This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
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HPSCHD, Gesamtkunstwerk, and Utopia
So much doesthe outward andyet, a hundred form change, after years, everything which at the outset was incompatible with accustomed hasfaded so much concepts, that oneseesmore similarities than differences. - Arnold Breslau Lecture on Die eluckliche Hand Schoenberg,
One oftheposters created to advertise the1969performance ofJohn ofIllinois John Cage'sHPSCHD on theUniversity Cage campusdepicts as a warrior and (see fig. 1). Cage wearsan Asianwarrior's breastplate a ax He battle overhisshoulder. appears nonchalantly slings medieval - Beethoven, toslaya dragon with andSchuthree heads Mozart, ready mann(whoseworks in "controls" the Cage composition). Cage'spants, withtubing seem to be thoseofan astronaut, meanwhile, complete thatrunsto a reel-to-reel Add machine. the mercurial wingson tape his feet and thehalo on his head and he seemsthe"patron saint"of familiar while the music. He his computer laughs open-mouth laugh, into tucked "serious"composers scowlbehindhim.The harpsichord thecontrast thescenebetween completes Cage and thetapemachine between theold and thenew.1 that theheroic Thisephemeral poster image Cage andhisacotypifies him an that for would were shapeCage already creating image lytes that ofhowhiswork tosucha degree we maylosesight plays scholarship an attempt whatfollows toseeHPSCHD onlarger Consider archetypes. and in thebroader Gesamtkunstwerk oftwoofthosearchetypes: light
Colorado. at theUniversity ofNorthern SaraHeimbecker is adjunct professor in andhas Shestudied themusic ofHansRott onFulbright Vienna, Scholarship herdissertation Sheis currently written on Cage'spoetics. finishing previously on HPSCHD at theUniversity ofIllinois, Urbana-Champaign.
American Music Winter 2008 © 2009 by the Board of Trusteesof the Universityof Illinois
Poster from the1969performance ofJohn Figure Cage's HPSCHD atUniverofIllinois.1. sity .
. presented University a that and Illinois arena seats Hall. campuses incolIn 1967John on this composition Cage beganwork large-scale with Hiller at the Unilaboration composer/computer engineer Lejaren in of Illinois where state-of-the-art computer versity Urbana-Champaign facilities were available. were for ingforty CageandHiller harpsichord parts. number Hall an endless were ofthehugedouble-saucer Assembly ofslides. several in themiddleofthecircular arenaweresuspended sports and 100 400 each sheets of material. Running collagedimagery passed through a hidand from 340-foot a circular was a continuous screen. flying-saucer 18. telescope.The hoststheuniversity's successful basketball typically highly and multimedia lasted four and a half hours involved seven spectacle (with harpsichords.6 and nonrepresentational andstructural as "anatonal event described thesoundofthe Kostelanetz the inand outthrough influx. playprojected projectors the films. films related to stars. ." Cage explained ina letter Antoinette Vischer totheSwissharpsichordist (whohad comwillalso include visualactivity: missioned thework): "Theconcert proetc. scenes.4 While elements weremeant tobe "microscopic. sincethemusicis inthecomputer which has andall ofthis meets microtonal. . and RonNameth incharge and lighting. UIUC graduate was in charge ofall thestatic visualelements student. planets. computer outer-space pagesofMozart blotches. responsible a and computer-generated whileCalvinSumsion. continually However. programming. an enthusiastic review oftheevening Richard whowrote Kostelanetz. . "fading sounded. sixty-four playing film slideprojectors that andeight 6." chaos. the HPSCHD(the six-letter work.400 slides. They completed in code for and it the of computer "harpsichord"). by feet. likeMozart.000 Assembly shaped team. the outside under-walls the NewYork that on for Times. thedistances. fifty-one tapeplayers accompanying powerampliandloudspeakers) fiers 208computer-generated tapes.2 ofthefilms canon Theharpsichord were made from parts piecesofthekeyboard KV drawn chance the Musikalisches Wurfelspiel by operations inspired by were made 294dattributed to Mozart. semi-transparent parallel and slideswhose numerous films from bothsideswereprojected around several sheets.particularly university in the late 1960s.3 The computer-generated tapes from oftones ofdifferent divisions oftheoctave bya number generated 5 to56. reported "flashing . music. musicthat mixweresnatches ofharpsichord ."Inside. jections."5 madeitpossible toexplore thesmaller and thelarger. tapes. . ceiling as variousas slideswithimagery den pointinsidewereprojected instructions. ." those musical theconcept thevisualelements weretobe "telescopic.476 Heimbecker theUtopian idealbehind as that idealinfused it. microscope.
and what he hears. but to experienceit As you go from one pointof thehall to another.some people were sitting in conventionalseats.Gesamtkunstwerk. but the space was so big thattheydid not produce a commandingeffect. it was completely masked by the web of indeterminate sounds thatwere filling theair.I think thevolumeofsound graduallyincreased. .and thesmell ofpot was beginning to reach the outer spaces.Rising from themwas a fogofsmoke. 477 . really. is basic to boththisartand thissociety." Cage "power."After we had sat in our seats fora while. After a fewmoreminutes. these came fromthe seven instrumentalists in visible on platforms thecenterof theAssemblyHall.too. itseemed clearthatnothing morewas to so we took ourselves off. wentas nearas I could getto one of thesepodiums. ofIllinoismusicology recalls University professor. the whole going happen.political and otherwise.The situation relates here."7 NicholasTemperley. Frankly. Withall thosepartsand no conductor. I could not hear her music at all.Cage aimed to createa model of the kind of . you see. perhaps six feetaway."10 In the HPSCHD event. because attention isn'tfocusedin one direction. somewhat was music with concentraelderlylady playingharpsichord great tion. experience was a big disappointment!8 Anticipating responses such as Temperley's.we got up and wandered around to see what there was to see. I certainly don't remember any momentwhen one had a sense that a concertor a performance was "beginning. otherswalking about. On it a slight.9 He characterized HPSCHD as "a politicalartwhichis notabout politics but political itself." he said. you can see that even thispopulous a societycan function withouta conductor.AlthoughI could see herfingers movingrapidlyoverthekeys. Freedomofmovement. Elsewhere. .each man determines to individualsdifferently. Cage explained to Kostelanetzhow to approach thework: You don't have to choose. you experiencechanges. and some musical sounds. and consequently dismissive ofthecountercultural tendencytoward "flowerpower" or "black power. Therewas a continuous sound of talkingvoices. Severalkeyboard musicianswereplayingon raised I dotted around the podiums space. As timewenton. theeventin less enthusiastic terms: On entering the main auditoriumwe saw thatthe centralcircular area was fullof (mostly)young people sitting or lounging.and Utopia HPSCHD."That definition reflected Cage's recentacceptance of anarchism. which aligned with his preference for"cooperationand made and in which environments thingsbeing possible" encouraging kind of can take was uninterested in "any living place.
"13 enmember that theensuing and toinsure kepttheaudience surreality but distant. critically thantheCage/ idealbetter oftheBrechtian There arefewexamples theGesamtkunstwerk. the According hagonny." unified ized. theelements wantedtoseparate Brecht must be givenup. to Gesamtkunstwerk." review ofHPSCHD quotedabove.Inthemaking ofthis work that a kindofavant-garde therhetoric it. ForWagner's sound. In bothcases.Cage attempted accompanied a that ofan anarchic mock modeled his dream Gesamtkunstwerk. thanfor underlining myths music casessurely ofecstasy was the aim. (alsoa mixed-media except modern on themechanics ofshowbusiness.theFuhrer that whenhe warned andtheecstatic theGesamtkunstwerk tion between the senses to or to that is meant intoxicate. "everything oftheater. a "passive(suffering) whobecomes a degradation oftheviewer partof becauseofWagner's Gesamtkunstwerk Brecht promipartly rejected the "To As Roger nencein Nazi culture. Wagner very emphasis items took these for touse them lessas glamour granted. gaged. effort tocreate is whathas survived bestoutofhiswholesplendid a newkindoftragedy. suffer at from a political and criticism leveled The aesthetic ambiguity. a worldinwhich eachperspective freedom. fog hypnotize."11 . Brecht.Inmodelbuta Brechtian nota Wagnerian and early '60sfollowed MaundFallderStadt in his noteson theoperaAufstieg deed.11 the different from HPSCHD as "not When Thomson described Wagvery in new he nerian Cage'swork. reality While as had created his model of social own society. arguedagainst Wagnerian even ofeachart. both bothtotal artworks arethemiracles ofmodern technology. a degradation necessitates ofthearts thefusion Brecht. art. Copelandpointed mesmerthe masses were one Rallies opera: great Wagnerian Nuremburg theconnecclarified Brecht with hisfollowers."Actually activated" different from theWagnerian gesamtspaceis notvery a for ormusic drama kunstwerk.I think. contemporary longs peculiarly this oran artistically activated enclosed "artistically space. affair). just Wagner unity. preferring the and morals.andinboth (or production music inanycase)was themainmerchandise. work bethe aesthetic towhich this Kostelanetz identifies species as "that thekinetic environment. Mr. and fered andallperspectives fared thesame.Virgil totheKostelanetz Replying Thomson wrote.478 Heimbecker worldin whichhe wishedto live:a worldthatallowed forpersonal difa worldofabundance. political inthecriticism ofthis theWagnerian Gesamtkunstwerk resounds Cagean "Happening.Brecht. something recognized gesamtkunstwerk" ofthelate1950s collaborations TheCage/Cunningham/Rauschenberg one. out.
