# Stress and Strain

MAE 314 – Solid Mechanics Y. Zhu

Slide 1

Stress and Strain

Introduction to Normal Stress
Stress = Force per unit area

F σ= A

Slide 2

Stress and Strain

Introduction to Normal Stress – cont’d
• If the stress varies over the cross-section, we can write the stress at a point as
σ = lim
ΔA→0

ΔF ΔA

• We assume the force F is evenly distributed over the cross-section of the bar. In reality F = resultant force over the end of the bar.

∫ σdA = F
A

Slide 3

Stress and Strain

Introduction to Normal Stress – cont’d
Sign convention

σ >0 σ <0

Tensile (member is in tension) Compressive (member is in compression)

Tensile

Units (force/area) English: lb/in2 = psi kip/in2 = ksi SI: N/m2 = Pa (Pascal) kN/ 2 = kPa kN/m kP MPa, GPa, etc.

Compressive

Slide 4

Stress and Strain

Introduction to Normal Stress – cont’d
• • Homogenous: material is the same throughout the bar Cross-section: section p perpendicular p to longitudinal g axis of bar
A

P’

P

Prismatic: cross-section does not change along axis of bar

Prismatic

Non-Prismatic

Slide 5

Stress and Strain

Let’s expand p these last two assumptions… p Slide 6 Stress and Strain .cont’d • • • • • Uniaxial bar: a bar with only one axis Normal Stress (σ): stress acting perpendicular to the cross-section.Definitions and Assumptions . Loads must act through the centroid of the cross-section. (Uniaxial Stress State) Stress is measured far from the point of application application. Deformation of the bar is uniform throughout.

Definitions and Assumptions . except in the immediate vicinity of the points of application of the loads.cont’d • The uniform stress state does not apply near the ends of the bar. “Uniform” Stress Saint-Venant’s Principle Slide 7 Stress and Strain . • Assume the distribution of normal stresses in an axially y loaded member is uniform.

the resultant force.cont’d • How do we know all loads must act through the centroid of the cross-section? cross section? • Let us represent P. Slide 8 Stress and Strain .Definitions and Assumptions . by a uniform stress t over the th cross-section ti (so ( that th t they th are statically t ti ll equivalent).

cont’d • Moments due to σ: M x = ∫ yσdA A M y = − ∫ xσdA A = Mxx and M =M • Set M Myy = Myy M x x= M 1 1 y = ∫ yσdA = ∫ ydA PA AA 1 1 x = ∫ xσdA = ∫ xdA PA AA Right hand rule Equations q for the centroid Slide 9 Stress and Strain .Definitions and Assumptions .

Example Problem 1 Boom AB with a 30x50-mm rectangular cross section. rod BC with a 20-mm-diameter circular cross section. Calculate forces AB and BC. Slide 10 Stress and Strain .

Plan • Coordinate System • Free Body Diagram • Equilibrium Equations (Statics) • Count number of unknowns and equations • Solution S l ti • Check your solution !! N t Note: • Use variables instead of numbers • Units! Slide 11 Stress and Strain . Given/Wanted + Sketch 0b.Procedure 0a.

Example Problem 1 Solution Slide 12 Stress and Strain .

BC 40 kips Slide 13 Stress and Strain . Determine the average normal stress at the midsection of (a) rod AB and (b) rod BC.Example Problem 2 • Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are welded together at B and loaded as shown.

Example Problem 2 Solution Slide 14 Stress and Strain .

What is Shearing Stress? • Last time we talked about normal stress (σ). l t Normal stress results in a volume change. Slide 15 Stress and Strain . • Shear stress (τ) acts tangential to the surface of f a material t i l element. Shear stress results in a shape change. which acts perpendicular to the cross-section.

Where Do Shearing Stresses Occur? • Shearing stresses are commonly found in bolts. pins. Bolt is in “single” shear Free Body Diagram of Bolt Force P results in shearing stress Force F results F lt in i bearing b i stress t (will discuss later) Slide 16 Stress and Strain . and rivets.

Slide 17 Stress and Strain . τ is the average shear stress. because this is not the case. • Therefore. which is important for design purposes. P F τ ave = A = A • Th The maximum i value l of f τ may be b considerably id bl greater t than τave.Shear Stress Defined • We do not assume τ is uniform over the cross-section.

Double Shear Bolt is in “double” double shear Free Body Diagram of Bolt Free Body Diagram of Center of Bolt τ ave = P F = 2= A A 2A F Slide 18 Stress and Strain .

