Divine Justice and Cosmic Order in Early Greek Epic Author(s): William Allan Reviewed work(s): Source: The

Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 126 (2006), pp. 1-35 Published by: The Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/30033397 . Accessed: 01/06/2012 20:46
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Journal of Hellenic Studies 126 (2006) 1- 35

DIVINE JUSTICEAND COSMICORDER IN EARLYGREEKEPIC* e oi g6iCHmap.s OPdh.t1.3v, "o0 Cv oxtct pya &XXx 6iicirjv wa xio~ tiouotai

Horn. Od. 14.83-4 m.py' Od.vp14ov."

Abstract: This articleexamines the ethical and theologicaluniverse of the Homericepics, and shows thatthe patterns of humanand divinejustice which they deploy are also to be found throughout the wider corpusof early Greekhexameterpoetry. Althoughmost scholarscontinueto stress the differencesbetween the Iliad and Odysseywith regardto divine justice, these come not (as is often alleged) from any change in the gods themselves but from the Odyssey's peculiarnarrativestructure,with its focus on one hero and his main divine patronand foe. Indeed,the action of the Iliad embodies a system of norms and punishmentsthat is no differentfrom that of the Odyssey. Values such as justice are shown to be socially constitutedin each epic on both the divine and humanplanes, and each level, it is argued, displays not only a hierarchyof power (and the resultingtensions), but also a structureof authority. In addition,the of the gods in the wider hexametercorpusof Hesiod, the Epic Cycle andthe HomericHymns is analysed, presentation coherenttraditionin which the possibility of divine conflict is combined with an underlying revealing a remarkably cosmic order. Finally,considerationof Near Easternmyths relatingcosmic orderto justice bringsout the distinctiveness of the Greek system as a whole and, in particular, of the way it uses the divine society underZeus's authorityas a comprehensiveexplanatorymodel of the world.

ITwas once popularto trace in early Greek thoughta fundamentalchange in beliefs about the natureand values of the gods. The resultingculturalhistory detected a moral 'progress'in the evolution of early Greek literatureitself, from the amoralpowers of the Iliad, throughthe gods of the Odysseywith their concern for righteousconduct,to the moral certaintiesof the Hesiodic Zeus. This model was exploded many years ago by Hugh Lloyd-Jonesin TheJustice ofZeus.1 Nevertheless, it remainsa commonplaceof Homeric scholarshipthat the Iliad and Odysseydiffer in their presentation of the gods, especially with regard to divine justice. Thus, in his Introduction to the majormodemrn commentaryon the Odyssey,Alfred Heubeckarguesthat 'Zeus himself has changedin the poet's vision. His actions are no longer directedby irrational impulses and emotions, and he no longer has any need to boast of his superiorpower ... With perceptiveness and wisdom Zeus now directs the fate of the world accordingto moral principles, which alone create and preserve order. The father of the gods has only a little way to go to become the just rulerof the world.'2 Indeed,Lloyd-Joneshimself, despite his demolitionof the developmentalmodel of divine justice, accepts that the Odyssey's 'theology is in some important ways differentfrom that of the Iliad', and he remarksupon the 'unquestionabledifference between the moral climate of the two Homeric poems'.3 By contrast,this article will aim to show that the two poems share the same moral and theological universe and, furthermore, that the patternsof humanand divine justice which they deploy are also to be found throughoutthe wider corpus of early Greekhexameterpoetry.4 PartI arguesthatdivinejustice is not absentfrom the Iliad. The still popularnotion of amoral gods is shown to be flawed: the gods have human favouritesand are sensitive to their honour, but that does not make them 'amoral'. Moralityis essentially a system of norms and protocols governingrelationshipsbetween individuals,and a similarsystem is shown to apply on both the
* The Iliad and Odysseyare cited from the editions of M.L. West,Homerus:Ilias (2 vols, Stuttgart, Leipzig and Munich 1998-2000) and H. van Thiel, Homeri Odyssea (Hildesheim 1991). I am indebted to Douglas Cairns, Andrew Ford, Adrian Kelly, Mary Lefkowitz, Hugh Lloyd-Jones, Ruth Scodel and the journal's two anonymous referees for much helpful discussion and advice. 1 Lloyd-Jones(1983), first published in 1971. 2 Heubeck (1988) 23. 3 Lloyd-Jones(1983) 28, 30. Kullmann (1985) is perhaps the fullest exposition thus far of the Iliad and Odyssey's alleged differences in their depiction of the relationships between gods and mortals. He seeks to establish 'the incompatibilityof the religious conceptionsof the two epics' (p. 14). The present article,however, arguesnot only for their compatibility but also for their essential similarity.
4

2

WILLIAM ALLAN

divine and human levels. The action of the Iliad in fact embodies a system of social norms and punishments that is no different from that of the Odyssey. Part II accordingly turns to the

Odysseyand challenges the prevalentidea that it represents,to use Heubeck'sterms, an 'ethical
transformation of the gods'.5 Both poems are marked by divine interventions and favourites, so that to see the Odyssey as dominated by morally unambiguous and distanced gods is mistaken: the gods too are part of human suffering, as in the Iliad, and it is not merely humans who are to

blame. (As we shall see, Zeus's opening speech in the Odyssey is often misunderstoodin that respect.) The similaritiesbetween the poems with regardto divinejustice will be detailed:each explores the gods' self-interestand their clashing wills, and both do so within the overarching system of Zeus's authority. But despite their similarities,it is also possible to show, by treating the poems individually,how each epic is trying in its own way to deepen the audience's conception of divine justice. For while each poem reflects what one might call the 'simple' view namely, that humanwrongs will be punishedmore or less immediatelyby the gods - they also explore the complexities and problems inherentin such an account of divine justice. Part III traces similarpatternsof divine and humaninteractionin the wider hexametercorpus of Hesiod, the Epic Cycle and the Homeric Hymns, where (as in the Iliad and the Odyssey)the gods' selfinterestand clashing wills functionwithin the overarchingsystem of Zeus's authority.6
I

(a) Iliad versus Odyssey? It remainsa standard view of the Homeric epics that the gods of the Iliad, in contrastto those of the Odyssey, are little interestedin human morality. A recent treatmentof the Homeric gods speaks of 'ethical considerations,which though not absent from the Iliad are not a major concern of its Gods'.7 Another scholar claims that 'The reader who ... looks in the Iliad for theod-

icy will be disappointed. The gods are not just in any ordinarysense of the word.'s Yet, as we shall see, close attentionto the text shows thatthe gods are intimatelyconcernedwith mattersof right and wrong throughoutthe Iliad. E.R. Dodds famously found 'no indication in the narrative of the Iliad that Zeus is concernedwith justice as such'.9 However, despite Lloyd-Jones's the oppositionbetween divine frivolity (Iliad) and concern compelling criticisms of this view,'0O for justice (Odyssey)persists. The centralaim of this paper is to suggest that such a dichotomy is mistaken, since it neglects the ways in which the narrativeof the Iliad itself (and not merely the pious appealsof its characters) displays a basic patternof justice (defined as a coherent system of social norms and sanctions),and, conversely,exaggeratesthe extent to which the gods of the Odyssey embody a more 'advanced'theodicy." A closer analysis reveals a single and consistent form of divine justice sharedby both epics. Yet far from endorsinga simple model of justice where the good are rewardedand the wicked punished(a patternoften assigned to the Odyssey),each poem shows a more complex system of norms and punishmentsin action and explores its disturbingimplicationsfor the human agents involved. Both the Iliad and the Odyssey are, therefore,theologically challenging works since each shows the simple model of divinejustice to be in variousways both problematicand naive.
5 Heubeck (1988) 23. 6 Rosen (1997) 484 rightly notes that the Works and 'In the Days is not unique in its concern with 8i"r: broadestsense, the Iliad and Odysseytell one grandstory all about how dike operatesthroughout stages of human relations, from the interpersonalto the international.' However,he does not show how this works in any detail in the texts. 7 Kearns(2004) 67. 8 Mueller (1984) 146. 9 Dodds (1951) 32. o10 Lloyd-Jones(1983) 1-7. 11 An alternativemodel is offered by Winterbottom (1989) esp. 33, 40, who challenges the gods' concern for justice in both epics, calling them 'amoral' in the Iliad and then seeking to extend this descriptionto the gods of the Odyssey. It will be arguedhere, by contrast,thatthere is a coherentsystem of divine (and human) 6irm in both epics and that it is no strongerin the Odyssey than in the Iliad.

god of host andguest. not even when I first snatchedyou away from lovely Lacedaemonand sailed off with you in my seafaringships. Menelaus links this crime to the eventual destruction of the Trojans: JJAV "~iXhr1. is re-enacted within the narrative. Foryou madeoff with my weddedwife andmanypossessions at all.7dXp7cO) 1CotEji (O& y' oi~6'6-re oe: irp~yrov AaKE~&xijiovo ~5 i~px~tcvij pir~i~cx. sinceyou weregivena friendly welcomeby her. the for the errorsof their leaders. withno fearin yourheartsfor the harshangerof loud-thundering Zeus. (b) Trojanwrongs of the Odyssey.Parisrecalls their first sexual encounter: (plX~trIl tp 6chh ye 6i1 01).' besides. making their Trojanpeople are seen to suffer disproportionately destruction. and slept with you in the bed of love on the island of Cranae.thatwas nothingto how I desire you now and sweet longing seizes me. Yet unlike the Odyssey. KaXKW. The first of such scenes comes just after the duel between Paris and Menelaus. . XO)J3rl tE K(XL C'iXroS 013)K 16ZE iiv Ejie Xopriaixoee. the abduction of Helen.DIVINE JUSTICEAND COSMICORDER IN EARLYGREEKEPIC 3 Moreover.44 1-6) ijroo axiPEi" 'But come . oYji~o Ko13PlGilV ~ihXoov KO(iK~il XtO 7t~oXX~ 'There's no lackof outrage andshameon yourpart. KUVCS.as an expression of divine justice. Amphinomus. you shameless bitches.56-7) and wishes he would die at once (6. v1:joo6' i~v Kpavxiji~giyv cp~XtiClt~ KioA)Vt Viv ~pxgcda ici jir yhu~ictYirCLpo. 3. oj~ 1&ti. 3.forno reason Menelaus'speech has been describedas 'a pictureof men attributing to gods the enforcementof laws of which those gods are shown to be quiteunaware'.he nevThoughthe Iliad poet is less proneto moraljudgementsthanthe narrator ertheless shapes his narrativeso that a clear patternof norms and consequences emerges. For never before has desire so enfolded my mind.who will one daydestroy yourlofty city.L~j Ziiv6.~a ~virovtoir~~potr ~icXheov v~Eroov.thatoutrage you didme. while the narratordescribes the ships that took Paris to Sparta as 'the source of 12Winterbottom (1989)33. He deliberatelyincludes scenes which emphasizethe Trojans'r61ein startingandprolongingthe war and their culpablemisjudgementsduringit.where only one of the suitors. ~p4PIPPrZO Xritii~v ~6&~ioxtr j~IjVv tpnEioJLev E1 (0 pp~v(X dlPKc~lhZ lfEV.the form of justice that is shown to regulatethe world of the poems is simultaneously cosmic and personal:cosmic in that it embracesdivine as well as humansociety and is connected to the maintenanceof orderon both levels. the more disturbing. As Helen and Paris go to bed with each other. (Ii.281-2).' The original offence. Nor is it solely the Greekswho disapproveof Paris' actions: Hector describes them as worthy of stoning (II.let us take our pleasure in the bed of love. personal (and thereforevolatile) in that it is intended to control individual conduct and self-interest (whether of gods or humans) and depends for its ultimatesanctionon the personalauthorityof Zeus himself.12 Yet the limitedperspectiveof human characterssuch as Menelaus is confirmedby the wider narrativeof Troy's fall which is sanctioned by Zeus himself (cf I(c)). is presented in any detail as a sympathetic figure (see II(h) below).

17 Cf. cf 4.Priam swears the oath on the Trojans'behalf (3. OoPpaxtxta 5. cf esp."justice"cannotexist. When Agamemnon says that Troy will pay for this treacheryand pares invokes Zeus as the protectorof oaths (4.394-412.104). and his crime serves as a of Trojanguilt. or if the Trojanspursuedseafaring)to give a special reference to "he knew nothing of the divine decrees" which need mean no more than his ignoring the rules of stress on the divine origins hospitality.he is "foolish"'(4.g.298-301). Of course. 'Between Greeks and Trojans. 250-2). however. but this is obscured by those who deny the importanceof justice in the Iliad. 'since he knew nothing of the gods' decrees' (&pXEKdXKog).even a very fool can see etiphut' it .as when. 14It is also made clear that both Achaeans and rankand-file Trojans want Paris to lose the duel (3. for he is ambivalent and aloof.which is underlinedby the decision of Pandarus' comradesto hide him with their shields from the eyes of the Greeks as he preto shoot (4. 19Pandarusthe truce-breaker is killed by Diomedes.not compelled to shoot his arrowat Menelaus. as does Havelock (1978) 123-92. The advice given by 'wise Antenor'not only constitutesan admission of Trojanguilt but also highlights Priam'simminentmisjudgement:20 13 Cf Kirk (1990) 61 ad loc. Scholarsfocus on this aspect repeatedly.268-71) and that of the audience. both because of the Trojans' Thus Hera and errorsand because it is part of a largercosmic order which is his to enforce. For besides his personaldebt to Thetis and his promise to honourher son's wishes by favouringthe Trojansin battle (1. 16.cf 4. and Athena guides his spear so that it cuts off Pandarus'tongue (II.320-3). The Trojansall hated Paris 'like black death'(3. and one less exclusively personal than that of Hera and Athena. at least as far as the oath is concerned. 5.16there is certainlyan ironic disjunction between his perspective(sharedby all the Achaeans.7. the TrojanPandarusattemptsto kill Menelaus. who are eager to avenge the Judgementof Paris (cf cI(f)). As the head of his community. far from enforcing the oath in this case. Kc' ('It is obvious .105-10.15 Nor does it efface the guilt of the Trojans. does go on to interpretthe Trojans'refusal to handover Helen. 20 Antenor has alreadybeen characterizedas a good adviser in his accountof Odysseus and Menelaus' earlier embassy to Troy.13 The Iliad's patternof reciprocaljustice is seen most clearly in the poet's decision to include.290-6).' 18As we shall see (cf e1(c)). for example. 503-30). The audience will naturally view Pandarus' death as punishment for his crime. when he gave the Greeks hospitality and formed a careful evaluationof their skills as orators S .18 Athena'spersonalhatredof Troyoperateswithin a largermoralframeworkthatextendsthroughout the narrativeand the universe it creates. the account of the oath-breaking trous reaction to it in Book 7.431-61). Following a solemn sacrifice both the Achaeans and the Trojanscall upon Zeus to punishthe side thatbreaksthe oath (3.64-73). Zanker (1994) 7: 'But Agamemnon's view of Zeus' justice is notoriouslyout of kilter with the god's real attitudeat this juncture.4 WILLIAMALLAN evils' (OpsnsKex6oug) for all the Trojansand for himself. in Book 4 and Priam'sdisasand to elaborateat great length. see Andersen (1978) 53-7).235-6). Zeus has a furtherreasonto encouragethe breakingof the truce:the wider narrativeindicatesthat he approvesof Troy's fall.Athena and Herahave promotedthis goal with Zeus's recapitulation consent (4.63-4). only the inactionof peace or the activity of war' (p.' Yet the narrator's of these social norms is itself significant.155-68. e. 16 Oathsare centralinstruments of justice in Homeric (and historical Greek) society. has consented to its and in doing so often overlook the fact being broken. the moral emerges from the story and there is no need of a speech from either a hero or Zeus himself to point it out.17 that Zeus sanctionsthe oath-breaking for an ulteriorpurpose. in defiance of theiroath:yvootbv 8. Zeus must take thought for a world-orderthat is not merely a matterof his own subjectivepreferences..that now the coils of destructionhave been fastened onto the Trojans'. 'The scholia invoked two differentpropheciesof doom (if Pariswent overseas.19 The Trojans'responsibilityfor the brokentruceis compoundedby Priam'spersonalfailureto returnHelen after the duel. 15Cairns(2001a) 16. 138).14Yet despite the truce ratified by the oath.. but the familiarepic principle of 'double motivation'means that Pandarus' liability is not diminished:'he is tempted.113-15). since they know that Zeus.454). a strong supporterof the developmental model. the Iliad's exemplaryGreek warrior(for Diomedes' rOle in his death. he realizes that he must relinquish the idea of saving his son Sarpedon if that world-order is to remain intact (II. Diomedes.401-2).

