular verb. The craters of the moon (is. building. statistics. 19. Example: The number of dropouts has decreased. HOW’S YOUR SPEECH? Read these words with primary stress on the first syllable Secondary dictate Literature Adversary Category government architecture talented carton infamous paganism locate menu deficit colleague personal . increase) every year 10. Neither of his sisters (likes. physics. 18.
overcant. Negative Prefixes IN . Adjective Suffixes – formed from nouns FUL . Adjective or Adverb. dismantle .hazzardous. A.consistency. supersonic INTER (between) .disregard.accounting.terrific. non entity DIS .recommendation.antidote.semicircle.demotion.experimental.13 - . fairly D. Do some words shift their primary stress when a prefix or a suffix is added? 2. insane IR .nontoxic.miniforest.attendance.supernatural.irregular. antipode MIS (wrong) .maternity.hairy. dependable Y . overflow E.destructible.director. explosion .misinterpret. intercostal OVER (too much) . semiconscious SUPER (big) . grateful OUS .inquisitive. popularize EN . teacher. refixes and suffixes produced a new word and another meaning.attendant. Verb Suffixes – ading IZE or EN to an adjective IZE . Verb.organize. irration NON . therapeutic LY . Noun Suffixes NESS ING MENT TY / ITY ER / OR EE IST ANCE / ENCE ION/TION/SION ANT/ENT ATION / ITION .repaint. odorous AL .forceful. slippery IC . predominant SEMI (half) . misunderstanding RE (again) . minilibrary POST (after) . dental LY .kindness.retirement. pediatrician .injustice.lovely. demolition B. interruption. payee . psychiatrist . shorten C. revamp MINI (small) .enlighten. belongness . dependence . purely IVE . Can you give examples of these words? FOCUS ON FORM : SUFFIXES AND PREFIXES We can affix to form a Noun.Territory Centimeter Capitalist Communism LET’S TALK ABOUT IT laboratory comfortable nationalism secretary noticeable hospitable honorable serviceable 1. inductive ABLE / IBLE . Common Prefixes ANTI (against) .pianist. funny. managing . propriety . accomplishment .intercession.postgraduate.prenatal. postscript PRE (before) .employee. falterer .
impostor . true. verbs. love is music Soothing as night winds are. Choose words either with a prefix or a suffix. Love is patient and unselfish Divine. SOOTHING AS NIGHT WINGS ARE Love is gentle – love is quiet Like any distant star.14 - . Baseword Noun Debt Or AFFIX Verb Adjective Adverb THE SCRIBE IN ME List at least twenty (20) words with primary stress on the first syllable.debtor 2. What words does the author use to describe love? . Some affixes don‟t give more meaning and mark the words as nouns. electrician 6. Follow the frist one as an example. Love is beauty. helpful 5. Word 1.immigrant.illusion. management 3. musical 8. Espinas LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1.IM IL SOMETHING TO DO . frighten 7. sporty 4. adjectives or adverbs. illiterate Give the basewords and the affixes of the following words. Salvador B. neutral – fair – Love is ageless and immortal Lost love is just somewhere … And the heart that love abandons Nurses a tender scar Softly stabbing. and yet sweetly Soothing as night winds are.
my friend. well SOMETHING TO DO a. only. alive. * His tongue is like a twin-bladed sword. several. eldest. Adjectives before a noun – main. describes or linit noun or pronoun. unwell. outdoor.content (happy) fine. Noun modifying adjective – proper and common noun used to modify another noun. enugh) during paraphernalia. Love is soothing FOCUS ON FORM : ADJECTVES An adjective modifies. chief. alone. Love is gentle e. French fries. ill. But few adjectives can go in one position but not in the other. To what things is love compared? 3. * Chinese restaurant. former. handful. Choose the words from the list below. principal. awake. Love is unselfish c. indoor. upper Adjectives after a linking verb – asleep. glad. Complete the table by writing the adjective that can be used to describe the given nouns.2. inner. Compound adjective – is made up of two or more words to form into one and used before the es. Pronominal – noun or pronoun used as modifier * Rico‟s foundation. B. outer.15 - clever hot fresh minced long . that problem D. alike. please. Limiting – sets limit I own (many. Position of Adjectives There are two places where we can use an adjective: before a noun (a deligent student) and after a linking verb (Joy is lovable). afraid. * It was an honest –to-goodness mistake committed by Raul. (in good health. Descriptive – describes qualities of nouns or pronouns understanding father. Child Playful Weather Hot meat fresh examination easy Sunny Frozen Chilly Playful Semestral thoughtful mischievous stormy difficult final fair easy chopped tender talented . ashamed. responsible guy C. Kinds of Adjectives A. We can use most adjectives in both positions – before a noun or after a linking verb. Cite instances to show that : a. few. Love is ageless d. labor sector. Claudine’s suitor. clumsy teener. Love is patient b. elder. Friday sickness E.
Ares. Zeus was the head of the gods. Artemis. Filipino hospitality is known around the world. Poseidon was the ruler of the sea. 3. It was populated by the souls of people who had died. He often was accompanied by a host of fanciful gods. GREEKS MAJOR GODS AND GODDESSES The Greeks believed that the gods chose Mount Olympus. Athens. Demeter. god of fire and metal workers. Hera. ere ther gods of heaven. 6. such as the Nereids and Tritons. The underworld was a dark and mournful place located at the center of the earth. We‟ve eatern our lunch in a Japanese restaurant. Ten barrios sent lively marchers. 8. centaurs. 4. The beautiful and charming nymphs wanted woods and forests. Aphrodite. 2. Ares. Hermes. the gods could roam freely. where he lived with his wife. The l2 chief gods. Underline the adjective s) in the sentence and identify its kind. led a group of less important sea gods. The Visayan people talk in fascinating manner.16 - . and Poseidon. including satyrs. Did you notice his bright eyes and his tanned face? THE SCRIBE IN ME Write an article which describes your favorite teacher in the elementary. Other gods associated with heaven were Hephaestus. The rare Kalaw is a big-dense-forest bird. goddess of wisdom and war. was the queen of heaven and the guardian of marriage. in a region of Greece called Thessaly (Thessalia). She puts enough sugar in her coffee. Underline all the adjectives that you will use. and music. te gods formed a society that ranked them in terms of authority and powers. Hera. Artemis. They were joined by Hestia. I attended my friend‟s wedding. and Aphrodite. as their home. goddess of wildlife and the moon. were Zeus. and individual gods became associated ith three main domains – the sky or heaven. Persephone. ruled the underworld. Eduardo sailed the small boat on the calm lake. Satyrs were creatures with the legs of a goat and the upper body of a monkey or human. an important god but not generally considered an Olympian. The Greejs devoted many festivals to this eathly god. god of war. Apollo. and nymphs. LET’S TALK ABOUT IT Summarize the text in five sentences. Demeter. Amphitrite. 5. and Hermes. Hades. the goddess of agriculture was associated with the earth. Centaurs had the head and torso of a man and the body of a horse. and Apollo. The third President was a good man. god of light. poetry. and the spiritual father of gods and people. 10. Athena. goddess of love. Hestia. was among the most popular gods. . the earth. 1. messenger of th gods and ruler of science and invention. and in some regions he became as important as Zeus. His wife. who with his wife. 7. god of wine and pleasure.Direction. Dionysus. the sea. 9. However. Hephaestus. usually called the Olympians. the goddes of the hearth. On Olympus.
