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# JPN Pahang Student’s Copy

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity

CHAPTER 7: ELECTRICITY

7.1 CHARGE AND ELECTRIC CURRENT Van de Graaf 1. What is a Van de Graaff generator? Fill in each of the boxes the name of the part shown. A device that ……………….. and ………………….. at high voltage on its dome

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dome

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JPN Pahang Student’s Copy

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity

2. How are electrical charges produced by a Van de Graaff generator? And what type of charges is usually produced on the dome of the generator? When the motor of the Van de Graaff generator is switched on, it drives the ……………………….. This causes the rubber belt to against the …….……… and hence becomes …..……… The charge is then carried by the moving belt up to the …………… where it is collected. A large amount of ……………. is built up on the dome ……………………. charges are usually produced on the dome of the generator. ……….

3. What will happen if the charged dome of the Van de Graaff is connected to the earth via a micrometer? Explain. There is a …………………….. of the pointer of the microammeter. This indicates an electric current …………………….

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JPN Pahang Student’s Copy

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity

**4. Predict what will happen if a discharging metal sphere to the charged dome.
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+ + dome,

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When the discharging metal sphere is brought near the charged …………………………… occurs. An electric current ……………

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Predict what will happen if hair of a student is brought near to the charged dome. Give reasons for your answer. The metal dome …………. the hair and the hair stand ……………….. This is because of each strand of hair receives ……………….. charges and …………………….. each other.

6. The flow of electrical charges produces ………………….

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Each electron carries a charge of ………………………. One ampere is one coulomb per second. it is given as: where I = ……………………... 7.... 15 coulombs of charge cross the plane... In symbols. (i) The SI unit of charge is (Ampere / Coulomb / Volt) (ii) The SI unit of time is (minute / second / hour) (iii)The SI unit of current is (Ampere / Coulomb / Volt) is equivalent to (Cs // C-1s // Cs-1) I (iv) By rearranging the above formula. Each second.… I= Q = …………………….. the ……………… is the current... coulomb of charge through a cross section of a conductor.. the charges are carried by………………….. 8.. The more charges that flow through a cross section within a given time.... 5. 1 C of charge is……………………………. ……………. 15 amperes means in ………………second.. 4.. then the current is …………………. Q = ( It / t / I t ) 4. 3.. Electric current consists of a flow of …………...JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Electric Current 1.. 6. In a metal wire.... 2.. If one coulomb of charge flows past in one second.. ampere. The current is I = 15 amperes. -4- . Electric current is defined as the rate of flow of ………………………….… t = …………..

Apparatus & materials Extra high tension (E.H.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Electric Field a) An electric field is a ………………. polystyrene ball coated with conducting paint. electrodes with different shapes (pointed electrode and plane electrode). Method DEMO A) 1. (ii) electric field lines are ………………. in a …………………. Observed the pattern formed by the talcum powder for different types of electrodes.T.H. electric field. cooking oil. of the field c) The principles involved in drawing electric field lines are : (i) electric field lines always extend from a ……………… . talcum powder. in which an……………… experiences a…………. Draw the pattern of the electric field lines.. each other. thread and candle... Set up the apparatus as shown in the above figure 2.-charged object (ii) electric field lines never …………………. -5- . petri dish.. 4. power supply and adjust the voltage to 4 kV 3.charged object to a ………………. two metal plates. and ………………. Switch on the E.T) power supply (0 – 5 kV). b) An electric field can be represented by a number of lines indicate both the……………... Demo: To study the electric field and the effects of an electric field.

JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity → Draw the pattern of the electric field lines. ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A POSITIVE CHARGE ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A NEGATIVE CHARGE ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CHARGE ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND TWO NEGATIVE CHARGES -6- .

JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND TWO POSITIVE CHARGES ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A NEGATIVE CHARGE AND A POSITIVELY CHARGED PLATE ELECTRIC FIELD AROUND A POSITIVE CHARGE AND A NEGATIVELY CHARGED PLATE ELECTRIC FIELD BETWEEN TWO CHARGED PARALLEL PLATES -7- .

JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity EFFECT OF AN ELECTRIC FIELD ON A POLYSTYRENE BALL Observation: The polystyrene ball oscillated between the two plates. Switch on the E. the ball loses some of its negative charges to the plate and becomes positively charged. The ball will then move to the positively charged plate. -8- . Place the polystyrene ball between the two metal plates.T and displace the polystyrene ball slightly so that it touches one of the metal plates and experiences a repulsive force. It then experiences a repulsive force. 2. touching one plate after another. When the ball touches the plate. the ball receives negative charges from the plate 1.H. Explanation: When the polystyrene ball touches the negatively charged plate. This process continues.

Electric field lines are ……………………in an electric field. Like charges ………………. Explanation: 1) Switch of the E. is switched on. to ………………………… -9- . The flame is dispersed in two opposite directions but more to the negative plate. each other but opposite charges …………… each other.. The portion that is attracted to the negative plate is very much larger than the portion of the flame that is attracted to the positive plate. The direction of the field lines is from ……………………. 2) Sketch the flame observed when the E.T. The positive charges are heavier than the negative charges. 2.T and replace the polystyrene ball with a lighted candle..H. The positive charges are attracted to the negative plate while the negative charges are attracted to the positive plate.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity EFFECT OF AN ELECTRIC FIELD ON A CANDLE FLAME C) Observation: The candle flame splits into two portions in opposite direction. Conclusion 1. The heat of the flame ionizes the air molecules to become positive and negative charges. Electric field is a ……………………………………………………………………….H. 3. This causes the uneven dispersion of the flame.

what is the (a) (b) electric charge the number of electrons which flow through the resistor? . What is the current in the wire? 2. how many electrons pass through the wire in one minute? (Given: The charge on an electron is 1.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Exercise 7.8 A flows in a wire.2 A. Calculate the amount of electric charge that passes through the lamp in 1 hour.1 1. What is the electric current in the bulb? 3. The current in a lamp is 0. A charge of 300 C flow through a bulb in every 2 minutes.10 - . 5 C of charge flows through a wire in 10 s. If a current of 0.6 x 10-19 C) An electric current of 200 mA flows through a resistor for 3 seconds. 4.