B i stress Bearing t i in is i th the members b th t a bolt that b lt connects t (not ( t in the bolt itself).Bearing Stress • • Bearing stress is a normal stress. along a bearing surface. • P σb = Ab Force F results in bearing stress where Ab = projected area where bearing pressure is applied P = bearing force Slide 19 Stress and Strain . not a shearing stress. Thus.

cont’d • For “single g shear” case P P σb = = Ab td Slide 20 Stress and Strain .Bearing Stress .

(b) the average bearing stress at B in member BD. Each pin has 16 mm diameter Member ABC has rectangular crosssection 10x50 mm Each vertical member has rectangular crosssection 8x36 mm Slide 21 Stress and Strain .Example Problem 1 • Determine (a) the average shearing stress in the pin at B. and (c) the average b i stress bearing t at tBi in member b ABC ABC.

Example Problem 1 Solution Slide 22 Stress and Strain .

6 in.4 in 0. Determine the shear stress in the disk and the plate. 1.Example Problem 2 • A load P=10 kips is applied to a rod supported as shown by a plate with a 0.6 in 0.6 in Disk Plate Rod Slide 23 Stress and Strain .25 in 0. diameter hole.

Example Problem 2 Solution Slide 24 Stress and Strain .

t Slide 25 Stress and Strain . – Transverse forces exerted on bolts and pins cause shearing stresses.Stress on an Oblique Plane • What have we learned so far? – Axial forces in a two-force member cause normal stresses.

Slide 26 Stress and Strain .cont’d • However. axial forces cause both normal and shearing g stresses on planes which are not perpendicular to the axis.Stress on an Oblique Plane . • This is also the case for transverse forces exerted on a bolt or pin. .

⇒ • The resultant force in the axial direction must equal P to satisfy equilibrium equilibrium. and parallel to the section section. • F = P cosθ • The area of the section is V = P sin θ A0 = Aθ cos θ ⇒ Aθ = A0 / cos θ Slide 27 Stress and Strain . F.cont’d • Consider an inclined section of a uniaxial bar. V V.Stress on an Oblique Plane . The force can be resolved into components perpendicular to the section F section.

Slide 28 Stress and Strain . a normal Th l force f applied li d t to a b bar on an i inclined li d section ti produces a combination of shear and normal stresses.Stress on an Oblique Plane .cont’d • We can formulate the average normal stress on the section as σ= • F P cosθ P = = cos 2 θ Aθ A0 / cosθ A0 The average shear stress on the section is τ= • V P sin θ P = = sin θ cos θ Aθ A0 / cos θ A0 Thus.

and 900.cont’d • Since σ and τ are functions of sine and cosine. 450. we know the maximum and minimum values will occur at θ = 00.Stress on an Oblique Plane . τ= σ= P cos 2 θ A0 P sin θ cos θ A0 At θ=±900 At θ=±450 At θ=00 Slide 29 σ=0 σ=P/2A0 σ=P/A0 (max) At θ=±900 At θ=±450 At θ=00 τ=0 τ=P/2A0 (max) τ=0 Stress and Strain .

Slide 30 Stress and Strain .Stress on an Oblique Plane .cont’d • Let’s interpret this visually.

Stress on an Oblique Plane .cont’d • Sign g convention for p positive normal and shear stresses: • This fits with our previous convention for θ = 0º. Slide 31 Stress and Strain .

• The stress equations are the same as before with P=Pu. g largest • This load is called the ultimate load. it is important to know the g load which a material can hold before failing.Design Considerations • From a design perspective. Pu. Slide 32 Stress and Strain . Ultimate normal stress is denoted as σu and ultimate shear stress is denoted as τu.

= ultimate stress allowable stress • The two equations above are identical when a linear relationship exists between the load and the stress. In real-world engineering application. • It is a common design practice to use factor of safety.Design Considerations . this relationship ceases to be linear as the load approaches its ultimate value value. F . = ultimate load allowable load F .S . Slide 33 Stress and Strain .S . however.cont’d • Often the allowable load is considerably smaller than the ultimate load.

5 in Slide 34 Stress and Strain . determine the largest axial load P that can be safely applied. 5.5 in 3. Knowing that the maximum allowable shearing stress in the glued splice is 75 psi psi.Example Problem 1 • Two wooden members are joined by the simple glued scarf splice shown below.

Example Problem 1 Solution Slide 35 Stress and Strain .

which can be safely applied to member ABC.Example Problem 2 • Knowing the ultimate load for cable BD is 25 kips and a factor of safety of 3. 15 in 18 in Slide 36 12 in Stress and Strain .2 with respect to cable failure is required determine the magnitude of the largest force P required.

Example Problem 2 Solution Slide 37 Stress and Strain .