t MevrAoi Ko)ptiyrlv6' CijLOtO Klv . Paris' briberyof his fellow Trojansbrings disgrace on his entire community. 6o' 'AXigavipo.i06voa aWOO 'Axato~G.ap i3pjtLeChi Iptduoto . 7. cf Strabo battlefield to deal himself with the outcome of the duel.' glorious though It could not be clearerthat Priamhas made a disastrousmistake. 'AX6v6vioto (3. Avi vivoAv Tpoirjv' . rlv 'Avttglyoto &iiPpovog iAtE. 11 Radt) that Antenor's family was The narrator 22 One recalls Hector'sprediction(6. they may have construed it as Antenor's reward for his Zt'iv xvot'6Xd)it "IoItogpil I Ka IHpfaxog Kat wise advice here in favour of the Greeks. Priam'scomplicity is culpable.DIVINE JUSTICEAND COSMICORDER IN EARLYGREEKEPIC i ncto 'ApEpi8ttov Yv.must suffer the consequences.389-93) !~iv Tp(iSgy7 'Thepossessions thatAlexander in his hollowshipsto Troy.'cEivat tEroiae rtaxp6.was mostopposed fair-haired Menelaus. Pyth. Mcv.448-9): (EoXtI spared at the fall of Troy (cf Pind. (II.53..tvot paxrp6eo ijitv a" i~ hiogat KzaehcoOc~t. wtj6' ltEV 6i1toi viv Ka'aK.138-42) ti:v 21Priammay also be faultedfor not remainingon the (3.g i.which is no more than the gii)o.1. so I do notsee anygoodoutcome for away.6og spiv 6SpXX'dxofoOoat irlyero 66jievat. Xpubv 66E8Eypvo. &NJ .and Priam.o be sacred will destroyed.and the people of Priamof the fine ash spear')." (II. The audience may also have known of the story (attested in Sophocles' Antenoridae. draws attentionto his absence (3.Xoyov ~ ot prlotvG6ostvy KIXovrat. During Agamemnon'smajoraristeia in Book 11 he comes upon two sons of Antimachus. allowing Paristo defy the oath and doing so in the face of populardisapproval. Soph. unlesswe do as I say.304-9).21No less than Paris. ''vxpih oiEv b&E.123-5) oi)i E'iacTXa' (av8e&t who in expectation of gold fromAlexander. He acts wrongly. chargedwith o0K duo1&bao relaying the response of the Trojan&yopil.all thesehe is willingto give backandto addyet morefromhis ownstores. underlinesthe king's egregious errorin denying his son's guilt: "wrijtaxtpiv.and everyone else who depends on him . and he .203-24)." (II.if onlyhe haddiedbeforethat! brought . 5. &xEtra Xt3riv.' When Paris declares himself willing to returnonly the goods taken from Sparta(yuvacKa Litv .his city. fr. ('The day will come when i. 11. 7.vrpoto 'EXViv 86gievao MEvEX6W1. 7. 'AhE. Now we arefighting us.abg Ilios .363).22 As the poem progresses there are several more indications of Trojan deceit. If so.but Antimachus' own conduct emerges as particularly blameworthy. to givingHelenbackto splendid gifts." (//.83-5). 13. .374.aov o tbvd6vzti~ot yyesirlv '06uoi . viv 8' 6ptta 86Co0iev -r ot vi zt K~pitov eao61. xt6vt' O.q ot' Avi Tpdxov &yopipt ivoiyev.350-3) 5 'Comeon now.for as Agamemnonsays: 6i1 "cEi Otrov.let us giveArgiveHelenandall herpossessions withherto the sonsof Atreus to take aftercheating overourswornoaths. Priamis responsible for the destructionof Troy.KoiXtj. Butthewedded wife of Menelaus he sayshe willnotgiveback. dya& 6&ip. theTrojans in facturgehimto doprecisely that. 11.. 388).Ka At' o1KOOCv xX' ktOrivat. The TrojanheraldIdaeus.

Diomedes capturestheir offspringwhen he defeatsAeneas (5.Lpov icu&Voeaot 6t' bpiLo. remarks: 'It is interestingto see how the theodicdeconcept of the Odyssey is mitigatedin Hesiod and Solon. Agamemnon kills Antimachus' sons.scholarsare often misled by the fact thatZeus nowhere expresses explicit anger at the city or happiness at its fall. Hes. Solonfr.6 WILLIAM ALLAN 'If you are indeed the sons of wise Antimachus. for example. but also serves to underlinehis fury at the treacheryof the Trojans.648-51. yet he in turnwas defraudedof his rewardby Laomedon24 and took his Poseidon's revenge by sacking Troy (5. .145-7) 6' ico AocEZ&E o. iv ocuxcaC 0c0Sv (ptIEV. 11.160-8).44-9). W&D282-4. ThoughPoseidon sent a sea-monsterto punish the Trojans.can see Zeus's "real"attitude.45.' Yet this is doubly misleading.20). (II. ending otpuvov AavaoiS. and was preparing disasterfor the Trojans'). and overlooks the presence of delayed punishment in the Iliad itself.g. 26 Kullmann(1985) 20 n. unlike Agamemnon. puzzled by Apollo's continuing supportfor the Trojans.an idea that is often treatedas if it first surfacedin Hesiod and Solon (e. Nevertheless. and the narrativeshows that divine justice is not always instantaneous. but this is the only time in the poem that a corpse is mutilatedby having its arms cut off.265-72). Hippolochus slicingoff his arms leaptdown. but his real motive is evidently to annoy HeraandAthena and so facilitatethe breakingof the truce (4.because they offer him lavish sacrifices (4.' Antimachus' reception of the embassy contrasts strongly with that of Antenor (cf n. now you will pay for your father'sabominableoutrage.26 (c) Zeus and thefall of Troy In tryingto determineZeus's own attitudeto Troy. andsenthimrollingthrough the throng like a log. Zeus speaks on one occasion as if he wants to save Troy. He also makes clear in the same context his strong affection for the Trojans.reminds him of how Laomedonhad cheatedthem both of properpaymentafterthey built a wall aroundTroy and tendedthe king's cattle (21. since it posits a false dichotomy between the Iliad and the Odyssey.441-57). for Zeus's presumed feelings of pity at the city's destructionand his conviction thatthe fall of Troy is right are not mutually exclusive. 24 Laomedonis said to have been deceived himself by Anchises. Thus. 25 Lloyd-Jones (2002) 2. Hector's killing of his grandson Amphimachus gives Poseidon an additional reason to be furious with the Trojans. 20).23 The patternof Trojandeceit and punishmentis also shown to extend back beyond the current generation. 27 Kearns(2004) 69 n. When this Zeus brings aboutthe fall of Troy it will be with sorrowand not with righteous indignation. Heracles destroyed it.when Menelaushad come on an embassywith godlike Odysseus. Both authors allow that the justice of the gods is not always executed immediately. The act is in line with Agamemnon's extremely violent aristeia (cf Segal (1971) 10.25The descendantsof Laomedonpay for his crimes as well as their own. who secretly bred his mares with Laomedon's outstandinghorses (5. Poseidon.185-209. Tpd~eot &5KiGE'~EZXEv ('[Poseidon] urged on the Danaans.29-32 W). 23 There are nine fatal arm wounds in the Iliad (see the tables in Saunders(2004) 14-15).319-27). urgedthem to kill him on the spot and not let him go back to the Achaeans. but this does not change the fact that he approvesof Troy's fall.5-19). andheadwithhis sword.'27Yet such a formulationrisks confusing two very differentideas.who once in the Trojanassembly. a recent discussion observes that 'we.14.andhimhe killedon theground. with regard to Agamemnon's prediction that Troy will be destroyed by Zeus in anger at the Trojans'deceit (4. 20. one of them in a peculiarly brutal manner: 6' 'I8Iur6oXov &i6pooe . but the pattern of Trojan crimes calling forth punishment is re-enforced. 13. anger against Troy remainsunappeased.144-8).cf 13.so that 'here we have a case of divine anger extendingover more than one generation'.

441.constant andcontinuous.34). However. The importanceof cosmic orderis highlightedwhen one considersthe issue of fate. 6' 6' Lrpvorpotr XrXlt taiot ntvo. by confirming but there is no need to spell it out.when Zeus considers sparing Sarpedonand Hector. to 8' iv tot irsetta7cai~o5v xnaph v7qjv 'Ihiou aiiVkyt 2. AddressingHera. cf n.DIVINE JUSTICEAND COSMICORDER IN EARLYGREEKEPIC 7 Thus one scholar seeks to connect the fact that '[Zeus] makes no attemptto conceal his love of Yet this Troy'with the god's alleged 'ambivalence'aboutthe punishmentof the oath-breakers.son of Peleus. since Zeus can love Troy and still think it rightthatthe Trojansbe punished.470-7). y&P0ocpacr6vtxot ('for so it is decreed'.once Patroclus has slaughtered men. In Book 8 Zeus prophesiesto Herathe deathof Patroclus and Achilles' subsequentreturnto the fighting. knowing that this means the fall of Troy. in the armytotally (13..his will is that Troy shall fall.. 29 Calchas had interpreted the omen of the sparrows 28 Zanker(1994) 7.242-52). a point on which Zeus is especially sensitive (cf n. the narratorexploits the idea that there is a power beyond with a further omen that the Greek army will not be defeated (8. midst of unprecedentedTrojan success.godlikeSarpedon.17 above.XOtCtt 6taC1t. . butgloriousHector will kill himwith Patroclus. 6k KTEVeL tog Xohxood~ClvoS tsvE "E:topa 'i~oS 'Azt. i[otsv 'A~qvoirlS 8th [5ouhdg. since his approvalis not only implicit in the narrativeitself29 but also integral to the largercosmic orderof which Zeus himself is the anthropomorphic manifestationand ultimateenforcer. 22.he bids her tell Poseidon to stop aiding the Achaeans. his spearin frontof Ilios.28 is to createa false opposition. "EK-ropx6io. and Achilles' request.59-71) 'Advair diopkilotwv tobg CihhouS. Enraged godlike Andfromthattime on I shallbringabouta counter-attack fromthe ships. This emergesmost clearly in Zeus's majorprophecyconcerningthe course of the war in Book 15. and intentionallyso. iA. 15.LethimdrivetheAchaeans backagainwhenhe hasraised forget in thema cowardly panicso thattheyflee andfall amongthemany-benched shipsof Achilles.pSpkEiS i :' 'A~atoi "Ihtov otini.. amongthemmy own son.323-32). wiXrlv . CLEsth 8' Zvlbv k~LaV CapTr16vo 8ov" t"Itov (II. not least because cosmic ordercannot be separatedfrom his power. [v nby 'AXiov 'A~th~oS.179). jiou 6' 6v 6xp nl-qei6Eo3 dvoz-ilost ta'tpov vv&ktoC vap. Moreover. since the narrator Greek conceptionof Zeus's will and his superiorknowledge of futureevents deploys a standard in which there is little differencebetween 'Zeus knows x' and 'x must be'. here reflects and 8." (//. Thus to doubt that Zeus approvesof Troy's destructionwould be to imply that he is not the most powerful god.59-71) 'Andlet Phoebus intohim againandmakehim ApollospurHectorintobattle. H6~2po~ov" t bv 687VE tEvs ypsi qx{St~o "Ewroo n:ohEsig 6kkavt' xJPOxTldPOteE. ro00 i yokeoxigpvo. AndAchilleswill sendout his companion. but will not destroy the Achaean Zeus responds to Agamemnon's prayer for help.andbreathe strength thepainsthatnowwearouthis heart.' Zeus impels Hector to his death.69-71) is predicated upon his belief that it is right. . 'AxXrtie." th A oot{qo)q 15.Zeus's desire that Troy should fall (15.Eag.and manyof the otheryoungfighting forPatroclus. 16.'AEr6Apov. Achilleswill kill Hector. o6vvowv <p0s37ovEsq 8' v vrluoi7cohuv. The formulationis vague. The narratormarks the limits of and the petrified snake at Aulis as a sign from Zeus that Zeus's assistance to the Trojans:he will honour Thetis Troy will fall in the tenth year of the war (2. though each is ciAt e i'orlt('long since pptoipkvov doomed by fate'.il'ot nooaot a 8' ro ibv . and particularlyits relationto the will of Zeus.347-50) . It is thereforeirrelevantthatZeus does not express any happinessat Troy's fall. until the Achaeans take steep Ilios throughthe designs of Athena. then continues: ' v ""EKtop 6' 6tpAvrlot oi43o.

15.] PV764-8. 15. Zeus's potentialoverthrowby such a son (first securely attested in Pind. with an equal domain as his portion. cf III(b).7-27 (Zeus threatensto strikewith lightningor throw into Tartarusany god who disobeys him. this would be a peculiarly striking example of Zeus's superior force directed towards the maintenance of his power (see. 14.these scenes reveal the poem's central tenets of cosmic order and human limits. so to raise the very possibility creates tension . 22. and does so in relation to cosmic order. quarrel. the parentsof the gods. Poseidon and Athena's attemptto depose Zeus).29. 907-27) is part of a wider patternof myths depicting Zeus's control over female deities and their fertility. . esp. II. cf n.Isthm. and similarly Agamemnon's temporal power rests upon his success as a leader. Edwards(1991) 196 on II. however.hurledgods angeredby the treatment from heaven and hangs Hera in the sky with anvils attached to her feet). 18.33 structure of power among the gods themselves.590-4. which are in turn defined by his personal relationswith other gods. as Heramakes explicit when she warnsof the consequences of sparingSarpedon:the other gods would seek to spare their own mortaloffspring(16.134.26-48 and [Aesch. lest he offend Zeus (13. in which capacity he is subject to public and 30 The same phrase is used in each case (twice by Hera. 31 Cf Erbse (1986) 288: 'Die M6glichkeit. the Homeric epics reflect the fact that the and that its maintenancemay involve furthervioevolution of the cosmos is a violent process. 33 This aspect is well expressed by Graziosi and Haubold(2005) 91: 'harmony amongthe gods . once by Athena): dip oit tot advre i~p6i'. lediglich um die Tiefe seines Schmerzeszu beleuchten.30 While not wishing to deny that Zeus's paternal love for Sarpedon and sympathy for Hector are important features of his attitude to mortals. Yet the structuring Olympiansas a divine family creates a hierarchyof power that goes some way to resolving the rivalriesof the gods.things do not normally happen 'contrary to fate'. sich der goipa zu widersetzen.' 32 The most importanthuman limit being death.8. Zeus's authority may be challenged by other gods if they disagree with his decisions.Zeus imprisonsKronos beneath the earth). Zeus's decision to maintain cosmic order is not only presented as re-enforcing it also marksout the humanmortality.256-62. since cosmic orderis closely connectedthroughout early Greek thoughtto the status and power of Zeus. can only to theirown fate'. For as well as defining a hierarchyof gods and mortals. be ensuredif all mortalsare abandoned 34 Cf.. his strengthis supreme). 1. as Slatkin (1991) argues.397-408 (Zeus will blast Heraand Athenafromtheirchariotif they continuetheirjourney to aid the Achaeans). n. yet he does so with a threat that failure to destroy Troy will create massive disorder among the gods (15. In any case.8.31 these scenes are no less striking for the way they raise the possibility that Zeus could bring about a radically different outcome. it. see II(c) below. gesteht der Dichter seinem Zeus also nur scheinbar zu. but be surewe othergods ('Do AnTXtvo~oIEV Oeooi 'iot will not all approve'. If. 36 For the rble of divine rivalry and Zeus's authority in the Odyssey. He insists indignantlyon his equal statusas son of Kronosand Rhea. the Iliad poet alludes to the myth that Zeus forced Thetis to marryPeleus because of a prophecy that her son would be stronger than its father.200-10 (Oceanusand Tethys. Thus besides deploying a powerful narrative trope . 1.354-60).18. 16.184-217). yet chooses not to because it would destroyan orderof which he not only approves.36 (d) Divine and human justice as social practices There is a striking isomorphism not only between the divine and human societies themselves but also between their methods of determining and practising justice. 35II. 8.445-9).4.8 WILLIAM ALLAN Zeus's will.18-30 (Zeus. Poseidon is portrayedin the Iliad as especially sensitive about his status: as the younger brother.he is careful to support the Achaeans covertly. No less than Hesiod.32 However. 14.429-35 and Cairns(2001a) 46-7 for the alternativeexplanation of Thetis' enforced marriage as due to her rejection of Zeus's sexual advances out of respect for Hera).396-406 (Hera.443.34 lence or at least the threatof it. and it takes Iris' tactful warning against sparkingZeus's anger to make him leave the battlefield.. of his son Heracles.14-17 (Zeus threatensto whip Hera if she continues to deceive him).but of which he is both the ultimate guarantor and main beneficiary. For Zeus is warned (as he was when he considered sparing Troy itself) that such a decision will cause upheaval among the gods.35 The stability of the universe rests thereforeupon a balance of of the power that is vulnerableto the turbulenceof competing divine wills.181).

