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"Basilides" redirects here. For the 17th century Ethiopian Emperor, see Fasilides of Ethiopia. For the martyr, see Basilides and Potamiana. Basilides (Greek: Βασιλείδης) was an early Gnostic religious teacher in Alexandria, Egypt  who taught from 117–138 AD,[* 1] and was a pupil of either Menander, or an alleged interpreter of St. Peter named Glaucias.  The Acts of the Disputation with Manes state that for a time he taught among the Persians. He is believed to have written over two dozen books of commentary on the Christian Gospel (now all lost) entitled Exegetica, making him one of the earliest Gospel commentators. Only fragments of his works are preserved that supplement the knowledge furnished by his opponents.  The followers of Basilides, the Basilidians, formed a movement that persisted for at least two centuries after him – St. Epiphanius of Salamis, at the end of the 4th century, recognized a persistent Basilidian Gnosis in Egypt. It is probable, however, that the school melded into the main stream of Gnosticism by the latter half of the 2nd century. 
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History Early schools · Syrian-Egyptic · Modern schools · Mandaeism · Manichaeism · Sabians · Sabians of Harran · Proto-Gnostics Philo · Simon Magus · Cerinthus · Valentinus (Gnostic) · Basilides · Menander (gnostic) · Scriptures Gnostic Gospels · Nag Hammadi library · Codex Tchacos · Askew Codex · Pseudo-Abdias · Bruce Codex · Berlin Codex · Clementine literature · Gnosticism and the New Testament · Related articles Gnosis · Jnana · Esoteric Christianity · Theosophy · Neoplatonism and Gnosticism ·
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1 Expositions of the Prophet Parchor 4.3 Other Works 6.1 Church Fathers 6.com .5 Martyrdom 1.Français Galego 한국어 Bahasa Indonesia Italiano Magyar Nederlands 日本語 Polski Português Русский Slovenčina Српски / srpski Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски Suomi Edit links Contents [hide] 1 Doctrine 1.2 On an Adherent Soul 4.2 Writings of Basilides 6.6 Passions 2 Practices 2.3 Metempsychosis 1.2 Influence 6 Sources 6.4 Hell 1.6 Traditions of Matthias 3 Acts of the Disputation with Manes 4 Isidorus 4.5 Prophets 2.1 Popularity 5.4 Artifacts 7 Notes Theosophy · Neoplatonism and Gnosticism · List of Gnostic sects · List of gnostic terms · V · T · E· open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.3 Meat offered to idols and apostasy 2.1 Creation 1.3 Ethics 5 Legacy 5.2 Faith and Election 1.1 Marriage 2.2 Epiphany 2.4 Silence 2.
Hippolytus (in his Philosophumena)." not of responsible choice. a dualist [clarification needed] and an emanationist. are so strongly divergent that they seem to many quite irreconcilable. probably drew their knowledge of the system directly from Basilides' own work. because they are not present". as being by nature supermundane". He also believed faith was a matter of "nature. Irenaeus (in his Adversus Haereses ) and St.  Because Basilides believed faith was a matter of nature. Clement of Alexandria surely.8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External links Doctrine  Main article: Basilidians Creation  The descriptions of the Basilidian system given by our chief informants. but a later corruption of the system. have the opinion that: "Irenaeus described a form of Basilideanism which was not the original. such as Philip Shaff. doubtlessly he pushed election so far as to sever a portion of mankind from the rest. the Exegetica. St. so that men would "discover doctrines without demonstration by an intellective apprehension". On the other hand. In this sense it must have been that he called "the election a stranger to the world. and Hippolytus. Basilides was apparently a pantheistic evolutionist [clarification needed].com .  Basilides also appears to have accumulated forms of dignity in accordance with ones' faith.  Historians. in the fuller account of his Philosophumena. and hence represent the form of doctrine taught by Basilides himself". According to Hippolytus. as alone entitled by Divine decree to receive a higher enlightenment. and according to Irenaeus.  open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.  Faith and Election  Basilides believed faith was merely "an assent of the soul to any of the things which do not excite sensation.