"14 The rather Rauschenberg stage stage. ."15 Injoining with andothers Hiller onHPSCHD. and films. The first ofthesecollaborations (outsideofthe Theater is Minutiae famous BlackMountain Piece) (1954). by psychology "What toCopeland. The processes present the ICHING the hexagram printouts generated by program governed ofslides. films." beautifully despite a as a discrete much object: Rauschenberg painting placedon the very than a set. Cunningham Cage provided a and created structure whose free-standing paint collage Rauschenberg somewhat toNinaSundell. and I] performances.Rauschenberg. werevery hot space in all .Cagedeparted radically from hisearlier collaborative theworkinvolved "multistyle.and Utopia HPSCHD." according "opulent. in art. only from whathe called"almost indicollaboration stemmed pathological tocollaborate withother vidualism" balancedbya "desire artists (and not these Thus. thedanceand thedecor. make Cunningham. oftechnology and outer themes ofcourse. Gesamtkunstwerk."as wereprevious collaborations. presence. topics was an indubitably element contributed its organic piece. As Kostelanetz "For its diffusion HPSCHD wrote. mysterious with the the fact that "itfunctioned "worked dance.albeit chance Cage selected everything through processes. plicity" images. Tendency "European Utopias since1800"andfeatured various andartistic maniintellectual. Cage.themusic. Though in and it its use of visual sounds slides. Cunningham in have donein ourworkis tobring three elements together separate time and space. performance performance that ofparallel couldbe perceived as consisted activity bytheaudience a whole.where every bittothewholeandwhich established a and cohersuccessfully unique entensemble ofinterrelated parts.16 inHPSCHD.Forthispera created themusic.andcompany According that evident is the model for collaboration is not the amply Wagnerian not even the dominant model."17 Anartexhibit DerHangzumGesamtkunstwerk from entitled 1983. and dance. governed wrote: "What[Cage. formance. . interdependence. images . cultural.thepoint ofdiscussion seems tobe thecreation ofwhatKoste- . (The toward the Total was subtitled Artwork). sources. The all choice centered on the common tapes. the of selections both the kinds ofquestions severely limiting range by he askedand thenature ofthematerials.through a process described Gestalt theorists." independence. was no "willful collision ofmedia. 1969. festations oftheUtopian a broadrangeof "tendency" including In works multimedia orvirtual contemporary involving reality spaces.18 eachcase. 479 that collaborations beganinthemid-fifties Cunningham/Rauschenberg and lasteda decade." kind model indeed This of today.which. artforms). each one allowing toremain independent. He consistently appliedthe all in samecompositional to the media the work. Cage/Cunningham/ followed thisplan: each element collaborations ofthe Rauschenberg and was conceived of the independently.
weredesigned valuesystems. autonomous is the The toward Gesamtkunstwerke "connected ing Enlightenment."26 hewouldnototherwise Cage Bythetime anarbutas a "Thoreauvian referred tohimself as notjustas anarchist.Itisn't someone giving saying something. society. toward eration.19 had disintegrated intheeighteenth which "arts" into discrete century that to modela Utopian is similarly and. ized. Diary Cage wrote. thecollaborative Just . tohaveexperiences the those involved) opportunity (including everyone ofHPSCHD. as well of Thoreau started earlier. society "integrated. and mirrored theseparation morality. . technology.second. political argue."25 in1967.23 One might however." that claimed thedissolution of"art"intothe"arts" Wolfgang Domling artdurofscience.In his that art could about and the exemplify ways anarchy writing "Artinstead madeby ofbeingan object from 1967.1969. According workof workofan individual but as thenecessarily unified rather ego. and artistic value systems. In Wagner's a "fellowship oftheFuture" of ofthe"Artwork concept in response would create demand."11 the"Menschen effort made to so.put itself "collaborations" produceHPSCHD. "John Cage ina New Key. toward and her manner of "nature creating operation" yond representing "thevision ofan idealsociety.first." in Cage's approach a shift to politics NatalieCrohn Schmitt identified inEmpty with A Year From and his 1969 book Monday." in Peter this "the Gesamtkunstzverk to Rummenholler. Wagner would represent theunified humanbeingas well as theunified arts.political.24 as Cage's friends Marshall McLuhanand Buckminster about a profound their movedCage toward optimism together. justas Cage's multimedia "happenings" mind toprecipitate global change. Thoreau's Atthetime he discovered Journal Cagewas already it. Mysterium. Barry Millington.480 Heimbecker lanetz described as an "artistically whether or activated space/' physical a in as as that a as well desire for to be virtual."20 Musikdrama becomes was designed tobe Wagner's a corrective as broken and artistic towhathe perceived social. culminating starting that this shift Words from 1979. to artists" to communal According and "The future was the the artist of the thus Volk. U-topos Skryabin's space Whatmotivates thearts these a desire toreunite is. derZukunft. socialoneperson is a process setinmotion bya groupofpeople. According a socialReformwerk. Gesamtkunstwerk ofnecessity theproduct or historical inevitability.Art's butpeopledoingthings. working together In theimportant article on Cage'spolitics. byCage's readings years precipitated Taken Fuller.unlikeCage's earlier and parallel forward as a modelfor notjustindependent coopliving: butfully a common end. thiskindofworkwould notseemthe to Wagner. sense. urge withtheupheavalofthesocial. writings advance beone could With new he believed. technologies. havehad."21 that the total subsumed theindividual believed which artwork. political.
dreaming inoffensively In thestate."In a numberof interviews was on that shed this appellation." The anarchistic UtopiathatCage envisionedwas impossiblewithout Fullerand Maras expounded by Buckminster particularly technology. Men AgainsttheState. forewe begin with thattime in the fieldswhere it is possible to do to preparethewaywithoutsuch standards. anarchy Cage's .butifwe waituntilthattime. ofIllinois: just a fewdays beforetheHPSCHD eventat theUniversity value systems." ofthe1960swere "militant whereastheanarchists pacifists. Cage's did not involvea violentoverthrow of revolution ofthestatebut rather faith in to artworks as Thus led that would act thought. such value judgments. and artis one of them.The anarchists ofthe1940swere called the"new anarchists" of the of violent overthrow "bellicosebarricaders.too. no." sect [ofthe1940s] short. when ing in thestreets. Therecage: Yes. whereas American anarchists focused on the individual. do you meanyou want haas: Whenyou speak ofrejecting to eliminatevalues in human behavior.28 is what of of George Woodcock Cage's understanding anarchy typical in the1960s.Accordingto Rob Haskins. at all." but their revolution was nota radical sixties. published in 1953. That is to say.or do you limitit to art? cage: No. I would extendit to life. archism.aren'tethicalsystemsneeded? thattimewillnevercome. a humanistic of ofsociety.no government they're no value judgmentswhatsoever.the"old revolutionary but in itsplace has appeared a moral-political has notbeen resurrected.European anarchists tended to view anarchistmovementsas collectiveand socialized.Gesamtkunstwerk. . of the movementtypicalof the age. and othernew anarchists stillspoke of "revolution.One oftheseinterviews anarchy light withJosephHaas of the ChicagoDaily News. He said we have all thisgovernmentand law and business simplyto keep two Irishmenfrom fightHe also went on to say thatpeople will have.teachingus how it be to live in a world "without schoolmasters might conductors.printedon May 10.and Utopia HPSCHD. Haas: But aren'tstandardsofbehaviornecessaryto civilization? cage: Thoreau wouldn't have agreed. haas: But untilpeople are readyforit.30 nologyin thedistribution Cage believed that became increasingly we would be able to as technology sophisticated. 481 he discussed Thoreau and theidea of chist.27 ofanarchyand his desireto use artto "prepare Cage's understanding theway" is particularly American. 1969. butrather extension assaulton thefoundations theemancipatory trendset in motionduringtheEnlightenment. accordingto Woodcock."29Cage. Fullerwas veryoptimistic about the potentialof techoftheworld's resources.therewill be readyforit. Cage knew of thisdistinction fromJamesMartin'shistoryof AmericananBut in many ways. shall McLuhan.