01 mm / 100 mm = 1 x 10-4 or 100 x 10-6 ε = 100 μ (read as 100 microstrain) ε = 1 x 10-4 in/in (if using English units) ε = 1 x 10-4 * 100 = 0.Uniaxial Loading --- .01 mm.Introduction to Normal Strain • Normal strain (ε) is defined as the deformation per unit length of a member under axial loading. Let’s say L = 100 mm and δ = 0. – – – – ε = 0. ε= δ L • Normal strain is dimensionless but can be expressed in several ways.01% • Normal strain is also called extensional strain Slide 38 --.

ε T = αΔT – – – α = coefficient of thermal expansion ΔT = change in temperature Sign convention: expansion is positive (+).Thermal Strain • Changes in temperature produce expansion or compression. contraction is negative (-) • For a bar that is completely free to deform (one or both ends free): δ T = ε T L = α (ΔT ) L • In this case. there is thermal strain but no thermal stress! Slide 39 --.Uniaxial Loading --- . which cause strain.

Mechanical Properties of Materials • We want to develop a method of analysis that is characteristic of the properties of materials (σ and ε) rather than the dimensions or load (δ and P) of a particular specimen.Uniaxial Loading --- . specimen Why? σ & ε are truly material properties – P & δ are specimen properties • Slide 40 --.

material • How do we calculate the elongation of a bar due to l di ? loading? – Apply force P – Calculate σ = P/A – Use material relation ε = f(σ) to calculate ε – Calculate δ = εL Will expand on this in a moment Slide 41 --.cont’d • Stress and strain can be measured.Mechanical Properties of Materials .Uniaxial Loading --- . so we want to develop a relationship between the two for a given material.

which is obtained by conducting a tensile test on a specimen of material.Uniaxial Loading --- . Slide 42 --.Stress-Strain Diagram • Material behavior is generally represented by a stress-strain diagram.

cont’d • • Stress-strain diagrams of various materials vary widely. loading speed. aluminum) Brittle material . Different tensile tests conducted on the same material may yield different results depending on test conditions (temperature. Divide materials into two broad categories: – – Ductile material .Material that fails with little elongation after yield stress (e. concrete) • • Let’s examine the stress-strain diagram for a typical ductile material (low-carbon steel) region by region. etc.Stress-Strain Diagram . Slide 43 --. steel.).g. ceramics.Uniaxial Loading --- . glass.Material that undergoes large permanent strains before failure (e.g.

Stress-Strain Diagram .Uniaxial Loading --- .cont’d • Linear region – Stress-strain response is linear – Slope = Modulus of Elasticity (Young’s modulus) = E – E has units of force per unit area (same as ) stress) – We get a relation between stress and strain known as H k ’ L Hooke’s Law. σ = Eε Slide 44 --.

small stress increase – Strain is permanent Slide 45 --.Stress-Strain Diagram .cont’d • Yielding region – Begins at yield stress σY – Sl Slope rapidly idl d decreases until it is horizontal or near horizontal – Large strain increase increase.Uniaxial Loading --- .

Uniaxial Loading --- . has changed its crystalline structure. Slide 46 --. – The material has increased resistance to applied stress (it appears to be “harder”).Stress-Strain Diagram cont’d • Strain Hardening – After undergoing large deformations the metal deformations.

cont’d • Necking – The maximum supported stress value is called the ultimate stress. Slide 47 --.Stress-Strain Diagram . – Loading beyond σu results in decreased load supported and eventually rupture. σu.Uniaxial Loading --- .

x • Slide 48 --.cont’d • Why does the stress appear to drop during necking? • If we measure the true area area. the graph looks like: true stress • The difference is in the area: t true stress t takes t k into account the decreased crosssection area.Stress-Strain Diagram . Thus. at the same stress level. the load drops.Uniaxial Loading --- .

– σY is given by the intersection of this line with the stress-strain curve. We can use the offset method to determine σY.g. Slide 49 --. – Draw a line with slope E.Uniaxial Loading --- .Offset Method • • • For some materials (e. 0). Choose the offset (0.002 is shown here). through the point (0.002. aluminum) there is not a clear yield stress.

Uniaxial Loading --- . Plastic • A material is said to behave elastically if the strain caused by the application of load disappear when the load is removed – it returns to g state. Once the yield stress has been obtained. its original The largest value of stress for which the material behaves elastically is called the elastic limit (essentially the same as σY in materials with a well-defined yield point).Elastic vs. This indicates plastic deformation. When a material does not have a well-defined yield point. the elastic limit can be closely approximated using the offset method. when the load is removed. • • • • Slide 50 --. the stress and strain decrease linearly but do not return to their original state.

Elastic vs.Uniaxial Loading --- .cont’d σY σY Reload Plastic deformation (Permanent strain) Slide 51 --. Plastic .