 Hell  Origen complained that Basilides deprived men of a salutary fear by teaching that transmigrations are the only punishments after death. before I came into this body. stating that these are certain spirits that append (προσηρτημένα) themselves to rational souls in a certain primitive turmoil and confusion. It is impossible to determine the precise origin of this singular theory. 'I lived without a law once. The infant is said to receive a benefit when it is subjected to suffering.  Martyrdom  Because Basilides held to a fatalistic view of metempsychosis. it will not be "by the design of an [adverse] power"." To this doctrine of metempsychosis the Basilidians are likewise said to have referred the language of the Lord about requital to the third and fourth generations. and not only acquire the impulses of the irrational animals. he believed the Christian martyrs were being punished not for being Christians.  The Apostle said.com . but it was probably connected with open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. that of a beast namely. but even imitate the movements and beauties of plants.' that is.  However. they imitate the actions of those they are appended to. Then. but as suffers the babe who appears to have committed no sin. I lived in such a form of body as was not under a law.  Origen states that Basilides himself interpreted Romans 7:9 in this sense. "the elect soul" suffering "honourably through martyrdom. if there be any who suffers without previous sin. or a bird.Metempsychosis  Basilides likewise brought in the notion of sin in a past stage of existence suffering its penalty here.  This is why Origen says that he depreciated the martyrs. and the soul of another kind being cleansed by an appropriate punishment. These Appendages can also have characteristics of habit [derived from stones].  Passions  The Basilideans were accustomed to call the passions Appendages . but for sins they had committed in the past. as the hardness of adamant. "gaining" many hardships.
 St.the doctrine of metempsychosis . 'Brother. lay thy hand on me. and transcribes the language used about the class above mentioned. Hippolytus of Rome implied that Basilides regarded the Baptism as the open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. nothing can befall me'. let him say 'I have entered into the holy place. Clement  gives specimens of the teaching of Basilides and his son Isidore. but sexual intercourse natural. But suppose a young man either poor or depressed. interposing in the midst an illustrative sentence from Isidore. let him only have the will to carry out completely what is good. St.' and he shall receive help both to mind and to senses. that I may sin not. let him not separate from his brother. and in accordance with the word [in the Gospel] unwilling to marry. by way of rebuke to the immorality of the later Basilidians. lest the punishment be reckoned to his account.com . But sometimes we say with the lips. in which there is nothing specially to note except the interpretation of the last class of eunuchs as those who remain in celibacy to avoid the distracting cares of providing a livelihood. yet not necessary. it seems clear that he attached some unusual significance to the event. like some others. and he shall succeed.' while our thoughts are turned towards sinning: such an one abstains by reason of fear from doing what he wills.  Epiphany  Although we have no evidence that Basilides. regarded Jesus's Baptism as the time when a Divine being first was joined to Jesus of Nazareth. but if he have a suspicion. He first reports the exposition of Matthew 19:11 (or a similar evangelic passage). let him say. Practices Marriage   Reciting the views of different heretics on marriage. He goes on to the paraphrase of 1 Corinthians 7:9 . Clement of Alexandria stated that the plurality of souls makes the body a Trojan horse. which seemed to find support in Plato's Timaeus . But the estate of mankind has only certain things at once necessary and natural. 'We will not sin. clothing being necessary and natural.
 open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. who said that Basilides: "taught also that the eating of meat offered to idols and the unguarded renunciation of the faith in times of persecution were matters of indifference".  Prophets  Agrippa Castor stated that Basilides "invented prophets for himself named Barcabbas and Barcoph. states that the Basilideans celebrated the night before the Epiphany singing and flute-playing in a heathen temple at Alexandria: so that probably the Basilidian rite was a modification of an old local custom. partly from the actual doctrine and practices of later Basilidians." says Clement.com .  Traditions of Matthias  According to Basilides and Isidore.  It appears as if Basilides was actually saying that the eating of meat offered to idols and apostasy weren't condemned for immorality. but were punishments because of immorality. Clement of Alexandria's Stromata. but it may also have had some justification in incidental words which have not been preserved. from St. Matthias spoke to them mystical doctrines which he heard in private teaching from the Saviour. The true name was apparently the Traditions of Matthias ." The Venice MS.  "celebrate the day of His Baptism by a preliminary night-service of [Scripture] readings.  The alleged prophecies apparently belonged to the apocryphal Zoroastrian literature popular with various Gnostics. it appears that Agrippa Castor misunderstood the purpose of Basilides's argument.  Silence  According to Agrippa Castor.occasion when Jesus received "the Gospel" by a Divine illumination.  Meat offered to idols and apostasy  Eusebius of Caesarea quotes Agrippa Castor.  "They of Basilides. Basilides "in Pythagorean fashion" prescribed a silence of five years to his disciples.  Origen also and after him Eusebius refer to a "Gospel" of or according to Matthias. and others that had no existence".  However.