For McLuhan. Kostelanetz. agency. change ." The reporter found Cage's statement: andsocialconcern is thecoreofa newhumanism Cage'srevolution has This that is coming outoftheesthetic avant-garde.482 Heimbecker meettheworld'smaterial wouldhave inneedsand at thesametime the Buddhist achieves amounts of leisure time. to clarify in . the answer tothe current Fuller.32 lation. is revolution. butmore. itnecessary.. and dominate Cage politics technology global and theworldwe live nowifwe lovemankind "Ourproper work week. of andartistic achievements conceived ofas Kunstkammern ofthe scientific a Kunstkammer HPSCHD was of twentiethnineteenth-century Germany. than was more HPSCHD. In thepast.an extension ofourcapacities technology I find this heartenextends thecentral nervous So that system.31 to describe theuse of coinedtheterm Kostelanetz "technoanarchism" to advance anarchistic ideals. itneededtotella story.In a 1967Newsweek used to create compositional techniques ofIllinois.. and I think is now making dream butimpractical.orglobalvillage . Indeed.. Itwas a celebration ofthelate1960s'technological century technology. revolution with the it has to do with or even to do ideology guns nothing it to that make use of the vast possible analyze technologies proper ora faulty a thunderclap society. as devotee Just creasing "mind call a so too what would Cage change/' enlightenment through . in world microcosm. justa celebration human involve itmust a possible then was torepresent future..was notless technology. ourtechnology itpractical. at theUniversity article on Cage and his workin progress toldNewsthe discussion. to discussFuller Cage was morelikely thepiece. dehumanization. promoting and McLuhanthanthe In fact. that soofthecentral-nervous-system extension.pollution.33 Ifit oftechnology. displayed andglobal welfare tostress the oftechnology Cagewas eager potential HPSCHD in eachofhisinterviews the Illinois performance... itcouldbe through ofa change ofsociety inginterms changing is a mind because theglobal which becauseofthetechnology. Cage. can.then. mind. technology .is whatFuller andourpresent saiditis.notto mention The celebratory use ofthecomputer that technoanarwork's of the demonstrated leitmotif hope spaceflight Gesamtkunstwerke canbe chist as Wagner's Just Cageplacedintechnology.change cantheworld through technology: I think and McLuhan have that whattechnology is. poverty the in HPSCHD.however. very . issues andothers. overpopu.we have thought that"utopia"was a lovely ciety. HPSCHD is a Getoclaimthat howitmaybe possible To understand .
However. narrative? a the Does indeed. basedon notnecessarily narratives ofindividual a number thespacefor comnot and as wrote.34 . suspicious clearly Cage a thing that the and art can that idea the communicate.Cage's pluralistic. is losing function hero.EarleBrown. society.Each ofus livesat theintersection valences specific lanstable establish we do notnecessarily ofthese. butrather written witha brilliantly narrative. work.36 arenotnecessarily As a describes. Feldman." generous withmusisaid that Babbitt Milton moments. this that itsgreat itsgreat itsfunctors. Thenarrative narrative of in clouds itsgreat goal.narrative. communicable. communicate "Answering message? claimed Is Postmodernism?" What theQuestion: Jean-Frangois Lyotard art: inpostmodern result butis a likely is notonlypossible. concept "symbol. It is beingdispersed danger. nonhierarchical. necessarily Lyotard language in and the Barthes Roland for meaning pleasure municable(I). especially pian narratives. light. on text. piece doesnotnecessarily that andnarrative is nota central there protagonist. but also denotative. present Utoto other common HPSCHD exhibits manyelements Certainly and of in its foregroundingspace(physical. in which a theater tocreate Butis itpossible and travel." theater "great story piece. stable connections. myselfthatmine was theirs from work that thatthething my distinguished more his in of one that claimed Kostelanetz was theatrical. be to needed that a world was this theater For Barthes. Conveyed descriptive of to itskind. of the to for multiplicity explore opportunities experience. 483 one must oftheMusikdrama. Morton Wolff. Inwere which of some of reactions. perhaps multiplicity a given that communicate works steadofcreating Cagecreated message. In hisinfluential a unified article. I usedtothink David Christian Tudor. the"density from through gesture. tradition in theWagnerian samtkunstwerk were works and other HPSCHD that insisted that understand Cage first theater. the "I love David told In 1985 theater Shapiro." a to in the saw another can standfor spark signs potential Cage thing. whenwe wereso closetogether I used to think In fact. HPSCHD. Similarly. opportunities mulwe live. inwhich intersections . ofsigns" tone. deciphered. Cage pieces. Cage "is less concerned It is also clearfrom thanwiththeater."35 cal structure Cage's extensive a modelfor "about" is HPSCHD that interviews and creating writings is a drama? work this that claim one But can anarchic a Utopian. as a topic).andUtopia Gesamtkunstwerk. languageelements eachcloudarepragmatic within and so on. many oftheoneswe do establish andtheproperties guagecombinations. meaningless.37 a worlddependent butnotnecessarily oftheterm was Inthis samepostmodern vein. . prescriptive. thekindofartwork HPSCHD aptlysuggests Lyotard but created one of the tell not did it hero. did notoriginate theater and created substance.
Yatha which means as it is. anymoment certainly put was 'beginning. CagemadeHPSCHD a vessel In for narrative.'") a concert ora performance whenonehada sensethat that "no and indeed "no time" suggest HPSCHD repreUtopian place" theUtoa possible. be." Works of butham.(As Temperley it. bytechnology by journey spaceflight andillustrated from NASA. his "Frontiers ofUtopia: Pastand article. ofsignifieds. itineraries. a routeto u-topia. "an action which is implicitly nothing.484 Heimbecker timedia construction is similar toBarthes' ofthe"idealtext": description "thenetworks ofthem are manyand interact. fragments" scraps than rather and wanted social thespectator.44 response perception Cage form that"[a]udiences experience. tracing exploratory trajectory."41 engenders something InHPSCHDthe crossed the threshwhen the journey began participant old intothe"space"ofthework. Utopias . communities.as Cage putit. nota structure ithas no beginning.. private inwith the discourse sites of that."39 Freed from the burden ofrepresentation. he felt. along public temporary investments new can model of tense performatives. authoritatively themainone. and nota prescriptive sents anarchic future. this text is a galaxy ofsignifiers. consistent tion ofthepiecewouldbe fairly Cage throughout to Woolf referred what this sense of worked isolation. that "narrative ofa threshold. Utopian that Louis Marinexplains narratives Present. and thedirection ofthestory was dewith a termined While older narratives begin bytheparticipant." fixed. we gainaccesstoitby several of declared to be none which can be entrances." Utopian typically begin witha journey a place to a no-place.43 had beenthat and passiveaudience darkened auditorium ofWagner's that the fact felt isolated theindividual percepdespite paradoxically the theater."42 multiple inHPSCHD's audience determine that eachindividual Cage insisted the thedirection ofhisorherownnarrative through perforbymoving toleavea performance mancespace. to free theartwork. experiences Utopian . it an a narrative line as unfolds that. a but rather a "should future is not determined flexible.Cagehighlighted thetemporality byimages and stoptimes oftheUtopian openperformance by leavingthestart "I don't remember ended. Cage understood personal. pian "what if. itbe. "just but rather for are not laden with art. Cage.."40 The "from a the narrative from "the of limit. in new the world.He did notwanteveryone having An unfortunate side-effect heardand seenfrom thesameperspective."38 Thisdismissal ofcommunication is nottoexcuseCage oftheburden butrather to let ofcommunication. Utopian crossing proceeds trespassing ofa frame. "symbols" deepermeaning. without one any being abletosurpass therest. itis reversible. future." further notes Phillip Wegner akintotraveler's aremore oran architectural sketch. Virginia against of and the "exile" the audience and of as the"orts. Utopian a travel the HPSCHD is enabled sea.