181-2). justice. shows his obduracyto be both selfish and destructive. v6 ocptot ]ovisktoa .280-1). 42 Similarly. 355-6. from a collective viewpoint. Achilles speaks of Achaeans 'who give judgements and preserve the ordinancesthat come from Zeus' (&tKo76Xot.38 Most importantly. pacthkeg.98-9). put an end to the myth of exclusive Homeric individualism.since for Agamemnonto act thus would be to place himself in Achilles' power.18-27) marks an important difference between gods and humanswhich the poet has made a catalyst of his plot.in a way that would destroy the entire social structureof the Achaean army. 19. describedby Nestor as one that 'could no longer be faulted' (86pa Ct v o1)Kt' 6vo-&r &t6oig 'AzXiliflivozt. 9. 1. Homeric society has developed to suit the purposes of generationsof bards. and recognize Achilles as his superior. 9. 275-84. 9. . is emphatically underlined. like all forms of value.both men make a similarerror. oY' zte6gitoc~a InpbgAtb. 11. 39 For the social creation of value in modem societies. indrig ojinze oKlfxtp~v t' i1li d&yicuh O nlttco3ag r PvoiZEntotV ('Let there be one v aPtat leader. II. whose decisions are measuredagainst the evaluativebeliefs of their communityand foundto be unjustified. Thus Zeus is both source and patron of humanjustice.both among the gods and among mortals.to make says Agamemnon judgements for your people' (Kai -cotZsb &yy. one king. is socially constituted. since Agamemnon's authoritydoes not rest on his superiorstrengthor pre-eminenceas a fighter. while Nestor to that 'Zeus has entrustedto you the sceptre and the ordinances. Given the lack of otherwritten evidence. Nonetheless. 38In rebukingthe rank-and-file soldiers for theirrush to the ships. Oec 8&as yeivxzo jiiljrlp.609-10). cf Raz (1999) 202-17.as an instrumentof justice.39 This emerges most clearly in the poem's depiction of the crucial mistakes made by Agamemnonand Achilles.g. the fundamentalpoint that the past is also constantly remodelledin the light of contemporary is understanding well arguedby Morris (2001).tiXesvI a'i ap6v t' i18& tCitoag. Cairns'sincisive demolition of the (still widely canvassed)view thathonouris a 'zero-sum'game will. Like the epic Kunstsprache. it matters little that Homeric society itself is a fiction. one hopes.but should be treatedsceptically. while Achilles' rejection of Agamemnon's offer of compensation.pushingtheir status and demands for to the detriment of the common good:41 personal Agamemnon'sconztj~il duct is repeatedlycriticized from a communalperspective(cf. 203-7.109-11. eipxzcat.22-3.. even if he shares the tendency of some recent scholarship(e. I ci. 161-2.g.37Moreover.. ici nhe6veootv d~voost ('But even if you are strong.and a goddess motherbore you. for a brief overview.42 tively subordinatesthe social process of reparation (e) Judgementsand sanctions (humanand divine) Thus. that is.g. since he rules over more'. is defined by the evaluative beliefs and practices of his society. esp. e.DIVINE JUSTICEAND COSMICORDER IN EARLYGREEKEPIC 9 communal appraisal. not only in the obvious sense of 'existing within a work of literature'. especially when it brushes over the many 'anachronisms'in the text (e. 41 The importanceof other-regarding behaviourand communalinterestsin the Homericeconomy of values is stressed by Cairns (2001b). which is dispensed both by kings and by the elders of the community(for the latter.204-6). cbt &tiKEKp6vo. to whom the son of crooked-minded Kronos has given the sceptre and the ordinancesso that he may makejudgements for his people'. features that archaeologywould place in the late Bronze Age.503-8 and I(e) on 16.40 Moreover. who shows that 'No sharp dichotomy exists between competitive and co-operative values' (p.238-9). 40 From the perspectiveof Homeric ethics.the stability and regulationof human society as a whole is based on a system of norms which are thought to derive their authorityultimately from Zeus himself. when Achilles relishes the prospect of the Achaeans (including Agamemnon) 'standing about my knees in supplication' (viv o'(o sepi yo~vau' jth oatioeotat 'Axatoig I Xt ot~ovoug Xpetb yxp iadvetat o~KcZr' zvEKt6g. Achilles' attitudetowards it reveals the limitationsand dangersof his self-obsession.384-93). the absurdity of his demands.' 688 qp~pxp6. Yet the fact that norms of humanbehaviourare socially constituteddoes not 37Zeus's supremestrength(of which he threateningly boasts: 8. insofar as compensation.but also in the strongersense that it does not track a particularhistorical society. Crielaard(2002) 239: 'we could almost speakof a historicalHomericsociety') to collapse the past and place more and more features in the eighth century. I &X. Odysseus foregroundsthe r61eof the leaders and commands:EiSg oipavog itzo. he is still more powerful.164). 216). 1. aatv. 231.cf 18.as Achilles effecto his own will. 2. cf Osborne(2004) 217-18). Cf Nestor's words of restraint to Achilles: ei 8& cb Kaptep6g ~ot. 1. the desire to use Homer as a historical source for the Archaic period is understandable. Fiction.

the sentimentand language of the passage stick out like a sore thumb'(16. And.384).has been allowed to slip into a simile'. Yet most similes.S.in furious angeratmenwho forcethrough judgements outjustice. claims that when the Iliadic Zeus 'punishes the wicked with a flood. 46 Cf Benveniste (1973) 386.Thus 6icrI (qua 'justice') is essentially the revelation of particulardecisions. is no longer convincing (even Janko (1982) 192. while the audience's knowledge that Troy will fall gives the Achaeans' appeals to a punishing Zeus considerableforce. 6j ~Xv6pLactl KOt ~YojlevoS xXu~n'ilvrii.6i: Kheltt. remarksthat 'we cannot expect a high degree of precision from a datingtechniqueof this nature). 16. as always. z~~oixtioiacxio L~ i'ir~toi Tpwuxi C~ey6XxcrtevcsXov~to Ot~ouxtu. where the suffering of the Trojansis comparedto that of a city set in flames because of the anger of the gods. 43 Redfield (1994) 76.. by an inadvertence common in Homer.Oc6)v ~1K 6e: Onttv 00K~dx~yovtc. ~tiV1)E~I6~ tCE ~PY' &lVBP6)tV. having noted the theme of 'social justice' in the Odyssey and Hesiod.45 Indeed. As Benveniste (1973) 379-80 notes. But the notion that the similes represent a 'later' stage. One scholar remarksthat the Zeus found here 'is hard to reconcile with the Zeus we know so well from Homer's scenes on Olympus'. who defines 6iirj 'literally as "the fact of showing verbally and with authority what must be".thenall theirriversflow in spate. 44 As does Mueller (1984) 147.14. not unlike the Old Testament god. by contrast. 45 The accounts typically given of this simile are revealing in their own way.(Ii.withno regard forthevengefulgazeof thegods. 7dVtE. 6' &Xhx at i~. ~nopqnpuprv Cie~y6Xx ~5Op&DvA7LiKdxP. Kearns (2004) 69 n.andthe torrentscut away many slopes as they rush with a mighty roarheadlong from the mountainsinto the swelling sea. Zcu.384-93) As the whole darkearth is drenchedby a storm on an autumnday. who. 6' i~lbXaixiaw XCY(X XO(OV KLX(alvfl Pk~3pteE 6te Xhi4pp~txov x~c1 ij~&oP iiwxtz' 6itw~ptv6)t. They are no less significant for not being partof the 'story'. The narrator suggests divine punishmentof the Trojans even more explicitly in the simile used to describe Achilles' onslaught at 21. otc. when Zeus pours down the most crooked in theassembly anddrive violentrain.10 WILLIAMALLAN mean they are of no interestto the gods or operatewithoutthem. For as Zeus's decisions determinejustice (or order)on a cosmic level.522-5. t6)v & t ir( 5ovtE.44 maintainorder at a cosmic level. Shipp (1972))..387) represent . KPiVOK~cl ~Ltz S AiicqV ~Xiroxn. e. tC~'d~cziryoot xap66Gpcu. are presented from the narrator's(authoritative)viewpoint. This fundamentalidea is made most explicit in the simile used to describe the rout of the Trojansas they flee from Patroclus' onslaughtin Book 16: 6).so mighty was the roarof the Trojanhorses as theyhurtled on. II.in the divine realm on the inscrutablewill of Zeus. gL~V 70a1icorn~~~)to ir)~~~x yo 7toXX&. not part of the main narrative'.the simile's equationof justice with the makingof correctjudgementsor decisions illustratesan importantpattern. as here. and the cultivatedfields of men are ruined. who is generally sympathetic to Shipp's method. then adds 'but this is a simile. the simile's context is crucialto its impact(cf Minchin (2001) 132-60): since the surrounding narrative describes the Trojans being driven back by a Greek assault which is supported by Zeus. 6ilcrland 0jiLg (cf O0uttCu. 6i PiTU~ LiVOlYOP11t aKOhlct. 16. Moreover. whether of thought or of language (as in. for example.46 In the human realm these are based on social customs (acting as precedents). the audience is encouraged to relate the bad judgements punished by Zeus to those of the Trojans themselves (cf Moulton (1977) 37). so the decisions of humanjudges establish social norms.we should be wary of since he is clearly concerned to taking too narrow a view of Zeus's concerns in the former. Dodds (1951) 32 took it to be 'a reflex of laterconditionswhich.. the mannerin which the simile links justice (86icri) to Zeus and the other gods is entirely consistent with the rest of the poem.g. in other words it is the imperativepronouncement of justice'. notes Zeus's anger with injustice.43Yet while it is true that explicit statementsof Zeus's interestin justice are far less conspicuousin the Iliad than in the Odyssey.

CIri tO( 0i oi. 80 0& to11oi t iK8V oV-owctzt Et'iot.8Eh R'roXh' T)V OckXo. W cpO 8& CV IqCp)KC0V Xpo rcirpcpa aExOV 9e poqxoV0)Vy oCtotv 6'T 7t' fivooov.[t8 ( dlFTP'9 no. Chantraine (1968) 284. OKET1 'yqo 0) yC z~ji~hoSN S g6' pt(O. KIvEovO.47 different of order 'which of theconcept aspects governs In fact. . fur.the elders' judgements are themselves subject to public approval (which determineswho is to receive the prize). alreadyconnotes or 'point out a way' (cf Schmidt "punishment"'.393-4).see fI(f). in the former case.8eincv6upt) (1991). 8.0 o6.cKO. XdOaVaa.I canno longerallowus to fightagainst and as theirluckwill haveit." altjcp 'AOlvairlv "Hprl itpb. 8(icrlis often best translatedas 'order' since this alsotheorderliness of theuniverse. 47 As Janko (1992) 366 comments on 16.425-31) Crva of Zeuswho swift-footed Irisdeparted. yet the gods' interestin humanjustice is equally prominent. ttSt86g0.DIVINE JUSTICEAND COSMICORDER IN EARLYGREEKEPIC 11 The importanceof Zeus's judgements can be seen most clearly in Hera'sresponse in Book 8 after she andAthena have been warnedthatZeus will destroy their chariotwith a lightningbolt if they do not stop helping the Achaeans: 71 gLv ap' ein0ua o '. 8 Axvaoitat86uaxCrw.since the arbitrationtakes place 'in the sacredcircle' (18. O v8ev of order is also present in the root meaning of 8(6ic as formula "gaze of the gods". Let themdie or live Zeusformortals' holdsthe aegis. and so underthe protectionof Zeus. As in the simile of Book 16. When a dispute arises over the correct restitutionfor a man's death. The human parallelsto divine as both 'decision' and 'justice/order'are well illustratedby the judgementscene in the city 86crl at peace depicted on Achilles' new shield (18.' Confrontedby Zeus's certainopposition. Butas forZeus. judgement. (Il.showingsupport the speaker's staffin their them.while the heralds Thepeoplewerecheering on bothmen. KilPJKE8 En EUXT EvL KOK(Ot.387. underlinesthe formative r61eof Zeus's will in the outcome of the war (cf tI(c) above). wb 9 P por( 'v 'EV c7~0iFa kko.504). . 18. Her resigned I8tCaxto. Thus the 'straightest judgement' (cf 18. up andgavetheir theeldersspokethe of gold.Andin themiddlelay twotalents straightest judgement. Andthe elderssaton polished stoneseatsin the sacred circle. &poyoif (t hxoi 6' &8 po-rpotiotyv uin 6'ipa kabvEpITuov. piv 6rpotp 'i01w 6Xpov 3I6v 0)tw.508) is that which best expresses the sharedevaluative beliefs of the people.to be givento theonewhoamong turn. abused) eiv &yopitr (16.o . justice is practised (or. andfinally the relations of men to one another' (emphasisadded).daughter sake. 'point to' (.502-8) triedto restrain for each. oi 6EyEpovte. P50ov etrtev "J Rn7oto. themovement of the avoids the intellectual and ethical baggage of 'justice'.431). OE(ov 6itg. 6).let himhavehis own ideasandjudgebetween Trojans as Danaans is fitting. got~p8 oi 8' KEltIo 8' Cp' V gCloot(Yt 81 )() Xp(Yoo"(o '86czov. which might be translatedas 'let him pursuehis judgements' (8. Hera concedes immediately.497). theregularity of theseasons and and theyears. making their 86iiq a truly communaldecision.388 (6K ther the relations of gods and men. Frisk(1954-73) 1.Cf also Burkert(1981) 199.497-508). eF-tv At % .. ro. 9. KFa 'Ipt. public opinion is divided and a solution is sought from the elders of the city: ov 6ciS. 18. 8(x. Moreover.KCtOl.'Ohnow.. aiYti6oto Atb. andHeraaddressed So speaking Athena. The idea &8 iintv o'lc &uryovtzr): 'the Aiwlv Xxkoot.taking eachin withwhichtheythensprang handsfromtheloud-voiced heralds. F'itwucKF. stars.v." -rFKocl Tp~oxii (Ii.

order and the will of Zeus It has been arguedabove that the prevalentview of the Homeric gods. namely the more strikingmoral anthropomorphism of its gods.not only throughthe presence of sympatheticTrojancharacters.even the children in the womb.120. 9. 6. for example.'49 Yet these two facets of Zeus's r61e. 15. A furtherexample. which treatsthe gods of the Iliad (in contrastto those of the Odyssey)as immoralor amoral. 'AXe~S6v~pox Kai Hpiajio. insofar as the standardview implies that there is something different and more overtly disturbingabout the Iliad's presentationof the gods.598). dh' ixx'ov.34) to be irreconcilable with his patronageof justice. are far less sympatheticand enjoy no divine support. since the foreshadowingof Troy'sdestructionmeans thatmany innocentTrojanswill pay for the mistakes of Paris and Priam.18-33. one scholarconsidersZeus's punishmentof Hera (II.30). . the Iliad poet makes his narrativemore problematic.though not all wicked (cf II(h)).o~i~&~ toO' "Hprlt OU&~ oi6&Hooct6&~ow' yXUa)KO)7t6l Ico~prlt.48There is thereforeno fundamentalcontradictionbetween the gods' personalprojectsand the system of reciprocaljustice that they sanction. I(a)). not least because a Trojanstarted the war. the concalls Paris' 'ruinousrandisequences of what the narrator ness' (24. Nevertheless. Though the same patternof justice operatesin both Homeric epics. This distortionoften stems from a false view of divinejustice itself. Thus. The poet makes the imbalanceparticularlyemphaticin his only explicit allusion to the Judgementof Paris: ~vO' ~iXho~.his concernfor his own and his concern forjustice . by contrast. but the narrativedraws attentionto the disproportionate suffering involved. aSVEiKECY(YC 0Ed4. it does reflect a genuine featureof the poem. 49 Zanker(1994) 4. cf n. The suitors of the Odyssey.51but is no less disturbingfor being so.Kixi Aiv~Kxtri.it is a basic featureof the moral universe of the poems thatjustice is closely tied to sensitivity about one's own honouras well as respect for the honourof others. It is misleading. Yet the two notions are no more incompatiblethan the idea that a human being should act with 6icr. And althoughthe idea that selfish and all-too-humangods are problematic (and perhapsnot worthy of veneration)may well have precededXenophanes. W&D240-7). 50The patternof misdeed and (disproportionate) punishment is starkly underlined by the narrator when Agamemnon's command that all the Trojans should be annihilated.19-20). the gods of early Greek epic still enforce a basic form of justice which is no more and no less than the charactersthemselves demand. but also by having a numberof gods fighting on their behalf. is described as o'ilga ('justified'. It is right that the Trojansshould be punished for their conduct.is mistaken(cf esp. oi j~t~rc(cAZ~ov Yicovto. is consideredbelow. which assumes thatbecause the gods are not perfectmoralexemplarsthey cannotthereforeenforce or care aboutbasic issues of right and wrong. 15.25-30) djlv6' iitv~'.as when Agamemnondoubts Zeus's promise that he will sack Troy (II. pL~V ir&~lViiv&av~v.24.howto the Iliad's moral ever.50so Such harshand disproportionate punishmentmay be a traditionalidea (cf Hes. 51Hdt.12 WILLIAMALLAN () Moral anthropomorphism. interpret (as many scholarsdo) as if it were incomanthropomorphism patible with the gods also being (as the charactersthemselves view them) enforcers of justice.62).are far from being irrec"ttgil become so if one oncilable (and only operates with an inappropriate conception of justice). ijoi it6p~wlxXhon~vim &X~ytv~ijv. Moreover. and remarks'Zeus often seems far more concernedwith his honor than with the rights and wrongs of his relationswith gods and men. 48 Even if the human characters'limited knowledge means that they may doubt whether the justice they ask for will come about. The narrator applies a similarjudgement to a Greek error(Achilles' rejection of the Embassy and the sufferings it brings upon the Achaeans) when Thetis' prayerto Zeus is condemnedas gairnov ('disastrous'.5 takes the deathof innocentTrojansto show that the gods mete out greatpunishmentsfor great crimes. 2. oS acpiv inp~tjov &ccin~xOE~to "IXtoS ip~j Xab. ijtE (II.