it has been justly urged that the two passages are addressed to different persons.  Indeed the description of evil as a supervenient nature without root . with an interpretation of a parable among their contents.  The identity of the Basilides of the Acts with the Alexandrian has been denied by Gieseler with some show of reason. and the quotation which he gives by no means bears him out. but in the next sentence he treats them as jointly responsible for the doctrines which he recites.  On the other hand.Acts of the Disputation with Manes  The writer of Acts held Basilides responsible for dualism. as if he were not sure of his ground. The correspondence is likewise remarkable between the "treatises" in at least thirteen books.com Isidore's Expositions of the Prophet Parchor taught the higher thoughts of heathen philosophers and . But the ambiguity of interpretation remains. and all the more since he has been previously mentioned with Marcion and Valentinus as a heretic of familiar name. Our only other authority respecting Isidore is Clement (copied by Theodoret). who calls him in like manner "at once son and disciple" of Basilides. reads almost as if it were directed against Persian doctrine. who have given a wrong interpretation to genuine words of their master.  Expositions of the Prophet Parchor open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API  pdfcrowd. called Exegetica by Clement. and may be fairly interpreted by Basilides's comparison of pain and fear to the rust of iron as natural accidents. even if the passage in the Acts stood alone: much more to use it as a standard by which to force a dualistic interpretation upon other clearer statements of his doctrine.  Isidorus  Hippolytus  couples with Basilides "his true child and disciple" Isidore. and the "twenty-four books on the Gospel" mentioned by Agrippa Castor. He is there referring to the use which they made of the Traditions of Matthias ." a character in which he is otherwise unknown. Thus the evidence for the identity of the two writers may on the whole be treated as preponderating. and it would be impossible to rank Basilides confidently among dualists. It is quite conceivable that his understanding of Basilides came from the dualistic Basilidians of his day. It is at least strange that our Basilides should be described simply as a "preacher among the Persians. yet his language on this point is loose.
Greek philosophy. and the Christian faith and Scriptures all exercised a powerful and immediate influence over his mind. And when your prayer of thanksgiving. it has been remoulded in a Greek spirit. and your request is not that in future you may do right. then. It is evident at a glance that his system is far removed from any known form of Syrian or original Gnosticism."  Legacy  Gnosticism was throughout eclectic. then pray with an undisturbed conscience. he says.com . but there is little doubt that they were at least approximately contemporaries. But when you have rejected the fire of the seed.mythologers were derived from Jewish sources. "by overcoming the inferior creation within us through the reasoning faculty.  Ethics  A passage from Isidore's Ethics says: "Abstain. Antecedent Gnosticism. a son of Noah.  Isidore was proving his validity as a descendant of the prophets. who had probably a peculiar interest for Isidore as the earliest promulgator of the doctrine of metempsychosis known to tradition.  Isidore's allegation that Pherecydes followed "the prophecy of Ham" was also used to claim that the apocryphal Zoroastrian books had quasi-biblical sanctity as proceeding from Zoroaster.  On an Adherent Soul  In his book On an Adherent Soul." he says. but that you may do no wrong. from a quarrelsome woman lest you are distracted from the grace of God.  He insists on the unity of the soul. Like that of Valentinus.  Ancient writers usually name Basilides before Valentinus. and it is not unlikely that Valentinus was best known personally from his open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. to show ourselves to have the mastery". "descends to a prayer of request.  So. Isidore appears to have argued against his father's teaching on "Appendages". by quoting the philosopher Pherecydes. and maintains that bad men will find "no common excuse" in the violence of the "appendages" for pleading that their evil acts were involuntary: "our duty is". then marry. so Isidore gladly accepted the theory as evidence for his argument. and Basilides superadded an eclecticism of his own. but much more completely.