door.Mottram described theRoundhouse performance on August13." Mottram that this distinction illumiimmediately recognized . . eachsaw and heardit everyone ofwhenhewas there.making as audiyourownenvironment encewithin thecontrols ofthecomposer."45 that itis helpful tounderstand ideal audience is not one context Cage's in a of the audience is not but but Lack unit. hestayed. parent three thefoster hometoattend theperforHe invited teenage boysfrom wanted to attend a at mance.who had been studying and of Illinois who for the helpedCage prepare tapes University perat a children's was working as a foster homein 1969. "orrather.thesubstitution natedthepolitics ofthework ofauthoritarian control." took with the Cage umbrage and insisted that a better word"controls" wordwouldbe provisions. whom hesawandtalked with what howlong while there. got What rounded them to home. especially. thinking perhaps high in "as as we the we didn't see the kids until soon we recalled."becauseofthearchitecture. Hall on May22. of theperformance. unity deficiency a boon. listened to someoftheelectronic musicthat werein control they It is very. at the Pianistand pedagogueErrol Haun. HPSCHD. 485 In this inand interactions with constituted variously publicspheres. that for"something can be used.differed inmany obvious from the Roundhouse ways performance.in whichtheaudiencefreely movedthrough the that "You had to so could both and see hear space: keepmoving you theperformances as a whole.thus.was an understanding partofthepieceas thepeoplewho werepaid to perform. you in one place and getting weren't justsitting onlyone perspective oftheperformance. sity." Haun Still. weren't sure concert the univerThey they "it would be too brow for them. formance.1972.theaudience .46 Hammagreed: Charles Eachperson madewhathe wantedofthepieceand.and whatattitudes he had aboutsuchevents. according that"eachparticipant was as mucha to Haun. itwas a different event for who attended." In theAlbert Hall." to these appealed up go boys." inAlbert Thesecondperformance.47 in ofthiskindofphysical freedom Cage discussedtheimportance withEricMottram a 1974interview after two performances ofHPSCHD in England.andUtopia Gesamtkunstwerk. . utilities: to see a pieceofmusicas something that couldbe used. ifthey wentand listened to thisharpsichord and Theyknewthat and then then wentand listened tothat wentup and harpsichord. . multiple. . moodhe was in." According toHaun. what's theword . from thestandpoint where hewas inthehall. free. according toCage.
patterns an artistic workingfortheachievement community bringstogether social organization ofa truegoal should also be foundin everyother an honorablepurpose. Cage. truth. piece witha specific a work structured to supporta sinor dramatic or even thread. Fordancerand filmmaker bothallows forand demands interpretation.52 future social conductcan and should be of a pure artistic theprevailing In bothcases. Cage said." after seemed no longertobe an issue. In Die KunstunddieRevolution. "That they something too was not possible. gle society. then. cage: But I mean no meaninghas meaning.gave us the 1960s' versionof Wagner's Utopianartwork. could become theforerunners which The all future communal for spirit organizations. fixed. even thenegationofmeaning. storyline In model an anarchic cannot narrative. Cage describedhow he was forced thatthe audience was seated. Except. "narrative narrative of for the of course.possibility.. Wallace: Oh? idea.Cage's 1958 interviewwith Mike Wallace becomes clear: cage: Those artists work forwhom I have regardhave always put their And art without at the service of religionor of metaphysicaltruth. "so thatpeople sitting and discoverthat converse withpeople who had been sitting on theother had heard different."The he wrotethateven absurdistliterature in HPSCHD "is what absenceofmeaning." Unfortunately. nonnarrativity. outlooksoftheir accordingto Millington.Thenindeed all ofour itself whichsetsbefore nature. but at least wanted the loudspeakers to on one side could later surroundthe audience."48 thatCage wished to createin HPSCHD The kindofUtopiannarrative was not possible witha seated audience whose experienceof thework In short. a performance would be mostlyuniform.ForWagner."49 In this context. . But it meaning.486 Heimbecker was seated with Cage and Tudor on the stage and ten loudspeakers at to accept theback oftheauditorium.."51 YvonneRainer. Cage. This idea ofno idea is a very important when Adornoseems to echo Cage's claimthatno meaningis meaningful "has a stakein thedialectic.Cage and Wagnerrepresented philosophical "thereunittimes.50 cage: Yes. Wagnerwrote and Artand theinstitutions ofart. Wallace: Meaningful?But you said it has no meaning.like mine. desirethatimbues Utopianperformatives. Jill "Any image or structure and and exclusionary too finite forthesoaringsense ofhope.is also at theserviceofmetaphysical to a person of this puts it in termswhich are urgentand meaningful century. Utopiain Performance would be much Dolan static wrote.
open areremarkably similar."58 .andUtopia HPSCHD. which itself tocontemporary works. newforms "thenecessity tofind ofliving together. Wagner's goalmayhavebeentocreate hisresult was perhaps themost andelitist autonomous artwork imaginable. cultural This in was the case a 1970 interview of bourgeois. the kinds of criticism is. represents "power demanding a rationally constructed artificial wholeness free will.this kindofcollaborative artwork was motivated as Cage himself by." For landscape theGesamtkunstwerk Adorno. Gesamtkunstwerk. course." Cage.57 todaydevotes primarily theaudience that inthehero-worship ofWagArguably. MaxNyffeler inwhich that noted referred to Cage with Nyffeler people ofthebourgeois Cage as "thejester society. leveledatboth ofthe1960s' Copeland'scritique itcreated a "sensory multimedia event was that overload environment" which often their audiences into blissed-out submission. In so doingWagnerism laidtheintellectual and socialgroundwork for theriseoftheself-contained cultural world ofnewmusic. Thefollowers ofWagner launched thefirst movement that sawitself as a musicalavant-garde. Critics that recognized Cage was largely this intellectual cadre and some claimedthatthe elite. 487 intheGesamtkunstwerk aim mirrored thesocialist parts ingofconstituent a to divided For ofrestoring integrity fragmented. supported by didnotgofar to distance himself from the composer enough upper-class.itrobbed senseofseparate selfhood. mere owes itsexistence totheextirpation oftheindividual.by definition. hegemony. Likeother more crowds. While theartwork ofthefuture. Wagnerian "politically suspect ianstructure" intheprimal which is "rooted offascism. intheBayreuth ambiance surrendered their individualparticipants a shared bath anda collective for adoration ofthegenius ity spiritual whohad brought them there.55 andothers that Adorno contend instead ofcreating a Utopian virtual rethe Gesamtkunstwerk is a authoritarality. On theother true believers oftheir clear hand. only decorously."56 illusion. participated nerlaidthecornerstone for theconstruction oftheintellectual audience that laudedCage inthe1960s. obedience."and repudiating unified which turns in out the end tobe a "Wagner's seemingly totality."54 "clobber[ed] Peter assessed the Gesamtkunstwerk this Gay Wagnerian way: On theone hand. an intellectual cadresupporting works that itclaimed wereprogressive controversial. and. putit. society."53 an avant-garde Thedegree towhich multimedia likeHPcomposition SCHD or theWagnerian Gesamtkunstwerk created models successfully to But for future realities of debate.it [theGesamtkunstwerk worked topush setting] the oflistening the available toordinary experience beyond intensity mortals.According toWilliam Weber.