. passing the bulb in the circuit and ……………….11 - . This due to the ………………. Point A is connected to…………………. terminal Electric potential at A is potential at B. terminal Point B is connected to …………………. the bulb.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Ideas of Potential Difference (a) (b) X water Y P Q ⇒ Pressure at point P is ……………… than the pressure at point Q Water will flow from ……to …… when the valve is opened. The potential difference. V between two points in a circuit is defined as ……………………………………………………. . This is due to the electric ……………….. in the pressure of water Gravitational potential energy at X is …………… than the gravitational potential energy at Y.. Q is …………………………. in the gravitational potential energy. work is done when electrical energy is transformed to …………. ………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… The potential difference. than the electric Bulb B W Work V = Quantityofch arg e = Q where W is ………………………….. This due to the ……………………. between the two terminals. As the charges flow from A to B. Electric current flows from A to B.and …………… energy.V between the two points will be given by: A ……………. (c) Similarly. The apple will fall from …… to …… when the apple is released..

JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Device and symbol ammeter voltmeter connecting wire Cells Switch Constantan wire // eureka wire bulb resistance rheostat Measuring Current and Potential Difference/Voltage Measurement of electricity Measurement of potential difference/voltage (a) Electrical circuit (a) Electrical circuit (b) Circuit diagram (b) Circuit diagram Turn to next page→ .12 - .

How is an voltmeter connected in an electrical circuit? 4. Name the device used to measure electrical current. Name the device used to measure potential difference.13 - . How is an ammeter connected in an electrical circuit? 3. (a) What is the SI unit for current? 2. What will happen if the positive terminal of the ammeter is connected to the negative terminal of the dry cell? . 2.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 1. The positive terminal of a voltmeter is connected to which terminal of the dry cell? 5. (a) What is the SI unit for potential difference? (b) What is the symbol for the unit of current? (b) What is the symbol for the unit of potential difference? 3. The positive terminal of an ammeter is connected to which terminal of the dry cell? 4. 1.

Why do the ammeters show different The current flowing through the bulb is influenced by the potential difference across it. (iii) Design an experiment to investigate the hypothesis.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Experiment: To investigate the relationship between current and potential difference for an ohmic conductor. (i) manipulated variable : : : (d) Variables (ii) responding variable (iii) fixed variable Apparatus / materials . (ii) State one appropriate hypothesis that could be investigated. (a) Inference (b) Hypothesis (c) Aim (b) Figure (a) and figure (b) show two electrical circuits. (i) Make one suitable inference. To determine the relationship between current and potential difference for a constantan wire. (a) readings? Why do the bulbs light up with different intensity? Referring to the figure (a) and (b).14 - .

V across the wire.5 A. V/V 1.6 0. (a) What is the shape of the V-I graph? Volt. Tabulation of data : Current. (c) Does the gradient change as the current increases? The gradient ≡ the ratio of 2. R.7 Analysis of data Discussion : : Draw a graph of V against I . What is the function of the rheostat in the circuit? It is to control the current flow in the circuit Conclusion : The potential difference.I/A 0.4 A.0 2. Read and record the potential difference.4 0. 0.5 Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure. The resistance.2 A. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for I = 0. 1. The graph of V against I is a straight line that passes through origin (b) What is the relationship between V and I? This shows that the potential difference.5 0.5 3. V is directly proportional to the current. From the graph plotted. 3. 2. 4. V I is a constant as current increases.7 A.3 A. I passing through it increases as long as the conductor is kept at constant temperature.6 A and 0.2 0. Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Turn on the switch and adjust the rheostat so that the ammeter reads the current. .15 - . 3. 0. of the wire used in the experiment is equal to the gradient of the V-I graph.0 1. Determine the value of R.0 3.3 0. 0.5 2. I= 0. V across a conductor increases when the current. I.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Method : 1.

16 - .JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity .

JPN Pahang Student’s Copy

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity

Ohm’s Law (a) Ohm’s law states that the electric current, I flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across the ends of the conductor, if temperature and other physical conditions remain constant (b) By Ohm’s law: V I

∝

= constant × I or

V = constant I

(c) The constant is known as ………………………………. of the conductor. (d) The resistance, R is a term that describes …………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. It is also defined as the ratio……………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. That is R= and V=

(e) The unit of resistance is ………………………………… (f) An ……………………….. is one which obeys Ohm’s law, while a conductor which does not obey Ohm’s law is known as a ……………………….conductor

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JPN Pahang Student’s Copy

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity

Factors Affecting Resistance 1. The resistance of a conductor is a measure of the ability of the conductor to (resist / allow) the flow of an electric current through it. 2. From the formula V = IR, the current I is (directly / inversely) proportional to the resistance, R. 3. When the value of the resistance, R is large, the current, I flowing in the conductor is (small / large) 4. What are the factors affecting the resistance of a conductor? a) ……………………………………………………………. b) ……………………………………………………………. c) ……………………………………………………………. d) ……………………………………………………………. 5. Write down the relevant hypothesis for the factors affecting the resistance in the table below.

