A A Technical Technical Introduction Introduction to to Wireless Wireless and and CDMA CDMA

July, 2008

Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

RF100 - 1

How Did We Get Here?
Days before radio.....
• 1680 Newton first suggested concept of spectrum, but for visible light only
N

U

S

• 1831 Faraday demonstrated that light, electricity, and magnetism are related • 1864 Maxwell’s Equations: spectrum includes more than light • 1890’s First successful demos of radio transmission

LF HF VHF UHF MW IR

UV XRAY

July, 2008

Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

RF100 - 2

Telegraphy
Q Samuel F.B. Morse had the idea of the telegraph on a sea cruise in the 1833. He studied physics for two years, and In 1835 demonstrated a working prototype, which he patented in 1837. Q Derivatives of Morse’ binary code are still in use today Q The US Congress funded a demonstration line from Washington to Baltimore, completed in 1844. Q 1844: the first commercial telegraph circuits were coming into use. The railroads soon were using them for train dispatching, and the Western Union company resold idle Samuel F. B. Morse time on railroad circuits for public telegrams, nationwide at the peak of his career Q 1857: first trans-Atlantic submarine cable was installed

Submarine Cable Installation news sketch from the 1850’s
July, 2008

Field Telegraphy during the US Civil War, 1860’s
RF100 - 3

Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

Telephony
Q By the 1870’s, the telegraph was in use all over the world and largely taken for granted by the public, government, and business. Q In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell patented his telephone, a device for carrying actual voices over wires. Q Initial telephone demonstrations sparked intense public interest and by the late 1890’s, telephone service was available in most towns and cities across the USA

Alexander Graham Bell and his phone from 1876 demonstration
July, 2008

Telephone Line Installation Crew 1880’s
RF100 - 4

Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

Radio Milestones
Q 1888: Heinrich Hertz, German physicist, gives lab demo of existance of electromagnetic waves at radio frequencies Q 1895: Guglielmo Marconi demonstrates a wireless radio telegraph over a 3-km path near his home it Italy Q 1897: the British fund Marconi’s development of reliable radio telegraphy over ranges of 100 kM Q 1902: Marconi’s successful trans-Atlantic demonstration Q 1902: Nathan Stubblefield demonstrates voice over radio Guglielmo Marconi Q 1906: Lee De Forest invents “audion”, triode vacuum tube radio pioneer, 1895
• feasible now to make steady carriers, and to amplify signals

MTS, IMTS

Q 1914: Radio became valuable military tool in World War I Q 1920s: Radio used for commercial broadcasting Q 1940s: first application of RADAR - English detection of incoming German planes during WW II Q 1950s: first public marriage of radio and telephony - MTS, Mobile Telephone System Q 1961: transistor developed: portable radio now practical Q 1961: IMTS - Improved Mobile Telephone Service Lee De Forest Q 1970s: Integrated circuit progress: MSI, LSI, VLSI, ASICs vacuum tube inventor Q 1979, 1983: AMPS cellular demo, commercial deployment
Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 - 5

July, 2008

RF100 v3.8 0.000.5 0...3 0.000.e.4 0.2 1.6 0.000 i.000.8 2.Frequencies Used by Wireless Systems Overview of the Radio Spectrum AM LORAN Marine 3.000 i.0 3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .International Broadcast -.7 0. 3x108 Hz DCS.6 1.e.e.000 i.9 1. 3x109 Hz 2.000.000 i.4 1.4 3. 3x10 Hz Broadcasting July.4 3.3 0.0 GHz 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 GHz 10 30.0 1. 3x106 Hz CB 30.000 i.4 1.0 . PCS 240 300 MHz UHF TV 14-69 0.6 1.0 MHz Short Wave -.5 0/6 0.000.4 0.0 2.e. 3x10 Hz 0.0 1.. 2008 Land-Mobile Aeronautical Mobile Telephony Terrestrial Microwave Satellite RF100 .000.e.6 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -..Amateur 3 4 VHF LOW Band 5 6 7 8 9 10 FM 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 MHz 7 VHF VHF TV 7-13 VHF TV 2-6 30 40 50 UHF 60 70 80 90 100 Cellular 120 140 160 180 200 GPS 300.8 0.8 2.9 1.000.7 0..2 1.

7 . IS-136) (also. additional technologies were developed for cellular • TDMA (IS-54. the FCC (USA Federal Communications Commission) and the Canadian government allocated 40 MHz. the FCC allocated 10 mHz.000’s) were charged to cover license administrative cost 333 MSAs 300+ RSAs July. although processing fees (typically $10. Q FCC adopted Bell Lab’s AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) standard. GSM in Europe/worldwide) • CDMA (IS-95) Q US Operators did not pay for their spectrum. creating cellular as we know it today • The USA was divided into 333 MSAs (Metropolitan Service Areas) and over 300 RSAs (Rural Service Areas) Q By 1990. range for public mobile telephony.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.55. all MSAs and RSAs had competing licenses granted and at least one system operating. of spectrum in the 800 MHz.Development of North American Cellular Q In the late 1970’s. Q In 1987. of expanded spectrum Q In the 1990’s.0 .RF100 v3. Canadian markets also developed.56.