as Zeus's instructionsto Thetis make clear: "xixa o6or~oai oi Ei7nEO~o)S. to stressthatApollo acts out of pity Indeed. I q niep Overl6 ' -I ko-d ii olGEv (18. and that I above all the immortalsam filled with wrath.just as the quarrellingamong the appropriate gods eventually results in the destructionof Troy. but are also felt to be terrible'. decimating the Achaean army and leading to Patroclus' death.t &n6 0' "EKxopa oXiti. since the gods enjoy the privilege of being able to punish mortals in a way thatmortalscannot so easily do if wrongedby a god: as Achilles says to Apollo afterthe god has deceived him and luredhim away from the Trojans: vyv 6' ~i Av I t6io. lrtcppeoi C/otvoCL/Vrltatv "EKrop' iAAet naph vrluol Kopoviotv oti O' x1vXOaev. but we should resist the temptation to impose moral certainty and neatness on it. the Homericgods would have no normative(a better term in this context than 'moral') force at all. For such messiness is not necessarily incompatiblewith what we would term a 'moral' outcome. the emphasison Parishimself is even morepointed insofaras the position of 'Ahe. Indeed. It is a messy system. out of support for Troy and antipathy to the Achaeans.it is important ratherthan an impartialconcern for humanmorality. 24. but other scenes reveal a basic concern for humanity. as Elster (1999) 339 observes (cited by Cairns (2001b) 219 n. the Homeric gods can appear disturbingly cruel. 6.' 52 Macleod (1982) 88 on 24.27-8. since impartialityis. b6oa Itl6ea oi of 55Apollo's protest againstAchilles' maltreatment Hector's corpse is a striking instance of divine pity. l 6' ioxa IlXlh k.who had found fault with the goddesses when they came to his farm's inner courtyard. . as he typically does. 22.'52 Macleod well compares II.rot. xal xa6. if it were otherwise.to. 6' iodoagox ti 'oiv y' i866etoaq6iriooo.for such impartialconcern is not the domain of the Homeric gods. it is also impartial.33-54). As Macleod comments.54 As agents of such retribution. Speaking to Zeus. Avpi out." (II. One of the strongest signs of this is the gods' ultimate approval of Hector's burial. damentaldisparitybetween gods and mortals.362-3). folly affects the whole city. Indeed.43-52).producean resolution. and the single 'Ae vi6poo.&vipoi Eve~' &trln.112-16) 'Go at once to the camp and give this message to your son: tell him that the gods are angrywith him. ai'Kiv io. 'There is a powerful antithesis between the accumulated "Ikto. It is clear that in supporting Hector's claim Apollo is acting. but not to Hera or Poseidon or the bright-eyedmaiden. because he in his madness is keeping Hector by the beaked ships and has not given him back. is otherwise taken up by k6iijieio Hpti6joto (cf 4.55 Moreover.55-63). At re &icnV. bexi oii jihyaKlS0 dwpEiheo. yet the specific details of his argument reveal a further concern. 6. Gtpertov kX0k Kcai1)~i yG1~ tritEihov' 7ndlvx0v &Ocavd~ixov KCXoXXocot.18-20). C' ot ye (II. The scene is an excellent illustrationof how the tensions inherent in the Homeric theodicy. it is Apollo's rather than Hera's argument which finds wider support. 'where Agamemnon's vindictive words against Troy are said to be just (62). despite this impartiality. I i1o' &v retornV.. Perhapshe will then in fear of me give Hectorback.and approvedof her who offered him ruinousrandiness. Yet although the pattern of 6iKic that dominates the poem is in some measure ruthless.55-60. while Achilles' rejection of the Embassy ensures the Trojans' further success.53Thus the entireAchaean army must endure the plague that results from Agamemnon's mistake (1.DIVINE JUSTICE AND COSMIC ORDER IN EARLY GREEK EPIC 13 This [sc. 53 This is a fundamentalpoint. driven by a range of individualdesires and relationships.45).449). 165. For while Hera cares only which of the two (Achilles or Hector) is more the philos of the gods (24. w6cvaxlit irapeirl Hera craftily exploits the superiorityof the gods in order to justify her right to punish the Trojans:Kai tXiv 6i5to6 p ei tci ILWeXt f3porb. because of the folly of Alexander. ip I The gods' anger with one citizen and his cal Hpi-. They hung on to the hatredthey had from the first for sacred Ilios and Priam and his people. there is a fun54 However. Apollo concentrates on Achilles' lack of pity and human respect and on the futility and excessiveness of his conduct (24.47. 'a necessary featureof any view that wants to be taken seriously as a conception of justice'. since it governs the Achaeans no differentlyfrom the Trojans. to steal the body of Hector]was pleasing to all the othergods.

34). . what counts as 8iicrl('justice') among the humancharactersof the Iliad is closely related to 8iicr or 'order' at a cosmic level. All relationships are reciprocal. Achilles' decision is a thoroughlyhumanresponse. whereby Zeus's will is realized throughthe actions and reacII(e) tions of others.. Yet although burial is a basic human good..because Hector is dead and can no longer sacrifice to them. the gods have nothing to gain by it. It has been well observedof Apollo's condemnationof Achilles' conductthat 'this is the only place in the Iliad where nemesis is used of the attitudeof the gods toward human beings who oi uiEg. 15. yet ensures that orderis restored..ppa. Thus Zeus's decision at the end of the poem embodies the same principleof divine concern for humanorderthat has operatedthroughout. cf Hera'swords to Zeus on the death of Sarpedon(16. It is Achilles' choice whetherhe releases Hector's body or not. the gods' supposedcare for the dead may be viewed as a projectionof humananxiety about the vulnerability of the defenceless in their communities. since that is their If the gods were simply to let terriblethings (such y~.ep6vzt vECtEoGrl0otav l same scholar continues.all of which impinge on their own tijtuL. yet the have broken the moral code' (il y~xya0t n. as non-burial)happencontinuouslyto those who honour them. even if the audience remains aware that Achilles' anger could flare up again.9). and he is influenced both by fear of Zeus's angerandby a desire for the rich compensationofferedby Priamat the suggestion of Zeus (cf 24. on the contrary. outsiders. and the gods requirehonours. In short. 57 Redfield (1994) 213. encouragedby Zeus.Zeus's solution to the dispute between the gods who pity Hector and the stubbornhatersof Troy (Hera.the competingwills of the gods are seen to result 56 For burialas the ypaq Oav6vtwov. 'But it is also true that this notion of god as the guarantorof norms is introducedhere only to be rejected. where Zeus was able to incorporatehis obligation to Thetis within the wider plan of Troy's fall. and this leads to a narrative patternwhich we can trace throughoutearly Greekhexameter and (cf esp. Zeus agrees with Hera . Achilles speaks in the same termsof mourningPatroclus (23. those honourswould end or the communitywould cease to exist (Nestor's complaint to 'father Zeus' at II.Zeus's maintenanceof order is linked to his own power.g. as the several remindersof his rise to supremacymake clear (n.59 As we have seen. cf also 8. Neither reason drawsAchilles closer to the gods (nor does his compassion for Priam.58Nor is it clear thatAchilles is 'drawninto the divine community' (this argumentis part of Hera's rhetoricalstrategy and a sign of her ulterior motives).53). 592-5). Achilles must be drawninto the divine community'(emphasis added).456-7). and he above all the gods is angry at Achilles' excessive behaviour. includingother gods. For like the gods' interest in oaths. and neitherwould be the most desirableoutcome for any god (or mortal).temples and sacrifices. poetry III(b)). extending succour to those individuals(e.14 WILLIAMALLAN Like Apollo. Moreover.mirroring the start of the poem. creating a strong and satisfying narrativeclosure. Moreover.. whose plight reminds him of his own father: 24.674-5).the helpless and the dead) whose conditionweakens their ability to assert their customaryclaims to respect andjustice. which are repeatedby Zeus in his instructionsto Apollo (16. he is a memberof the divine community . 24.56 takes account of the competing claims of the gods. this overlooks Zeus's prominent r6le as the guarantor of a moral and social orderwhich is ensuredby the fulfilment of ritual acts (in this case burial). it would not be trueto say that.372-6 makes the reciprocityclear. Zeus expresses his indignationat non-burialin direct speech (this is not a case of character-speech attributinghuman values to the gods). whose insistence upon Hector's burialrecognizes (and restores)the values of social and ritualorder. Hera protests that Achilles is not human in the ordinary sense.236-41). divine anger at non-burial is directed to upholding a principle wherein their own interests are at stake.57However.486-512). guestfriendshipand supplication. 59 The re-establishmentof order coincides with the resolutionofAchilles' wrathand its consequences. since the will of Zeus extends to both. Poseidon and Athena) expresses a desire to Zeus's proposalthus uphold a basic humangood (respectfor the dead and theirrightto burial).112-19. Yet Zeus cannotignorethe competingplans of the other gods. 58 As with their protection of strangersand suppliants.

' Yet this approachignores the multiplecauses of the fall of Troywithin the Iliad (the Judgementof Paris..68 60 Despite his privileged access to 'greatZeus's will' via Thetis (ii ot wnxayy~XXsaKe Atbo EeydXotoo v6rlLja. 61 Cf. but the narrator can name the actual god responsible. can.g.nameearly Greekliterature. II (a) The Odyssey. this section aims to show the essential continuity of religious attitudes and social values in the Homeric epics. it is alleged. 63 e.g. Achilles does not know that Patroclus will be killed (cf 18.. for example. the will of Zeus).66Even Lloyd-Jones. The narrator. by complicating the familiar picture of the Odyssey as a tale of clear-cutcrime and punishment.as we shall see. and analysis of Zeus's opening speech (the locus classicus for moralinterpretations by focusing on the r61eof divine rivalryand anger. since Troymust fall.63 Thus studies of the Odyssey aboundwith such claims as 'the natureof the gods has changed'. differencesbetween the epics'. the brokentruce. Zeus assembles the gods and encouragesthem to assist the side of their choice.frequentlypresentedas being most acute in the sphereof divinejustice.60 Thus. This patternis overlooked by those who claim that a concern for justice is the preserveof the gods of the Odyssey. are almost wholly indifferentto this concept [i.DIVINE JUSTICEAND COSMICORDER IN EARLYGREEKEPIC 15 in a fixed orderwhich is identifiedwith the will ofZeus..' . 17. e.23-30).e. 'that its theology is in some importantways differentfrom that of the Iliad'. The intellectualrevolutionreflected in the Iliad required still anotherrevolution. e. the Odyssey: 64 Burkert (1997) 259. Mueller (1984) 147: 'These differences are most markedwhen it comes to justice. Througha close of the poem).9-11). the Odysseydoes not differ substantiallyfrom the Iliad in its presentation of the gods or their interest in justice. but much to do with justice and cosmic order. Similarly. 68 Contrast. entitled 'The gods in Cf.charactersoften refer to 'the gods' in general. for all its characteristic themes and ideas. the rape of Helen.67 By contrast. Thus.as if the fall of Troy were not justified within the Iliad itself.reciprocaljustice and the will of Zeus. Kirk (1962) 291: 'The gods of the Iliad. Griffin (1980) 51: 'The gods who presideover this world have also changed their nature. in which Zeus was transformed from the king of a heroic society to the principle of cosmic justice. and secondly.. 66 E.' 65 Burkert(1997) 262. but it is clear thatApollo and the otherpro-Trojan gods will eventuallyhave to give way.:a new divine world? It is still widely believed thatthe divine world of the Odysseyis substantiallydifferentfrom that of the Iliad.64 a transformation that is often said to result in 'a "purer" conception of god'. so that Achilles may not sack Troy 'beyond what is fated' (20. the gods of the Odysseyare more moralisticin theirattitudeto humanwickedness. Finley (1977) 140: 'The Olympian religion could not stand still and yet survive.688-91). Yet even the gods themselves cannot know all of Zeus's plans in advance. cf.65 This theological difference is. The Odyssey is a model tale of poetic justice. the patternof justice and cosmic order embodied in the Iliad is also found throughoutearly Greek hexameter poetry. by showing that. and so connects Patroclus' death to the 'mind of Zeus' (16.a moral one.' 67 Lloyd-Jones(1983) 28. the foremost aim of this section is to challenge the orthodoxview: firstly.g. ly.who otherwise stresses the continuityof religious and moral ideas throughout endorsesthe standard view of the Odyssey.409). but also its essential continuityin this respectwith the wider traditionof early Greek epic. exemplifyinga widespread view of the Iliad vis-a-vis the Odyssey. since. justice]. 62 So Mueller(1984) 147. Kearns(2004) 67-9. all of which have nothing to do with 'convenience'. as Achilles preparesto re-enter battle.61 Moreover. to single out the Iliad as presentingmerely 'a theodicy of sorts'62 obscures not only the poem's comprehensiveand compelling depictionof what the gods standfor in relationto humanity. and determineevents like the fate of Troy from motives of their convenience. in turn. by contrast. indeed.g. The fall of Troy is itself presented as part of an impartial system of divine justice in which both Trojans and Achaeans face the consequences of their misdeeds.

Recalling Aegisthus' death at the hands of Orestes. e. (b) The Odyssey: a new moral world? Zeus's opening speech in Book 1 of the Odyssey is regularly interpreted as constituting 'a radical shift from the divine attitudes displayed in the Iliad'. ors (Od. Scholars are certainly right to stress the importanceof Zeus's complaint (which in itself makes for an arrestingopening). present- ing it as an uncomplicatedtale of villains punished and the righteous rewarded.73 In other words...5.. 72 See n.71 Zeus's speech is certainly programmatic for what follows in the work.' selves.' . There is no denying the more explicit ethical tone of the Odyssey. and both ask similar questions of the gods and the extent to which their actions are connected to social norms of justice. so they still exaggerate the moral simplicity of the Odyssey. quotedabove as an epigraphto this article). 71 Cf. while Zeus 69 e. or that the gods of the Odysseywill be more concernedwith properhumanbehaviour per se than are the gods of the Iliad. but it should not be taken to imply (as is often the case) that responsibilityfor humansuffering lies with humanity alone.. olov OTu 6i VEi. the gods are much more concernedwith moral- ity . [The Odysseypoet] is presentingthe beginning of the idea that men are responsible for their own misfortunes' (emphasisadded). However. the gods]'. 14. Edwards (1987) 130: 'In the Odyssey. however..havesorrows beyondtheirdestined Zeus criticizes mortalsfor failing to recognize that their suffering is compoundedby their own outrageousbehaviour.S Kalvi~vA'yuao. evident from the very first scene on Olympus onwards. since it implies '[they suffer because of their own wickedness] in addition to the troubles sent by us [i.g.. but that it represents an 'ethical transformation of the gods'72 iS demonstrably false.thereis no mentionof divine punishment for the Phoenician traders who conspired to abduct Eumaeus as a child and then sold him into slavery (15. and while the Odyssey often foregrounds a straightforward vision of the gods' concern for moral standards.tO7. but no less significantfor the theology of the poem as a whole is Zeus's acknowledgement that much of humanity'ssuffering is due to the gods.16 WILLIAM ALLAN For just as scholars continue to underestimate the extent to which the Iliad depicts a pattern of norms and punishments.O.70 This shift is.) ~OhPPto\1 (5zO(0Vt(X K~X #ai YeXP k~ fClJ~OV qpaYi Kd~K l 01 ~EVat' toi &t v bix~rp ocpipotv 0ctahirjiso j1t~pov ~iyr'~oov &.69it also presents the reality of divine intervention in a manner no less disturbing than the Iliad. 163 notes.g.howthesemortals theirownreckless share.e. 'The Kai makes all the difference here. furthermore.83-4..through acts. Both poems explore the problems inherent in divine justice.403-84). This is certainlya strongcondemnationof humanfolly." (Od. 73 Scholars and translatorsoften fail to give the Ki of line 33 its full force.as doesAegisthus. Eumaeuson the gods' attitudeto the suitCf. 1. said to be an ethical one. but this does not mean that the theology of the Odyssey is in any way different from that which dominates the Iliad. since reckless behaviourand its punishmentwill be centralto the narrative. andyet theytoo themblamethegods! Theysaytheirtroubles 'Oh. 70 Keams (2004) 69.. The Homeric epics inhabit the same moral and theological world. Zeus addresses the other gods: 0) . As Tsagarakis(2000) 47 n.32-5) comefromus. Let us first consider Zeus's actual words. as if Zeus's assertion that humans are responsible for their own sufferings represented a moral idea alien to the Iliad.