useful – more useful – most useful 3.a. clever. est.17 - . nervous. Manila Hotel has the most rooms. 8. dirty. Everyone was pleased with the result of the test but Mr. beautiful) in different ways.g. useful. 4. 1. The successful/secretary/was trained here. careless 3. . B. normal. foolish. Lei committed the least mistakes among the contestants. busy. est. funny. nice) and long adjectives (e. You are the smartest girl here in our campus. Chona spends less on jewelries than Rachel does. 1. However. Tomas is _______ (old) than University of Visayas. some two-syllable adjectives may end with er. She is _______(old) than most of bust but she feels _______(young). pretty. The Philippine Deep is the _________(deep) part of the Pacific Ocean. The following words have more-most e. gentle. 2.g. silly. quiet. Use the superlative degree of comparison. * Good. short. correct. common. Ramos is the most eligible bachelor in town. modern.FOCUS ON FORM : COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES We form the comparative and superlative of short adjectives (e. eager. bad and far have irregular form: good/well better best bad worse worst far farther/further farthest/furthest * We use more-most and their opposites less-least to compare quantities I have more books than you.c. 5.g. SOMETHING TO DO a. hopeless. Mr. 7. This is the shortest stick that I have seen. simple. Is thre a ________(large) table than this one. as provided by the information below. Words ending in ing or ed. This dress is ______( pretty) than that one. frequent. tired. 10. wacky. * One or two-syllable adjectives (e. * But e use more – most before words ending in ed. most with three-syllable adjectives (e. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the adjective in parenthesis. Words ending in a consonant +Y have er.g. Many others : certain. -est ending. Example : Carol/careful/file clerk in the office. heavy. afraid. Answer : Carol is the most careful file clerk in the office. Happy –happier – happiest e. 2. exact.b. famous. or moremost.cute) usually have the er. boring. willing.g. Cruz family needs a bigger house. 6. well. 3. The University of Sto. Write sentences from the notes below. careful. annoyed 3. Some words have er-est or more-most: narrow – narrower – narrowest or more narrow – most narrow e. * We also use more. Canuto was the most pleased. exciting) and with longer ones. Words ending in ful or less: helpful. stupid. Joy is ________ (tall) than Grace. l. (2 points each). recent. surprised. This is the ________(funny) story I have read. Your cellphone is smaller. 3. . Humorous movies are more exciting to watch than horror ones.g. 9. Manila is ________ (small) than New York.g. polite.lovely. That mountain is the _______ (high) of all. Boys are _________( fast) runners than girls.
4. Adverb of Place – answers the question WHERE I‟m leaving for Cebu. Newsweek. 1996 LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. a pack-a-day smokers developed AMD at two to three times the rate of “never smokers. INFORMATION GENRE CIGARETTES MAY PROMOTE BLINDNESS Not that you needed another reason to avoid smoking. Adverb of Manner – answers the question HOW President Arroyo speaks bravely. _____________________________________________________________________________ THE SCRIBE IN ME Write five sentences comparing the lifestyle of Filipino students before with the students nowadays. _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. Yesterday /was unforgettable day/in my life. Adverb of Cause and Reason – answers the question WHY . What does the writer tell about cigarettes? 3. 6. October 21. Women who had quit developed the condition at twice the rate of thse who had never smoked. _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. But in this study.”._____________________________________________________________________________ 2. 2. researchers follow 32. He can work/fast/ of all the operators. two new studies offer one: blindness. As in the nurse‟s study. the new study suggests one way to avoid it. 3. it my impede circulation or simply accelerates the aging of cells. 5. Adverb of degree – answers the questio HOW MUCH He is very friendly. A degenerative eye conditin that is the leading cause of blindness in older Americans. but in case cancer. a pair of Boston-based research teams strongly link cigarette smoking to “age-related mascular degeneration” (AMD).18 - . quitting eliminated most of the risk. Either way. How does cigarette affects the health of a person? FOCUS ON FORM : KINDS OF ADVERB 1. Writing in last week‟s journal of the Americal Medical Association. No one knows how smoking promotes AMD. Roy/buy/small/cellphone. Adverb of Frequency – answers the question HOW OFTEN I‟m always lonely.000 male physicians and gound a similar pattern. Adverb of Time – Answers the question WHEN I have to attend the meeting tonight. periodically checking their smoking habits and health status. What is the selection all about? 2. The second study tracked 21. heart disease and bad breath aren‟t reasons enough. Minda/skillful/teacher/I‟ve ever known.000 female nurses for 12 years. In the first study. Those puffing at least 25 cigarettes a day suffered two and a half times the AMD rate of those who had never smoked. _____________________________________________________________________________ 4.
not. always. though. The choir‟s voices sounded (shrill. furthermore Where. 4. Will you ever go to Rome to see the Pope? 5. Cruz. 6 ean Garcia is remarkably good in acting. . The old woman looked (sad. 7. was. 3. Princess Diana died in Parish brutality. 4. Catherine quietly entered the room.Identify the kind of underlined adverb. 8. were. 6. Rosarymae studies much harder than her older sister. 1. It is best to entertain the visitor here.19 - . where. 5. certainly *Adverbs never. 5. the school head always arrives early. indeed. The juice tastes (bitter. are.Underline the adverb and draw an arrow to the word it modifies. than. 9. The students sing the National Anthem daily. Via arrives early during shooting schedules. mysteriously) these few days. shrilly). frequently. B. sadly). The teacher explained the lesson (patient. Other Adverbs: Interrogative adverb – how. Christine Hermosas‟s career extends far. They come before a single word verb. Did grandma sleep (good. and usually come after the verbs is. 2. 6. 1. All the contestants for the speech choir were noticeably tensed. He had been behaving (mystery. nevertheless. They were left (entire. 8. never Connection and relation adverbs – however. 10. frequency) _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ ________ 1 The window will probably open if you press harder.She is absent because she is sick. Shall I return the books today? C. 2. 3. and they come betweenmmbers of a verb phrase. place. SOMETHING TO DO A. secretly) to that man. 4. Select the correct word to complete the sentences below. Have you always lived in Davao City? 3. why. 7. when. bitterly). 2Mr. 7 Youre incredibly ridiculous! 8 Do you like to move nearer to him? 9 id the candidate for President deliver his speech well? 10. Mary‟s stepsisters treated her cruelly . (manner. entirely) to our rescue. if. time. well) last night? I heard her speak (secret. patiently). why Negative adverb – no. The secretary performs his work deligently. sometimes. She opened the door rather cautiously.
Corpuz Marketing Manager Jolly and Kissy Fast Food Asia Avenue. THE SCRIBE IN ME Write a short application in response to this newspaper ad: WANTED Counter sales attendants Qualitifications: -Must be high school graduate -Male or Female -16 to 20 years .9. Tagum City . nightly).20 - . Kairo singers sing on the stage at (night. 10. Marathon participants run (fast. fastly). Roy Patrick S.knows how to speak English -a resident of Tagum City -must be of good scholastic record Submit applications with Form 137 and xerox copy of birth certificate to: Mrs.