etc.North American Cellular Spectrum Uplink Frequencies (“Reverse Path”) 824 835 845 849 Downlink Frequencies (“Forward Path”) Frequency. MHz Paging.RF100 v3. eligibility for ownership was restricted • “A” licenses awarded to non-telephone-company applicants only • “B” licenses awareded to existing telephone companies only • subsequent sales are unrestricted after system in actual operation July.8 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.5 Ownership and Licensing Frequencies used by “A” Cellular Operator Initial ownership by Non-Wireline companies Frequencies used by “B” Cellular Operator Initial ownership by Wireline companies Q In each MSA and RSA. 846.5 869 870 880 890 894 A 825 B A B 891.0 . ESMR.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.9 . US cellular systems were seriously overloaded and looking for capacity relief • The FCC allocated 120 MHz.RF100 v3. 10-year licenses were auctioned to highest bidders Q PCS Licensing and Auction Details • A & B spectrum blocks licensed in 51 MTAs (Major Trading Areas ) • Revenue from auction: $7.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . for unlicensed services • allocation was divided into 6 blocks. 1930 MHz. D-E-F block auction: $2+ B (1996) • Auction winners are free to choose any desired technology 51 MTAs 493 BTAs PCS SPECTRUM ALLOCATIONS IN NORTH AMERICA A 1850 MHz.Development of North America PCS Q By 1994. July. data voice A 15 D 5 B 15 E F 5 5 C 15 1990 MHz. F blocks were licensed in 493 BTAs (Basic Trading Areas) • C-block auction revenue: $10.0 . E. D.2 B. of spectrum around 1900 MHz. 15 D 5 B 15 E F 5 5 C 15 unlic. for new wireless telephony known as PCS (Personal Communications Systems). 1910 MHz. and 20 MHz.2 billion (1995) • C. unlic.

CDMA is the most prevalent technology at 52.051.279 2.6% 52.000 USA 252.000 40.400.000 of each.8% 132.RF100 v3.571.243.10 .9% 17.131 84.0% Q Total Worldwide Wireless customers surpassed total worldwide landline customers at year-end 2002.696.563.5% penetration Q Both CDMA and GSM are growing in the US • IS-136 TDMA systems were converted to GSM + GPRS + EDGE July.279 451.131 0.3% 102.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . with 1.00.659.575. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.000 28.5% 7.0 .8% Q In the US.000 14.200.018. Q 4/5 of worldwide wireless customers use the GSM technology Q CDMA is second-most-prevalent with 14.080.Global and US Wireless Subscribers 1Q 2008 Total GSM CDMA IDEN Global 3.

(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Chapter 2 Modulation Modulation and and Signal Signal Bandwidth Bandwidth Wireless Wireless Systems: Systems: Q axis b a fc Lower Sideband Upper Sideband 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 Q axis r c φ I axis fc QPSK b a c φ I axis fc p v π/4 shifted DQPSK fc July.11 .RF100 v3.0 .

Characteristics of a Radio Signal SIGNAL CHARACTERISTICS The complete.0 . some characteristic of the radio signal must be altered (I. timevarying radio signal Natural Frequency of the signal S (t) = A cos [ ωc t + ϕ ] Amplitude (strength) of the signal Phase of the signal Compare these Signals: Different Amplitudes Q The purpose of telecommunications is to send information from one place to another Q Our civilization exploits the transmissible nature of radio signals.e. ‘modulated’) to represent the information Q The sender and receiver must have a consistent understanding of what the variations mean to each other Q RF signal characteristics which can be varied for information transmission: Different Frequencies Different Phases July.RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .. using them in a sense as our “carrier pigeons” Q To convey information.12 . 2008 • Amplitude • Frequency • Phase Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.

called “input” or “baseband” • bandwidth usually is small.13 fc July.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. much lower than frequency of carrier Unmodulated carrier • the carrier itself has Zero bandwidth!! AM-modulated carrier • Notice the upper & lower sidebands • total bandwidth = 2 x baseband FM-modulated carrier • Many sidebands! bandwidth is a complex mathematical function PM-modulated carrier • Many sidebands! bandwidth is a complex mathematical function RF100 .Modulation and Occupied Bandwidth Time-Domain (as viewed on an Oscilloscope) Frequency-Domain (as viewed on a Spectrum Analyzer) Q The bandwidth occupied by a signal depends on: Voltage Voltage Q Time 0 Frequency Q fc Lower Sideband Q Upper Sideband fc Q Q fc • input information bandwidth • modulation method Information to be transmitted.RF100 v3.

commercial. etc.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . England. and elsewhere.14 SSB LSB USB July. AM is still alive: • AM broadcasting continues today in 540-1600 KHz. band).The Emergence of AM: A bit of History Q The early radio pioneers first used binary transmission. Kentucky.). Q Despite its disadvantages and antiquity. • AM modulation remains the international civil aviation standard. military. turning their crude transmitters on and off to form the dots and dashes of Morse code. are used for marine.0 . The early experimenters couldn’t foresee other methods (FM. and amateur communications Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. 2008 .RF100 v3. The first successful demonstrations of radio occurred during the mid-1890’s by experimenters in Italy. Q Amplitude modulation was the first method used to transmit voice over radio. or today’s advanced digital devices and techniques. Q Commercial AM broadcasting to the public began in the early 1920’s. • AM modulation is used for the visual portion of commercial television signals (sound portion carried by FM modulation) • Citizens Band (“CB”) radios use AM modulation • Special variations of AM featuring single or independent sidebands. used by all commercial aircraft (108-132 MHz. with carrier suppressed or attenuated.