(6d16 tot oir MOloa looEtS66ovt 13. 12. Il. of which the most prominentare their loyalties to humanfavourites (Athena and Odysseus) or family (Poseidon and Polyphemus)and their ruthlesspunishmentof those who anger or offend them (cf Poseidon's punishmentof the Phaeacians.527-33). in order to enforce a distinction between the human and the divine plane. cf Chantraine(1954) 79: 'Dans l'lliade le divin .since it ~t6pov expresses the traditionalidea thatno humanlife is free of suffering dispensed by the gods (cf. thus invoking the god even as she is working against him adds pointedly..78And it is only gld~XeoOt aftersecuringZeus's approvalfor Odysseus'homecomingthatAthenaacts to bringit about. Athena's plans must operatewithin a divine society whose rivalries and hierarchiesproducenot only tensions but also a structure of authority. as if to explain (3. 78In the Iliad Poseidon is particularly insistenton his rights within the divine family. reste.Od. II(d) and (g) on Poseidon and Helios). As with KXi(1. ignores omens sent by Zeus (1.ac&ot 6' ot no pcq{ive~t' Avxvtiil a&i' ydp a Irxporaoiyvryuov ('but she did not yet appearto him face to face. btp in line 34 is important.. au mauvais sens du mot.' . my father's brother' Itcapoatyvifllt.185-99. Griffin (1980) 54: 'we are generally given the impressionof one undividedand righteousdivine will'.. Lesky (2001) 190: 'Zeus emphatically dissociates himself and the world of the gods from the activity of men. 4562).821-32) remindsus that the Odyssey poet could have told Aegisthus' story in a less negative way.329-30). 21.341-2).75 And since these areboth centralaspects of the interaction of gods and mortalsin the Iliad as well. as a revenge narrative.55-61). then.. 77 Athena's ingenuity extends to helping Odysseus' son as well.e. One might comparePoseidon's own conduct in the Iliad.79In short. 76 E. it is misleading to speak of a 'radicalshift' in the theodicy of the Odyssey. Athenatakes advantageof Poseidon's absencefrom the divine assembly on Olympus in order to raise the issue of Odysseus' delayed return(Od. ForAthena has in effect exploited his absence in order Icrlp6O0t to underminethe concomitantsof his superiorstatus.cf 8. passionn6. taking into account what Agamemnon'sfatherhad done to Aegisthus' father. II. cf also Apollo's refusal to come to blows with his uncle Poseidon at II.she prays to Poseidon to grantTelemachusa safe homecomingfrom Pylos. it is clear thatthey retain their typical characteristics.which is uncontestedat the divine level.209-11) and thereforetakes care to aid the Achaeans covertly (13.217-43.' Cf Graziosi and Haubold (2005) 76: 'The overall thrust of the first Olympian scene in the Odyssey is an insistence on the separation between gods and mortals . ltEhX 3.DIVINE JUSTICEAND COSMICORDER IN EARLYGREEKEPIC 17 the subsequentnarrative also makes clearthe foregroundshumandisregardof divine warnings. It is often claimed that the gods of the Odysseyhave 'changed their nature'. see II(i). 13. who similarly ignore divine signs).284).Athena's killing 74 The gods' warning enhancesAegisthus' folly (and preparesfor that of Odysseus' companions and the suitors.g. he becomes 'even angrier' (' 8' kXcy~oro Xov. does not annulthe clash of divine wills thatdominatesthe first half.354-7).' The impressionof distantgods is rathera product of the natureand scope of the story.77 When Poseidon realizes what has been done behind his back.62).g. 5. Thus she laterdefends her tardyassistance by saying to Odysseus. cf.. 6.64. 'But you see I was unwilling to fight Poseidon.74 r6le of the gods as a sourceof humansuffering(cf esp. 75 This tells against the tendency to treatthe gods of the Odyssey as more distanced from human affairs: e. as in the Iliad. profond~ment humain.o80 Yet although fewer gods are individualizedin the narrative(comparedto the Iliad). The gods. 24. 1. Dans l'Odyssde l'idre divine se relie &la morale. 'so she prayed. 79Indeed. too.both as a catalystof the poem's plot and as a centralelement of the gods' attitudes Yet the focus in the second half of the poem on Odysseus'punto one anotherand to humanity. and she herself was bringing it all to fulfilment' (&.76 ishmentof the suitors.. Yet the fact that Hector. Disguised as Mentor.. So while it may be true that the Odyssey'stale of errorsand consequences is less complex and less tragic than the Iliad's. become dispensers of justice . since she respectedher father'sbrother'.461-9. 80 See n. 15. trompeur et rancunier . where he recognizes Zeus's authority(since he is 'mightier'. (c) Divine rivalry and anger Those who detect a differenttheology at work in the Odysseyoften elide the rrle of divine rivalry and anger.. &p' nnret' ~lp&to andvtoa KL' aOi 7 a. there is no questionof the gods being disassociated from humanlife and suffering. The narrator this unique combinationof invocationand deception.Athenais carefulnot to challengePoseidon openly even after Zeus has given his approval:thus she grants Odysseus' prayerthat he be well received by the Phaeacians. i.33).22-7.

499-511. where it is said that LocrianAjax could still have survived.jtevxivev HooetS6ovog ijv (Od. Critics who presume a more 'moral' theodicy in the Odyssey inevitably detect in this episode a range of (illusory) problems and tensions. and calls for an explanation. xiii 341ff.it has little effect. Why is Poseidon's anger not brought into closer conformity with the prevailing religious and moral 81 Cf S. or treatit as aberrant.325-7. e. 92).108-11). This is surprisingat the least.134-5. the story of Odysseus' returnis itself only one of many Greek nostoi disruptedby divine anger. Graziosiand Haubold(2005) 79 claim that 'Poseidon and Polyphemus are exceptions which serve to highlight. he ragedceaselesslyagainstgodlikeOdysseusuntil he reached his own land.' Yet while it is a typical theme of the Iliad that gods should avoid fighting one another p3porfv (cf 1.291-310). 1. Although Odysseus' actions have not offended the other gods. 8. H6lscher (1988) 268-9. the poet deliberately avoids conflict between Poseidon and Athena over Odysseus (cf. more "primitive"divine behavior in a welldemarcated section of the poem. 83 Cf.' They also describe Poseidon and Polyphemus as 'ratherprimitive figures who harkback to modes of behaviourwhich prevailed in the earlier history of the cosmos' (p.573-5.502. &vtrt0o 'O86it id~pog y^tav All the gods pitied him except Poseidon.502.despite Athena'swrath(iaf vi had he KEvi'zpxyE Icipa'. 82 Clay (1983) 218. 490). 'Interpretations the wrathof Poseidon. iep' 'AOilvrjt). it is not true of either poem (nor of Poseidon in the Odyssey: cf II(d)) that the gods' personal alliances or anger have 'little effect'..'82NOless misleading are those approacheswhich seek to treatinstancesof divine angeras relics of a more 'primitive' mentality or cosmos. 462-7).see II(d). Her positive and negative r6les spring from typical divine concerns. 764-77) and been destroyed by Poseidon. Poseidon's persecutionof Odysseus is motivated by kinship and personal vengeance.the progressive thrustof the story. the fabulous realm between Troy and Ithaca in books 5-13' (p.357-60. it would be a mistake to ignore thattry to force As Clay observes.81 the destructionof Odysseus' companionsand the sufferingsof Odysseus himself at the hands of Poseidon into the moral patternof Aegisthus and the suitors must be recognized for what they are:Procrustean attemptsto regularizeand make uniformthe moralityof the Odyssey. 3. as exemplified by the suitors' fate and the paradeigmaof Aigisthus.). as the poet often remindsus (1. A striking exception is Od. 84 For the importance of (divine) anger to both Homeric epics. Aj.130-66. 13. West (1988) 61: 'Though the wrath of Poseidon is repeatedlymentioned. 4.6' v6mcpt dorepy~. not offended the gods with his boasting (like his greater namesake:cf Soph. and Zeus himself sanctions Poseidon's punishmentof the Phaeacians. see Woodhouse (1930) 29-40.83 Indeed. EvEa 21. 4.the poet sees no contradictionbetween Athena's destruction of the returningGreeks for their failure to punish LocrianAjax's attemptedrape of Cassandra and her desire to save Odysseus from Poseidon's anger (cf 1.323-31). Thus one scholar one of the Odyssey'sbest known incidents does argues that 'there is a deep-seateddisjuncture: not conform to its dominant ethical categories. namely to punish sacrilege (the attemptedrape took place in her temple at Troy) and to supporther humanprot6ge(cf esp. The narrator underlinesfrom the startthe importanceof Poseidon's angerto his accountof Odysseus' return: 6' xLiatpov 0eooi ir~xavte . Segal (1992) for an attemptto bracketoff 'less moral.427-30. cxi X~O6~ev6.84 Moreover. are in fact typical features of the universal order underZeus. Yet Poseidon's wrath and revenge. 5. 6.325-7. (d) Spheresofpower and punishment:Poseidon and the Phaeacians The continuityof religious thought in the Homeric epics is well illustratedby Poseidon's punishment of the Phaeacians.19-21) t iKOut. far from being 'exceptions'.18 WILLIAMALLAN of Amphinomus:II(d) and (h)).g. not by any abstract(or un-Iliadic) sense of morality. 3. by contrast. . 4.

where it does not conform.35.86 The positions adoptedby Zeus and Poseidon are entirely consistent. 4Quiau r Hb y7veotyv (fr. remains. 91 The gap between the Phaeacians'deeds and their fate is underlinedby the wording of Zeus's agreement: I ot t dv6plov 8' ei' 7ip tig oc rint K)pci E'i'cov dci.87 Indeed. Alcinous: 7. as we have seen. I &vOpdrnou. For as Alcinous makes clear. OEoi. .disturbing. the theodicy of the poem is inconsistent. I ZEi opCTEaq ztiooto cKTGo.DIVINE JUSTICEAND COSMICORDER IN EARLYGREEKEPIC 19 ethos of the Odyssey. where it is used to justify the beggar's god-sent misfortune: 18. 89 For the negative aitiology here. 12.143-5).209-14). Zeus recognizes thatthe othergods have sphereswhere theirauthority is paramount. will eclipse thatof the walls of Troybuilt by Apollo and himself.154-8). KaotaKp1otv otv. Depictions of the ilatewov yivo.the Phaeacianssuffer fromtheirproximityto the god. are particularlyclose to Poseidon: they are outstandingseafarersand their devotion to sailing and the sea is underlinedby the 'speakingnames' of the youths who compete in the games (Akroneos. II. yet Zeus. Elatreus. 7.446-63).151-2.205). whose fame. 'IOdTicv yaiav &iilyayov" i z1 ' iWpavwo EcuEicEov. Okyalos. 7. since such exceptional privileges as that enjoyed by the seafaring Phaeacians are (from the audience's point of view) a thing of the past. but also reinforcing the distinction between human and divine. Poseidon's punishmentof the Phaeacians.the son of Poseidon.who have a privilegedrelationshipwith the gods (ot zt ~iei ocptotv says 8yy0jev Eil4v. 90 In the case of the Achaean wall. Nauteus.from a humanperspective. 4 Fowler = vog Toostaci d prlot8th ilv FGrHist 2 F 4).) oiceiou. Zeus not only and to approves of Poseidon's plan to smite the Phaeacians' ship as it returnsfrom Ithaca. and which informsthe centralaction?'85The implicit assumptionsof this approachare clear:Zeus's proem presents a radically different moral world.O.459-63. The et Icai{txot opikov iirtrho 0iloj. oi6' tXcloaiv. 7.allows them to be punished.Alcinous and Arete are both descended from Poseidon (grandsonand great-granddaughterrespectively: 7. the one which is categorically enunciated at the beginning. I Eptov 61tn) (13. explaining the absence of the Phaeacians from the world of the audience. to which the rest of the Odyssey should conform. oim &ipa 6vta vofjgovcq oi& iiiatot I jcoav OQlil yiV ilryitope 1i8i kovwe. Poseidon fears. 15. 87 Hence Odysseus' suspicious curse of the Phaeacians.92But while Polyphemus.23)).56-66). &viplov as a separaterace in early Greek and Near Easternmyth are well discussed by Scodel (1982).spokenas he wakes on Ithaca. the patron of strangersand suppliants. iq zt Iai Xlou.139).90 By humanstandards permanent ofjustice Zeus's collaborationmay appearvindictive. aici. 8i oi. iq ti &ldjpprltr 88 In ending the Phaeacians' ability unfailingly to convey travellersby sea (cf 13.: 8.Yet. cf. (Od. 180-3) Poseidon is not only defending his own prerogatives(for the sea as his domain.9'but it embodies a basic featureof his maintenance of divine order. It is made clear thatthe Phaeacians.56ff. 92 Acusilaus took the passages to imply that all the Phaeacianswere descended from Poseidon: "Otrlpo. etc.185-93 on the division of ztixi between Zeus. exploits his kinship to punishhis enemy. the Phaeacians offer to help Odysseus because of their concernfor strangersand suppliants(8. this supposed distinction was once used by Analysts to justify the distinction between two poets: 'an older one who would have written about the wrath of Poseidon and a more recent one who dealt with the interventionof Zeus'. they are also familiar from the Iliad. "tot. Apop&t iai (13.89 memorialof the Phaeacians'punishment(13. Nevertheless.since even Zeus cannot interfereconstantlyin other gods' spheresof influence. the (still influential) idea that Poseidon's personal revenge and the supposedly more enlightened viewpoint of Zeus representtwo conflicting patternsof justice is mistaken. iXhrlv I i5Etv ei.with Zeus's approval.3-33 on the now vanished Achaean wall (seen in the latterpassage explicitly from the perspectiveof one looking back on the age of lit0eot (12. coi 8' tift ici kgoiiow cu tio.t is to the phraseP1iltKai dCpt~e hardly appropriate E'i(wov placid Phaeacians (its only other occurrence comes in Odysseus' warning to the decent suitor Amphinomus. II.544-7). Ioi' I' Ei. Moreover. 5.88 but also suggests turningthe ship to stone.Anchialos. Prymneus.111-17).cf esp. II. making it a envelop their city behind a mountain. 86 As Reinhardt(1996) 84 notes. ztivvrzat. so thathis r61eis to maintain 85 Fenik (1974) 211-12. thus a god's decision to exercise his authorityin his own spheremay take precedenceover Zeus's generalprotectionof the helpless and vulnerable. a potentialclash between the will of Zeus and the claims of Poseidon is similarly avoided when Zeus urges Poseidon to obliteratethe wall afterthe Achaeans have returnedhome (cf.is doubly ironc ic: ) inrot. Poseidon and Hades).

where Athena acts as Diomedes' charioteerand enables him to wound Ares). At Od. 10.66-70.ai5t6oto (Od.770-83 (Athena makes Ajax trip so that Odysseus can win the foot race..see I(f) above. II.284-90.as is best expressed by Artemis' comforting (or so she hopes) words to Theseus: 6eoot 6' J6' het I o~5ei. .j'etat 0iXovro. 'A64vaion {ma cX-ev ii6 ydp oi Exapvie li6po~tov oap qy0'" y9p Pirtpt. 95 Cf. 93 It also underlies the turbulent divine world of tragedy.20 WILLIAMALLAN a balancebetween them. 24. iXX' dWPwvrd6co9' dlEi.169-82 (Athena urges a despondent Odysseus to restrainthe Achaeansfrom flight).93 (e) Athena and the will of Zeus The rl61e of Athenawell illustrateshow similarthe Homericepics are in the way they explore the gods' self-interestand clashing wills within the over-archingsystem of Zeus's authority. 15..for his life was aboutto be cut short:even now PallasAthenawas hurryingon the day of his fate at the hands of the mighty son of Peleus. 'and the judges were the sons of the Trojansand Pallas Athena' (11. 5.548 Odysseus regretshis victory over Ajax to win the arms of Achilles.As we saw (II(c)). the audience know that Poseidon's anger (however legitimate) will not be allowed to frustrate the will of Zeus and the othergods.71). Ajax complains that she 'always standsby Odysseus' side like a mother and helps him'). and despite her readiness to deceive Poseidon. Most strikingly.tev actbg ydpoi &n' Apvwop Ze6g. 11. I hi1ei. The narrator finally breaksthroughthe Achaean defences and reaches their ships: ai94po. s vty7ch6ve~ootjet' &vSp6otiobvov A6vta tiL~ Kti K1)xlatvr" Ltvuv0(c3too 20 In-i{ao FahIht.23) is coupled with a recognition of humanpiety (the question 'How could I forgethis sacrifices to the gods?' underpinsZeus's decision in both cases: II.19-20).800-13. divine pity (II. II. II. 5.103-4) otO' caxPESX0hiv &Xhov Ocbv ott8 &Xti&oat.' For Hector's burial as a symbol of divine concern for humanity.245 (Diomedes chooses Odysseus to accompany him to the Trojan camp because 'Pallas Athena loves him'). As HermesremindsCalypso. combinedwith Zeus's r6le as ultimateguarantor of order. 10. 94 As with the returnof Hector to Troy (albeit as a corpse). (I/. 5. Odysseus' traditional patron.610-14) His defender from heaven was Zeus himself.94yet it is appropriate thatAthena. 1.both epics connect Athena at a numberof crucial moments with the will of Zeus. which he does at the very start of the narrative(1. 'Both actions demonstratethe belated but real generosity andjustice of the gods: in neithercase is there divine unanimity.Hipp.t .65-7).95Moreover.547). "doXX& 0 Atb(v6ov 1. who was giving honour and glory to him alone among the many otherfighters. Athena is sensitive to the hierarchyof the divine family. 2.should take the lead in securing his return. nor is partisan feeling absent. e. 4. Zeus predictsthat the Achaeans will sack Troy 'AOvvaicdg Su' pov gA reinforces this idea as Hector (II. 1328-34). she needs Zeus's agreementbefore she can set in motion the final stage of Odysseus' return. 15. note especially 5.' Once Zeus has agreed to Athena's request to bring Odysseus home. The narrator tells us that 'all the gods pitied him except Poseidon' (1.Athena's protectionof Odysseus andTelemachusis paralleledby her supportfor anotherpairof fatherand son prot~g~s. As Rutherford(2001) 131 observes. Io iv itot' (X6ov Zijva 1i p~ooSuojtiv 2 t68'' hy I oit' iv6pa ivrtov 9ipczacovppoztv aCoX)vvrlg Agol I0aveiv i&d t (Eur. pi6V' oi5~tw. Od.64-79). &iav&v poOutiia I trit toi v0toS" po-.387-90.437-8 (Athena saves Odysseus' life when he is wounded by Socus' spear). This principleof divine non-interference. odWP' iT1.g.83559." 0 'Butthereis no way for anyothergod to eludeor bringto nothing the purpose of Zeuswhoholdsthe aegis.116-17.is partof a theological patternthat runsthroughout Greekepic. 11. Tydeus and Diomedes (e. II. 23.g. In his majorprophecyof Hector's death and Troy's fall.II. 24.