1.Just text me between 6:00 and 7:00 a.He moves towards his target.21 - . The most common prepositions are : To on in Under top beneath Underneath against across By off beyond As far as despite in spite of for beside behind without along with over besides alongside outide aside from below along with inside of IN – ON – IN – in general means beneath the surface.He placed the tray on the dining table. ON – AT .m. It indicates time . It shows direction and motion . At with the house number and street names. Then I thought of other mornings With a keen remorse of mind.In address. It indicates a place or position . 3. 4. And His presence came like sunrise With a glory in my breast All day long His presence lingered All day long He stayed with me. should we? FOCUS ON FORM : PREPOSITION A preposition shows the relationship between its object and another word/s in a sentence. 2. . It shows comparison – They won the game along with the other team. ON is used with the name of a street. Other ships were blown and battered Other ships were sore distressed. But the wind that seems to drive them Brought us both peace and rest.IN THE MORNING … I met God in the morning When my day was at its best. When I too. Health and Home November-December 1998 LET’S TALK ABOUT IT Can we spend the first moments of each new day with God in personal secret prayer? Or. And we sailed in perfect calmness O‟er a very troubled sea. On means touching the surface The papers are in the drawer while the books are on the desk. had loosed the moorings With the Presence left behind. So I think I know the secret Learned from many a troubled way: You must seek Him in the morning If you want Him through the day. It may be in the form of one word or in a form of a phrase that functions as a unit.
the summer capital is several hundred feet above sea level. The mayor lives at No. Manila is below sea level. the strikers agreed to end the strike. with) paint. 15. on) the envelope. Dr. Jimmy leaned (near . at) the living room. 21. against) the newly-painted wall and got his shirt smeared (by. 3. Please don‟t lean on the wall. Reyes lives across the street from his office. Normal University.. Do you live (at. a visiting professor who is (from. She went to the store a while ago. 3) . et. 10. In a location within a house. What is money among friends? 14. on) Rizal Avenue (in. 3. Diligent and intelligent students always stay at the head of the class. in the lobby of the hotel EXAMPLES: 1. 9. Many of the residents were able to run out of the crumbling building. beavers can transmit a warning regarding impending danger. One can find a mini-grocery a few yards down the street. Lino took a short cut through the park. 7. of) London is staying (at. 8. The ten beauty contestants in bathing suits paraded before the judges. Jim can‟t go inside the laboratory without a uniform. Mother is in the kitchen preparing lunch. I‟ll meet you at Scooby‟s this afternoon. 5. Mary has to choose between two admirers. city. over) average. 13. Cervantes St. SOMETHING TO DO A: Underline the correct preposition/s inside the parenthesis: 1. over) the table. building. 123. 6. into) the kitchen and placed the packages (on. You can‟t sit by the window. Baguio. 8. 4. Don‟t forget to put your return address (in. You can walk around the block for your daily exercise.in) Excelsior Hotel. 6. around) the door. AT ordinarily indicates a spcified location. on) the sofa (in. Our professor is from Phil. to) my plane flight. 19. Mrs. The door was locked. While waiting (for. 5. The secretary walked into the office and gave the letters to her boss. Many treasures can be found at the bottom of the sea. 12. on) the examination is well (above. My aunt is sitting (in. across) the airport station.22 - . We‟ll meet you at the information desk. on) Quezon City? 2. My brother piled his books (above. 18. That noisy group is coming up the street. Santos walked (in. 2. After the manager talked to them. 11. Mr. 2) Because of their tails. so I shoved the letter (under. The napkin is placed beside the plate. Your score (in. 4. 23.John lives on Hilario Avenue. on top of) his study table THE SCRIBE IN ME How do you show your faith in God? FEATURE ANIMALS The tails of birds and animals can also be useful appendages to their bodies. 17. 16. 9. In contrast. I took a leisurely walk (around. 10. 7. Local tourists go touring around the country by way of Friendship Highway. 20. Smith. 22. You can easily jump over our fence. Tagum City AT –IN – referring to location.
about six o‟clock 2. SOMETHING TO DO a. 2. tails can help animals with the more practical side of life. The book was placed between two wooden sticks. 6. 8) A cayote holding his tail high above him is expressing interest in his mate. a rattlesnake warns those around that they should watch where they are stepping. 5. a male peacock displays his interest in front of the hen. and the phrases can come anywhere in the sentence. 10) The swordtail.With its rattle.23 aside from because of by means of in addition to in front of in place of in spite of instead of in view of on account of . a kind of bird. How do beavers and rattlesnakes protect themselves? 2. Some patients recover from major operations quickly. Everyone wecomes Christmas. 2 1. Without a moment’s hesitation. Margarette missed the bus by two minutes. 9) Similarly. 7) In addition to these uses. How do cayotes. The engineer adopts a new method in rice production. tails also help many animals communicate during courtship. afternoon classes will be suspended today. disturb insects in the grass and tyhus secure their food. Use the following prepositional phrases in the sentence: 1. 6) With their long tails. 10. male peacocks and swordfish communited during courtship? 3. Two forensic experts are arriving at the end of the month. LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. 2. We often became involved in the issues and personalities of political candidate without our realizing it immediately. a fish often found in home aquariums. Miss Judith Magbanua of Silliman University is a psychology teacher. Within the mountains of Sierra Madre. also uses his tail in a courtship dance. The race for nuclear supremacy will produce good and bad repercussions. 5) Kangaroos and lizards would not move with such agility without their tails for balance. wagtails. 3. It ends with a noun or pronoun called the object of the preposition. One preposition can have two or more objects. Common compound prepositions According to Ahead of Apart from As of Examples: 1. 4. Underline all prepositional phrases in each sentence. Orphaned in his teens. Milk is not only a source of vitamins but also contains other food elements as calcium. Manuel worked his way through high school and college C. In view /of the memorandum /from the office/ of the principal. 2. Examples: 1. 9. 4) Apart from protective use. according to my father . there is an unusual lake. the cat leaped through the open window. What other means do you know some animals protect themselves? GRAMMAR ON FOCUS : PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition. 8. 7. by means of his tail feathers. The security guards stationed at the gate of our school are courteous. The leaves of the big tree in front of our house were scattered all around. 1. the happiest holiday of the year. A sentence can give several prepositional phrases. protein and fat.
9) Within minutes the doctor prescribed a new series of treatments for the young girl. Look out over th countryside and you will see that I am the majority. by means of hard work 4. 30. 8) She told them about her suspicion. despite the rain 8. Without me there would be no fun. the stars are yellow. leaves – ithout me all the animals would die. I was chosen for grass. 3. 8. the nurse began reading another chapter of the book by Agatha Christie. but consider the sky and the sea. The sun is yellow. the most favorite. I am the sign of life and of hope. all the colors in the world started to quarrel. 28. GREEN said: “Clearly I am the most important. Without my peace you would all be nothing but busybodies. 9. 5. 21. someone had taken a rare poison called thallium. 12. 1.” YELLOW chuckled: “You are all serious. 14. in spite of their sorrows 6. Everytime you look at the sunflower.” . 10) Because of a mystery by Agatha Christie. 6. 22.24 - . A MYSTERY BY AGATHA CHRISTIE 1) A nurse at a London hospital had a young girl in he ward. 29. the whole world starts to smile. 5) According to the book.” BLUE interrupted: “You only think about the earth. 25. the moon is yellow. 4) After several pages. down the corridor 10. gaiety. 2. 23. before work. 2) None of the doctors could find a cure for her. 3) One day. the most useful. during Saturdays 9. 7. 16. 15. 18. throughout the day 5. 6) The descriptin of the victim‟s symptoms exactly matched the symptoms of the young girl. THE SCRIBE IN ME Pick out and write all prepositional phrases found in the paragraph. instead of . It is wather that is the basis of life and this is drawn up by the clouds from the blue sea. 10. 13. trees. 17. after school 7. 26. The sky gives space and peace and serenity. and warmth into the world. each claimed that she was the best. 7) The nurse placed the book in front of the doctors. 4. I bring laughter. 27. 19. 11. a young girl‟s life was saved. she put the book into her bag and hurried to the hosspital for her duty. 20.3. the most important. THE STORY OF THE RAINBOW Once upon a time. 24.