Factors Diagram Hypothesis The …………… the conductor, the …………….. its resistance Resistance is …………………. proportional to the length of a conductor The ……………….….. the cross sectional area, the …….………… the its resistance Resistance is ……………...…….. proportional to the cross-sectional area of a conductor Different conductors with the same physical conditions have ……………………. resistance Graph

The type of the material of the conductor

The cross-sectional area of the conductor, A

Length of the conductor, l

The temperature of the conductor

The …………………. The temperature of a conductor, the …………………... the resistance

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JPN Pahang Student’s Copy

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity

6. From, the following can be stated: Resistance of a conductor, Resistance of a conductor, R R ∝ ∝ length 1 cross-sectional area Hence, resistance of a conductor, R ∝ length cross-sectional area Or R∝ l A or R= ρ l A where ρ = resistivity of the substance

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W = = QV ItV 3.5 V 4. ii) Work done. In that period of time. i) Electric charge.20 - . Tick (√) the correct answers True (a) Unit of potential difference is J C-1 (b) J C-1 ≡ volt.5 V = = = QV 5. If a charge of 5. W in terms of I. False (e) Potential difference ≡ Voltage 2. A light bulb is switched on for a period of time. V The potential difference between two points is 1 volt if 1 joule (c) of work is required to move a charge of 1 coulomb from one point to another. Calculate the potential differences across the ends of the wire. 5 C of charges passed through it and 25 J of electrical energy is converted to light and heat energy. Q = ( It / t I / ) t I V Q / ) Q V W = (QV / iii) Base on your answer in 2(i) and (ii) derive the work done. What is the potential difference across the bulb? W 20 V = = = QV 6 (V) 3. V and t.0 (V) 0.0 C flows through a wire and the amount of electrical energy converted into heat is 2. W 2.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Exercise 7.5 J.33 V .2 1. (d) 2 volt is two joules of work done to move 2 coulomb of charge from one to another in an electric field.

5 Ω 9.0 V applied across a resistor of resistance R drives a current of 2. V 3.5 (5) 2. Calculate R.5 V 8. What is the potential difference across a light bulb of resistance 5 Ω when the current that passes through it is 0. if the dry cells supply 2.0 (R) 1.0 R = = = IR 2. the current flow is 3 A. How much work is done in moving 3 C of electric charge through the motor? W = = = QV 3 (10) 30 J Bulb 6.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 5.0 A through it.5 (R) 4Ω . The potential difference of 10 V is used to operate an electric motor. How much work done to transform electrical energy to light and heat energy in 50 s? W = = = VIt 20 (3) (50) 3000 J 3A 20 V 7.21 - .5 A? V 2.0 V and the ammeter reading is 0. A potential difference of 3. What is the value of the resistor in the figure.0 R = = = IR 0.5 A? V = = = IR 0. When the potential difference across a bulb is 20 V.

calculate the voltage supplied by the dry cells? V R = = = IR 0. The graph shows the results of the experiment.2 0 13.5 A flows through the resistor of 3 Ω in the figure. I flowing through a constantan wire when the potential difference V across it was varied. If the bulb in the figure has a resistance of 6 Ω.0 R = = = IR 6 (R) 0.5 (3) 1.5 Ω 11. An experiment was conducted to measure the current.5 Ω 12. The resistance of the wire is From V-I graph.0 x 10-3Ω 5 I/A . if the dry cells supply 3 V? V 3. What is the resistance of the resistor? From V-I graph. resistance = gradient = = 2.22 - . what is the reading shown on the ammeter. resistance = gradient = = 2. The graph shows the result of an experiment to determine the resistance of a wire.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 10. If a current of 0.4Ω V/V 1.

R and S made of the same substance. V 12 I = = = IR I (5) 2.23 - .0 I = = = IR 0. The diagram shows four metal rods of P. Referring to the diagram on the right. Figure shows a torchlight that uses two 1.5 V dry cells.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 14.4)(30) = 864 C 15. a) Which of the rod has the most resistance? P b) Which of the rod has the least resistance? S .3(R) 10Ω + 1.3 A when the bulb is at its normal brightness. W = = = QV 72 (12) 864 C or W = VIt = 12(2. Q. The two dry cells are able to provide a current of 0.4 (30) 72 C (c) The amount of work done to transform the electric energy to the heat energy in 30 s. calculate (a) The current flowing through the resistor.5 V - + 1.5 V - 16. What is the resistance of the filament? V 3.4 A I 5Ω 12 V (b) The amount of electric charge that passes through the resistor in 30 s Q = = = It 2.

The graph shows the relationship between the potential difference. i) Compare the resistance of conductor P. Q and R.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity V/V X 8 Y 2 0 0 2 17. 18. resistance = gradient = = 4Ω I/A b) Calculate the resistance of conductor Y.24 - . I flowing through two conductors. X and Y. V and current. Q I/A P Q R ii) Explain your answer in (a) From V-I graph. From V-I graph. a) Calculate the resistance of conductor X. Q and R. P. the greater the resistance Gradient of P > Gradient of Q > Gradient of R V/V . and the length of X is 1. resistance = gradient = = 1Ω c) If the cross sectional area of X is 5. From V-I graph. The graph shows a graph of I against V for three conductors. calculate its resistivity. resistance = gradient The greater the gradient.2 m.0 x 10-6 m2.