Paul-de-Vence cage: In the fifties. gave funding. at University ofIllinois ofundergraduates In 1967onlyabout 1 percent After theassassination American. himself as existing.Thingsare changing. whichthedominant class tries Festival. the most. I gave a Music Circus [sic] in Illinoistheyearbeforeand 5000 people came. were onlypartof to anarchisminside a university Cage's pretensions the with which we The the problem.Therefore morea teacher. and theconcert was free. one of themostelitistarenas ofAmericanlife.125 people would come. popularity turalchange. Consider haven forthe intellectual paradox: Cage egalitariansocietyin staged an eventthatintendedto model a Utopian. as Cage's Bayreuth.somewherebetween 7000 and 9000 people came. Consider. notin theEuropean tradition ofthecourtas "jester. I would advertiseit.the situationis less clear. would not let me on a program.60 It in effect. the problemtheAmericanuniversity had at thetimewithracial equality. The Americanuniversity functioned.and at when I gave a concert.488 Heimbecker nyffeler:Itis a fact thatyourmusic. and they .theycame even from came from all over thecountry Europe." but rather in theAmericanintellectual thatincludedpoets like tradition Thoreau and Emerson: cage: [Thoreauand Emerson]form lifemuchmore partoftheuniversity than theydo of the adult lifeof the US. The TV I'm I'm not a courtjester.And theuniversity providedsomething and a above"TV that described the "real" world. reaches an of the small of the because population privilege only extremely group to keepby all means. lastby highentrance feeslikehereat theSt. university .the latest state-of-the-art from ofa shelter made audience. When I gave HPSCHD in Illinois last year.likeall relevant artoftoday.notat ofeducation.formany.or. and a him readytechnology.the culture" Cage the and social elite. Cage's ability .certainly.59 Whatwas changing? to draw a largeaudience.Later in the interview Cage adand saw mitted thathe foundhis audience in Americaat theuniversity. But as forculdue to his increasing notoriety. chance similarly whilehe failed to globalpoliticalengagement betweenCage's pretension to engage some ofthemostsalientpoliticalfactsofhis immediateenvironment.forexample.I gave theone in Minneapolis thisyear and another3000 people came and it was free. began illustrates Viskupicposter anarchic the self-touted between composer of apparent contradiction a dissonance is There and his actual role as mastermind.61 at Urbana-Champaign wereAfrican chancellorJackPeltason pledged of MartinLutherKing Jr.. What is the average person in the US when he is grown up and he has a job and makes his living and pays his bills?He spends his eveningslookingat TV.
among otherthings."in mid August 1968. and to keep theblacks in slavery and to keep thewhitepeople morepowerful.In the 1970 interview withNyffeler. that a time but numberofnew record. fortheblacks to become powerfullike thewhites than it would be for the noises to become as harmonianymore good ous and as devoted to counterpoint as the musical sounds. of in environment as one of institutionalized racism. thesestudentsmarchedto theStudent Union in protest. were cially Many stayed arrested fortrespassing.despitethefactthathe was on campus duringmostofthe1968-69 academic year. it won't be good . the union until aftermidnight." Ann Williamson. Cage was asked to commenton the "black people's culture": cage: Well. and Stan Levy was broughtin the same year as associate dean of students.in thesame sense.65 ..we were attending a meetingat thefinancial aid office.to rather ourselveswith alreadydone in music identify thenoisesand to start from a situation without thoselaws ofthewhites or ofthemusical tones. but "the subtextwas thepoliticsof social change in Americansocietyin thelate 1960s. university general to Michael the focus of the Illinois Fultz. By AfricanAmericanstudentswas due to enrollabout Septemberl5th .ifnot dismissiveof. and spentthenightinjail. Clarence Shelley was hiredin thesummerof 1968to oversee theprogram.Now theexciting thingabout theblacks is.62 The Chicago Tribune thatthestudents had caused over$50. whichwere made by thewhitesto protect them from theblacks.63 An editorial izing building(a in the same described the students as "slum printed paper products on scholarships"who "went ape" and "swung fromthe chandeliers. in actualityabout 625 registered. think would like tobe justas powerful as thewhites. 489 to enroll500 new minority studentsfora Special EducationalOpportunitiesProgram. campus theyfound inadequate housing and insufficient The nightbeforeclasses started. ofpoor housing was raclaimingthattheassignment in motivated."64 Cage seemed ignorantof.Now.. Theymostly they That's not theproperway.as we have .and Utopia HPSCHD. According specific protest may have been housing arrangements and financialaid packages." When these studentsshowed up on financialaid. thatthe noises were freeof the laws of harmonyand counterpoint." Nathaniel Banks. authorofBlack Joy Power on Campus:TheUniversity Illinois described the1968 1965-1975. indeterminate.Gesamtkunstwerk.I think thata veryfewblacks understandthat.000in damage byvandalreported the claim latershown to be unfounded).describedthe campus in 1968as "a hostileenvironment.one of the freshmen thatyear.these students'struggles. the reason was.which became known as Project500. We need .According to Levy.when I began musicallywith mterest m noises. thattheyare going to be freeofthelaws.
is that are accusWe were not closeartistic necessarily composers. frequently. Judith Living especially patriots whoalso "givefirst and HanonReznikov.theuse ofmodern visible as poverty.notlike ofthetime To Cage.rather moon. [is]a luxury a performance inrows. according a to tenet central of opportunities Cage'sphilosophy. ." GLBTissuesforthat Cage choseinstead giventime. is closely Power"which. implications including in "involved and others were to etc." Patterson. theater.490 Heimbecker skirt ofblacks. poverty that is for son has arguedthatcritiquing fair. we can do without. putit. giventhat hardly Cage also silent were ofcontemporary thevastmajority largely composers with did not deal also points outthat on theraceissue. watching bya fewothers ting thetheater. . . in were whosepeers ofthetheater. and performances Cage found bytheLiving artists Theatre the in the Malina. . colleagues musical in of work the context toviewing tomed mid-century high Cage's Flint modernism. The third Cage's problem-in thecase ofHPSCHD."68 one racewasa "metaissue"in thelate1960sand certainly Cage is that and was justas important movement difficult toignore."67 an accusawithexcusing Theremaybe three Cage from problems that what he was doing Thefirst is that claimed tionofhypocrisy. . and wrote which on and the control of media spoke Cage topics ogy. Julian placetohuman- . Thecivilrights technolthedistribution ofgoods. racedid notseema central problem David Patterfor and the distribution of resources. McLuhan" Marshall that he discovered on "certain meta-issues through the ofmass the "dissemination of information. "sitthat said with Richard In a 1969 interview Friedman. related tothecreation toWilliamson." Happenings especially Cage preferred comlike-minded Theater. . While anysymsuperficially supportive Cage's remarks on students' of the African American struggles pathetic understanding "Black the term also a of His comments reflect misunderstanding campus.Patterson Cage at race issues "anti-war local-level issues any protests. in a frantic raceto were and their Stockhausen. at least. composers insociety as they use their in their work thedesired changes exemplify as it ofthesociety oras criticism for suchchanges music as propaganda with The second continues excusing problem insufficiently changed. Cage stagecraft. Cage were what his with from hisart was remarkably contemporaries different wrote and as well as Cage compositionally.66 . political to focus matter. doing socially politically. media. example. "Babbitt. As Henry Xenakis."69 likethe racetothe radical music field the most Perhaps tobe than these standard we cannot holdCagetoa higher contemporaries.by thelatefifties. Beck. specific. engaged colleagues Cage. as an artist ButCagesawhimself sure. Cage According that as an umbrella kindofsocialrevolution couldserve a very abstract for all sorts ofsub-issues. do notso much inEmpty concerned "Somepolitically Words.
ity.had he wishedto do so. Nor did it thatdid notreadilyyieldto relevant a of voices.In HPSCHD Cage had created Americansocial content. signifiers.lies inhis choiceoftheGesamtkunstwerk as race a veryEuropeanstructure. problem Utopian in the end theyoftenbecome totalitarian. They have always coupled rebellionand creation.and Utopia HPSCHD.70 was an important partofmanytheater One thingthatmay have hampered Cage in addressingthe issue of . Grosz wrote."Unity."72 via HPSCHD to Thomas More's Utopia.Cage was caughtin an pian natureofHPSCHD actuallyconstrained an anarchic an artwork in ordertorepresent ironic double-bind: narrative."73 Yvonne Rainer levels preciselythis same critiqueat Cage and spein reference to works like HPSCHD. By design.it had thiskind of immediatesocial content worksfrom themid-sixties. sions of individuality. difficult forforeigners to surroundedby calm seas but a rockyharbor.notunlikea university. withitsself-containment and homogeneenter While theHPSCHD eventdid not explicitly deny access to anyone. Elizabeth Grosz argues that between negotiation Utopias. conduct restrict some of moral consistent.want theater that thwartor deformour social structures and are convinced Utopia. 491 to expressthesedesiresand prefigure ity'sUtopiandesires. the implicit racismof theuniversity environment (as well as the avantart casts its shadow on the event.Gesamtkunstwerk. contemporary continent. therefore. order. And so we return and economy. to he was "explicitly concernedwithcontinuing culture." While Cage seemed at timesto critiquetheEuropean.Cage was multiplicity George really of a composerwho located his workas "an integral part a sociomusical and musical tradibonded withtheintellectual artworld thatexplicitly tionsof Europe. . lifeinto ideals about thefullrangeofearthly "Because Utopiasconcretize the totalistic of a comprehensive of description society."involve the fragile and thecost of thisthat an ideal mode of social and politicalregulation and the mustbe borneby theindividualsthusregulated. quality Utopias leads manv to accuse the eenreof totalitarianism." is that with resultof such an artwork."No Utopia world) garde to takeaccountofnotonlythediversity ofsubjects. . ofmeans. but has been framed oftheir thediversity utopicvisions. inevitably expresnecessity thereis a price to be paid fororderand stability. with constructs is that the mustallow fordiversity. to "one is left Rainer. an island. which function without cifically but consistof a succession of "nonsignifying The narrative. one hismedium. As Lewis allow for putsit. and are open needs."The audience.by theirverynature. according an impenetrableweb of undifferentiated events set in motionby and in thiscase the back to the referring originalflamboyant artist-gesture."71 The Utotradition on the American this 'Western' develop him. society." Whileavant-garde to a multiplicity composersmay nothave at thecenterof theirwork. is leftto apabandonmentof personal taste. More'sUtopiais a self-contained location. Yet.