phrases. 3. The AND type AND is used to add something to what has already been said. They spoke: “You foolish colors. but I am precious.” PURPLE rose up to his full height. and clauses of equal rank.” And so the colors went on boasting. He loves you all. a. and when he see it. I may be scarce. twilight and deep waters. but just as determinedly: “Think of me. You need me for balance and contrast. I carry all the most important vitamins.25 - . People do not question me – theylisten and obey. a sign of hope for tomorrow…” And so whenever God has used a good rain to wash the world. poinsettia and poppy. I am the color of silence. He was very tall and he spoke with great pomp:”I am the color of royalty and power. Without me. chiefs and bishops have always chosen. oranges. “I am the color of health and strength. drawing close to one another for comfort. fighting among yourselves. Examples: .ORANGE started next to blow her own trumpet. the red rose. let us remember to appreciate one another. each convined that they were the best. He puts the rainbow in the sky. for I am sign of authority and wisdowm. Two General Classes of Conjunctions 1. or clauses. I am the color danger and bravery. each trying to dominate the rest. I don‟t hang around all the time. It should be used only when the second idea is along the same line of thought as the first idea. Their quarreling became louder and louder. my beauty is so striking that no one gives another thought to any of you. a promise that he is with you. How will you apply the moral of the story to what are happening in real life? 3. the earth would as empty as the moon. 2. Based on an Indian legend. I am the color of passion and of love. Conjunctions are words which join words. mangoes. I will stretch you across the sky in a great bow of color as a reminder that He loves you all. I bring fire in the blood. life‟s blood. He shouted out: “I am the ruler of you all: blood. thunder rolled and boomed. I am willing to fight for a cause. What message is the author trying to impart in the story? 2. The colors all crouched down in fear. tht you can live together in peace. You hardly notice me. for prayer and inner peace. Join hands with another and come with me. written by Anne Hope LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. Do you not know that God made you all? Each for a special purpose: unique and different. Subordinating – used to introduce subordinate clauses.” INDIGO spoke much more quietly and all the others. Coordinating – connect words. phrases.” RED could stand it no longer. and pawpaws. Rain started to pour down relentlessly. Think of carrots and pumpkin. Do you agree with the idea of the author regarding the solution to bickering and unhealthy competition? FOCUS ON FORM: CONJUNCTIONS The word conjunction comes from the Latin word meaning”to join”. Suddenly there was wtartling splash of brilliant white lightning. I represent thought and reflection. but when I fill the sky at sunrise or sunset. Kings. but without me you all become superficial. for I serve the inner needs of human life.
how. 2. So implies that the second part follows as a result of the first part. B. Manner is expressed by how. . She is attractive and good-tempered. although. BUT and OR needed in each of the following sentences. This is how I want you to do it. When we use but. 1. Purpose is expressed in the following examples. which implies the same line of thought. He failed because he did not study.) 3. which. It also differs from the but type which implies a contrast. that. The prize which he won is a book. That he is a liar is false. whether. The flowers that he sent are orchids. (The words attractive and good tempered are positive qualities) 3. You can come today or tomorrow. The principal subordinate conjunctions are what. 8 Uncertainty is introduced by whether (not if). don‟t know whether I cn go with you. (What is false?) They claimed that he is a liar. Concession is expressed by although. a. Example: 1. 3. where. unless. It connects ideas of equal value – giving one a chance to choose either idea. if. He is stupid but industrious. The question what is answered by a that clause. 2. They read so that they may learn. b. The so typediffers from the and type. He shouted so I had to listen to him. I‟ll not speak to you unless you go with me 7. 5. that. Place is expressed by where. 2. (Stupid is a negative quality while industrious is a positive quality. The SO Type So is used when the second part is a consequence of the first part. His pen was broken ________ he could write with it. He studied hard fr the test ______ he got a good grade. 4. because. SOMETHING TO DO Coordinate Conjunctions : Write either of the coordinating conjunctions AND. They read that they may learn. Although I made a few mistakes. I don‟t know whether I lost it.26 - . 2. 6.1. The BUT Type BUT is used to add something contrary to or different from wha has already been said. Cause and effect is expressed in the following. I can go or stay as I please. He was so lazy that he failed. SO. The OR type OR implies a choice. (What did they claim?) 2. I got a very good mark. He went away and never came back. the second part of the sentence expresses an idea which is a contrast to the first. If you go with me. D. I‟ll treat you to a snack. Example: 1. 9 An adjectival subodinate clause may be introduced by who. 3. Condition is expressed by if and unless. Example: 1.
They have an inbred instict to follo what they have known or learned. 6. He turned his face aay (so as. the male members have always had the final say. Communicating in English11 Pages 87-88 LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1 . 7. This is knon in their approach to religion. If the time is mentioned or implied. so that) we would not recognize him. 5. He studied hard for the test _______ he got low grade. Subordinate Conjunctions : Underline the subordianting conjunctions needed in each sentence. (Though. I‟ll not come (unless. Because) she is often neglected by her parents. 8. has always been for all the family. The time of the action is not mentioned and it is not implied. Does it have advantages? Disadvantages? SOME PEOPLE The Gurkhas are the mountain people of Nepal. In their family relationships. Any Gurkha ceremony. In what way/s are Gurkhans similar to Filipinos? 2. Do you agree that it is right to participate in religious activities out of respect for the old ways? Why? 3. 6.4. I don‟t know (whether. 2. THE SCRIBE IN ME Write your views or comments regarding the new grading system. (at some indefinite time in the past). because) I cn go with you.27 - .” they are hardworkers and brave fighters. They graduated high school (because. like a parade or the presentation of an award. You will hand in your theme on time _____ I‟l give you a deduction. It has always been like this. 5. They go to the temple to participate in religious festivals ouit of respect for the old ways. (Before. She has work a batik dress. 7. so that) we won‟t be late. 3. For the Gurjhas. the past or the past perfect is usually used.) . 1. After) passing the rest. The young boys spend most of their time on the edge of the parade ground imitating their fathers as they drill and march. Everyone is present. Let‟s hurry (so as. 4. We went out (because. She was not sure (whether. unless) they worked for it. Mothers in colorful saris and their young children are all in attendance. unless) she could go. Is it right for men to always have the final say? Why? GRAMMAR IN FOCUS : THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE The Present Perfect Tense is used to indicate an action that took place at an indefinite time or over a period of time in the past. he was congratulated. 10. although) the rain stopped. Generally known as “people of the Himalayas. tradition or the way things have always been is very important. She did not know (where. (Yesterday indicates a definite past time. I was hungry ________ I didn‟t want to eat. if) you invited. so) she lost her watch. she still repsects them. It was raining _______ we went out. She wore batik dress yesterday. This is one of the big reasons the Gurkhas have maintained close family ties. 9.
such as the following: 1.Several students have reported on the life of Sukarno. (At no time in my life) Yes. Expressions beginning ith since and for a. I went there last year. The tourist guide has just explained to us the significance of the religious feast selamatan. We haven‟t taken them yet. The present perfect presupposes something in the present. a.. Lombak Flores and Sumba. When will the Balinese dancers present the monkey dance? They have already presented it. She has spoken Bahasa Indonesia for two years now. Have the Indonesians ever been trained to live in a democratic form of government? d. b. Batik-making has flourished in Java since the seventeenth century. The Indonesian group has just presented a wayang. 4.28 - . Have they ever been under foreign rule? 5. (They started doing so from ancient times and still do so to the present. (Batik-making still flourishes there). c. Have you ever seen a Buddhist temple? b. a. the Indonesians have offered food and flowers for the spirits of the plants. (Before the time of speaking but definite time is not known. Have you taken the pictures of Eden Farms yet? (The taking of pictures is expected). Ever is used in affirmative questions. Not yet. c. mountains. . The language teacher has not yet compared Tagalog and Bahasa Indonesia. (Definite past time). Have you ever gone to Baguio City? (At any time in one‟s life before the moment of speaking) No. Haven‟t they delivered the antiques from Jakarta yet? (There is surprise because the antiques have been paid for. When will we take up Indonesian literature? They have already taken it up. 2. It is never used with the past tense. Have you ever tasted durian and rambutan from Davao? c. Already is used in affirmative statements to express a complete action. I have never gone to Baguio City. a. (She still speaks the language. b. Has she prepared the streamers? (something expected) Not yet. 3. Just denotes an action recently completed. Affirmative questions about something expected. My Indonesian classmate has just received a package from Indonesia. Since ancient times.) Haven‟t they visited the botanical gardens yet? (There is surprise since they have been at the area for several years) c. b. It is used only in affirmative sentences. and seas. Certain adverbial time expressions are often used. Yet is used in: a. Negative questions to indicate surprise. She hasn‟t prepared them yet. b. Negative statements The students have not yet discussed the other islands of Indonesia. The Present perfect tense is also used to show an action that has begun in the past and is completed at the present time or may still be going on. like Bali.