What is the reading on the ammeter when the jockey is at X? Resistance in the wire R is directly proportional to l 100 cm R = 10 Ω (10) = 2Ω Hence. a 2 Ω resistor and a 3 V battery. Q is a conductor of the same material with a length of 3l and twice the cross-sectional area of P. What is resistance of Q in terms of R? Conductor P Conductor Q R R’ = = = (notes: P and R have the same resistivity.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 19. l with a crosssectional area. R. ρ) = R 20. is a piece of uniform wire of length 1 m with a resistance of 10Ω.75 A . Another wire. 20 cm = Total resistance 2Ω + 2Ω = 4Ω Current.25 - . Figure shows a wire P of length. A and a resistance. PQ. Q is connected to an ammeter. I = = = 0.

hence the gradient decreases . Figure shows the circuit used to investigate the relationship between potential difference. The graph of V against I from the experiment is as shown in the figure below. I for a piece of constantan wire. (a) What quantities are kept constant in this experiment? Length // cross-sectional area // type of material // temperature of the wire (b) State the changes in the gradient of the graph.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 21. gradient ↑ // the resistance increases. V and current. gradient ↓ // the resistance decreases. gradient ↑ // the resistance increases.26 - . if i) the constantan wire is heated R ↑. hence the gradient increases ii) a constantan wire of a smaller cross-sectional area is used R ↑. hence the gradient increases iii) a shorter constantan wire is used R ↓.

JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 7. V = V1 + V2 + V3 where V is the potential difference across the battery 2 the current passing through each bulb / resistor is inversely proportional to the resistance of the resistor. we get the effective resistance 1 1 1 R = R1 + R2 + 1 R3 . we get : I = I1 + I2 + I3 V V V V R = R1 + R2 + R3 If each term in the equation is divided by V. I = I1 = I2 = I3 1 the potential difference is the same across each bulb/resistor V = V1 = V2 = V3 2 the potential difference across each bulb / resistor depends directly on its …………………. we get : V = V1 + V2 + V3 IR = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 If each term in the equation is divided by I. The potential difference supplied by the dry cells is shared by all the bulbs / resistors.27 - . I = I1 + I2 + I3 where I is the total current from the battery 3 If Ohm’s law is applied separately to each bulb / resistor.3 SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS Current Flow and Potential Difference in Series and Parallel Circuit SERIES CIRCUIT I PARALLEL CIRCUIT V 1 the current flows through each bulb/resistor is the same. The current in the circuit equals to the sum of the currents passing through the bulbs / resistors in its parallel branches. we get the effective resistance R = R1 + R2 + + R3 3 If Ohm’s law is applied separately to each bulb / resistor.

28 - .JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Identify series circuit or parallel circuit (a) (b) (c) (d) Ammeter reading ≡ Current Voltmeter reading ≡ Potential difference ≡ Voltage .

29 - .JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Effective resistance. R (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) .

5)(3) = 1.5 V. If the voltage of the dry cell is 2.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Solve problems using V = IR Exercise 7. V = IR 3=0.5 =I(5) = 0. (c) the potential difference across each bulb. 2Ω: V = IR = (0. If a 3V voltage causes a current of 0. Resistor R1 has a resistance of 1Ω.30 - .5 V There are two resistors in the circuit shown. I in the circuit V = IR 2.3 1. The two bulbs in the figure have a resistance of 2Ω and 3Ω respectively. calculate the resistance of R2. calculate (a) the effective resistance.5(1+R2) R2 = 5Ω .5 A 2. R of the circuit Effective R = 2 + 3 = 5 Ω (b) the main current.5)(2) = 1V 3Ω: V = IR = (0.5A to flow through the circuit.

R of the circuit 1/R = 1/5 + 1/20 =1/4 R=4Ω (c) the main current. (a) (b) is closed? Effective R = 4 Ω V = IR 12 =I(4) I=3A Determine the ammeter reading.6 A 20 Ω: V = IR 3 =I(20) I = 0. I1 and I2. Calculate the voltage supplied. Both bulbs have the same resistance. In the circuit shown. is 5 A.31 - . (a) (d) the current passing through each resistor 5Ω: V = IR 3 =I(5) I = 0. Parallelcircuit. Determine the voltmeter reading.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy 3. which is 2Ω. Calculate (a) the potential difference across each resistor 3 V (parallel circuit) (b) the effective resistance. R1 and R2 have a resistance of 5Ω and 20Ω.75 A 5. Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity The electrical current flowing through each branch. S (a) is open? Effective R = 6 Ω V = IR 12 =I(6) I=2A 6. what is the reading on the ammeter when switch.V =V1=V2 = IR1 or = IR2 = 5(2) = 10 V 4.15 A (b) . The voltage supplied to the parallel is 3 V. I in the circuit V = IR 3 =I(4) = 0.

32 - . V = V8 + V2. V = IR = 2(8) = 16 V (ii) The potential difference across 2.5 +Vparallel 24 = 16 + 5 + Vparallel Vparallel = 3V V = IR 3 = I(6) I = 0. R R = 12 Ω (b) The main current.5) = 5 V (e) The current passing through 6 Ω resistor. I=2A (d) (i) The potential difference across 8Ω resistor. Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Calculate (a) The effective resistance.5 A .5Ω resistors.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy 7. I I=2A (c) The current passing through 8Ω and 2.5Ω resistor. V = IR = 2(2.

Switch C will switch on the dryer only when it is held by the hand of user The body of the hair dryer must be safe to hold and does not get hot easily .JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 8. As a safety feature to prevent overheating. The above figure shows a hair dryer which has components connected in series and parallel. the heating element will not be switched on if the fan is not switched on The hair dryer has an energy saving feature.33 - . B and C When switch A is switched on. the dryer will blow hot air. The hair dryer has three switches A. Describe how the circuit works. the dryer will only blow air at ordinary room temperature When switches A and B are both switched on. The electrical components in our household appliances are connected in a combination of series and parallel circuits.