techno-utopian proposals wereall partand parand GeneYoungblood Buckminster Fuller. "worldwide issueisthat is as Rainer of it.. The Maze.notthe Themeaning ofsucha work. ofwhich Copelandputitwell: was experiencing the[1960s'] culture-at-large Perhaps paradoxically.492 Heimbecker "a manifestation ofyet onemore Artist as Transcendental predate Ego. allboundaries. . in which Gesamtkunstwerk of the a tech version of as thought high .an environment intheuniversity ofstrictly codedbehavenvironment .78 the of of environments theater ofhappenings. village" "global phenomenon. perhaps coulddo worse theater a of the tothink ofitas a time-space extravaganza synthesis the oftheabsurd. Bewitched. "total transcending crossing all categories. in thetechnologized a full-fledged revival ofWagnerism guiseof Electric CirNew York's like "multi-media. andparticularly is tomakethetransithemusical theatre. Bymaking which situations whichareanalogies to desirable socialcircumstances and seriwe do notyethave. Cage guilty. theater" ofintermedia.andthe McLuhan. canbe McLuhan's celofthis (In fact. In Words "We now havemany (1979) Utopia possible? Empty Cagewrote.seemrealistic.we makemusic relevant to the suggestive ous questions whichfaceMankind. put totally ignoring for liberation and therealities ofimperialist politics. Brown criticized Cage's philosophy The it as naivete. and validated unassailable.79 for thetwentiIn other Gesamtkunstwerke Chasechampioned words. Cage's Harry with AnAvalanche."justas surely audience. thetheater ofcruelty (as defined byArtaud)."74 anymonolithic.77 In 1969Gilbert that exChasewrote an article newworks describing The a kind of American musical theater. so notable HPSCHD wouldprovide ethcentury. activities.76 ior In 1992Norman as "a lullaby O. ofevents. properly masterpiece. is thebuilding ofan anarchic DespiteCage's claimsto thecontrary." .Chaseclosesthearticle andLarry Austin's a kindof"calltoarms": Ifmusic. bytheartist as as participatory as that audiencemaybe. musical musical of the of examples practicality anarchy. systems prominent projection ofMarshall atExpo'67."75 HPSCHD hardly addresses Yet." Cage's struggles tothestatus silence on theraceissueseemedtogiveconsent quo. than we then tion from closedtoopenform." it's to be Rainer described saying going "goofy alright".. ofsuchan "anarchic" event the"serious nordoesthestaging questions. the of new plored possibilities Four inhisconcise Saints works included areVirgil Thomson's analysis inThree The Theater Hiller's Partch's Piece. Acts." discotheques Psychedelic so environmental the multi-screen cus." . Rainer is set claimed. an example.
In addition to several keyboardworks by Mozart. 3.Cage mentionedthisin a June12.111."John Cage and LejarenHiller:HPSCHD. Utopian. Husarik.DocumentaryMonographsin Modern Art(New York:Praeger. whichwas designed to replicatetheprocessoftossingcoins to create hexagrams. The posterwas createdby graphicartist GaryViskupic.1970). Cage and Hiller createdthreecomputerprogramsforthe compositionof thispiece. see tapes. no." New York Times. 2. May 25. the followingpieces were used as source materialforHPSCHD: Beethoven's Appassionata Sonata."81 "logical HPSCHD clearly seemsan attempt to "revitalize theheritage ofthe avantgarde. . 1969. The decision to start withfiveand end with56 tape. ingfrom hagiographic Cageentirely. letterto Hiller. 493 . Cage's Winter Music. 175. HPSCHD.andthe audience experienced backdrop artforms. typedletter. Evanston. Nicholas Temperlev. 9.Northwestern University 6. ."American 2 (1983): 1-21. and Hiller's Sonata no. The first was ICHING. John Cage Collection. 1969. Richard Kostelanetz.but rather tones per octave was inspiredby HarryPartch. RichardKostelanetz."Environmental Abundance. The twelve-tone division of the octave was not reproducedby computer-generated was notatedand is Solo I.Chopin's Prelude in D Minor. that as a model for future HPserves communities. was designed to replicatethe selectionprocess outlined in the Musikalisches The third.ed.the culmination ofmodernist intentions. Music 1. StephenHusarik. RichardKostelanetz.Northwestern University 5. Cage and Lejaren Hiller.Cage again mentions Harpsichord"(September of the octave "will followthe work of HarryPartch. 1969.quitecorrectly Cage scholarship NOTES 1.23D. 1969. 8."82 The connection to Europe European [high-modernist] itsaesthetic andtheoretical with comes notonly Gesamtthrough affinity a sociopolitical.electronically.opus 28."11. Schumann's "Reconaissance" fromCarnaval. HPSCHD. 7. in John Music Library. Ibid.and between cultures and individuals arebridged theboundaries .John Cage. 2. Cage Collection."They All Came to Cage's Circus." in John Cage.In a draftof a descriptionof his work to be completed at the university entitled "Music for thatthedivisions 1967). For an excellentdescriptionof how the work was designed and constructed. 2006.111. To see itas another at Gesamtkunstwerk ofpreexisting attempt ittothekindofscrutiny allowsus tosubmit that has largely beenmissorhistories that dismiss For studies. June28.against it anenormous SCHD. Evanston. DICEGAME. buta continuation ofthehighmodern.The second. 5. ofit. butalso through thedesire tocreate kunstwerk.hasbeguntodo thesame.oras DanielBellputit.Gottschalk'sThe Banjo."John March 9.andUtopia Gesamtkunstwerk. havecritiqued inlight decades ofhispolitics. art-space Cagecreated . Music Library. now. e-mail to author. was used to generatethe Wurfelspiel.who studied graphicdesign at theUniversity of Illinoisin 1967-68. 4. musicologists Wagner .)80 blurred HPSCHD is notso much a critique Cage'saesthetics notwithstanding."but deleted the reference fromthe finaldraft. Busoni's Sonatina no.