We (live) in this city for almost fifteen years now. a.29 - . . Her brother _______ (pass) the Licensure Examination for Teachers. The present perfect tense is sometimes called the “has-have” tense because the sign of the present perfect tense is has for the third person and have for all other persons. c. Yet may be at the end of the sentence. All these years. 6. often. It is warm today. Example: I have been healthy all my life. Lately. a. The present perfect tense is used to denote an action: 1. and the like may be used with the present perfect tense.Yet may be placed between the auxiliary verb has/have and the main verb as shown in the preceding examples. 7. till today. l989. we (know) peace and contentment. Davao del Norte. she _______ (help) me all day. my family (move) to Tagum. Up to now. She speaks English well because she _______ (speak) English all her life. 12. They haven‟t started with the umbrella dance yet. Since this morning. A friend has recently written a report about Sukarno‟s government b. Other expressions. 1. I _________ ( not leave) the house. Batik has often reminded us of women working gracefully with baskets atop their heads. 13. 15. so far. lately. 9. frequently. 8. 3. such as recently. we (live) in the place. This child _______ (do) her work well. 11. Since then. 5. Why are you so late/ I _______ (wait) for you several hours! 10. SOMETHING TO DO Direction: Fill each blank with the present perfect tense of the word in parentheses: 1. Example: He had just left. Dingdong ________ (live) in Zamboanga for many years. 2. 14. They have frequently sacrificed chickens during cremation. He has done the work. 2. I _________(wait) for her for an hour. We are staying with my grandmother with whom we _____________(stay) for two years. she _______ (be) my friend. up to the present. The members of the choir ______(sing) for a while A. 2. On July l2. the Indonesian government has taken measures to keep up with its growing population. I haven‟t witnessed any presentation of the Ramayana Ballet Festival. The Christmas holidays ______ (end). e. Since I met Kassandra. 6. My cousin Mildred __________ (be) with us for a week. Examples: I have finished the work. Jake is very kind. the dry season _______ (begin). The present perfect tense has two forms – the ordinary and the progressive. An action that has just been completed. up to now. 4. d. I shall go out after I ______ (eat) my lunch. the Indonesians have preserved their basic customs. b. Use the correct verb form in the sentence. That began at some past time and continues to the present.
Ex. The people of Aklan (originate) the Ati-Atihan many years ago. Can you beat that? Oh. . The Alay Lakad contributions (help) thousands of out-of-school youth since the practice started several years ago. 7. 2. 6. 2004 Dear Diary. It is used to express the first of two past actions. For many generations. 8. AIDS IN THE USE OF THE PAST PERFECT TENSE a. 5. 2nd year LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. I had became aware of the importance of making wise choices? Our teacher had explained how our choices could make or unmake us. The villagers had prayed hard and long before the rain fell at last. Since then they (cremate) their dead. What are the advantages and disadvantages of keeping a diary? GRAMMAR ON FOCUS : THE PAST PERFECT TENSE The Past Perfect Tense or the HAD tense is used in the following sentences: 1.30 - . Really . boyfriend (or is it boyfriends? Gosh!) or just what my plans are. Do you own a diary? Where do you keep it? 2. They (celebrate) this festival for hundred of years. the Hindus (observe) cremation as a traditional practice. my … I had resolved to weigh things more carefully in the future. The monkey hunter had already caught several monkeys before he noticed the peaceful one. The monkey had learned about the men before it escaped. Tradition dictated that the Hindus cremate or burn their dead in the twelfth century. My teacher had reminded me about choosing wisely – carreer. a word already may be used with the past perfect tense. AN EXCERPT FROM A DIARY December l6.3. 4. and 3? Did both actions happen in the past? Did they happen at the same time or was one action completed before the other? How is the past perfect tense formed? What auxiliary verb is used? Why is the past perfect tense called the had tense? The past perfect tense is formed by using had + the past participle form of the verb. How many actions are indicated in sentences 1. State the reasons why you think they have been preserved. I had made a lot of thinking after one morning. Magnolia Communicating in English. 3. Do you know that before our English class had ended today. Filipinos (show) cooperation through bayanihan. 2. . THE SCRIBE IN ME Write five sentences about Filipino traditions practiced during the Spanish times which are still observed today. The man had worked very hard before he became rich. . Do you let others read your diary? 3.
In sentence no. 3. Ex. This emphasizes that the action of the verb in the past tense occurred only a little earlier tan the action indicated by the past tense. In sentence no. there are two past actions: stood up and heard. Remember to use the past perfect tense always in relation to the past tense. Ten years ago the Roldan family (purchase) an agricutural lot. the relationship between the two actions is perfectly clear. In sentence no. In sentence no.b. I stood up after I heard a noise. 2. 3. The implication is that the others waited for me. 2. THE SCRIBE IN ME Write a three-paragraph narrative of a memorable childhood experience. but since the word after shows the time relationship clearly. It is rarely used in a simple sentence unless the sentence is found in a paragraph. 2 . 4. The noise was heard before the person stood up. I heard a noise. the past perfect tense may also be used in this situation. The word just is sometimes placed between had and the past participle form of the verb. the two actions may be considered as taking place at the same time. The visitors had just taken their dinner when the host presented to them the exceptional monkey. They all (like) the coconut seedlings that they (plant) beore the rainy season. Their neighbors (admire) the coconuts that the Roldan family (harvest) before the typhoon. I stood up. 1. In sentence no. the meeting was going on when I entered. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in parentheses. They (know) that the Roldan family (invest) in a worthwhile project. The use of the past perfect tense indicates this clearly. he had finished making all the mistakes before I saw them. Which came first? We cannot tell. In the sentence: I saw all the mistakes he made. In the sentence: The meeting started when I entered the room. However. 1. The past perfect tense denotes an action which took place before another past action or before a definite past time. The past perfect tense is generally found in subordinate clauses: The station master said that the train had left an hour before. 2. 3. Study these examples: I noted all the errors he had made. the two verbs are both in the past tense although the second action occurred before the first action. The meeting had started when I entered. I had heard a noise. It is used when the speaker wishes to bring out this particular relationship between two actions. the meeting started just when I came in. I stood up. Which tense should you use to express the earlier of the two past actions? 1. SOMETHING TO DO a.31 - . the past tense was used. The past perfect tense had heard could have been used. . Consider these sentences: 1.