34 - .f.5 V) e) The potential difference across the cell in open circuit is (0 V / 1.5 V / Less than 1.5 J / 1..m.f.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 7.5 V. E.5 V). A high resistance voltmeter is connected across a dry cell which labeled 1.5 J / 3. Hence.m. Voltmeter reading.r R No current flow Current flowing 1. . The bulb (does not light up / lights up) c) The voltmeter reading shows the (amount of current flow across the dry cell / potential difference across the dry cell) d) The voltmeter reading is (0 V / 1. a) Figure (a) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit) b) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in the circuit. potential difference. e. E is (0 V / 1.5 V) f) It means. e.4 ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE AND INTERNAL RESISTANCE Electromotive force Figure (a) Figure (b) Voltmeter reading. the electromotive force.m.0 J) of electrical energy is required to move 1 C charge across the cell or around a complete circuit.. (0 J / less than 1. An electrical circuit is set up as shown in figure (a).5 V / Less than 1. V < e.f.5 V / Less than 1.

r where VR = IR and Vr = Ir = I (R + r) . d) The reading of the voltmeter when the switch is closed is (lower than/ the same as / higher than) when the switch is open. g) State the relationship between e.2 J / 1. e. the potential difference lost across the internal resistance. VR and drop in potential difference due to internal resistance.f. E = Potential Difference + Drop in Potential Difference across resistor. Vr.3 V.5 V).2 V/ 1.5 J) f) The potential difference drops by (0.3 V / 1. The switch is then closed as shown in figure (b). the electrical energy dissipated by 1C of charge after passing through the bulb is (0.f .35 - . a) Figure (b) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit) b) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in the circuit. r of the dry cell is (0.3 J / 1. R = VR + Vr = IR + Ir due to internal resistance. e) If the voltmeter reading in figure (b) is 1. It means.2 V/ 1. E .3 V / 1. potential difference across the bulb. The bulb (does not light up / lights up) c) The voltmeter reading is the (potential difference across the dry cell / potential difference across the bulb / electromotive force).m.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 2..m. it means.5 V). Electromotive force.

the value of the external resistance is 2.1 + 0. Determine the value of the external resistor. i.5 r Therefore. of the battery? The potential drops as much as 0.2 Ω Ω Therefore.m.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 3.8 Ω iii. Since V = IR 1.5 = r = 1.2 . Since E = V + Ir 1.1 = R = 0. the value of the internal resistance is 0. Determine the value of the internal resistance.5 R 2.36 - .4 V across the internal resistance ii.8 Ω 0.f. Why is the potential difference across the resistor not the same as the e.

I = 0.0 1.) and the internal resistance. ammeter (0 – 1 A).3 0.m.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Activity : To determine the values of the electromotive force (e. and 2 pieces of 1. 0. connecting wires.4 0.) and the internal resistance.3 A.f. I.4 A. r of the cell Dry cells holder. a) Set up the circuit as shown in the figure. r of the cell Voltmeter V Internal resistance + Ammeter Dry cell Switch Rheostat Aim Apparatus / materials Method : To determine the values of the electromotive force (e.5 2.37 - . switch. voltmeter(0 – 5 V). and adjust the rheostat to give a small reading of the c) Read and record the readings of ammeter and voltmeter respectively A and 0. ammeter.6 A.6 0. 0. V/V 2.6 2. b) Turn on the switch.2 0.m.5 .I/A 0. 0.7 Volt.5 V dry cell.5 0.2 A. rheostat (0 – 15 Ω).f.9 d) Adjust the rheostat to produce four more sets of readings.2 2. Tabulation of data : Current.4 2.

9 V r = .gradient = 1. state the relationship between the potential difference. draw a graph of V against I : Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Discussion : 1. there was a bigger drop in potential difference measured by the voltmeter. the quantity of charge flowing per unit time increased. When the current flowing through the circuit increases.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Analysis of data Based on the above data.4 Ω . Because of this. more energy was lost in moving a larger amount of charge across the electrolyte. 2. E = 2. r. With the help of the figure. I? The potential difference. By using the equation E = V + Ir (a) write down V in terms of E. E = the vertical intercept of the V – I graph R = the gradient of the V – I graph (c) determine the values of E and r from the graph. V across the cell decreases as the current flow increases. explain the result obtained in this experiment. This is the resistance against the movement of the charge due to the electrolyte in the cell. Hence. I and r. 3. V = -rI + E (b) explain how can you determine the values of E and r from the graph plotted in this experiment.38 - . By extrapolating the graph until it cuts the vertical axis. V across the cell and the current flow. A cell has an internal resistance. From the graph plotted.