Frequency Modulation (“FM”) TIME-DOMAIN VIEW Q Frequency Modulation (FM) is a type of angle modulation • in FM. the instantaneous frequency of the signal is varied by the modulating waveform Q Advantages of FM • the amplitude is constant – simple saturated amplifiers can be used – the signal is relatively immune to external noise – the signal is relatively robust. in wireless applications Q Disadvantages of FM • relatively complex detectors are required • a large number of sidebands are produced. required C/I values are typically 17-18 dB. requiring even larger bandwidth than AM t sFM(t) =A cos ωc t + mω m(x)dx+ϕ0 t0 [ ] where: A = signal amplitude (constant) ωc = radian carrier frequency mω = frequency deviation index m(x) = modulating signal ϕ0 = initial phase FREQUENCY-DOMAIN VIEW Voltage LOWER SIDEBANDS UPPER SIDEBANDS SFM(t) 0 Frequency July. 2008 fc Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.RF100 v3.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .15 .

and use such signals to perform digital modulation. added to the noise and distortion from previous demodulations/remodulations.The Digital Advantage Q The modulating signals shown in previous slides were all analog. the effects of noise and distortion are cumulative: each demodulation and remodulation introduces new noise and distortion.16 transmission demodulation-remodulation transmission demodulation-remodulation transmission demodulation-remodulation July. restricting them to discrete values.0 . Digital modulation has several advantages over analog modulation: Q Digital signals can be more easily regenerated than analog • in analog systems. each demodulation and remodulation produces a clean output signal free of past noise and distortion Q Digital bit streams are ideally suited to many flexible multiplexing schemes RF100 . It is also possible to quantize modulating signals. • in digital systems.RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.

Theory of Digital Modulation: Sampling
m(t) Q Voice and other analog signals first must be sampled (converted to digital form) for digital modulation and transmission Q The sampling theorem gives the criteria necessary for successful sampling, digital modulation, and demodulation • The analog signal must be bandlimited (low-pass filtered) to contain no frequencies higher than fM • Sampling must occur at least twice as fast as fM in the analog signal. This is called the Nyquist Rate Q Required Bandwidth for p(t) • If each sample p(t) is expressed as an n-bit binary number, the bandwidth required to convey p(t) as a digital signal is at least N*2* fM • this follows Shannon’s Theorem: at least one Hertz of bandwidth is required to convey one bit per second of data
RF100 - 17

Sampling p(t)

m(t) Recovery

The Sampling Theorem: Two Parts
•If the signal contains no frequency higher than fM Hz., it is comletely described by specifying its samples taken at instants of time spaced 1/2 fM s. •The signal can be completely recovered from its samples taken at the rate of 2 fM samples per second or higher.
July, 2008

Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

Sampling Example: the 64 kb/s DS-0
Band-Limiting
0 dB -10dB -20dB -30dB -40dB 100 300 1000 3000 Frequency, Hz 10000

C-Message Weighting

16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

15

16

Companding
8

8 3 1 3 4 4

t

µ-Law

y = sgn( x )

(whereμ = 255) 1

ln(1 + μ| x |) ln(1 + μ )

A-LAW A| x| y = sgn(x)

for 0 ≤ x ≤ A ln(1 + A) 1 ln(1+ A | x )| y = sgn(x) for < x ≤1 A ln(1 + A)
( where A = 87. 6)

x = analog audio voltage y = quantized level (digital)

Q Telephony has adopted a world-wide PCM standard digital signal employing a 64 kb/s stream derived from sampled voice data Q Voice waveforms are band-limited • upper cutoff between 3500-4000 Hz. to avoid aliasing • rolloff below 300 Hz. to minimize vulnerability to “hum” from AC power mains Q Voice waveforms sampled at 8000/second rate • 8000 samples x 1 byte = 64,000 bits/second • A>D conversion is non-linear, one byte per sample, thus 256 quantized levels are possible • Levels are defined logarithmically rather than linearly to accommodate a wider range of audio levels with minimum distortion – μ-law companding (popular in North America & Japan) – A-law companding (used in most other countries) Q A>D and D>A functions are performed in a CODEC (coder-decoder) (see following figure)
RF100 - 18

July, 2008

Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

Digital Digital Modulation Modulation

July, 2008

Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

RF100 - 19

Modulation by Digital Inputs
Our previous modulation examples used continuously-variable analog inputs. If we quantize the inputs, restricting them to digital values, we will produce digital modulation.
Voltage

Time

1 1 1 1

0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0

Q For example, modulate a signal with this digital waveform. No more continuous analog variations, now we’re “shifting” between discrete levels. We call this “shift keying”. • The user gets to decide what levels mean “0” and “1” -- there are no inherent values Q Steady Carrier without modulation Q Amplitude Shift Keying ASK applications: digital microwave Q Frequency Shift Keying FSK applications: control messages in AMPS cellular; TDMA cellular Q Phase Shift Keying PSK applications: TDMA cellular, GSM & PCS-1900
RF100 - 20

July, 2008

Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

The “Einstein” of Information Theory and Signal Science
Q The core idea that makes CDMA possible was first explained by Claude Shannon, a Bell Labs research mathematician Q Shannon's work relates amount of information carried, channel bandwidth, signal-to-noise-ratio, and detection error probability • It shows the theoretical upper limit attainable
In 1948 Claude Shannon published his landmark paper on information theory, A Mathematical Theory of Communication. He observed that "the fundamental problem of communication is that of reproducing at one point either exactly or approximately a message selected at another point." His paper so clearly established the foundations of information theory that his framework and terminology are standard today. Shannon died Feb. 24, 2001, at age 84.
July, 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 - 21

Claude Shannon:

and does not support circuit-switched voice • Commercially available in 2003 Q 1xEV DV means “1x Evolution.2k reverse • Backward compatible with IS-95/1xRTT voice calls on the same carrier as the data • Not yet commercially available. CDMA IS-95. 307. DV QPSK 16QAM 1xEV-DO at highest rates 64QAM 1xEV-DV at highest rates July. IS-2000 1xRTT. • Max throughput of 5 Mbps forward. and lower rates of 1xEV-DO.22 . work continues Q All versions of 1xEV use advanced modulation techniques to achieve high throughputs. is a family of alternative fast-data schemes that can be implemented on a 1x CDMA carrier. “1x Evolution”.4576 Mbps forward.0 . • Up to 2. 153.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . Data Only”.Modulation Techniques of 1xEV Technologies Q 1xEV. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Q 1xEV DO means “1x Evolution.6 kbps reverse • A 1xEV DO carrier holds only packet data. originally proposed by Qualcomm as “High Data Rates” (HDR).RF100 v3. Data and Voice”.