100Burkert(1997) 261.879). cf III(a)). 15. Shield of Heracles 325-471). II. e. Dionysus. if fatheredby Zeus. Scholarsoften describethe gods' display of moral anthropomorphism in Demodocus' song as an instanceof divine 'frivolity'. Hephaestus and Ares. [and] saw that in his model there remaineda vacuum in his own far-too-seriousimage of the world and its gods'.308-12). however. 4. goddesses in order to prevent Hera posing too great a threat to his supremacy.391 (Athena's disobedience angers Zeus). 390.747 (Zeus commands Athena to attack Ares).540 (Zeus and Athena restrainOdysseus from killing the suitors' relatives).714-17.II. Zeus has his most importantchildren(Apollo. and so ends the generationalconflicts of the gods in his favour (Hes. 24.g. however. o101 .121-41). 5. On Burkert'sinfluential reading. as she was furious and quarrelledwith her husband'. 736.101 (Athena makes for Ithaca. e. 5. lflpxKoiztll ('but dipt xi to ivrlcw Iri iiptomev Hera bore renowned Hephaestus without union with Zeus. II(b) above). 8. 1. 721. Od. The antipathy between Zeus and Ares is extended to their sons. or.846-63). Her closeness to Zeus is evidentwhen she restrainsAres from seeking vengeance for his dead son Ascalaphus. while at the same time ready to assert their interestsand desires at the expense of others (so that there is no lack of anthropomorphism).Zeus is said to have helped his son many times by sendingAthena (II. 408). 19.96Athenathus works again and again as an extension of the will of Zeus. 727-9. conceived by Hera in anger at Zeus: "Hpr 8' "Hpactoov Khutv oi cp6tiarlt ~ttyetoa I yeivao. she acts here to preserveorderon Olympus(II. 8.887-97).DIVINE JUSTICEAND COSMICORDER IN EARLYGREEKEPIC 21 Thus althoughAthena has her own reasons to hate Troy (II. Hermes.362-5). whetherin the destructionof Troy or the nostoi of the Achaeans.g. Hephaestus is the product of parthenogenesis. you incite her. Theog. Burkert(1997) 262. Ares is a lesser doublet of Athena the warriorgoddess (cf esp.927-8). 11. 5.Athena'sbirthfrom the head of Zeus symbolizes their peculiarlyclose relationship.252-66.96-133). iT&tEl ~yivao iux' an6 &{&riiov('no. since you yourself gave birthto this destructive daughter'. 97Athena'sr61ein the fall of Troy is paralleledby her supportfor Tydeus and Diomedes at Thebes.like her fatherelsewhere. II. 5. her actions are also presented as partof Zeus's largerplan for the city's fall. 599-600.'100oo divinity in the Odyssey and implies that Zeus's opening speech denies the gods their traditional moral anthropomorphism (see. II. 1. the Odysseypoet composed his work in the light of the Iliad.25-30). he is a cripple and a cuckold (II.266-366).98 Moreover. Hes. 'but with a new ethico-religiousattitude. nor is the Odysseypoet's presentationof the gods excessively serious: for. and always in contexts where the will of Zeus is foregrounded. 8.135 (Zeus and Athena plan painful nostoi for the Achaeans). II.578. 753. Theog.].99 (f)Odysseanseriousness versus divinefrivolity? Returningto the Odysseyand its alleged theological differencesfrom the Iliad. Nestor recalls how Zeus and Athena helped the Pylians to rout the deceitful Epeians (II.3. the gods are seen to be deeply concerned with proper human behaviour (so that Zeus's programmaticspeech is not aberrantly solemn). and hated by Zeus as much as Athena is loved by him (II.where Zeus swallows Metis. no such vacuum. Od. 98 Hera's subordinater61eis embodied in the myths surrounding the birth of her own two children. less powerful.which is embodiedin her interventionsin supportof Zeus's will and cosmic order. Athena's mother. 14.o101 There is. to Ares' great resentment: 6iX' dviet..Athena) by other. having secured Zeus's agreementto Odysseus' return). Athena alone is called 63pt41ondtpr ('the mighty-fathered goddess'). the quarrelon Olympus 96 Cf. 886-900. 8. 24. 761). we are now in a betterposition to considerthe episode thatis frequentlysaid to highlight(by contrast)the poem's ethically more serious divine world: Demodocus' song of Ares' and Aphrodite'sadultery(Od. 99 Hera's hatredof Zeus's offspringby other women is clearest in the case of Heracles(cf.381. According to Burkert. as in the Iliad.'Demodocus' song makes an unbridgeablecontrastwith the conception of the gods in Odyssey Book 1 as well as with the sublimity of the gods of the Yet such an analysis of the scene is misleading. Significantly. since it assumes too rigid a model of Iliad. which is (on the model of the Iliad. as Heracleskills Cycnus andwoundsAres himself with help from Athena (cf [Hes. Artemis. which was eventually sacked with Zeus's approval (cf.97 and her crucial r61ein the preservationof cosmic order is best illustratedby Hesiod's account of her birth. 758.

358) . it is clear that Odysseus' own mistakes have endangeredthose aroundhim.355-6). Odysseus cannot resist boasting of his victory and thereby revealing his name.' i ei soi ''i'Oiu.271-94).. a less serious counterpart to the human one among the Achaeans: the shared contrastof divine and human supportsthe view that the song ofAres andAphroditeis replicatingan Iliadic technique withoutnecessarilydrawingattentionto the difference between the Odysseyand the Iliad.. 8. "tr cziXt6v o&pp' ~eivox o o366'tp' 4t)XX'i~tipotit cpavri.' Having escaped from the Cyclops' cave. 9.22 WILLIAMALLAN at the end of Book 1.104 but also by Odysseus'own accountof his wannot only by the narrative derings. (g) Errors and consequences: Odysseusand his men The idea that the Odysseypoet aims to presenta clear-cuttale of crime and punishmentis belied of Odysseus'revenge.306-20).102Yet the 'unquenchablelaughter'(Od. But in fact when he appearedhe would not prove a lovelyhostto my companions. the Theomachiaof Books 20-1) intendedto contrastwith the seriousness of the action on the human level. and that his men are caught up in the curse laid upon their returnby the Cyclops.528-35).228-30) 'But I would not listen to them. Hymn Herm. with horrificresults for them. as Odysseus himself admits: ev Ap ic. ~ oirl.since I wanted to see the man. As a result Polyphemusis able to pray to Poseidon that if Odysseus reaches Ithaca.7-9). Horn.492-505). 105Cf 10. e.277-301. pxz~tvb. 8.106 Helios or his vengeful response that the men's fatal erroris the productof exhaustionand star102Macleod (1982) 3. yoog) is also found in the divine quarrelof Iliad 1 (1. discussed below: III(b)). For Hephaestusdraws attention to his humiliationand demandspropercompensation(8.pa' 1to v)1 pc rttl61prlv "&o. and whetherhe would give me gifts of friendship. which he is solemnly promised by Poseidon (8. 104See II(h) below on the killing of the suitors. For Odysseus describes both himself and his men committing disastrous errorsand ignoringwarnings.10os Though his comrades urge him to depart.348). should Ares fail 'to pay all that is right in the presence of the immortal gods' (tioetv a'ioCtga itivtza ge' dOavyrtoot 0eo^ov.ov oie . since therewas humorouspotentialin many divine myths and these can scarcely have been limited to the Iliad and Book 8 of the Odyssey (cf.it would have been far betterif I had! .g. The scene thus underlinesthe Et' importance of justice (qua reparations) among the gods ob) &pvloaox0at is Hephaestus'sresponse to Poseidon (8. 106Fenik (1974) 213. The men's crucialmistake is to insist on landing on the island of Thrinaciain the first place. since 'that the divine action [Aphrodite'sadultery]shouldecho in tones of fun what is deeply serious among men [Penelope's potential adultery]is typical of the Iliad'. There is some point to this.even as it revels in the bawdy humourof Apollo and Hermes (8.335-42). thereby ignoring the warnings of Teiresias and Circe that the island be completely avoided (12. and is neitherout of step with the rest of the Odyssey. And while it may be too extremeto say that 'the men are it makes no difference to actually driven to the act by the very gods who punish them for it'. 103 This phrase(iope3zo.pd. oeaot." oi5 iotE ZEb6vTog (Od. .but only Odysseus survives and the audienceperceive the crucial difference made by divine protection. Althoughit is his companions'own decision to kill Helios' cattlewhich ensurestheirdestruction (the narrator in the proem calls them 'fools' for doing so: 1. The combinationfits other Olympianscenes in both epics.599).nor does it prove Iliadic influence. where (despite Poseidon's wrath) Hermes'gift of the plantmoly saves Odysseus frombeing transformedinto a pig by Circe. Odysseus insists on meeting the Cyclops.326)103 of the (male) gods as they look uponAres andAphroditecaught in Hephaestus'trapshould not be allowed to obscurethe more serious aspects of the scene itself.he will do so after losing all his comrades(9. despite his comrades' warning that they should get away without notice (9.

80-92). Odysseus' authorityas a narrator (h) The killing of the suitors Odysseus' vengeance on the suitors is regularlytreated as the archetypalembodimentof the Odyssey'speculiarlymoral pattern.333-46). the murderousadulterer. Moreover. However.397-8). who compares 2.294-302).I shallsoonstriketheirswiftshipwitha flashing in the midstof the sparkling sea. Zeus respects Helios' right to punish those who offend the god or transgressin his domain. which 'always introduces speeches which the narrator approvesof' (de Jong (2001) 54 on 2. 24.389-90). which emerges with greaterclarity. revealing that not all of them are wicked.454-62) and endorsedby Nestor (3. 16. 108 It is prophesied approvingly by Halitherses (2. Yet this assertively moralistic viewpoint becomes less clear-cutas the narrativedevelops.oot iuttt Avo'votot . 16.' Thus Zeus's promiseto see to the men's destructionis motivatednot only by a respectfor Helios' of universalorder.382-3).453 (Halitherses)). as she encourages Telemachusto plot their death (1. who heard it from Hermes: 12.158 (Echeneus).in Book 16. We first hear of Amphinomus. the poet draws attentionto Odysseus' unusual knowledge of Zeus's motivation (he heard of the divine council from Calypso.53 (Nestor). . since he had a sensible mind' (ia'toza I yap KiXprat'&y(0fyatotv. As demandto punish dishonourbut also by Zeus's own r6le as the guarantor the god preparesto unleash the storm that will kill Odysseus' men.As for 'Helios.is first proposed by Athena (disguised as Mentes).one of two decent suitors.keepshining among andshatter it in smallpieces thunderbolt thesemen. Menelaus(4. among others. since reciprocalvengeance is (qua divinejustice) an 'absoluteand timeless' principleand the centralstorypatternof both Homericepics (and demandmuch Greekmyth). For we get a more particularizedview of the suitors.161-76.21124). )' Xa o xX6v KE vi o'ivoit 7ut6vton.significantly.althoughthe punishmentof the suitorsis unquestionably the Odysseypoet complicatesthe initialpiced by the honour-based ethics of Homericsociety.107 Yet such a distinction risks creating a misleading scale of values (as if vengeance were inferiorto some abstract principleof justice). The simple moral paradigmthat equatesall the suitors with Aegisthus. 12.3Etv8 theimmortals andamong mortal menuponthegrain-giving earth. Penelope (23. Zeus's response is immediate: pt' "'HI~h.157-60." (Od. For as with Poseidon's anger (whether at Odysseus' blinding of his son or at the Phaeacians'assistance to Odysseus).yopiloaao assembly and said'. One scholareven remarksthat 'the punishmentof the suitors is more than an example of reciprocalvengeance:it is an enactmentof absoluteand timeless justice'. He persuades the 1-rlve~o7eirt ivyave C)Olotot" ppe&At suitors to reject Antinous' proposal that they try once more to ambush and kill Telemachus (16.399). otv omp C a oE nv iaccOvlltoin [poxoiotv idi ri6Opov &poopxv" x vx OV Kv y o p'ylt &v K~~pav .228 (Mentor).Helios' threatto descend to Hades and shine among the dead (if Odysseus' men are not punished) threatensthe cosmic order (12.351-2).as the vengeance draws closer. Eumaeus(14. where we are told that 'his speeches were the most pleasing to Penelope. 109Amphinomus'r6le as a wise adviseris underlined by the speech introduction ~it ppovwov optv Kzai pEiset~ev ('in good will he addressedthe &.'os08 ture of the suitorsas a gang of insolent reprobates.DIVINE JUSTICEAND COSMICORDER IN EARLYGREEKEPIC 23 vation.385-8) ti'rOt jr.63-7) and Laertes(24. a unique qualification that underlines (like the poet himself) of the gods' justice." (P. 7. cf 24.400-406). 24.109 And his kind words to 'the beggar' prompt Odysseus to warn him against 107Clarke(2004) 88.

17. 18. for his heartwas full of foreboding.24 WILLIAMALLAN remaining any longer with the suitors and even to pray that some god may save him from Odysseus' vengeance (18.122-50). daB der Dichter fiir diese Opfer [Amphinomusand Leiodes] Sympathieerweckthat'.the son of Oenops. full of indignation The narrator'scomment on Leiodes' decency is expandedby Leiodes himself in his appeal to Odysseus (22. und eben dadurch. i~top.360-4) yvoirl 0' oi' ztvkg Ei(3V kVomaitCOt. &vioatczo.Athena's determinationto kill all the suitors. whom the narrator introducesas the first to attemptto string Odysseus' bow: Atcirj. of reckless were hateful to him and he was besidethe beautiful bowl. he could not escape his doom. vE1JzYt~o)vK~qxXX11v5i1 yixpiccucv6avr~o&'UCt~n.326-9). is alreadyclear: cxirzxp'A0-ivrl &XXt xo6pt w'4IX&rv '(d1. Even so. Their acts alone.' zasfit cctt Now Athena cameandstoodclose by Odysseus. oiY Z' d~latgt~~ot" O 6' 6 ry tk. mixing folly at all the suitors. 414-21).21. 0a KpJ1T11p( opi uo)OGK~oS L3KE. as Athenahad bound him too to a violent death by the hands and spear of Telemachus. Icfjpo tbv 'A~-i~vrj d~XX' o~i~6' ij.144-7) whowas theiraugur andalwayssat in the farthest corner Leiodeswas firstto rise. 6ir &S p~vro. The disjunctionbetween character and fate is even clearerin the case of the suitorLeiodes. Yet the narrator immediatelycontrastsOdysseus' attitudeto Amphinomuswith that of Athena: cxotxp 0 i KaXt~ &o~ic~ cpiov tZ1ji~VO.shakinghis head.312-19). buteven so she was notgoingto saveanyof themfromtheirdoom. itcapcx &iK(XXOv t~ wZ)xtX~t~aO. uiA6. Thus the audience know Amphinomus'fate even as he offers the disguised Odysseus protectionand urges the suitors to stop abusing both the beggar and the servantsof Odysseus' household (18. O~voiro. Indeed. 1r~coiv veji~oacy Civiati-ijpec~~a (Od. Thus both goddess and humanprot6g6kill the two more virtuous The parameters of reciprocalvengeance among both gods and suitorswith equal ruthlessness. regardlessof their individual conduct.6i0 tTcAaKptttlOrlv (Od. Athena's interventionsimultaneouslyseparatesthe suitors into the good and the bad and underlines her indifferenceto their decency.394-5.153-6) q1~'~ Amphinomuswent back throughthe hall with a troubledspirit. son of Laertes.110 Cf Hdlscher (1988) 268: 'die Unverhilltnismil3igkeit der Rache tritt gegen Ende krafl hervor. cp~Sy mc6Srje &iKici T1X~~i~oI) 1Jt CG p fv~ (Od. 110 . yet Odysseus rejectsthe supplicationand cuts off Leiodes' head while he is still speaking (22. i ct~t' raoahical & oi o'io &~ ~XOpci kcoxv. andurged himto go amongthe suitors beggingbits of breadso thathe wouldknowwhichof themweredecentmenandwhichlawless.