2) V = 11. R = 10 Ω.0 V and internal resistance. = 2 V (b) the resistance.5) = 1. I = 0. V = 1.5 = 1.35 V. E = V + Ir e.f 3.5 Ω 2. If the external resistor has a value of 10.3(r) r = 0.4 = 0.0 V.35 + 0. A circuit contains a cell of e. R E = I(R + r) 2 = 0.4(R + 0.0 V.5 V. the ammeter reading is 0.35 V when a bulb is connected to the battery and the ammeter reading is 0.m. E = 3. Find the internal resistance of the battery.m.4 V V = IR 11.8 Ω 4 . 12 = V + 0.8 V Find the voltmeter reading and the resistance.m.0 Ω 3 A simple circuit consisting of a 2 V dry cell with an internal resistance of 0. find the value of the current. R of the resistor. I in the circuit and the internal resistance.4 (4. V = 2.0 Ω and the potential difference across it is 2.3 A Substitute in : E = V + Ir 1.f. When the switch is closed.4 A. Calculate (a) the voltmeter reading in open circuit The voltmeter reading = e.5 V Calculate current : V = IR Calculate internal resistance : E = I(R + r) r = 2.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Exercise 7. r.4 1 A voltmeter connected directly across a battery gives a reading of 1. r.3 A.5Ω.5 (R) R = 22.5 V.5 (1.5) R = 4.39 - .5 Ω (c) the voltmeter reading in closed circuit V = IR = 0.f. E = 3. The voltmeter reading drops to 1.

e. The graph of V against I is as shown.. e.2 V/V 1. r of the cell r = . E and internal resistor. r is connected to a rheostat. r = -gradient = -(-0.m. From the graph.5 5 1/A b) From the graph.m.40 - .gradient = . Hence.2 1 (A ) Rearrange I . From the graph.f. from V – I graph : E = c = intercept of V-axis 6 The graph V against I shown was obtained from an experiment. R of the rheostat.3 the internal resistance of the cell :R= E = I(R + r) 0. a) Sketch a circuit diagram for the experiment 0. r of a cell. determine i) the internal resistance of the battery r = -gradient = 0.2Ω b) the e..f.f. determine a) -1 7 R/Ω 1. determine a) the electromotive force.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 5 A cell of e.f.(6 .2) = 0.m.m. V are recorded for different resistance.5 V A graph of R against 1/I shown in figure was obtained from an experiment to determine the electromotive force.5 .m. of the battery E = c = intercept of V-axis = 1. of the cell e.f. = gradient = 3 V .26Ω ii) the e.Ir : y = mx + c =2Ω =6V 6 2 /V 2 b) the internal resistor. I and the voltmeter reading..m.2) 2 /A Hence. E and internal resistance.r. The ammeter reading.0. E E = V + Ir Rearrange Equivalent :V = E .f.

. energy supplied by the source is .........................41 - ....................................................................................................... .................................. Therefore........ 3.........................................................................................JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 7........................ the flows and the ....... (a) Energy Conversion battery (chemical energy) (b) battery (chemical energy) current current current current Light and heat Energy Conversion: Electrical energy → Light energy + Heat energy Energy Conversion: Electrical energy → Kinetic energy 2....................................5 ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND POWER Electrical Energy 1................. ....................... ...................................................... we can define electrical energy as : .............................. When an electrical appliance is switched on........................................ to other forms of energy...............

E Charge.. Power.. E = VQ 4...42 - . Hence.. Q 3... E E = VQ . Hence. 5... V = Electrical energy dissipated... Potential difference. where Q = It P = VQ t Hence. E= P = I2 R SI unit : Joule (J) SI unit : Joule per second // J s // Watt(W) -1 .. E = I2R V2 t R . V = VQ P = VQ t Electrical energy converted.. P = Energy dissipated. E time. V across two points is the ... Q that moves across the two points... t Electrical Energy. E From the definition of potential difference. P Power is the rate of transfer of electrical energy. where I = V R 2 P= I R t Hence. E = VI t ...JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Electrical Energy and Electrical Power 1. Potential difference... V Electrical Power.. where V = IR P = VI Hence. 2... Power is defined as the rate of energy dissipated or transferred.. Therefore.. dissipated or transferred by a coulomb of charge..

P is in watts time. One kilowatt-hour is the electrical energy dissipated or transferred by a …. The unit of measurement used for electrical energy consumption is the ………………………………………. three ways to calculate: R= 100Ω. Power dissipated in a resistor. V=50 W..50)50 = 25 watts . The energy consumption of an electrical appliance depends on the ……………… and the………………………..43 - . I=0. hour 4.5)2 100 = 25 watts R= 100Ω.. The amount of electrical energy consumed in a given period of time can be calculated by Energy consumed E = = Power rating x Pt where Time energy. Household electrical appliances that work on the heating effect of current are usually marked with.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Power Rating and Energy Consumption of Various Electrical Appliances 1. kW device in …….. t is in seconds 2. E = Pt 6.. 1 kWh = = = 1000 x 3600 J 3.6 x 106 J 1 unit 3. 5.. E is in Joules power. P=? P = (V/R)2 R = V2/R = (50)2 /100 = 2500/100 = 25 watts V=50 V. I=0.5 A. ……………… and …………………. P=? P = I2(V/I) = IV = (0.5 A. .. P=? P = I2R = (0.

... A tungsten filament lamp changes .28 = RM 4..energy 2. 3...48 + 9....64 Comparing Various Electrical Appliances in Terms of Efficient Use of Energy 1................... E = (0..58 kWh Cost = 16...5 + 2...JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Cost of energy Appliance Quantity Power / W Power / kW Time Energy Consumed (kWh) Bulb Refrigerator Kettle Iron 5 1 1 1 60 400 1500 1000 8 hours 24 hours 3 hours 2 hours Electricity cost: RM 0.. a) Efficiency of a filament lamp : Efficiency = = = Output power x 100 Input power 3 x 100 60 5% b) Efficiency of a fluorescent lamp and an ‘energy saving lamp’ Efficiency = = Output power x 100 Input power 3 x 100 12 ... A fluorescent lamp or an ‘energy saving lamp’ produces less heat than a filament lamp for the same amount of light produced........28 per kWh Total energy consumed.....0) = 16.......6 + 4...58 kWh x RM 0.... energy and unwanted ....to useful .44 - .