23 July.0 .RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Digital Modulation Systems Q Each symbol of a digitally modulated RF signal conveys a number of bits of information • determined by the number of degrees of modulation freedom Q More complex modulation schemes can carry more bits per symbol in a given bandwidth. but require better signal-to-noise ratios Q The actual number of bits per second which can be conveyed in a given bandwidth under given signal-to-noise conditions is described by Shannon’s equations Modulation Scheme BPSK QPSK 8PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 256 QAM Shannon Limit.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter . BitsHz 1 b/s/hz 2 b/s/hz 3 b/s/hz 4 b/s/hz 5 b/s/hz 6 b/s/hz 8 b/s/hz SHANNON’S CAPACITY EQUATION C = Bω log2 [ 1+ S N ] Bω = bandwidth in Hertz C = channel capacity in bits/second S = signal power N = noise power RF100 .

0 . and possible requirement for linear amplifiers Q Linear Modulation Techniques • BPSK Binary Phase Shift Keying • DPSK Differential Phase Shift Keying • QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying IS-95 CDMA forward link – Offset QPSK IS-95 CDMA reverse link – Pi/4 DQPSK IS-54. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. required channel bandwidth.Digital Modulation Schemes Q There are many different schemes for digital modulation. IS-136 control and traffic channels Q Constant Envelope Modulation Schemes • BFSK Binary Frequency Shift Keying AMPS control channels • MSK Minimum Shift Keying • GMSK Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying GSM systems.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . CDPD Q Hybrid Combinations of Linear and Constant Envelope Modulation • MPSK M-ary Phase Shift Keying • QAM M-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation • MFSK M-ary Frequency Shift Keying FLEX paging protocol Q Spread Spectrum Multiple Access Techniques • DSSS Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum IS-95 CDMA • FHSS Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum July.RF100 v3. immunity to errors in transmission. each a compromise between complexity.24 .

QPSK) • Closely-packed constellations leave little room for vector error Q Non-linearities (gain compression.25 . clipping.) are more vulnerable to transmission errors than the simpler... 2008 Q Normal 64QAM Q Distortion (Gain Compression) I I Q Noise Q Interference I I Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.RF100 v3.0 . 64QAM. 32QAM.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .Error Vulnerabilities of Higher-Order Modulation Schemes Q Higher-Order Modulation Schemes (16PSK. reflections within antenna system) “warp” the constellation Q Noise and long-delayed echoes cause “scatter” around constellation points Q Interference blurs constellation points into “rings” of error July. more rugged schemes (BPSK.

89-0. ~0.RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .26 .1 Q EVM is usually averaged over a large number of symbols • Root-mean-square (RMS) Q Commercial test equipment for BTS maintenance measures EVM Q Signal quality is often expressed as 1-EVM • normally called ρ (“Rho”) • typically 0. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 .Error Vector Magnitude and ρ (“Rho”) Q A common measurement of overall error is Error Vector Magnitude “EVM” • usually a small fraction of total vector amplitude.96 July.

(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . paging) has its own amplitude. pilot.0 .27 . so that I and Q never change simultaneously and the mobile TX never passes through (0.RF100 v3. 2008 Q Axis Short PN I User’s chips Short PN Q 1/2 chip sin ωt cos ωt Σ I Axis Base Stations: QPSK Q Axis Short PN I User’s chips Short PN Q cos ωt Σ I Axis sin ωt Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0) sometimes. no reason to include 1/2 chip delay July.0) Q CDMA base stations use QPSK modulation • every signal (voice. sync. so the transmitter is unavoidably going through (0.Modulation used in IS-95 CDMA Systems Mobiles: OQPSK Q CDMA mobiles use offset QPSK modulation • the Q-sequence is delayed half a chip.

28 . Sync.RF100 v3.CDMA Base Station Modulation Views Q The view at top right shows the actual measured QPSK phase constellation of a CDMA base station in normal service Q The view at bottom right shows the measured power in the code domain for each walsh code on a CDMA BTS in actual service • Notice that not all walsh codes are active • Pilot.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Paging.0 . and certain traffic channels are in use July.

RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 .29 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .July.

RF100 v3.30 .Chapter 3 Multiple Multiple Access Access Technologies Technologies & & Standards Standards Wireless Wireless Systems: Systems: July.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.

GSM TDMA Power Ti m e F re e qu nc y •Each user occupies a specific frequency but only during an assigned time slot. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Multiple Access Methods FDMA Power T im e FDMA: AMPS & NAMPS ue q e Fr nc y •Each user occupies a private Frequency. protected from interference through physical separation from other users on the same frequency TDMA: IS-136. CDMA •Each user occupies a signal on a particular frequency simultaneously with many other users. but is uniquely distinguishable by correlation with a special code used only by this user RF100 .31 CDMA Power Tim E D CO F ue req nc y e July. The frequency is used by other users during other time slots.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .RF100 v3.