see I. the killing of the suitors can only be said to constitute 'an enactmentof absolute and timeless justice'l in a very particularsense. divine concernfor humanity helps resolve a profoundcrisis. (the TrojanWar) proportions(marking the end of the age of heroes: cf. let us considsibility and punishmentis no differentfrom thatof the Iliad. Iliad) (compared whose wider narrative constitutes an event of cosmic Iliad.117-22). The poem ends as it began with Athena and Zeus reachingan agreementin Odysseus' favour (24.472-86.107. Thus althoughOdysseus presentshimself as merely the agent of divine justice (22.g. Though the Iliad poet has chosen to present the Trojans as far more sympathetic than the suitors (it is obvious.351-2). which sparks a civil war when the suitors' kinsmen seek to avenge their deaths (a dangerforeseen by Odysseus himself: cf 23. e.' Cf also Griffin(2004) 44 on 'this anxiouslymoralpoet'.537firstby Zeus's thunderbolt thus acts with 44).g.andthatthe poem's pictureof divinity and of humanresponWith this in mind. Unlike the characters."14 er two furtherclaims regardingthe gods of the Odyssey which are no less influential:the first may be summed up in the statementthat 'The differentconception of the gods in the Odyssey implies a greaterremotenessof man from the deity. and seem so only if one disregardsthe differenttype and scope of story narrated in the Odyssey to the and its smaller cast of both human and divine. 12. W&D 161-5). but their story remains sufficiently nuanced to explore the ethical implicationsof reciprocaljustice. i.and guilt by associationis enough to bring aboutdisaster for Amphinomus and Leiodes (as for the Phaeacians) 'beyond their destined share' (cf 1. .of a sort much closer to our ideas.. has a differentconceptionof the gods and heroism. and Zeus's decision restoresthe communalvalues of social order.528-36). yet the Odysseypoet is no more 'anxious'aboutmoralresponsibility andpunishment than is the poet of the Iliad. and the narrator again underlinesthe importanceof the gods' intervention. (b) and (f). Hes.pace. Griffin (1980) 77: 'The Odyssey ..63-7) and as proof of the gods' power (by Laertes:24.113 (i) Thescope of Homericjustice A centralpartof the argumentso far has been thatthe common view of the gods of the Odyssey as peculiarlymoralisticis mistaken. greaterindependenceand responsibility'.33-4.e. the Odyssey confines itself for the most partto one of many nostoi (albeit an eventful one). that the Iliad presents individual Trojancharacters. II(b) and (d)). whereaswe get only one side of the story in its account of the Argives attackingThebes and the Pylian narrative). 115Kullmann(1985) 10.112 Furthermore. The cycle of violence is ended only by a divinely sponsored settlementwith the suitors'families. and then by a warningfromAthenanot to incurZeus's anger(24. cf 1. Schein (1996) 10: 'One function of the much maligned twenty-fourthbook is to insist on the correctness of this new kind ofjustice' (emphasisadded). The poet of the Odyssey could have presentedthe suitors as a whole more positively (see Danek (1998) 41-2 for traces of alternativeversions in the Odyssey itself)..l"sthe second in the observationthat the Odyssey'sgods are 'less colourful and less clearly individualised'. there is a parallelinsofaras both the Trojans and the suitors face indiscriminatevengeance. esp.9-33. which recognizes the rough and ruthless reciprocityof divine justice as it is embodied in the text of the Odyssey (as it must take accountof the clearrisks to communalwell-being well as the Iliad). For Odysseus and his men are on the verge of wiping out the suitors' kinsmen before they are checked by Athena (24..4479).thereis no difference lll See n. Gods and heroes alike need and receive moraljustification. Il. 116Kearns(2004) 67. Moreover.411-18). and the death of the suitors is greeted as a divine act (by Penelope: 23. 114Pace. As at the end of the Iliad. Odysseus typically heroic impetuosity and would have killed his fellow Ithacanshad not the gods intervened.DIVINE JUSTICEAND COSMICORDER IN EARLYGREEKEPIC 25 mortalsare seen to be similarlyimprecise.Odysseus ignores Athena's commandand has to be restrained. (a). 113 Thus Book 24 is both the clearest expression of the Odyssey'svision of social justice and at the same time 112 entirely typical of early Greek hexameterpoetry.116 Yet the gods of the Odysseyare neithermore remote nor less individualized. posed by Odysseus' vengeance. but still notable. However. e.

"18 Moreover. 10).when he has settled many disputes between young men who seek justice.where the simile. 119 Cf. However. 18. Ford (1996) points to analogous faults in Cook's attempt to present 'a perfectly consistenttheodicy in which virtuous self-restraintis rewardedand injusticepunished'.125 Their analysis of early Greek poetry should guide ours. since the Iliad poet also makes clear the 'moralbasis' of Troy's fall. as in the Iliad (e. it is strongly implied.r~lv. and contrastHephaestus'agreementto accept a fine from Ares (or Poseidon: 8. when Kearns adds 'And this unity. and the 8aicr (or 'order') enforced is often a harsh one.497-500).it is simply right that Odysseus should triumphover his enemies and be reinstatedas rulerof Ithaca'. I rlo. 11. 118 It is therefore misleading to claim. where Minos dispensesjustice among the dead.g."7insofar as there is no deity who proteststhe killing of the suitors. the full extent of the ethical and theological continuities. since this flattens out the complexities and turbulenceof the narrative.568-71. 1459b13-16). then it was thatthe timbersreappeared out of Charybdis').124 esp. continue to be underestimatedor obscured. 120 Cf.123However. for and plot (cf example. is founded on a moral basis: personalfavouritismapart. Od. thanthe Iliad's. one should add. was foreshadowed by Jacoby (1933). 22..cf.. 12. Aristotle says very little about the gods even in tragedy.439-41: iaog 8' ikni86pnov &vilp I Kpivov vEiKEgO oVoReXX&y dyopifOevA&vcXrl Strhctolvo a'.'21 Thus the pensation settlements'l9or judicial assemblies. but the projectis hampered by the assumptionthat 'the portrayalof the gods in the Odyssey is different from that in evident in the fact that the Greeks the Iliad'. the mechanisms of justice which operate in the Odyssey are embodied both in particularsocial institutions. locates a numberof differencesbetween the epics with regardto structure while to the or Herodotus their Poet. as Griffin (1995) 12 does. underlinesthe indiscriminatecruelty of the divine whirlpool. e. where Odysseus rejects Eurymachus'offer of communalcompensationfrom the suitors. not least because Zeus's 117 Kearns (2004) 69. regularlypursuetheirpersonalintertheology ests with little regardfor human ideals of divine justice. . drawnfrom civilized life and relatingthe restraintof violence through law. 121IncludingHades.344-59).26 WILLIAMALLAN in the depictionof divine and humaninteraction.such as comand in the cosmos as a whole. auch das ist ein "Fortschritt" von den gegeneinanderundjeder fir sich handelndenIliasg6ttem zu "derGottheit"der Philosophie. 188-9: 'Wir sind noch sehr in den Anflingen des ethischen Bildungsprozesses . Frdinkel (1975) 85-93). denn als Hiiter der sittlichen Weltordnungbilden die G6tter eine Einheit.120 Homeric epics display a fundamentalcontinuitythat tells againstmodels of early Greek epic or intellectualculturewhich continueto be premisedupon their difference. not only between the Homerepics themselves but also between those works and the rest of early Greek epic. And while it is true that in the second half of the Odyssey 'the Gods form a united front'. but the same Thus the Odyssey'svision of divinejustice may appearnarrower In each the and underlie both gods morality epics.and despite Lloyd-Jones'scriticisms of Dodds's view that the Iliadic Zeus is not concernedwith justice (cf n.the implied contrastwith the Iliad is misleading. apparent tains many heroes and conflicting gods and one that contains far fewer of both. The basic continuity is strikingnonetheless. but still an advance on the Iliad (cf esp. that 'generally speaking the divine is on its best behaviourin the Odyssey'. in of their Homer and Hesiod as treats equals presentation(and definition) divinity famously (2. Od.g.and the narrator's narrowerscope explains the is in than the a narrativethat conwhich fact no more contrast between moral 'shift'.54-64. In a stimulating recent account of Homericepic the developmentalmodel is appliedto cosmic historyitself.1-3). Od.' 123Graziosiand Haubold(2005) 75. but none gods pertaining morality.53.g 8i1Tye 6oiopaXap6i8tog e(paw ('At the time when a man rises from his seat in the market-place for dinner. 125 The status of Homer and Hesiod as cultural 'authorities'(on the gods and much else) is used cogently by Ford (1997) 98 to explain the 'high-handedness'of of their poetry (by Pindarand Plato later appropriations among others): 'it was the pragmatic practice (a long poem is more widely useful in small pieces) of people for as an authoritythan as whom Homerwas more important an authorof an aestheticallyunified text'. 122Their view of the Odyssey as morally circumscribed(comparedto Hesiod). 124Although. the essential continuityis particularly themselves seem not to have perceived any such difference between the poems: Aristotle. For althoughdevelopmental models of early Greek thought (especially those of Snell and Frfinkel)122 are no longer overtly influential. this cancels neitherthe troublingaspects of their punishmentnor the clash of divine wills presented in the first half of the poem (see rII(c) and (h) above).

617-735). the difference being that 'Hesiod' is overtly inside his poem and his use of the paraeneticpersonais on a (relatively) largerscale.. 8.396-406).72-5. Indeed. one still meets with accountsof Hesiod's cosmos which treatit as a moral 'advance'on what has gone before. and in such a way thathis decisions and actions combine a recognitionof each god's interestsandhonourwith a concern for social norms of justice among mortals(cf iII(c). Thus one scholarwrites of the Theogony:'Die g6ttliche Welt entwickelt sich hin zur aufgeklartenHerrschaftdes Zeus. but as a poet who has chosen to performparticular genres of song in a particular persona(his paraeneticand didacticpersonabeing especially prominentin the Works and Days).434-605). cf. Thus rather than thinking in terms of historical personalities (the Hesiodic 'I' is as constructed as. that men must work to survive because Zeus has hidden 'the means of life': W&D42-7) is caused by Zeus's quarrel with Prometheus. e. dabei ilberwindetHesiod die amoralischeDimension der homerischenG6tter:Bei ihm sind die G6tter tatsaichlich die Garantender Gerechtigkeitund vergeltendas Gute und B6se.127 oped' In Hesiod.son of the TitanIapetus. The poet remindsus that he could sing. a song thatZeus naturallylikes to hear. The very structureof the Theogonyexpresses Zeus's supremacy:128 the history of the cosmos culminatingin the ascendancyof Zeus. 128Cf Thalmann(1984) 39-41..g. (e) and (h) above). if he wished. since the Muses can inspirevarious 'paths of song' (658-9. 11. it is implied.347-8). e. etc.225-332.. das die Menschen anrichten.g. 22. e. In otherwords.nor is the rule of Zeus portrayed by Hesiod any more 'enlightened'.'126 However. III (a) Hesiodicjustice and/as universalorder Just as one should avoid treatingthe Odyssey'spresentationof the natureand values of the gods as if it were different from the Iliad's. 479-81.the end of the the Muses sing heroic age. 127 Hesiod is best seen not as an actualhistorical figure (pace. as in the Iliad and Odyssey.g.for example. West (1978) 55: 'The autobiographical and Days] are of course authenpassages [in the Works tic'). Consider. alluding to Homeric epic (650-3). Od. when he boasts of his victory in the poetic contest at Chalcis (W&D 654-7): he crosses to Euboea from Aulis. cf his pp.1. the 'Catalogueof Women'narrated by Odysseus (Od. for the metaphor.as we shall see. so one should resist attemptsto interpretthe gods of Hesiod as if they were differentfrom those of Homer. the narrativeof Zeus's victory over his father Kronos is strikingly brief: 126Degani (1997) 178.the hymn to Zeus that opens the Works and Days stresses his supremepower over mankindand his rOleas an enforcerof order(3-8). a similarpatternof stasis leading to orderinforms the backgroundto the Iliad: Zeus's favour to Thetis arises from his power struggleson Olympus(RI. strik9.). the fall of Troy. Hesiod also connects the Muses' inspiration with his abilto relate 'the will of Zeus' (W&D 661ity aegis-bearing 2). and the way things are (for example. which he would set apart from Homer and the Theogony on the grounds of 'epic objectivity').who poses a threatto Zeus's r6gime. I have underlinedthe notions that are most mistaken. we should recognize the poet's ability to combine elements from different stories.DIVINE JUSTICEAND COSMICORDER IN EARLYGREEKEPIC 27 power is presentedin both Homeric epics (as in Hesiod) within a cosmic context. For in Hesiod's eyes the currentworld-orderis the consequence of internecinestrifebetween Zeus and Prometheus. cataloguepoetry. for its relationshipwith the Hesiodic Catalogue. Zeus's orderis equal to the way things are. For despite Lloyd-Jones'sdemonstration of the essential continuityin early Greektheology. 129 Similarly. 196a West) and sealed-off genres (epic. and so (as in Hesiod's pictureof the world) a disputeover divine supremacyleads to the status quo: the death of Achilles. though I would ventureto stress the continuityand fluidity of epos even more than he does.the narrator focuses on Zeus's power and on the personal quarrelsof the gods. 29-30 on the Worksand Days. which he too could sing. didactic. reminding us that this is fundamentalnot only to Homeric epic but to his style of epos too.129 And althoughHesiod lavishes greatdetail on the defeat of the Titansby the new gods (Theog. different kinds of song. styles and genres (Ford(1992) 13-56 offers a brilliant analysis of Archaic epic as a genre. in the lattercase there is a particularly ing continuity with the techniques deployed by Hesiod. cf Osborne(2005) 16-17) or the paraenetic verse deployed by Homer in the Iliad (esp. the divine world thatHesiod presentsis no more 'develthan that of Homer. Archilochus' Lothario persona:fr. .

496). W&D 54-105). idvtroaa 6uxac~npi~ L6. his will is inscrutableto mortals but inescapable. Hesiod does not explain how Kronoswas overcome. 9.502-14) are daughtersof positive social norms: both Aicrl Zeus. to dwell on the moralityof Zeus's motives or his treatment leading.and that those whom Kronos ignoredwill be given honoursin his new regime (Theog. II. cf.130 WhenZeus appealsfor help againstthe Titans. 1. In the sameway he fullycarried to all. Heracles (Theog. Both poets present a series of decisions made by a powerful and unknowablegod. daughter of Zeus and Zeus's gift to mankind. which sets them apartfrom animals (W&D 276-80).reflects the process of personifying and allegorizing such (W&D 256-62) and the Atzai (II. Yet Zeus's respect for the older gods serves merely to supporthis own dominance: ij. but all men suffer for it (Theog.which is a direct result of Olympianpower politics. 81-93) or Hecate (Theog. the basileus who is just is favouredby the gods. 561-612. Unlike Ouranosand Kronos. like Homer. 131West (1966) 277-8 on Theog. whilehe himselfis mighty outhis promises in his powerandrule. cf. 526-34). 1. as in Homer. the Muses (Theog. their privileges will remainundiminished. In Hesiod's account.6' caiiztw. if we ask ourselves what social functionsHesiod's poetrymight have fulfilled. But rather than seeing this as the expression of 'her evangelist' and 'zealot'. I(f). 130Zeus's election by the other gods underlinesthe importanceof his need to rule by consensus. who seek redressfrom theirfatherwhen they are abusedor refusedby mortals. Hesiod is especially emphatic about the honours given to Hecate (Theog. 429-30).but because the poem's focus is less on how Zeus comes to power as on how he succeeds in maintaininghis power. not because he 7rx~at6g is reluctantto presenta god attackinghis own father. W&D 240-7. Cottus and Gyges) in orderto overcome the Titans(Theog. if they assist him. 133Cf Clay (2003) 83: 'It is precisely Dike. Zeus punishes mankind with Pandorato get back at Prometheus (Theog. 5502).237-9). 411-52).133And Hesiod. The maintenanceof Zeus's supremacyrelies upon his carefuldistribution of powers and privileges among the othergods afterdeposing Kronos.402-6. Hesiod's Zeus is no more 'advanced' in moral terms than Homer's. whetherby Zeus (W&D 280-1. when Zeus ends Prometheus'torment.& Ci~yx Kpxtri "i16 rtEz (Theog. that renders the heroes betterthanboth the races of bronze and silver that precededthem. cf. we find thatit communicatesthe same basic ideas and values as Homeric epic: Zeus's order is supreme. Zeus is elected by the othergods to be theirking (Theog. For Zeus has given humansthe gift of justice. as far as humansare concerned. 390-6). since the point of Hesiod's narrativeis to display Zeus's power and its connection to cosmic order. 14853. 402-3) aa&1~3E.28 WILLIAMALLAN Kronos is 'defeated by the wiles and strength of his own son' (vtlreig t~Xvrlt~ot firltpi se ioo. 883-5). since that is the basis for the currentworld-order.humansshould avoid excess and respect legitimate claims to honourandjustice. but because she is made to stand for the general process of Zeus's canny negotiationswith the gods who precededhim.' . Moreover.a positive value to the world-orderestablishedby the gods. there is.he does so not out of pity. II. 132The punishmentis typically disproportionate: it is Prometheus'trick.132 of humanitywould be misHowever. Finally.he promisesthe older gods that. Nevertheless. where Briareus is said to have defendedZeus's supremacywhen it was challenged by some of his fellow Olympians. but makes sure to keep it close by apportioningit chiefly among his sons and daughters. but to boost the kleos of his son. It is also significant that Zeus is depicted requiringthe aid of the supremely strong Hundred-Handers(Briareus. 617-735). Moreover. he avoids his father'sand grandfather's mistake of not sharingpower. Theog.tCEp i7r3~arrl 2c~a' txdzt6.404-52.131 we should see the passage in terms of the structureof the world-orderaccording to Hesiod: Hecate is dwelt upon not because Hesiod had a personalcult of the goddess.