Further.  putting forth or pullulation. which was probably  the last of the recorded stages of his life.  An antecedent matter was expressly repudiated.  In no point. unless it be the retention of the widely spread term archon.sojourn at Rome.  Popularity  Basilides had to all appearance no eminent disciple except his own son.com Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API . and a Divine counsel represented as foreordaining all future growths and processes. while several leading Gnostic forms or ideas which he discards or even repudiates are held fast by Valentinus. the system of Valentinus seems to have been much more popular and wider spread. the unique name given by Basilides to the Holy Spirit.  as was also Marcionism. but they melted away in the distance together. There is at all events no serious chronological difficulty in supposing that the Valentinian system was the starting-point from which Basilides proceeded to construct by contrast his own theory. the earthly and the heavenly elements in the Person of Jesus. while the dealings of God with man were shut up within the lines of mechanical justice. and this is the view which a comparison of doctrines suggests. Influence open in browser PRO version  pdfcrowd. creation and redemption. The strongest impulse in this direction probably came from Christian ideas. yet the chaotic nullity out of which the developed universe was to spring was attributed with equal boldness to its Maker: Creator and creation were not confused. as of matter and spirit. it remained an energy of the understanding.  Such are descent from above. the Jewish age and the Christian age. The same softening of oppositions which retain much of their force even with Valentinus shows itself in other instances. and the deposition of faith to a lower level than knowledge. Although Basilides is mentioned by all the Church Fathers as one of the chiefs of Gnosticism." together with the place assigned to it. confined to those who had the requisite inborn capacity. Thus though faith regained its rights. the words of Genesis 1:3 eagerly appropriated. is Basilides nearer than Valentinus to the older Gnosticism. syzygies of male and female powers. but as practically the supreme and permanent arbiter of destiny.  Nature was accepted not only as prescribing the conditions of the lower life. can hardly be anything else than a transformation of the strange Valentinian "Limit". "the Limitary (μεθόριον) Spirit.
but really by another hand. Against All Heresies . Chapter vii. written between 208 and 210. etc.20th-century psychoanalyst Carl Jung wrote his Seven Sermons to the Dead and attributed them to Basilides. Stromata.. Chapter I.. St.  Basilides also appears in Borges' "Three Versions of Judas" (1944). Book IV. Ecclesiastical History . Book VII. xii.. written about 225. Philosophumena. and it is impossible to determine how reliable these accounts are. Epiphanius of Salamis. Sect xxiv. Hippolytus of Rome. Book V. St. Chapters vi. in the second century of our faith. Chapter xxi. and we are dependent upon the later accounts of: Eusebius of Caesarea. Pseudo-Tertullian. is lost. Theodoret of Cyrus. written about 240 and based upon a non-extant "Compendium" of St. Book IV. Sources   Church Fathers Historians know of Basilides and his teachings mainly through the writings of his detractors. Book I.com Nearly everything Basilides wrote has been lost. Clement of Alexandria.". Chapters xi. Book I. and xx. but the names of three of his works and fragments are Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API . Hippolytus. which opens with the striking passage: "In Asia Minor or in Alexandria. St. written around the 4th century. and the so-called Excerpta ex Theodoto perhaps from the same hand. perhaps by Victorinus of Pettau. Panarion. Chapter iv. Book I. and xxv. Book II. Writings of Basilides open in browser PRO version  pdfcrowd. viii.  The Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges was interested in Irenaeus' account of Basilides' Gnostic doctrine and wrote an essay on the subject: "A Vindication of the False Basilides" (1932). when Basilides published that the Cosmos was a reckless or evil improvisation by deficient angels.  Basilides' Gnostic Gospel is one of the books mentioned in Borges's short story "The Library of Babel" (1941). a little treatise usually attached to Tertullian's De Praescriptionibus . by Agrippa Castor.  The oldest refutation of the teachings of Basilides. Compendium of Heretical Accounts .