Class and race distinction shall have disappeared by then. What man has achieved in the past fifty years is probably much more than was achieved in the past five hundred years. There will be unmanned probes in progress throughout the solar system. textile factories shall have produced disposable clothing. Do you agree with the statement that “Man has achieved more these fifty years than in the last five hundred years? 2. especilly designed mirrors. They will simply be thrown away. oil crisis c. Also he shall have tapped algae or yeast as a food source.32 - .WHAT WILL THE WORLD BE IN 2000? This is the jet age. This still eliminate the weather problem. By 2000. To push through such projects requires a lot of energy. By 2000 man shall have gone into seas farming on a larger scale. Clothing GRAMMAR ON FOCUS : THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE Use the future perfect tense when you mean that the action will be completed before a specific time in the future. This will probably prove convenient since dirty clothes won‟t be laundered anymore. This being so. Food f. The forms of the future perfect tense are the ordinary form (shall have or will have added to the main verb) and the future perfect progressive form (shall or will have been added to the main verb) . Can we predict the future by evaluating present facts? 3. we wonder what the world will be in the year 2000. people by then shall have started living in skyscrapers going straight down instead of up. Today solar power is availed of by costly. Regarding housing. the space age. considering the rate by which population is increasing now. He shall have devised ways to make use of solar energy. Communication Arts and Skills Lopez/Serrano LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. Also he shall have tried using geothermal power. The tiny algae are 100 percent fruit. Man will perhaps realize that only through peace can preserve himself and this earth he lives in. The cost of glowing algae is very minimal. peace d. What will the world be in 2000? Several scholars have come up with educated predictions. By the year 2000 we will have colonized the moon and landed on Mars. What about peace? It is predicted that by 2000 we shall have found universal peace. scientists have gone into research. World population e. To solve the food problem. Many research laboratories like Stanford University Food Institute are now experimenting with algae farming. but by then man shall have found a substitute for oil to avoid an energy crisis. What are the predictions about the world in 2000 on the following? a. All continents shall have become united in the world alliance with an international police force. This means that lately technological advancement has gone at a very rapid pace. Housing g. only one cent per pound. although of course there will be added risks. By 2000 man shall have found ways to use solar energy as little cost. By the year 2000 the world population will have tripled. It is estimated that the world population will have hit the 7 billion mark in the next twenty five years. the world economic pogress b.
2. you _____ (see) many changes. The forms of the future perfect tense are the ordinary form (shall have or will have added to the main verb) and the future perfect progressive form (shall or will have been added to the main verb) Watch this model: We shall go to school at seven o‟clock. The dressmaker will finish the dress tomorrow. Before we can improve plant breeds.33 - . Many Asian nations _______ (become) self-sufficient in food. We shall have gone to school by seven o‟clock. We‟ll finish this lesson on Friday. The class will hold a program tonight. By the end of the century. “What Will I Be Twenty Years From Now GREEK LITERATURE. Change each of the following sentences to express perfect tense. Before the end of the century. medical researchers _____ (discover) better cures for some diseases. 3. 9. 6. A Glimpse Greek literature contains many stories about Amazons. They will leave the day after tomorrow. 5. B. the population of the world ________( increase) alarmingly unless measures are implemented. In few years time man ____ (find) the means to harness solar energy. To save plants. 1. Scientists _____ (land) manned rockets on some planets in the next decade. Not enjoying the presence of . 10. 6. Supposedly living near the Black Sea. By the time you reach fifty. probably. They will leave for Surigao next week. 4.GRAMMAR ON FOCUS : THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE Use the future perfect tense when you mean that the action will be completed before a specific time in the future. The program will be over at five o‟clock. 4. agriculturists _____ (come) up with pest control measures. You will clean your science garden next week. 5. By then. 9. The evaluators will arrive this afternoon. 10. With intensive research going on. 2. 3. 7. automobile manufacturers _____ (develop) cars consuming less gasoline. Olsen Racela will play basketball this afternoon at the Araneta. 7. 1. the Amazons were a nation of women warriors noted for their strength. 8. by 2000 mean _____ (lick) the food problem. 8. SOMETHING TO DO A Fill in the blanks with the future perfect tense of the given word. I shall finish reading this novel next week THE SCRIBE IN ME Write a short paragraph with this title. we ____ (do) much selection of seeds.
Our patriotism should be expressed in action not only in words. __________ 7. __________ 2. Cases of man‟s inhumanity to man make people react violently. What is a predicate? A predicate is a verb and a verb often defined as a word that expresses action. Youth gangs are sowing trror in many cities.” 1. LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1.men. write the simple subject of the sentence. __________ 5. the auience gave th speakers a standing ovation. Sick people cannot stand too much excitement. __________ 9. Most parents feel the effects of the generation gap. the Amazons lived apart in their cities. the god of war. B Direction : On the blank before each number. What is the subject of the sentence? a. __________ 10. They are merely the product of Greek‟s imagination. . It may be that which is identified or spoken about. __________ 4. The star witness will tell the court the truth in due time. SOMETHING TO DO a Direction: On the blank before each number. The Filipino people were outraged at the terrible plight of the OCW‟s. The ASEAN should keep its member nations united. Its two basic parts are the subjet and the predicate. Their bravery made them famous. write the simple predicate of the sentence. Public relations is the art of dealing with people. The economists called Jim a financial wizard. d. and for one‟s native language. No man is completely free from wories. __________ 5. __________ 6. They fought against the Greeks during the Trojan War. The subject is “that which undergoes an action. Do you believe that Amazons really existed before? Or were they just a product of one‟s imagination? GRAMMAR ON FOCUS : SIMPLE SUBJECT AND SIMPLE PREDICATE A sentence is a group of words expressing a complete thought. Conscientious citizens always think of the good of the country 2. After listening to the inspiring speeches. __________ 3. His motive for the murder was never determined. Ares. b. according to some scholars.34 - . Penalties for traffic violators have been increased to discourage the growing number of young traffic violators. c. __________ 1. __________ 3. state or process. It is “that which is described. for familiar ways o doing things. The predicate is linked to the subject in a sentence through the normal word order subject + predicate. The pilot of the plane has the safety of his passengers in his mind. Many Greek statues of Amazons with bows and arrows can be seen today in museums. The subject is that “to or for” whom the action is performed. __________ 2. Mother Teresa was the recipient f the 1994 Nobel Peace Prize. 1. was worshipped in their temples. Cosmic guessing games are heady and exciting. It seems plain that the defense witness missed the whole point of the ju dge‟s questions. Examples: 1. however. “Culture shock” is a mixture of homesickness for old faces. being. __________ 1. __________ 8. Effective interaction among people can be brought about by mutual understanding and trust. __________ 4. 1.” 1. These women never really existed. They were lso fearless hunters.
9. In each of the following sentences. 7.35 - . Administrators of schools must combine wisdom with foresight and 8. _________ ________ _________ ________ _________ ________ Philippine life. 10. _________ ________ _________ ________ _________ ________ THE SCRIBE IN ME Make a stand! Should students rate their teachers? Underline all subject ones and all predicates twice in your JUSTIFICATION. _________ ________ _________ ________ tact. But how much nutritional expertise do you actually have? Take this quiz and see. Some additives are intentionally used in foods to maintain or improve nutritional value. The cultural minorities must be absorbed into the mainstream of 4. Just write your YES or NO answers before each number. _________1. 2. I doubt there is anyone who doesn‟t know the four basic food groups needed for a well-balanced diet. The brain regulates appetite. 3. The correct answers are given at the end of the lesson. The huge crowd demonstrated in front of the Singaporean embassy. _________3. Write your answers on the blanks before each number. determine the simple subject and the simple predicate. _________2.C. Pizza is not a nutritious food. The government is exerting efforts to solve the Muslim problem. Children generally enjoy playing in the water especially during 6. _________ ________ _________ ________ summer. _________4. Ambition can determine a person‟s success in life. . Love can clear up many misunderstanding in this world. Scientific knowho must be coupled with good public relations. 5. Parents are sources of joy. Simple Subject Simple Predicate 1. Our tried and tested friends always help us. For instance. Wash rice before cooking. WHAT’S YOUR NUTRITION IQ? Most of us would like to believe we are knowledgeable when it comes to our family‟s nutritional needs.