2 kb/s IDEN SECOND GENERATION IS-95B 64 -32 kb/s GSM HSCSD 32 – 19.6 – 4.6 kb/s 19.6 – 4.A Quick Survey of Wireless Data Technologies FOURTH GENERATION US CDMA WiMAX 12000 – 6000 kb/s ETSI/GSM LTE 12000 – 6000 kb/s MISC/NEW Flarion OFDM 1500 – 900 kb/s WCDMA HSDPA THIRD GENERATION 1xEV-DV 5000 .32 .800 kb/s 1xEV-DO A 3100 – 800 DL 1800 – 600 UL WCDMA 0 384 – 250 kb/s 1xRTT RC4 EDGE 200 .5G” 307.8 kb/s discontinued Mobitex 9.2 – 9.RF100 v3.153 UL 12000 – 6000 kb/s WCDMA 1 2000 .6 – 90 kb/s GPRS 40 – 30 kb/s DL 15 kb/s UL CELLULAR IS-136 TDMA 19. tracking latest experiences and reports from all the high-tier (provider-network-oriented) 2G. 3G and 4G wireless data technologies Q Have actual experiences to share.2 kb/s IS-95 14.8 kb/s CDPD 19.1200 DL 307 .2 – 4. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.8 kb/s obsolete Q This summary is a work-in-progress.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .90 kb/s DL 45 kb/s UL TD-SCDMA In Development “2. or corrections to the above? Email to Scott@ScottBaxter. latest announced details.6 kb/s GSM CSD 9. Thanks for your comments! July.com.4 – 9.2 – 19.2 – 144 kb/s 1xRTT RC3 153.

33 . Capacity & Handoffs 2. 123 active Many packet users users 3.1 Mb/s DL 1. R: 3687k 50-80 voice 120-210 per 1 20-35 25-40 3 carriers and data 14.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . Data Capabilities 2.RF100 v3. 1250 kHz. 59 active users 1250 kHz.4 Mb/s DL 1. Quality •Improve d Access •Smarter Handoffs Faster data rates on shared 3-carrier bundle High data rates on data-only CDMA carrier High data rates on Data-Voice shared CDMA carrier July.5G? 3G 3G 3G IS-2000: IS-2000: 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DV Rev. 1250 kHz. Capacity.0 Mb/s 153 Kb/s UL First CDMA.0 .4K by modem Features: Incremental Progress First System. F: 3x 1250k 30 kHz. 0 Rev. #Users 1G AMPS RL FL CDMA2000 / IS-2000 2. A 1xRTT 3xRTT 1xTreme IS-856 IS-856 RL FL RL FL RL FL RL FL RL FL 2G 2G IS-95A/ IS-95B J-Std008 RL FL RL FL 1250 kHz. 1250 kHz.4K 64K 153K 307K 230K •Enhanced Access •Channel Structure 1250 kHz. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.8 Mb/s UL Higher data rates on dataonly CDMA carrier 5 Mb/s None.The CDMA2000 Family of Technologies CDMAone Generation Technology Spectrum Signal Bandwidth.

#Users Data Capabilities 1G various analog 2G GSM 2. users many users and data 9-160 Kb/s 384 Kb/s (conditions mobile user determine) 2Mb/s static user various none Features: Incremental Progress various Europe’s first Digital wireless Integrated •Packet IP 8PSK for voice/data access 3x Faster (Future rates •Multiple data rates to 12 MBPS attached than GPRS using adv.0 .5G or 3? 3G 3G various 200 kHz.The GSM/ETSI Family of Technologies Generation Technology Signal Bandwidth.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .84 MHz.34 . 200 kHz. up to 200+ Many fast data voice users Pkt.RF100 v3. UMTS UTRA GPRS EDGE WCDMA 3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. 200 kHz.5 avg. 7. users modulation?) July.

2 kbps none 200 kHz.RF100 v3. up to 200+ Many fast data voice users Pkt. 2. 1 None. USA’s first Digital wireless Integrated •Packet IP Europe’s 8PSK for voice/data access first 3x Faster (Future rates •Multiple Digital data rates to 12 MBPS attached wireless than GPRS using adv. #Users Data Capabilities 1G AMPS 2G CDPD 2G TDMA IS-54 IS-136 2G GSM 2. Many 3 users Pkt Usrs 19.5 avg. users modulation?) July.5G or 3? 3G 3G UMTS UTRA GPRS EDGE WCDMA 3. Features: Incremental Capacity & Progress Handoffs US Packet Data Svc. none First System.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 200 kHz. 7. 200 kHz.0 . users many users and data 9-160 Kb/s 384 Kb/s (conditions mobile user determine) 2Mb/s static user 30 kHz. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.35 .The American TDMA Migration Path to 3G the familiar GSM path! Generation Technology Signal Bandwidth. 30 kHz.84 MHz.4K by modem 30 kHz.