. Book I. Artifacts  Artistic remains of Gnosticism such as Abrasax gems.  speaks of "Odes" of Basilides. Chapter 12. Clement of Alexandria in his Stromata. Yet no trace of a Gospel by Basilides exists elsewhere. and it is possible either that Origen misunderstood the nature of the Exegetica.available in the present day:  Fragments of the Exegetica are available from St.  Origen in a note on Job. or that the Gospel was known under another name. xxi. Ambrose repeat Origen. though not strictly Basilidian. 1 sqq.  Other Works  Some fragments are known through the work of Clement of Alexandria:  The Octet of Subsistent Entities (Fragment A) The Uniqueness of the World (Fragment B) Election Naturally Entails Faith and Virtue (Fragment C) The State of Virtue (Fragment D) The Elect Transcend the World (Fragment E) Reincarnation (Fragment F) Human Suffering and the Goodness of Providence (Fragment G) Forgivable Sins (Fragment H) A book called Acts of the Disputation with Manes . Origen states that "Basilides had even the audacity to write a Gospel according to Basilides". which was written during the close of the 3rd century or later. Book IV. the latter part of which probably dates back to the end of the 2nd century and. Jerome and St. and literary remains like the Pistis Sophia. and from Archelaus in his Acts of the Disputation with Manes . yet illustrates early Alexandrian Gnosticism. Chapter 55. and probably also from Origen in his Commentary on Romans V.  open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com . speaks about the Basilidean origins of Manichaeism. and both St.
References  1. is the testimony of Justin Martyr. ^ a b c d e Eusebius of Caesarea. Clement of Alexandria. Second Series volume=? page 178. that of the apostles.[verification needed ] ^ St. that he meant to assign both writers to the same reign. 253 f.[verification needed ] 5. but vaguest. 62 B. p.133) has the note "The heresiarch Basilides appeared at these times". Chapter xvii. 17 ) assigns Christ's own teaching to the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius. ^ Hort 1911 states that "It is a singular testimony to the impression created at the outset by Basilides and his system that he remained for centuries one of the eponymi of heresy". p. followed by Eus. ^ Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers." He gives as examples Basilides. 9. note 7. xxiv. Clement of Alexandria. Gnostic scholar Bentley "Layton accepts the Glaukias connection". Stromata Book iv. 1. 4. ISBN 0-567-08640-2 8. Clement of Alexandria. Yet his language about Carpocrates a few lines further on suggests a doubt whether he had any better evidence than a fallacious inference from their order in Irenaeus. 7. xxiii. Fab. Haer. 1. 68 c.[citation needed ] He was acquainted with the refutation of Basilides by Agrippa Castor. Chapter iii. in the time of Nero. as is sometimes assumed. of St. second and revised and expanded edition. Ecclesiastical History Book iv. 6. 2. Haer.Notes  1. Chapter i. 7. vii. His chronicle (Armenian) at the year 17 of Hadrian (A. 3. H. The probable inference that the other great heresiarchs. including Basilides. ^ Hort 1911 notes that to prove that the heretical sects were "later than the catholic Church. Stromata Book ii. Acts of the Disputation with Manes Chapter lv. ^ Archelaus. Paul at least. ^ St. iv. were by this time dead receives some confirmation from a passage in his Dialogue against Trypho (c. Chapter xxvi. cf. 10.com . page 310 (T & T Clark Ltd. and (if the text is sound) Marcion.. Chapter vii. 2. Earliest of all. whereas "the authors of the sects arose later. 135). about the times of the emperor Hadrian. ^ St. 100 Mass. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. p. and continued quite as late as the age of the elder Antoninus. he says. Epiph. ^ Hort 1911 cites Iren. 1980). Pearson 2008. ^ Mead 1900. E. Clement of Alexandria Stromata Book v. i." Clement of Alexandria (Stromata. Theod. but it is not clear. Stromata Book vii. Valentinus. 'Gnosis: The Nature & History of Gnosticism'. ^ Kurt Rudolph. ends. 4. 11.D. ^ St.