45 - . V= 15V I R1=2Ω R2=4Ω R3=4Ω Calculate (a) the current.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Exercise 7.5 1. . How much power dissipated in the bulb? (a) R = 10Ω 5V (b) R = 10Ω R = 10Ω 5V 2. I in the circuit (b) the energy released in R 1 in 10 s. (b) the electrical energy supplied by the battery in 10 s.

46 - . 5. (a) How much charge will flow through the heating coil in 2 minutes. Calculate the resistance of its heating element and the current at normal usage.5 A. A current of 5A flows through an electric heater when it is connected to the 24 V mains supply. (b) How much energy will be transferred to the water in the kettle in 2 minutes? (c) What is the power dissipated in the kettle? .JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 2. How much heat is released after 2 minutes? 4. An electric kettle is rated 240 V 2 kW. 24 W”. An electric kettle operates at 240 V and carries current of 1. How many joules of electrical energy does it consume in an hour? 3. A lamp is marked “12 V.

218 per kWh Calculate (a) Energy consumed in 1 day Energy consumed Kettle jug.06 x 8 = 2. 7. Refrigerator Television Lamp = Quantity x Power rating (kW) x Time used =1x2x1 = 1 x 0. Table below shows the power rating and energy consumption of some electrical appliances when connected to the 240 V mains supply.4 kWh Total energy consumed = 15. 12 A (d) Determine the resistance of the heating elements in the kettle.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 6. Appliance Kettle jug Refrigerator Television Lamp Quantity 1 1 1 5 Power rating / W 2000 400 200 60 Time used per day 1 hour 24 hours 6 hours 8 hours Electricity cost: RM 0. 240 V.2 kWh = 2 kWh = 1 x 0.6 kWh . (a) What is meant by the label 3 kW.47 - . 240 V? The electric kettle dissipates electrical power 3 kW if it operates at 240 V (b) What is the current flow through the kettle? (c) Determine the suitable fuse to be used in the kettle. An electric kettle is labeled 3 kW.2 kWh = 5 x 0.2 x 6 = 1.4 x 24 = 9.

43 8. What is the efficiency of the vacuum cleaner? 9. If the supply voltage is 12 V and the flow of current in the motor is 5. calculate (a) Energy input to the motor (b) Useful energy output of the motor (c) Efficiency of the motor .58 kWh x 30 x RM 0.0 A. An electric motor is used to lift a load of mass 2 kg to a height 5 m in 2.218 = RM 108.48 - . A vacuum cleaner consumes 1 kW of power but only delivers 400 J of useful work per second.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity (b) How much would it cost to operate the appliances for 1 month? Cost = 16.5 s.

B.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Reinforcement Exercise Chapter 7 Part A: Objective Questions 1. 3. Ampere.K C. A B. What is the unit of electric charge? A. V 2. Volt. C. C D. Which of the following diagrams shows the correct electric field? A.49 - . V and current. . B. C. I for an ohmic conductor? A. Coulomb. D. kelvin. Which of the following graphs shows the correct relationship between the potential difference.

A. 2A. A small heater operates at 12 V. C. 1. 3. To increase the length and produce a higher resistance. 7200 J C. D. 120 J C. B. 7.5 x 10-5 C C. 1800 J D.5 x 10-7 C B.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 4. What is the quantity of charge that flows in 2 hours? A. temperature B. The electric current supplied by a battery in a digital watch is 3. 5. Which of the following circuits can be used to determine the resistance of the bulb? A. Which of the following will not affect the resistance of a conducting B.2 x 10-1 C 6.0 x 10-5 A. How much energy will it use when it is run for 5 minutes? A. To decrease the current and produce a higher potential difference 8. Why is the filament made in the shape of a coil? A. To decrease the resistance and produce higher current D.50 - .0 x 10-5 C D. current flow through the wire . 2.6 x 10-3 C E. 90 J B. 6. 2. wire. cross-sectional area D. To increase the current and produce more energy. length C.

4800 W 13.0 A B.f. The potential difference between two points in a circuit is A. P and S C. An electric kettle connected to the 240 V main supply draws a current of 10 A. P and Q 10.0 A D. 2. R and S E. the pressure exerted on 1 C of charge ammeter reading when the switch S is turned on? A.51 - . . Q and R D. What is the power of the kettle? A. 200 W B. Which two resistor combinations have the same resistance between X and Y? A. 2400 W D.0 A E. the work done in moving one coulomb of charge from one point to another D. 9. 1. the rate of flow of the charge from one point to another B. In the circuit above.5 A C. the work done per unit current flowing from one point to another 12. the power supplied to 1 C of charge C. the force supplied to 1 C of charge B.0 A B.m.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 9. 10. 3600 W E. what is the 11. 1. of a battery is defined as A. the rate of energy dissipation in moving one coulomb of charge from one point to another C. the energy supplied to 1 C of charge D. 2000 W C. An e.

Which circuit has the smallest effective resistance? A. 4. 1. 40 s C. B.52 - . The circuit above shows four identical bulbs to a cell 6 V. 100 s 17. An electric motor lifts a load with a potential difference 12 V and fixed current 2. 6 6 16.4 x 106 J D.2 x 10 J B. how long does it take to lift a load of 600 N through a vertical height of 4 m A. Which bulb labeled A. Power B. 60 s D. C. D. Electrical energy C. C and D is the brightest? .8 x 10 J C. 18. 2.6 x 106 J E. The kilowatt-hour (kWh) is a unit of measurement of A. 3. All bulbs in the circuits below are identical. How much energy is supplied by the heater to the water in this period of time? A.8 x 106 J 15. Electromotive force B. 1. 20 s B. 80 s E.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 14. A 2 kW heater takes 20 minutes to heat a pail of water.5 A. If the efficiency of the motor is 80%.