5-9 dB 1 4 200 kHz 2 3 Typical Frequency Reuse N=4 Vulnerability: EbNo ≅ 6 dB CDMA 22 Users 1250 kHz 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Q Number of users per RF signal directly affects capacity July. 2008 1 1 Typical Frequency Reuse N=1 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. N-AMPS 1 3 1 Users 2 3 7 1 6 4 5 30 30 Q Signal Bandwidth determines how many RF signals will “fit” in the operator’s licensed spectrum Q Robustness of RF signal determines tolerable level of interference and necessary physical separation of cochannel cells Vulnerability: C/I ≅ 17 dB 10 kHz Bandwidth Typical Frequency Reuse N=7 GSM 8 Users Vulnerability: C/I ≅ 6. CDMA) uses a specific modulation type with its own unique signal characteristics AMPS. D-AMPS. D-AMPS. NAMPS.36 .Spectrum Usage Capacity Considerations: Signal Bandwidth.0 . GSM.RF100 v3. C/I and Frequency Reuse Each wireless technology (AMPS.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

0 35 315.0 0 9.8 1 18.8 707. 30 30 200 25 1229 1229 1229 How Many Signals in BW 416.67 500.4 484.34 RF100 .9 386.22 10.5 20.3 14.05 10.0 71.8 Voice Conversations per Signal 1 Voice Conversations per Sector 18.8 0.0 1.5 1 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.8 0 23.0 100 900.Comparison of Wireless System Capacities TDMA CDMA IS-2000 IS-2000 RC3 RC4 Technology AMPS IS136 GSM IDEN IS95 Available Spectrum.5 3 19. 2008 416.0 3 9.4 71.02 128.0 3 9.5 " Adjusted for Guard Band needs 59.9 0 6.8 6 142.0 0.5 20.4 3 23.7 59.8 3 56.1 1 52.9 7.500 Req'd.0 0 9.37 1 18. Reuse Factor N 7 7 3 7 1 1 1 Signal Bandwidth.2 9.500 12. 12.0 1.02 Erlangs per Site Capacity Comparison July.500 12. KHz.5 59. Signals Per Sector 1 Traffic Ch.1 126. KHz.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .4 1459.500 12.02 486.0 0.2 9.0 3 9.9 0.8 20.02 161.8 3 6.0 0 9. C/I +17 db +17 db +9 db +21 db +6 db +5 db +3 db Freq.7 Signals per Cell due to reuse 59.8 11.5 52.53 10.5 0.0 1.2 10.02 42.6 3.02 235.0 0.8 250.0 .8 500.500 12.1 0.500 12.3 42.9 137. Signals Per Sector 18.02 45.2 9.5 34.RF100 v3.0 50 450.8 175.8 Control Ch.2 10.2 10.99 62.500 12.5 1 56.9 1 142.02 11.5 How Many Sectors Per Cell 3 Signals Per Sector 19.4 3.8 SH Avg Sectors per User SH Diluted Conversations/Sector Blocking Target % (GOS) Carried Erlangs Per Sector Total P.

6 281.800 CDMA 6 1 1250 9 9 3 0 9 22 1.66 Unique Voicepaths/carrier 1 13.1 357.300 CDMA 6 1 1250 11 11 3 0 11 22 1.4 July.3 13.3 13.4 18.5 316.2 93.9 203.0 8.3 220 132 119.4 30.800 3.02 Erlangs per sector 11.66 13. per cell @N 59 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 # Sectors per cell 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 #CCH per sector 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RF Signals per sector 18 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Voicepaths/RF signal 1 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 SH average links used 1 1.2 90.3 165.300 5.7 80.1 55.2 11. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.500 1.3 198 119 105.66 1.3 13.8 P.2 13.050 9.050 CDMA 6 1 1250 10 10 3 0 10 22 1.4 14.050 4.3 13.02 Erlangs per site 34.0 . kHz 30 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 Total # RF Carriers 416 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 RF Sigs.38 .7 4.3 Voicepaths/Sector 18 22 44 66 88 110 132 154 176 Unique Voicepaths/Sector 18 13 26 39 53 66 79 92 106 P.66 1.64 1.66 1.RF100 v3.1 240.7 11.3 13.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .5 9.66 1.3 13.66 13.66 13.6 3. 12.9 392. db 17 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Freq Reuse Factor.66 1.66 1. N 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 RF Signal BW.9 7.800 8.66 1.1 43.5 22.3 67.300 10.3 242 145 130.Capacity of Multicarrier CDMA Systems CDMA Carrier Frequencies 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 f Fwd/Rev Spectrum kHz.550 6.3 13.3 10.5 7.3 129.60 2.8 5.4 Capacity vs.2 55.550 Technology AMPS CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA Req'd C/I or Eb/No. AMPS800 1 0.

0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .Chapter 4 Physical Physical Principles Principles of of Propagation Propagation July.39 .RF100 v3.

0 . During propagation. often dramatically • space variability . • attenuation – the signal amplitude is reduced by various natural mechanisms. producing a host of components which arrive in random timings and random RF phases at the receiver.signal strength and quality varies with time. the signal will fall below the reliable detection threshold at the receiver. if there is too much attenuation. • multipath and group delay distortions – the signal diffracts and reflects off irregularly shaped objects. These effects are combatted through a variety of special techniques • time variability .40 .Introduction to Propagation Q Propagation is a key process within every radio link.signal strength and quality differs on different frequencies Q Effective mastery of propagation relies on • Physics: understand the basic propagation processes • Measurement: obtain data on propagation behavior in area of interest • Statistics: characterize what is known.signal strength and quality varies with location and distance • frequency variability .RF100 v3. many processes act on the radio signal. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. extrapolate to predict the unknown • Modelmaking: formalize all the above into useful models July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . This blurs pulses and also produces intermittent signal cancellation and reinforcement. Attenuation is the most important single factor in propagation.