in Luc. Mor. 13. ^ Hort 1911 cites Strom. 29. iii. 767. 30. for 1856. ^ Hort 1911 cites Lipsius. in Matt. Expositio. ^ Timaeus 42 . ^ Hort 1911 cites H. in Matt. 33. ^ Hort 1911 cites Cf. ii. ^ Strom. 146. l. Comentary on the Gospel of Matthew Prologue ^ Hort 1911 cites Ambrose. Ketzergeschichte. ^ a b St. i. Jahrb. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Hort 1911. iii. Hippolytus of Rome. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.c. 510.com . 39. p. ^ Strom. iii. ^ Hort 1911 cites Origen. 14. ^ a b St. iii. 452. ii. c. E. ii. H. ^ St. Homilies on Luke 1. 483 Dind. iii p. 256. 25. ^ Hort 1911 cites Venice MS. 29.[verification needed ] ^ Hort 1911 cites Routh. ^ Hort 1911 cites Exc. iii. 18. 34.1. 3. E. Philos. 22. 23. 17. 90 f . 36. 976. Chapter xx. ^ Hort 1911 cites Strom. 32. Clement of Alexandria. 508 ff. 42. 4). 15. ^ Hort 1911 cites St. ^ Hort 1911 cites Com. Philos. ^ Hort 1911 cites Strom. d. ält. Philosophumena Book vii. 6. Chapter viii.: iii. iv. ^ St. 933. 856 Ru. ^ See a passage at the end of Hippolytus. Uhlhorn. 138. 52 f. ^ Hort 1911 cites Com. Stromata Book iv. Lucae i.2. 408. 25. vii. Zeller. Griechen. 35. ^ Cf. vii.[verification needed ] ^ Hort 1911 cites Baur in Theol. 38. Theod. 28. t. 882. 38.12. ^ Hort 1911 cites Com. 19. ed. ^ Hort 1911 cites Cf. 55 f. p. Chapter xii. 24. 632 Oehler. Philosophumena Book vii. Clement of Alexandria. 900. ^ Hort 1911 cites Strom. 16. Sac. 156 f. 37.[verification needed ] ^ Hort 1911 cites Hom. Euangelii. Ru. 21. vii. i. 523 (copied by Eusebius. 27. 41. Hippolytus of Rome. 989. in Rom. i. ^ Hort 1911 cites Strom. ^ Arendzen 1913. 549. 40. Stromata Book ii. 26. 31. 22. Plut. Quellen d. Jerome. vi. iii. 488. Rell. 20.
ISBN 978-90-04-07926-7. Köln: E. Arendzen. Hugh. New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (third ed. (1911).). ISBN 978-0-8132-0117-7. Volume 1. Francis Legge. Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century (third ed. ISBN 978-90-04-17038-4. Scheck. Trans.J. Thomas P. "Basilides the Gnostic". u. p. xi. I. Hippolytus of Rome (1921). Hilgenfeld. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. Buonaiuti. Birger A. s. Homilies on Luke . William C.com .). Hist.v. Lo Gnosticismo (Rome. ed.43. . Leiden. John Peter (1913). Fenton John Anthony (1911). In Wace. Chisholm. Paris. Origen (1996). Bibliography Attribution  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Hort. p. 50–51. London and New York: Funk and Wagnalls. Clem. Samuel Macauley. La Gnose et le Marcionisme open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. ancienne de l'Eglise (3d ed. Williams. A Companion to Second-Century Christian "Heretics" . pp. (2008). Frank (1987). In Marjanen. Commentary on Matthew . Petri.. London: John Murray. 1907). Philosophumena . ISBN 978-0-8132-0094-1. St. Hom. "Basilides". New York: Robert Appleton Company. Trans. New York. Joseph T. Brill. Gnostic sect founder". Catholic University of America Press. 123 ff. Luomanen. Jerome (2008). Trans. 70 ff. ^ Hort 1911 cites Cf. Piercy. 73–74. Henry. 78. Lienhard. Antti. The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis København. 1907) Duchesne. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Jackson. Primary sources St. "Basilides. "Basilides". Leiden: Brill. Rec.). Catholic University of America Press. (1914). pp. Catholic Encyclopedia. "Basilides (1)". ed. 6. New York: The Macmillan Company. Secondary sources Pearson. Cambridge University Press.
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