Plays depicting basic human emotions in a realistic way are liked by theater-goers. Very few people act calmly in a crisis. _________18. . FOCUS ON FORM : THE COMPLETE SUBJECT AND COMPLETE PREDICATE The complete subject consists of the substantive and its modifiers. _________14. Avocado is a fruit that contains fat. The world has yet to experience the full effects of future shock.always._________5. Some foolish boys laughed aloud during the tragic scene. 2. Washing the shell of an egg makes it spoil faster. _________19. ________________ 1. Example: Conscientious citizens always think of the good of the country. Low-calorie diet may affect your skin and hair. Example : Is / a a. _________13. ________________ 4.none SOMETHING TO DO On the blank before each number. A nationwide poll revealed that almost any desert is preferred over any vegetable. of the food of the country The pilot of the plane has the safety of his passengers in his mind. but a fruit. _________16. How do we keep our body strong and healty. Has . _________15. You will lose weight quickly if you stick to only one meal a day. What is a well-balanced diet? 3. Frozen orange juice is less nutritious than fresh orange juice. _________10. . A good guidance counselor can help a confused adolescent find himself. Vitamins and minerals provide energy. If you exercise within two hours after eating.36 - .simple predicate Modifier . _________7. LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. The tomato is not a vegetable. Vinegar taken in a glass of water each meal will thin your blood. _________17. Think . _________6. Rapid warming or heating of milk reduces its nutrional value. ________________ 2. Milk should not be frozen.substantive Pangasinan . _________8. Examples: The typhoon victims in Pangasinan Typhoon . darker-colored vegetables have magic health-giving qualities.modifier The simple subject can be expaned by adding descriptive words. phrases or clauses. Usually. The complete predicate consists of the verb phrases and its modifiers. ________________ 3. Nationalism is trait which everyone should possess. _________9. A renowed psychologist electrified the crowd with his lecture on transcendental meditation. ________________ 5. Can you still name the basic food groups? What are they? What are their functions to the body? 2. _________12.simple predicate Modifiers . Drug pushers are the lowest for of criminals. When a product says “sugarless” it means it is sugar-free. Eating a lot of carrots is the best way to improve your eyesight. _________20. _________11. write the two words separated by a slant life to show the division between the complete subject and the complete predicate. you may burn more calories than if you exercise on an empty stomach. 1. Bananas are the most fattening fruit.modifier Victims .
The nations of the Third World are receiving increasing attention today. 5. 9.________________ 6. Green grass grows everywhere. 6. as an adjective. S TV IO O The S-TV-O-OC Pattern. 8. Good fortune knocks only once. The subject complement may be a noun or an adjective. S stand for subject. 1. S stands for subject and IV stands for intransitive verb. FILIPINO POVERBS 1. S TV O The S-LV-C Pattern. IO for indirect object and O object. . and C for subjective complement or a word that adds to the meaning of a subject. The legend seems interesting. S TV O 2. A rolling stone gathers no moss. Grass is of no use to a dead horse 2. They considered him wise. THE SCRIBE IN ME Write 5 sentences with complete subject and complete predicate and underline them. The book gave them magic formulas. As a noun. Quickly earned money is quickly spent. S TV O OC (OC is a noun) 2. and O for object. Confucios gave his people moral ideas. S IV The S-TV-O Pattern. Liars and thieves are alike. Ecumenical services tend to do away with distinctions between churches and sects. 1. A hard line cannot always be drawn in dealing with the rebels. The OC may be a noun or an adjective. Extravagance leads to poverty.g. S Stands for subject. e. ________________ 10. S LV C (Adjective complement) S-TV-IO-O Pattern.g. 1. and OC for objective complement. The busy have no time for vice. TV for transitive verb. The men called Confucius Master. 7. They recited majic formulas. S TV IO O 2. e. A good laugh is sunshine in a house.37 - . TV for transitive verb.g. Choose three Filipino proverbs from the list above and explain each proverb. it is identical to the subject. it describes the subject. LV for linking verb. e. e.g. 10. LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. The Chinese had oral traditions. TV for transitive verb. The poems were incantations. Many traumatic experiences have been traced to events during childhood. Traditions exist. S stands for subject. S IV 2.g. e. 1. O for object. 4. 3. ________________ 7. FOCUS ON FORM : BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS Pattern I: Pattern 2: Pattern 3: Pattern 4: Pattern 5: The S-IV Pattern. 1. Talks and tumbles give us greater endurance and strength. S stands for subject. Sleeping shrimps are caried away by the current. S LV C (Noun complement) 2. ________________ 9.
LV. 11. He discovers cities buried long ago. 9. 6. 6. 9. E. 2. TV. Science tells many facinating stories to us. 9. 10. 5. I showed my report card to my father. 5. His grandfather is old. Perhaps they are not humanoid. 9. D. Her father is a judge. Cats can see in the dark. The manager offeed a good salary to the applicant. These artifacts attract the attention of tourists. Armando sent a bouquet of flowers to his girlfriend. The guide showed many scenic spots to the tourists. 10. Spac flights are not new. Vegetables grow well on rich soil. The whole class laughed at the incident. The bell rings for dismissal. Some students walks to school everyday. It offers much hope in the future of man. 1. 7. Remy smiles easily at peopl. 5. This statement sounds fntastic. 2. The teacher gave good marks to us. 3. Extraterrestial creatures are possible. They handle these objects with great care. Identify the S and IV in the sentences. Some austronauts are women. Life remains a great mystery. 4. We admire the many attributes received from other countries. 5. Edna dances gracefully. Achaeologists found the oldest discoveries there. The shelves display the medals given to him. The Nile Valley produced a very early civilization. Grace speaks clearly and fluently. The wonders of science offer a challenge to man.38 - . The Paco Museum contains some of these artifacts. 3. 11. OC pattern: . 11. Others ride in a bus. 2. O. He spends his life digging dep into the earth. Change the position of the IO in the sentence. B. 4. 7. The sun is the center of the solar system. 10. 10. 7.S TV O OC (OC is an adjective) SOMETHING TO DO A. 8. 8. E. 7. 6. 4. 3. 2. C. Answer: The teacher gave us good marks. We listen to her attentively. Scientific literature of space is still very scanty. Identify the S. 3. Archaeologists study past civilization. The S.g. and C in the sentences. TV and O in the sentences. 6. 8. The old woman told many interesting stories to the cildren. Identify the S. 8. The generous lady gave a new dresss to he orphan. Mny pai ten pesos to her. 4.
Use the basic sentence patterns. Foreigners consider Filipinos very ______________. 2. 6. paradise Philippines leader women country proud Christianity blessing hospitable colony 1. however. Rizal called the ___________ the Pearl of the Orient Seas. A compound sentence expresses two related ideas of equal importance. The two main clauses of a compound sentence can be separated into two simple sentences. chose the one that will complete each sentence. It may contain two or more verbs or two or more subjects. GRAMMAR IN FOCUS : KINDS OF SENTENCES ACCORDING TO STRUCTURE/FORM 1. came from United States. 4) The French still prefer rare meat. Example: Computer literacy is very much in demand now. They also consider Filipino _______________ the most beautiful in Asia. 2) The idea of placing a meat on a bun. 9) Chopped meat now accounts for about 30 per cent of all meat sales. Thinking aloud: Is sentence No. 3. 10 possible? Support your answer. The clauses are joined by a conjunction. Scientists are working on the hamburger. 8) Today. The clauses of a compound sentence may be separated from each other by means of semi-colons or commas followed by coordinating conjunctions. or sentence connectors. and the frankfurter came from Frankfurt. 4. Germany. It expresses one idea or a simple uncomplicated idea. A compound sentence is made up of two or more independent clauses. but the Germans eat raw hamburger meat. 3) When the hamburger first arrived in United States it was eaten almost raw. A computer program commands the machine to yield necessary information. We consider our country a ________________ from God. These praises make us _____________. The King of Spain named Magellan the ________ of the expedition to the east. Most Filipinos consider ___________ the gratest legacy of Spain.39 - . 10). and it may change drastically in the future because it may be made of soybeans and cottons! LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. 5) Hamburger first became popular among German immigrants who lived in Cincinnati. 7) Officially.From from the list of words below. the frankfurter is not popular. Louis. 5. Villalobos named our ___________ Filipinas. Missouri. Spain made our country a ____________. The most common coordinators are: And or nor so for yet . 2. HAMBURGER OF THE FUTURE 1) The hamburger came from Hamburg. 9. 6) Hamburger wasn‟t placed between halves of a bun until early this century. 8. A simple sentence contains one independent clause. THE SCRIBE IN ME Write a diary of your daily activities. 10. the first hamburger sandwich appeared in 1904 in St. Many tourists call our country a _____________. but the hamburger is on the rise. which was also the birth place of the ice-cream cone. 7.