345 m = 13.6 inches for PCS-1900: for AMPS: F= 870 MHz F = 1960 MHz λ = 0. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Influence of Wavelength on Propagation Q Radio signals in the atmosphere propagate at almost speed of light λ = wavelength C = distance propagated in 1 second F = frequency.0 .153 m = 6.0 inches Q The wavelength of a radio signal determines many of its propagation characteristics • Antenna elements size are typically in the order of 1/4 to 1/2 wavelength • Objects bigger than a wavelength can reflect or obstruct RF energy • RF energy can penetrate into a building or vehicle if they have apertures a wavelength in size.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .RF100 v3. or larger RF100 .41 λ/2 July. Hertz λ=C/F λ = 0.

(c) 2008 Scott Baxter ... RF100 .RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 .42 July.Dominant Mechanisms of Mobile Propagation Free Space A D B d with partial cancellation Reflection Knife-edge Diffraction Most propagation in the mobile environment is dominated by these three mechanisms: Q Free space • No reflections. no obstructions – first Fresnel Zone clear • Signal spreading is only mechanism • Signal decays 20 dB/decade Q Reflection • Reflected wave 180°out of phase • Reflected wave not attenuated much • Signal decays 30-40 dB/decade Q Knife-edge diffraction • Direct path is blocked by obstruction • Additional loss is introduced • Formulae available for simple cases Q We’ll explore each of these further.

26 +20*Log10(FMHZ)+20Log10(DistMILES ) • Notice the rate of signal decay: • 6 db per octave of distance change. db (between two isotropic antennas) = 36. which is 20 db per decade of distance change Q Free-Space propagation is applicable if: • there is only one signal path (no reflections) • the path is unobstructed (i.RF100 v3.58 +20*Log10(FMHZ)+20Log10(DistMILES ) • Path Loss. db (between two dipole antennas) = 32.e.0 .AB < λ/2 } Fresnel Zone radius d = 1/2 (λD)^(1/2) RF100 .43 July. first Fresnel zone is not penetrated by obstacles) Free Space “Spreading” Loss energy intercepted by receiving antenna is proportional to 1/r2 d A D 1st Fresnel Zone B First Fresnel Zone = {Points P where AP + PB .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .Free-Space Propagation r Q The simplest propagation mode • Antenna radiates energy which spreads in space • Path Loss. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -..

0 .5 6 -67.4 -69.2 July.4 -103. TX ERP = 50 dBm. DBM Received Signal in Reflection Mode 1 -52.7 10 -72.2 4 -64.4 -113.9 -95.20 x Log (Base Ant.4 -99. Mobile Ht = 5 ft. Base Ht = 200 ft. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 20 -78.RF100 v3.10 x Log (Mobile Ant.4 8 -70.Reflection With Partial Cancellation Heights Exaggerated for Clarity HTFT HTFT Q Mobile environment characteristics: • Small angles of incidence and reflection • Reflection is unattenuated (reflection coefficient =1) • Reflection causes phase shift of 180 degrees Q Analysis • Physics of the reflection cancellation predicts signal decay of 40 dB per decade of distance Path Loss [dB ]= 172 + 34 x Log (DMiles ) . HtFeet) SCALE PERSPECTIVE DMILES Comparison of Free-Space and Reflection Propagation Modes Assumptions: Flat earth.0 2 -58.0 15 -75.9 -109.4 -89. DistanceMILES Received Signal in Free Space. @ 1950 MHz.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .44 .4 -79. HtFeet) .

0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.16 5 6 7 8 Distance.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .RF100 v3. Miles 10 One Octave of distance (2x) of distance (10x) One Decade We’ve seen how the signal decays with distance in two basic modes of propagation: Q Free-Space • 20 dB per decade of distance • 6 db per octave of distance Q Reflection Cancellation • 40 dB per decade of distance • 12 db per octave of distance Q Real-life wireless propagation decay rates are typically somewhere between 30 and 40 dB per decade of distance July. Distance 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 1 2 3.45 .Signal Decay Rates in Various Environments Signal Level vs.

This calculation is fairly easy and can be used as a manual tool to estimate the effects of individual obstructions. Q First calculate the diffraction parameter ν from the geometry of the path Q Next consult the table to obtain the obstruction loss in db Q Add this loss to the otherwisedetermined path loss to obtain the total path loss.Knife-Edge Diffraction Q Sometimes a single well-defined obstruction blocks the path.RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter . Q Other losses such as free space and reflection cancellation still apply.0 . introducing additional loss.46 H R1 ν = -H R2 2 ( R1 + R2) λ R1 R2 0 -5 atten -10 dB -15 -20 -25 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 ν July. but computed independently for the path as if the obstruction did not exist RF100 .

@ 1900 MHz.RF100 v3. 2008 Q Fortunately. Rayleigh fades are very short and last a small percentage of the time Q Two antennas separated by several wavelengths will not generally experience fades at the same time Q “Space Diversity” can be obtained by using two receiving antennas and switching instantby-instant to whichever is best Q Required separation D for good decorrelation is 10-20λ • 12-24 ft.0 . • 5-10 ft.Combating Rayleigh Fading: Space Diversity D Signal received by Antenna 1 Signal received by Antenna 2 Combined Signal July.47 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter . @ 800 MHz. RF100 .