Demeter's fixation on her own maternalrble is no less problematicthanher hostility to her daughter's. 77-80. and the competingwills of the gods result in a fixed orderthat is identifiedwith the will of Zeus. Hera delays the new god's birth out of jealousy (91-101) and.and.celebratesthe divine orderthat he is aboutto enter (423-33). 'a bane to the gods' (n3tifa0eootv.bringtheir disputeto trialbefore their father. Thus the majorHomeric Hymns display the same conceptionof the cosmos and the gods as the rest of early Greekhexameter poetry. HymnAph. since she acts (as in the case of Persephone)without the permissionof Zeus. For she seeks to make the baby Demophon immortal(231-41). 30.136 them (396. underZeus's influence (45-57. such an exceptional status as a privilege (ypaq) from Zeus. 45-57). cf 324: KEi0ty6p implicit (cf 7-20). or. Since girls must be made useful by marriage and child-bearing(cf.135 In the Hymn to Hermes (4). As soon as Aphroditehas slept with Anchises. in anger at Zeus's productionof Athena from his own head.134 accept her daughter'sinevitable progress to marriageand motherhood. Theog. . cf 364-71). W&D 695-705).DIVINE JUSTICEAND COSMICORDER IN EARLYGREEKEPIC 29 (b) TheHomeric Hymns.and curbsAphrodite's(sexual) power by turningit back on the goddess herself. The hymn ends with both Demeter and Persephonejoining Zeus on Olympus.g.cf 445-7. impressingApollo newly lyre song that.and with their enhancedpowers confirming his (483-6. 352). the baby Hermes is able to secure his rightful and place among the zty{ a with the invented and gods. Similarpatternsof rivalry. Finally. The hymns to Demeter (2) andAphrodite(5) focus in particularon how that order is established through Zeus's control of female deities.since she is not only resistant to Persephone's maturationbut acts as a 'bad' mother even in her grief at Persephone'sabsence. Demeter's 'dreadfulwrath' (350. humansandnatureitself are interlinked the sexual maturationof his daughterPersephonebut also the division of the agricultural year (via his reconciliationwith Demeter.how his power operates so as to maintaincosmic order. gives birthby herself to the monstrousTyphoeus. who controlsnot only gods.Demeter has not asked Zeus for eternalvirginity for Persephone. Artemis and Hestia. in addition. 410) puts the nascent Olympian r6gime in jeopardy since it threatensto destroy humanityand so end the ztiaic paid to the gods (352-4). challenge 866&b Zeus's control over his daughtersAthena and Artemis is 6bio nap& Zlvi Kpovi{ovt (312). 3. 470-3). as Zeus's own chilOnce Zeus reconciles dren. 506-7). approvingHades' abductionof Persephone(Hom. whose agreement to the crossing of the boundary between mortal and immortal is essential. Persephonecannot remain a virgin forever. as of Homer and Hesiod.hierarchyand controlare foundin the hymnsto Apollo andHermes.Apollo and Hermes. ingeniously and appropriately. while Hestia is presentedas requesting dcpoTpotot 6iKrl KUOTCKEto TZoayVIm. Zeus's solution is to confirm and expand Demeter's own status and privileges (441-4). 134 In the Hymn to Aphroditepermamentvirginity is 135 Cf nn. and so she must Moreover.98-9. as Zeus's plans are realized throughthe actions and reactions of others. as Zeus determinesthe extent to which Demeterand Persephonecan play the r6les of eternalmotherand daughter. as the fertilityof underthe patronageof Zeus. 136 Hermes' 6i iv ci is accepted: grantedto Athena. as if to create a divine surrogateto replace her own child. In the Hymnto Aphrodite(5) the goddess' abilityto 'lead astrayeven the mind of Zeus' poses a threatto his supremacy(cf 36-8). 386). As their father. she regretsthe resultingdiminutionof her power (247-55). yet her actions are once more doomed to failure. the world according to Zeus A central theme of the major Homeric Hymns. acknowledging his control even over the sexual lives of his sisters (21-32). In the Hymn to Apollo (3). Zeus sets in train the plots of both hymns. The Hymnto Demeter reflects the pervasivenessof Greek genderideology. is the r6le played by Zeus's supremacyin the evolution of divine and humanhistory. Hymn Dem. 166). e. cf.. the conflict between old and new gods is transposedto older andyoungerOlympians(cf 375-6. 913-14) and making Aphrodite fall in love with the mortal Anchises (Hom.

analyses the alleged Near Eastern 'sources' of Hesiod's five races of men (W&D 106-201). Of course.137 Yet even if one accepts that (in the very broadestterms) it remains to ask (in the case of each specific 'Greek literatureis a Near Easternliterature'. caution is requiredwhen comparing similar phenomenain differentcultures. noting that 'In fact we do not possess any oriental sources older than Hesiod from which he could have derived his version' (p. cf West (1997) 33647. West (1966) 20-31. storypatternsand other ideas were carriedvia tradingroutes. Yet although we do not possess Mycenaean Greek texts reflecting the literaryor mythological traditions of the Near East. 121-6). but also asking fundamentalquestions about what (in terms of cultural transmission)such parallelsactually show. 140 For the Akkadian Atrahasis and Homer's 'Deception of Zeus'. the most spectacularrecentdiscovery being a cuneiform letter from the king of the Ahhiyawa to the Hittite king HattusiliIII (c.and its importanceemergesvery clearly if we considerhow the Greekview of cosmic order(as embodied in early Greek epic) differs from its Near Easterncongeners. which could well have left their mark on Greek myth and poetry (it is hardly a coincidence that many figures of Greek myth come from foreign lands.382-5). (2004). including Cadmus. for details. S. by contrast. Thus. for Gilgamesh and the Homeric epics.e. cf Latacz (2004) 243-4. Bryce (2002) 261-3. For BronzeAge bardsin Greece.138 the Greeks have these Near Eastern'influences' or how myth. cf West (1973) 187-92.3-70 presents a detailed literary history of The Epic of Gilgamesh from the third millennium onwards. even if we accept that had a profound (say) the stories of the divine succession found in HittiteandAkkadianliterature of the what a Greek and the influence on Homer and Hesiod. he also recognizes that 'contacts of all sorts were continuous'. he himself offers no account of how such literaryand cultural'influences' are meant to operate.141 137 Cf esp. George (2003) 1. for example. the dominantpower in the Troaduntil the end of the fifteenthcentury)as part of a marriage alliance.30 WILLIAMALLAN (c) Greekcosmic order and its Near Eastern contexts Recent comparativestudies (andparticularly the pioneeringworks of WalterBurkertand Martin of the interactionbetween Greece and the variWest) have greatly enrichedour understanding ous culturesof the ancientNear East. Yet such a process of assimilation is a fundamentalaspect of all culturaltransmission.to ask how a commoninheritancehas been given a particular in Greekculture. 139 Haubold (2002) offers a useful critique of the unreflectivemethodology of Hellenists who merely catalogue 'parallels'that are said to 'speak for themselves'. (1992. In this letterthe king of the Ahhiyawa supportshis claim to some disputedislands in the northern Aegean by asserting that his ancestor ('Kagamunas') received the islands from the king of Assuwa (i. tabulating the main parallels between them (pp. pre-existing and distinctively Greek world-view. The letter offers further testimony to the extremely strong Bronze Age contacts between western Asia Minor and Greece. Yet while he praises archaeologists who have 'long appreciatedthe Eastern Mediterraneanas a connected landscapeof mutual influences' (p. 5). how it has been changed and assimilated to a wider. story-pattern idea) transformed articulationand meaning or rather. it is not unlikely thatmyths. and singers or poets' (Bryce (2002) 259. 138West (1966) 31.that is. He goes on to ask 'How much of the whole myth of the races in the Worksand Days could have been derived from a thorough familiaritywith the traditionof Greek epic? The answer is: a surprisingly large amount' (p. Moreover. Burkert (1991). seers. who compares Od. wherein 'interaction'refers to a continuous process of cultural contact and borrowing that operates in both directions ('influence'. 121. since (as Bryce (2002) 267 observes) 'throughoutthis period [i.139 they do not always consider how the Greekexample has been made uniquely and specifically Greek. 120). see Bryce (2002) 257-68. cf Burkert (1992) 88-96. It is likely thatmany 'oriental'featuresmay have dated from earlier periods.though literaryinteractioncould (and did) occur. (1997).e. 141In addition. (1988) 156-65. . For while scholarscan point to many striking'parallels'. ThoughBurkert (2004) 23 continues to speak of the eighth and seventh centuries as the high-point of the 'orientalizingrevolution'. Pelops. Kelly (2006). 402-17. 17. diplomatic channels and the migration from the late Bronze Age onwards of 'healers. see his pp.140 should also ask comparison we Near Easternmaterialreveals about each of these culturesin and of itself. 1984). suggests a one-way process) and over a long period of time. this letter (and others like it: cf Niemeier (1999)) attest to political rather than literary contacts. Indeed. Morris(1989). German orig. Most (1997). it may be more helpful to think in terms of 'interaction' rather than 'influence'. 1267-1237 BC). Cecrops and Danaus). 74-5).especially with regardto chronology. Csapo (2005) 67-79 offers an illuminatinganalysis of the Greek and Hittite myths of divine succession. from the late BronzeAge to the eighth century]therewas regularcommercialand political contactbetween the Greekand Near Eastern worlds (allowing perhaps for a hiatus of 100 years or so in the eleventh centuryBC)'.evidence of such early cultural interactionis growing (cf Koenen (1994) 25-6). for a brief overview of recent work on such cultural transmission from the perspective of a Near Eastern specialist.

the individuality of the theirpowers but derives the authorityto do so from Enlil. defeated the Titans. ('Enki and the world order'). (composed in the twelfth centuryBC at the latest). 1.5 = Od.7 8~xeEieEi Bernab6/Davies. even if it is the case that Hesiod. or Epic of Creation and comparethe r6les of MardukandZeus. cf II(e). All such poetry. afterall. Greek world-orderis unfortunately elided. when consideringintercultural contacts. the dangerousconsort of the chief god. and the polytheistic and anthropomorphic facets of theirreligious conceptionshave important implications for the system of divine power that they develop. is concernedin various ways with the explorationof divine power and its politics. Theog. The end of the twentiethcenturyBC is a secure ter. how Zeus ends inter-gencentury. Mardukis elected by the othergods to be the leading deity (thoughthis hapTiamatand her monstrousallies: TabletIII).DIVINE JUSTICEAND COSMICORDER IN EARLYGREEKEPIC 31 Let us therefore(as a test case) consider the BabylonianEnuma Elish. his trueteacherswere the poets he heardand poets we know from othertraditional 142 Van De Mieroop (1997) 47 favours the twelfth 145Burkert(2004) 25. And the world-orderthat we find in early Greekepic is distinctivelydifferentfrom that found in contiguouscultures.143 and. poui as a narrativepatternin early Greekpoetry and myth. since only then did Babylon and its family planning and female control. where the family structure and to dramatizehis eternalbalancingact with the competingwills of the othergods. II. .144However. Furthermore. 146 Consider. they should not surprise us. cf Black et al. for example.when West(1988) 169 remarks'It is 147 144In the Sumerian story of cosmic order.'45 ing currentfamily catastrophes But. it has tried to show that the patternsof humanand divine justice which they deploy are also to be found throughoutthe wider corpus of early Greek hexameter poetry. myths of divine succession. none of the other gods is Marduk'schild.though Dalley (1991) 229 finds such a date too late.for example. (2004) 215-25 = Cypria fr.297 148 Cf Ati6. It is patrongod Mardukachieve the prominenceand hegemo. Moreover. a supremegod apportioningpowers. even if Hesiod gets many of his parts from elsewhere. for as one scholar has observed. the divine family has a far wider significance within the more sysis used to emphasizeZeus's supremeauthority tematic Greekmodel. as we have seen. Although the similaritiesbetween the early Greek texts are striking. as ny which are narrated 143ContrastHes. pens beforehe has dealt with the threatening once crowned king of heaven.notable that the basic patternof a chief god who learns and celebratedin the poem itself. and so on). 1. Poets seek to show how Zeus's power operatesin the world.erationalconflict throughhis self-interestedmethods of minus post quem. To put it ratherbaldly. Mardukordersthe universe and apportionsamong the gods their various r6les and privileges. is in itself a further novel and distinctive tion takes place only after the Olympian gods have aspect of the Greekmodel. o POki'. 881-5. Burkertremarks:'One might say thatthe oriental assembly of the gods is more a kind of senate. many of whose parts can be paralleled in other Near Eastern literatures(e. who remainsthe chief god. furthermore.147 in with vividness both in the of Zeus's will and the prominenceof power exemplified particular the Atb.'42 Like Hesiod's Zeus. includsuch as mutualscolding of parentsand blows for the children.since it is based on the all-embracingorderandpower of Zeus. For example. whereas Homerintroducesa family. the system itself is still unique. come not from the gods but from otherpoems.'48 IV In conclusion. it is importantto add.it presentsa level of analysis of the repercussionsof Zeus's position which is peculiar to the Greektradition. unlike the Greek model centredaroundZeus and his family. where Zeus's elec.by con.we should bear in mind which is (to a greaterdegree than is often the case) the distinctiveness of the Greek model. 11. our discussion has sought to explore the moral and theological universe of the Homeric epics.Zeus does. presentsa model of the universe. from the mistakesof the divine succession before him. it is yet more strikingthat all these elements have been combined into one coherent system. 'Poems.g.hardly going too far to say that the whole picture of the trast. and if Homerwas at all like the oral societies.'46 Thus. Enki organizes the universe and assigns the gods gods in the Iliad is oriental'.

as one scholarhas expressedthe matter. the gods value justice as much as humansdo and are equally ready to asserta basic entitlementto honourand fair treatment. And within Hesiod's works themand Days is more concernedthan the Theogonyto relate events on the divine selves. theological epics norms and punishmentsthat is no differentfrom that of the Odyssey. the Works 149 Ford(1992)90. it is prima facie unlikely that any major epic would endorse the simple model of 'good always rewardedand sinner always punished'. whose variouskinds of story entail distinctemphases.yet ticular. 151Adkins (1997) 711. in parbrought thought. n. simply to say of 'divine justice' in the Homeric poems that 'this seems an unlikely role for the timd-seekingOlympians'is1risks creatinga false and in wider issues dichotomy. in experience'. Thus.which are only partially allayed by presenting the competing divine wills within a moral pattern governed by Zeus.representsin itself a false dichotomy. Lucas (1993) 5: 'The concept of responsibilityis one that has developed and grown over the ages. cf. esp. Gould (1985) 25. Thus values such as justice are shown to be socially constituted on both the divine and humanplanes. but the Homeric heroes had little use for that concept. Moreover.who still presenta rathernarrowview both of Homeric society and its ethical conceptions. and to supportthe sanctionsthat ensure justice and punish its violation..152 In addition.namely. The considerationof Near Easternparallels made clear that the idea of cosmic order as 'the paradigmof justice'"53 is not unique to Greek it also out the distinctiveness of the Greek as system a whole and. centring their moral vocabulary on merit and kudos instead. Thus whereasHesiod.that humanwrongs will be punishedmore or less immediately by the gods .not chaos. 154 . even by classically trained philosophers. both human and divine. 152 The importanceof socially createdforms of value in the epics is often neglected.cf I(d). We saw the basic continuitybetween divine and humanvalues: as social beings shapedby the relationsamong themselves. e.while it has not been my intention to deny the differencesbetween the poets. but also a structure of authority. despite their individual approaches. This is particularlytrue of such institutionsas the oath and guest-friendship. (f). 150Despite some of the arguments used by those who see the Odyssey as a morally more 'advanced'text.32 WILLIAMALLAN the poets they had heard.of the way it uses the divine society underZeus's authorityas a comprehensiveexplanatory model. The inadequacyof the simple view is seen to generatetheological problems. We take it for granted. The presentationof the gods in the wider hexametercorpusof Hesiod. and each level displays not only a hierarchyof power (and the resultingtensions). also II(d). places more emphasison stasis among the gods as the foundationalaition of Zeus's orderin the world.g. whetheramong gods or humans.'54Finally.'149 As well as being concernedwith power politics among the gods.Zeus's authority'embodies the demand for an underlyingunity. the Epic Cycle and the Homeric Hymns reveals a remarkably coherenttraditionin which the possibility of divine conflict is combined with an underlyingcosmic order.they also explore the problemsinherentin such an account of divine justice. 150 The discussion of the Iliad in Part I aimed to show that the popularpicture of 'amoral' or 'frivolous' Homeric gods is misleading.while each of the poems presents characterswho maintainthe 'simple' view . for this would not be a particularly useful or credible theodicy. for example. and Zeus in particular.and divine-humaninteractionon the other. as deeply concernedwith the social norms of justice.where the gods' concern for their own -tnnlis simultaneouslya concern for justice (cf I(b). it emergedthat any attemptto separatemattersof tilup justice. Indeed. 16)..' 153Burkert(2004) 60.are all drawingon essentially the same model of divine society and authority on the one hand. since it is obviously contrary to what one might presume to have been the case in the actual world of the audience. each text treats the gods.we saw thatthe moraland world of the two Homeric is the since the Iliad reflects a system of social same. For. it emerged that it has not been sufficiently stressed to what extent the poets. the wider cosmic frame is also present in Homer.since the gods can be (and are) interestedboth in their own "ti~ij from wider issues of of justice.

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