The parish priests who do mission work in the remote areas are constantly exposed to danger but they are not afraid. It expresses two equally related parts of a main idea and one or more or less important one Examples: You can go into computer programming. Connectors and subordinators are used to subordinate one clause from the other. The astronauts who went to the moon had many interesting stories to tell when they returned to the earth. but they are sometimes risky. A complex sentence is composed of one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. _________15. .40 - . not the letter as your answer on the blank provided before each number. A compound-complex sentence expresses two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. yet our players kept on fighting until the end. There was a heavy downpour. Direction: Read the following sentences carefully. Identify each one as: (a) simple sentence (b) compound sentence (c) complex sentence and (d) compound-complex sentence. A round of peace talks between the government and the rebel leaders was held in Jakarta. Drug addiction is a menace hat must be stamped out. 2. The Quezon City authorities launched a drive to stop the squatters influx into the city. 3. _________11. Examples: A student who has developed good study habits will not find difficulty in getting good grades. yet the auditorium was crowded. When the speaker finished explaining the “Alay Kapwa”movement. he easily thought that they would again vote him into the same office. for more and more companies are going into the computer business. My neighbor. That child is truly talented and he will go far in an architecture course. The manager became excited when sales volume reached unprecedented proportions. 12. _________1. _________14. has seen the moon explorers via satellite when they came back for the touchdown. The employment prospects abroad are very bright. _________7. Two ideas are expressed – one idea more important than the other. THE SCRIBE IN ME Described the kind of music for teenagers in the next few years. Our team was losing the game. Good citizens are generally law-abiding people. Because the governor served his constituents very well. nevertheless. _________8. _________2. Write the words. _________3. _________10. _________5. Marigold wants to take up nursing so she can help the sick people in her barrio. _________12.Examples: 1. yet the implementation of such laws is neglected. Congress has passed so many bills of benefit to laborers. the audience gave him a standing ovation. _________6. _________ 4. _________13. The laborers have asked for increased fringe benefits. he carried out the assignment. The soldier knew how dangerous the mission was. SOMETHING TO DO B. who is a scientist. The boy scout cried with joy when he was awarded the Distinguished Service Award. There is no consensus on the issue of family planning. but you can only expect a very basic remuneration at first. _________ 9.
but whenever Sunday rolled around. “ I said. honey. I was bitter about it. if ever there was one. He managed to go back to work for several months. we got along famously. He was deeply religious. getting ready to go to church with the children. “but I can‟t be a hypocrite at this stage of the game. What makes Joe and Denise different as day and night? 2. I hate leaving you and the children. Joe. A diagnosis of cancer of the lower bowel and rectum necessitated a colostomy. “Why don‟t you come with us. and that was why Mommy never went with them. We were odd couple.HAVE FAITH When Janice and Billy were old enough. That was mainly because we adjusted to each other‟s likes and dislikes. he was always up at the crack of dawn. It‟s the least you can do for him now. Denise!” he said. and I whereas different as night and day. But it‟s a well-known fact that opposites do attract. but I‟m confident we‟ll see each other in the hereafter.!” “Being a Christian does not insure immunity from pain and suffering. Janice. Joe took them to Sunday school and introduced them to the One he always considered to be his closes friend – Jesus. My husband.” LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. Janice said to me. “I don‟t understand how God could have permitted this to happen!” I said one afternoon when Joe was in severe pain. Then it was discovered that the cancer had invaded other organs of his body. The children accepted the stories they heard there as truth. Mother? It would please Daddy so much. What made the Joe and Denise get along well together despite their religious differences? . Once. “It‟s how we bear the cross that matters. There was only one thing they couldn‟t see to understand.” Your father would know I was only doing it for his sake. I was homely. It‟s better this way. “You were always such a good Christian. and I let Joe know it. I was an agnostic. Joe usually answered that question before I even had a chance to.41 - .” “I‟m sorry. Janice was twenty and Billy was eighteen then. Despite our many differences. Doctors gave him no longer than six months to live. He was handsome. I don‟t know how he managed to do it. I‟m really not afraid to die. not as fairy tales.
Please submit your requirments net week. grief. 376) 4. I was astonished.3. Bacteria are single-celled organisms that cause contagious diseases. You are requested to submit your requirements next week. Joe? 5) Isn‟t it enough that you believe? 6) That‟s all that really matters. Imperative sentence If your intention is to make a request. 3) “With this proof. Declarative sentence A declarative sentence is a simple. compound-complex sentence in which a predicate asserts or declares something about the subject. could. anger. An interrogative sentence poses a question.42 - . 1. to Joe. There are two types of questions posed by interrogative sentences. or untypical condition or situation. or untypical condition of situation. As I ironed away. the markers of request may disappear. 1) The next day. Classify them according to their functions. or some other emphatic feelings. He began taking daily walks around the neighborhood. The markers to use are words such as: please. how can you not believe. The words represent the response to some unexpected startling.” To me. Questions that require a yes-or-no answer: Was he happy? Is he intelligent? Note that the normal order of the subject and verb (a form of “to be) is inverted and that the subject is positioned between the auxiliary verb and the main verb. followed by an inverted subject and verb. These types of questions begin with the words who. it was downright depressing. Joe seemed greatly improved. How did Joe faced his awaiting end? OCUS ON FORM : KINDS OF SENTENCES ACCORDING TO FUNCTION/PURPOSE 1. I was beginning to think the miracle the children had been praying for constantly had happened. These are usually brief – from one to three or four words and with a rising intonation pattern. when. 2. The words represent to some unexpected.. SOMETHING TO DO Read carefully the underlined numbered sentences in the sample paragraphs below. where. Man has developed a natural defense against bacteria. p. o some other emphatic feelings. surprise. 2. He actually began putting on weight. kindly. 1. request. stopping now and then to chat with friends. “Run upstairs and get the key of the car! 3. etc. what. (Francis. it was thrilling. compound. Questions that require answers other than yes or no: A clear illustration of sentences in question form that require answers other than yes or no is shown in the second paragraph of the article above. 4) “Why is it so important to you that I believe. “Get a doctor and bring him here immediately!” 2. His appetite improved. which. In a situation wherein there is an urgent for the second person “You” to do immediately hat is expected of him. why. he would read to me from these books. 2. Denise?” he asked me one afternoon. 2. whom. complex. 1. These are usually brief – from one to three or four words and with a rising intonation pattern. Moreover.” . An exclamatory sentences expresses alarm. but I told myself that was impossible. then you use imperative sentence in a requestform. much to my surprise. startling. how. grief. surprise. anger. 1. An exclamatory sentence expresses alarm. . it is a statement of fact. 2) Joe bought every book he could find on ESP and “life after death.
43 - . “I love you. Answers: 1. ___________________________ 5. ___________________________ 8. 7) I want that love to continue beyond this earthly life. Joe. ___________________________ 2. 9) I‟ll always love you. ___________________________ 4. __________________________ THE SCRIBE IN ME Write five sentences for each kind of sentence according to function or purpose. . ___________________________ 10. ___________________________ 9.” 10) He held me in his weak arms and I wept tears of bitterness that he should have to die so young. I‟ve never loved another woman as much as I‟ve loved you . too. Denise.” 8) What could I say? I had no answer. All I could say was.___________________________ 6.“It‟s important to me because I want to be sure that we‟ll meet again in world. I love you. ___________________________ 7. ___________________________ 3.
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