15. ed.TheObjectofPerformance: TheAmerican Avant-Garde since1970 (Chicago: University ofChicago Press."Cage and theCollage of Noises.Witch-craft of thissortmustof course be fought against [Solange 'Gesamtkunstwerk' bedeutet. ed. tions. Ibid.. Geschichte ed. Denver."Brecht.1989). VirgilThomson."in WhatIs Dance? Readings in Theory and Criticism. 22.scenery)and above all heruse and manipulationofmass media constitutes a Gesamtkunstwerk. wurdigeRauscheerzeugenmufi."Sayre. PartThree (1967).November2-5.University of Denver Penrose Library. "'Living WithinDiscipline': John paper presentedat theannual American Cage's Music in theContextofAnarchism. Hartel. Der Schmelzprozefi werden.The processoffusionextendsto the who getsthrown intothemelting spectator pot too and becomes a passive (suffering) part of the totalwork of art. Der Hang zumGesamtkunstwerk: Europaische Utopien is Wolfgang inclusionin thiscollection Sauerlander." 1011. RogerCopeland and MarshallCohen (Oxford: OxfordUniversity darstellensoil. willall be equally thevariouselements degraded.."Environmental Abundance. "Romantikund Gesamtkunstwerk.Author'stranslation."NextWaveFestival (1983)." 175. benebelt. so longas theartsaresupposed tobe 'fused'together.quoted in HenrySayre.and each will act as a mere'cue' to therest. 13." Perspectives ofNew Music 20 (1981): 99-103. Roger Copeland.165.dafidas Gesamte ein Aufwaschenist. "Alles. 21. 25. Sayre's description ofRauschenberg's"combines. Lange argues thatMadonna's fusionofthearts(dance. "Reunitingthe Arts:Notes on the Historyof an Idea. BarryMillington." derMusikanschauung im19.1010-11." PeterRummenholler. "A Communityof Originals:Models of Avant-Garde CollaboraDance Library. "Das Kunstwerk der Zukunft. 24.494 Heimbecker 10.312. "JohnCage in a New Key. ".Anmerkung Mahagonny" Hecht (Frankfurt: 3.indemjedes nur Stichwortbringer erfafit den Zuschauer." 20. Carson-Brierly Catalogue Special Collectionsand Archives.ed. "Anmerkung aufgegeben zur Oper Aufstieg undFall derStadtMahagonny. seit1800 18. Quoted in Thomson.1967). 17.6. 1970.A GreatBear Pamphlet(New York:Something . unPress. See Rob Haskins. 1 (1994): 4.Jahrhundert.mussendie einzelnenElementeall gleichermafien degradiert furdas andere sein kann. 19. Roger Copeland. MakeMatters Continued the World HowtoImprove 26. was Hypnotisierversuche mufi werden.der ebenfalls wird und einenpassiven (leidenden) eingeschmolzen Teil des Gesamtkunstwerks darstellt."99. "Merce Cunninghamand the Politicsof Perception. Natalie Crohn Schmitt. Nina Sundell. Solche Magie ist natiirlich zu bekampfen]. Diary: Else Press."Cage and the Collage of Noises/' New York Review ofBooks.Rauschenberg/Performance (Cleveland: Cleveland CenterforContemporaryArt.http: www.solange also Kiinste 'verschmelzt' werdensollen. 12. 16.TheObjectofPerformance. Harald Szeemann.1984).com/articles/article-preview?article_id=10997. ed.no. das Gesamtkunstwerk ware dann ein sozialistisches century in Beitrage zur Reformwerk. [1911-14]).1967). "So longas theexpression 'Gesamtkunstwerk' meansthattheintegration is a muddle. WalterTiemann (Leipzig: Breitkopf 23." 19thMusic 18. 11.Bertold " zur Oper Aufstieg undFallderStadt in Schriften zumTheater Brecht.John Worse) (YouWill Only Cage. u. Werner Suhrkamp." in RichardWagnerSdmtliche Schriften und Dichtungen. 14. Musicological Societymeeting. 2006. 1965). TheDancerand theDance.108. (Frankfurt: 1983). WalterSalmen (Regensburg: Bosse.1983). April // 23..60. 104. Merce Cunningham. Kostelanetz. 3. "Gesamtkunstwerk" (Grove Music Online). Haskins marksCage's turnto concernwithsocialissues as opposed to musical problems in his compositionsas earlyas 1958. Schmitt." Los Angeles. "John Cage in a New Key. WolfgangDomling. vol. Wagner. music.7.A fascinating Lange's discussion of the pop starMadonna as a Gesamtkunstwerk.nybooks.
Accordingto Cage. Doug Puchowski (New York:Autonomedia. 136. 33. 35.beckmesser. Silence. John (1970)."4-5.1992).May 10 1969. 1973)." in Innovative John Cage: The Two Extremes Editions.: Northwestern Essays. society . 3 (1993):411.He is also punningon anotherGreekcomposite. Roland Barthes.org/projects/restoredaudio/index.and Utopia HPSCHD.RichardHoward (Evanston."Marinintendsa reference a myth to thefirst definition whichhe understands as "the 'other'ofany place.2006).Time. and the Modern ed.Anarchy. 'fortunate. for Cage."AnarchyRevisited.would by theyear 2000 be completelyevened out."MiltonBabbitt ofAvant-Garde Music(ian)s(New York: Music. 1999). 1967.and theSpatialHistories of CaliforniaPress. According toElizabeth is linguistically theresult Grosz.availablefrom Project http://www. See Kostelanetz. "Choosing Abundance." 414. AmyBingaman. 25. RichardKostelanetz(New York:Limelight and Editions. JohnCage.50. 34.256-64.available from ofView: Cageabout Welfare Changes http://www.' 'happy/ or 'good' place. Haskins' workon Cage and anarchy is especiallyusefulbecause he narrowsthewide of contingent beliefsthatare oftenlumped under the label "anarchy"to conglomeration a definition with which Cage would have been comfortable.: Wesleyan University Press. 37.html. N."Frontiers ofUtopia: Past and Present.and Rebecca Zorach (London: Metropolis." Louis Marin. ofModernity (Berkely:University 2002). Inquiry 41. Dec.pacificaradioarchives .but each individualhas absolute liberty of disorder). Gesamtkunstwerk. (withoutimplication 29. no. Cage/' Chicago 28."in AgainstTheatre: theModernist Stage. "Sound. John "A Conversation withJohn ArRadio Friedman.no. Cage wanted to use the computerto sounds and thenmodulatevoices to sound likethunderclaps via the analyze thunderclap thisprojectbecause thenecessarytechnology was simply computer.'not' = no-place.17.267. 30.ed. Cage's LivingTheatre. "Frontiers of Utopia."Technoanarchism. Roland Barthes." in PoliticalEssaysfrom1959-1998."whichwas "nearlyfifty-fifty" in 1970." in Silence (Hanover. . See JohnCage and Max Nyffeler. George Woodcock. analysisofCage's claim thathis worksare inherently Creative Destruction on "John MarjoriePerloff. 32. 31. was notnecessarily "politicaldisorder" or only"absence ofgovernment" but.ed. Press.111. Joseph Haas. Utopias:Gender.a "o-place. Cage neverfinished not available in 1967-68. Cage and Richard Cage. "Lecture on Something. xix.eutopia. ." Critical 19. based on a reading of the anarchic worksthatCage knew.and thenoun topos .21-30."More'sneologism ambiguous.html. For an excellent see theatrical. Communities: Imaginary Utopia. Cage was also working on a project to setthe"thunderclap" sectionsofJames Joyce's . theNation.105. Marin. MartinPuchnerand Alan Ackerman(New York:Palgrave.trans.bestexplainedby theOxford of the word: "A theoretical social state in which English Dictionary'ssecond definition thereis no governing person or body ofpersons." Post-Modern ed. Jean-Francois in The Lyotard. CharlesJencks Reader.accordingto Haskins."Commentary (August 1968): 55-56.RichardMiller(New York:Hill and Wane.26. "A Happening withJohn DailyNews. Critical trans. JohnCage. YouMust Take a Global Point and Cultural Revolution."On Collaborationin Art. Lise Sanders.de/komponisten/cage/interviewl.1999). See Kostelanetz."in Conversing with Cage.ed." "The Time of Architecture.a Wake Finnegan's suggestionmade by McLuhan. David Shapiro. Limelight 36. "AnsweringtheQuestion:WhatIs Postmodernism?." North American Review254. Phillip Wegner. "LivingwithinDiscipline." in Embodied Social Change.5.H. 3 (1969): 13. 39.1972). PerhapsMore's intention Routledge. University 38." Pacifica chives Preservation andAccess (1969).1988). 133-48. was to suggestthattheperfect was 2002).'place' oftwodifferent from fusions Greekroots: theadverbou. 40. (New York:St Martin'sPress.1989). S/Z. 138."See Haskins. 495 27. Fuller thoughtthatthe current distribution of goods between the"haves" and the"have nots."Newsweek.