0 W D.53 - .JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 19. Resistance B. Potential difference C. 2. Calculate the power dissipated in the resistor.0 W 20. A 24 Ω resistor is connected across the terminals of a 12 V battery. Which of the following quantities can be measured in units of JC-1 A.5 W B. 0.0 W C. A. 4. Electric current . 8. 6.0 W E.

54 - . (c) Resistance. resistance. Y and Z. the gradient decreases.11 = 9. X.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Part B: Structured Questions 1. 1/gradient 1 = 0. R is given by the formula R = V/I. which is a bulb? Explain your answer. What is the resistance of X when the current flowing through it is 0.09 Ω (d) Among X. R = reciprocal of gradient. (a) Among the three conductors. The figure above shows a graph of electric current against potential difference for three different conductors X. . Hence. the resistance X increases as I increases which is a characteristic of a bulb. Y and Z. which conductor obeys Ohm’s law? Conductor Y (b) State Ohm’s law. From the graph I against V.4 A? Show clearly on the graph how is the answer obtained. because as I increases. The potential difference across a conductor is directly proportional to the current that flows through it. if the temperature and other physical quantities are kept constant.

. i.20 mm ii. Explain why it is dangerous to use a wire thinner than the one selected in b(i) As resistance is inversely proportional to cross-sectional area. a thinner wire will have a higher resistance thus the wire will become very hot.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 2. 2500 W”. diameter of wire / mm 0. The kettle is rated “240 V.00 1.40 maximum current / A 8 10 13 15 (a) What is the current flowing through the cable when the kettle is switched on? P = IV I = P/V = 2500 / 240 = 10.55 - . The figure below shows an electric kettle connected to a 240 V power supply by a flexible cable.20 1. This could probably cause a fire to break out.80 1.4 A (b) Referring to the table above. What is the smallest diameter wire that can be safely used for this kettle? 1. The table below shows the maximum electric current that is able to flow through wires of various diameters.

Do not operate kettle with wet hands.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity (c) State one precautionary measure that should be taken to ensure safe usage of the kettle. (d) Mention one fault that might happen in the cable that will cause the fuse in the plug to melt.56 - . Short circuit might occur if the insulating materials of the wires in the cable are damaged. .

and the quantity in your reason in (b) can be obtained. compare the state of the switch.f. S. and the readings of the voltmeter. Figure 1 shows the reading of the voltmeter in a simple electric circuit Figure 2 shows the reading of the same voltmeter (a) What is meant by electromotive force (e.m.f.m. briefly explain how the e. (d) The figure above shows a dry cell operated torchlight with metal casing (i) (ii) (iii) What is the purpose of the spring in the torchlight? Why it is safe to use the torchlight although the casing is made of metal? What is the purpose of having a concave reflector in the torchlight? . (c) Draw a suitable simple electric circuit and a suitable graph.57 - . State a reason for the observation on the readings of the voltmeter.) of a battery? (b) Referring to figure (a) and figure (b).JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Part C: Essay Questions 1.

Switch in figure 1 is turned off .This is due to the presence of an internal resistance in the battery (c) e.Reading of voltmeter in figure 1 is higher than in figure 2 . will not cause electric shock To converge the light rays to obtain increase the intensity of the light rays projected by the torchlight.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Answer 1. . (a) The work done by a battery to move a unit charge around a complete circuit.Switch in figure 2 in turned on .m.58 - . (b) .f = intercept on the v-axis internal resistance = -(gradient of the graph) (d) (i) (ii) (iii) To improve the contact between the dry cells and the terminals of the torchlight Current flowing through the torchlight is very small.

(d) An electric kettle is rated 2. A group of engineers were entrusted to choose a suitable cable to be used as the transmitting cable for a long distance electrical transmission through National Grid Network. A.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity 2. Resistivity / Ωm A B C D 0. (i) Calculate how long would it take to boil 1. [specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg-1 0C-1] (ii) What is the assumption made in the calculations above? . The length and diameter of all the cables are similar. (b) The table below shows the characteristic of the four cables.056 0. B.031 0.020 0. (a) Define the resistance of a conductor.085 Maximum load before breaking/ N 500 300 400 200 Density / kgm-3 2800 3200 5600 3800 Rate of expansion Low Low Medium High Base on the above table: (i) (ii) Explain the suitability of each characteristic of the table to be used for a long distance electricity transmission Determine the most suitable wire and state the reason (c) Suggest how three similar bulbs are arranged effectively in a domestic circuit. Give two reasons for the arrangement.5 kg of water from an initial temperature of 280 C. Four different cables and their characteristic of the cables were given.59 - .0 kW. Draw a diagram to explain your answer. C and D.

high max load before breaking. (c) (i) If one bulb is burnt the others is still be lighted up (ii) Each bulb can be switch on and off independently (d) (i) Pt = mcθ (2000)(t) t (ii) = = (1.(a) Resistance is the ratio of potential difference to current flowing in an ohmic conductor.5)(4200)(100-28) 226.8 s No heat is lost to the surroundings and absorbed by the kettle END OF MODULE . Can be supported by transmission tower Cable will not slag when it heated during transmission Cable A is chosen because it has low resistivity.60 - . low density and low expansion rate.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 7: Electricity Answer 2. (b) Characteristics A low resistivity Max load before braking is high A low density Explanations Energy loss during transmission is reduced Mass or weight reduced.