Ibid.1984). Virginia Between the Acts(New York:Harcourt.Roland Barthes.Jan. 4. W. "A Community ofOriginals."See Fredric "Review: Of Islands and Trenches: Naturalization Jameson. aims and structural limits. Daily II61. 17 (1981): 71. konnensomitdie Vorlaufer 52.19.[1911-14]). 1977). functions." 56. Critique in Euand Musical Idealism. StephenHeath (New York:Hill. 54.142-^8. YvonneRainer. . Aesthetic trans. 7-8. . Wagnerism. 2 (2006): 71. ed. Utoviain Performance.. Utopiain Performance: (Ann Arbor:University Finding Hopeat theTheater ofMichiganPress. and Politics.1995).1959)."Adorno's Wagner:Historyand thePotential 60 (2005): 72. 59.One notableappear60."Wagner. no. ."It Jameson ceptual.Y. 45. comparable." in Wagnerism 57.wenn stellt. "Overpopulation of and CharlesJunkerman inAmerica.die sicheinenbestimmten menschenwurdigen Vereinigung wiedergewinnen Gebaren soil und kann. 235. ErrolHaun." in Image. Annie Gleason. "A LivingOxymoron: ofJohn NormanO. Incidentally. "Integration Gleason reportedthatthepercentageofblack studentson lini." Perspectives ofNewMusic 44. 46. CreatesMore Diverse Campus at U. Victoria to Freud(New 55. 48.40." RichardWagner." Spanner Cage and EricMottram. Copeland. Dolan. "The Death oftheAuthor. 2 (1977): 11.but rather thelimitsofour imagination. Cultural oftheArtwork. YouMust Take 58. Hemann (Leipzig: Breitkopf and Art. withnovel or epic."inJohn 53. undDichtungen. WilliamWeber. Hartel.2005). 1 (1974): 2-3. Quoted in ChrisShultis. ed. Jill Dolan.This video is now widely available on the internet. Large and WilliamWeber (Ithaca. Music. Brown'sCriticism Cage. N. 2007. interview bv author Greelev.der Geist.93. Norton."10. Room Woolf. thanitis to grasp itas an objectofmeditation.35. Colo.der eine kunstlerische igen Gemeindeinstitutionen Korperschaft ihreswahrenZweckes verbindet. wurde sichinjederanderngesellschaftlichen Erreichung Zweck lassen. Walter Kunstund die Revolution. John "The Pleasure ofChaos. Jacob's (New York:Harcourt. analogous to theriddles or koanof the various mysticaltraditions.say.23.vol.2004.physicalas well as conto make us aware of the limitsof our present focus. PeterGay. See thelandmarkessay on thistopic. Lenhardt(London: Routledge. 43.Woolf. 1994). in Richard Samtliche ed. 47. Millington. erreichen. David C.C. 50. Caee and Nvffeler. 1986). 51. Theory. 10.29. no. John Cage: Cage. 49. 1. wrote. CharlesHamm. No. TheNakedHeart." October . or the aporias of classical philosophy. TheBourgeois Experience York:W. but ratherin an interaction between composer and audience withina context. KarinBauer. Illinois. "Gesamtkunstwerk". Whatis ironicis thatCage did appear on television in January of "WaterWalk" forthepopular show I've Gota Secret ance was a performance 1960. and the ProductionofUtopian Discourse" Diacritics 7. FredricJamesonargued thatthe role of the Utopianis not to bringthe future into ." Schriften Wagner u. campus in 2004 was 6 percent. "Die Kunstund ihreInstitute und Musterallerkunftzur werden. 44.The Utopianartwork highlights is less revealingto considerUtopian discourse as a mode of narrative. Theodor Adorno."Looking Myselfin theMouth.: Cornell ropean Press. University a GlobalPointofView. Mav 31.188.68-69.1995).Text. 1969). Culture ed. a fewtimes.496 Heimbecker 42. Putting MusicinItsPlace(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversity Popular Press.whose function is to provoke a fruitful consciousness of its own powers. The creation ofmeaningin thiscase lies notwiththecomposerwho presents a work to the audience. MarjoriePerloff (Chicago: University Composed Chicago.denn eben all' unser zukunftiges gesellschaftliches wirdas Richtige "Die nurreinkustlerischer Naturnoch sein. Author's translation.
" Utopian andthe A Study IdealSociety: 1516-1700(Cambridge: Davis."SpacesofUtopia:An Electronic 3 (2006): 105. John 184. taxassessors.no. 1 (1996): 98. 72.Joy Black Power "Integration 1965-1975(Urbana: University on Campus:TheUniversity ofIllinoisPress.2007."However.no.no. John Cage. Levy.in "'LivingwithinDiscipline.Gleason. Champaign. people agree upon the termsof the disciplineand act in accord withit. 497 from theAnnual Meeting. Rainer. Grosz. Gleason.Stone Award forLifetime Service toryRemarksby Stan Levy in Presenting CivilLiberties UnionofIllinois.cultural. power. 73.the desiresofwhichwill be.000. 62. Blackpower from StokelyCarmichael. ofIllinois. Michael Fultz.Interview by author. Accordingto Williamson.up. Cage and Friedman. Empty (Middletown.economic. institutions.ed.letras.. Blackeconomicpower meantequalityofthestandardoflivingof mayors. in some respects."TheACLU News:American Champaign CreatesMore Diverse Campus at U." 272-73. (Ann Arbor:University For example. Tulv10 and 17.2006).pdf 71.2004:Introducthe VictorJ.BlackPoweron Campus. "The Universities AreAskingfor It. e-mailsto author."Looking Myselfin theMouth. 66. HenryFlint. the university settingthathosted HPSCHD . "Black Power on Campus: The Universityof Illinois. in the 25.is notcentralto theidea of Black Power: "Black Power became a widely popular ideology. 53."in Writings of MichiganPress.and Blackpoliticalpower meantBlackpolice officers. Blackculturalpower AfricanAmericansand thedevelopmentofcommunity and self-definition. 2 (2004). most of the damage was caused by nonstudents to gain access to the studentunion fromwhich theywere regularlyturnedaway tunity by campus police. psychological and legislators. group.C."A ConversationwithJohn Cage". Rob Haskins. Erica Munk. Studies1.183-84. (Book Reviews). StanLevy. theMusicircus. have little to no agencyin theexactnatureof the participants underwhichtheyabide. sense thatCage seemed to understandit. In the former." "RecentStudies in the His269. See also J. toryofUtopian Thought(Book Review). AnnWilliamson.a Living Theaterperformance was presentedat the Roundhouse in July of 1967alongside lectures and a call for by Marcuse. 44. OnlyConnect: TheLivingTheatre and itsAudiences of Michigan Press. Words 68. "Integration Chapter County Illinois. Chicago Sept." from theAnnual Meeting. Press.See Malcolm Miles. "The End ofUtopia: Imminent and ImmanentLiberation.11. PeterStillman.It included political. 5.1979). "All Press."Accordingto David Eisen63. "The Futureof Music" in Empty 76.Accordingto Davis. from http: //ler. 65. about 69.pt/uploads/ftcheiros/3065. Eisenman claimed thatthe damage totaledabout $2. Utopia ofEnglish Utopian Writing. John CT: WesleyanUniversity Cage.279. unlimited"(19). 2007. Cage."Award Presentations who saw the protestas an opporman. 1 (1990): 107.1981). Words. to Clarence Shelley. Illinois". Grosz. Tribune.1968.2003). See Williamson."attempted to clarify Cage's understanding of anarchyby pointingout that"Classic anarchistic thoughtdescribesthe important distinction between living withindiscipline and living under discipline. "ImprovisedMusic after 1950:Afrological and EurologicalPerspecMusic Research tives" Black Journal 16. Journal ofAfrican YouMust Take a GlobalPointofView. Cage and Nyffeler. theyare coercedto complythrough thethreat disciplinary system of surveillanceand punishment."editorial." meantself-determination 67. "The Time ofArchitecture. 74.just as theydo in In thelatter. George Lewis. July 64.a readingofmantras byAllan Ginsberg. components. RichardKostelanetz "Cage and Fluxus.111." American History (2004): 195-96."69-70.and Utopia HPSCHD. David Patterson. (Ann Arbor:University 70.available Journal . Gesamtkunstwerk. 75. "The Time ofArchitecture.1993). Utopiais always totalitarian: CambridgeUniversity ideal societies must solve the problem of relatingthe existingand changing supply of some ofwhichare by naturelimitedin supply to thewants ofa heteogenial satisfactions."Award Presentations April18. CreatesMore DiverseCampus at U.
which is passive." 80. ested. Copeland. 79.originally with thiswork to which he was introducedby David Tudor and MC Richardsat Black Mountain College. 47. 78. 82. 1976). ofCapitalism 51. Artaud contrasts the European idea of art." Artsin Society 6. magical. TheCultural Contradictions (New York:Basic Books.trans. Quoted in Shultis. AntoninArtaud.1958).in which the threatof surveillanceand punishment was always present. 77.and which "operatesby exaltationand force"(10). Rainer.MaryCarolineRichards heThedtre etsonDouble(1938). Daniel Bell. Cage was familiar (New York:GrovePress. "LookingMyself 67.authorof TheTheater and Its Double. 81. 1 (1969): 27. disinterwithwhat he calls "authentic"cultureswhose artis interested."Mapping thePostmodern. "A CommunitvofOriginals.inert. 80. GilbertChase.498 Heimbecker in 1969. was a settingof strictly coded behavior. AndreasHuyssen. Jencks. "A LivingOxymoron." in theMouth.one may argue." in ThePost-Modern ed."10. no. Reader. "Toward a TotalMusical Theatre. .
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