RF100 v3. etc.0 . others • Tech-Note 101 • Longley-Rice.48 . Biby-C • Primary drivers: statistical • Characterizes microscopic level fluctuations in a given locale.Lee’s Method.) Q Point-to-Point models Q Area • Okumura-Hata • Euro/Cost-231 • Walfisch-Betroni/Ikegami • Primary drivers: analytical • Used for detailed coverage analysis and cell planning Q Local Variability models Q Point-to-Point • Ray Tracing . confidence-of-service probability July.Types Of Propagation Models And Their Uses Examples of various model types Q Simple Analytical models • Used for understanding and predicting individual paths and specific obstruction cases Q General Area models Q Simple Analytical • Free space (Friis formula) • Reflection cancellation • Knife-edge diffraction • Primary drivers: statistical • Used for early system dimensioning (cell counts. 2008 Q Local Variability • Rayleigh Distribution • Normal Distribution • Joint Probability Techniques Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

+50 dBµV/m +60 +40 +30 +20 Distance from Cell Site. Rural.General Principles Of Area Models -50 -60 -70 -80 +90 +80 +70 RSSI. However. Suburban. July.49 . the signal strength at a specific location on the radial may be much higher or much lower than the simple prediction. Q Red Trace shows the Okumura-Hata prediction for the same radial. with no consideration of individual path features or physical mechanisms Q Typical inputs used by model: • Frequency • Distance from transmitter to receiver • Actual or effective base station & mobile heights • Average terrain elevation • Morphology correction loss (Urban.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . -90 dBm -100 -110 -120 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 Field Strength. etc. 2008 Q Area models mimic an average path in a defined area Q They’re based on measured data alone.RF100 v3. The smooth curve is a good “fit” for real data. as determined by real-world physics.) Q Results may be quite different than observed on individual paths in the area Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 . km Q Green Trace shows actual measured signal strengths on a drive test radial.

for BS antenna height ht = 200 m and MS antenna height hr = 3 m. and has spawned a number of newer models adapted from its basic concepts and numerical parameters. Garea io ua s pen area 40 30 26 5 2 1 10 100 500 Frequency f. The collected date included measurements on numerous VHF. km Urban Area (dB) 35 30 25 20 15 Q area Open Correction factor. showing a median attenuation relative to free space loss Amu (f.The Okumura Model: General Concept 70 100 Median Attenuation A(f. both horizontally and vertically polarized. MHz 850 3000 10 9 dB 5 r an a urb b u S ea 850 MHz 100 200 300 500 700 1000 Frequency f. at a wide range of heights. Okumura has served as the basis for high-level design of many existing wireless systems. UHF.d).area). July. This analysis was distilled into the curves above.0 . and microwave signal sources. The measurements were statistically processed and analyzed with respect to almost every imaginable variable.d) and correlation factor Garea (f. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. (MHz) 2000 3000 The Okumura model is based on detailed analysis of exhaustive drive-test measurements made in Tokyo and its suburbs during the late 1960’s and early 1970’s.50 .RF100 v3. dB 80 50 70 d.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

km 50 Correction factor.G(Hb) . COST231.Garea Free-Space Path Loss Morphology Gain 0 dense urban 5 urban 10 suburban 17 rural 35 70 Median Attenuation A(f.Structure of the Okumura Model Path Loss [dB] = LFS + Amu(f.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . Garea (dB) 30 25 Qua Open area Amu(f.d).51 .d) Additional Median Loss from Okumura’s Curves Urban Area Mobile Station Height Gain = 10 x Log (Hm/3) Base Station Height Gain = 20 x Log (Hb/200) si o a pen rea 20 15 10 5 850 MHz Sub an urb a are 40 30 26 5 2 1 10 100 Frequency f. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. MHz 500 850 3000 100 200 300 500 700 1000 2000 3000 Frequency f.d) .0 .G(Hm) . others) have expressed Okumura’s curves as formulas and automated the computation July. dB 100 80 70 d. (MHz) Q The Okumura Model uses a combination of terms from basic physical mechanisms and arbitrary factors to fit 1960-1970 Tokyo drive test data Q Later researchers (HATA.RF100 v3.

) Q Dense Urban: Dense business districts with skyscrapers (10-20 stories and above) and high-rise apartments Suburban Suburban Urban Urban Dense Urban Dense Urban Although zone definitions are arbitrary. hospitals.RF100 v3.0 . hotels. Structures include 1-2 story houses 50 feet apart and 2-5 story shops and offices. etc. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. July. the examples and definitions illustrated above are typical of practice in North American PCS designs.Examples of Morphological Zones Q Suburban: Mix of residential and business communities.52 . Q Urban: Urban residential and office areas (Typical structures are 5-10 story buildings.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

Highway Rural Rural Suburban Suburban Q Rural . and sparsely populated residential areas.Highway Rural .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . but different land use. Typical structures are 1-2 story houses. large open spaces. etc. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Example Morphological Zones Rural .RF100 v3.0 . large open spaces. and sparsely populated residential areas. Q Rural . Notice how different zones may abruptly adjoin one another. barns. In the case immediately above.In-town: Open farm land. July.Highway: Highways near open farm land.same terrain.53 . etc. and anticipated traffic densities. penetration requirements. barns. farm land (rural) adjoins built-up subdivisions (suburban) -. Typical structures are 1-2 story houses.

52 3. Dense Urban Urban Suburban Rural Tower Height. dB -2 -5 -10 -26 Range.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .54 Okumura/Hata f = 870 MHz. km 4.Typical Model Results Including Environmental Correction COST-231/Hata f =1900 MHz. km 2.9 6.8 RF100 .50 4.0 4.RF100 v3. Dense Urban Urban Suburban Rural July. m 30 30 30 50 Tower Height.8 10. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.7 26.0 . dB 0 -5 -10 -17 C. m 30 30 30 50 EIRP (watts) 200 200 200 200 EIRP (watts) 200 200 200 200 C.3 Range.

• Reflections are more effective • Shadows from obstructions are deeper • Foliage absorption is more attenuative • Penetration into buildings through openings is more effective. but all effects are more pronounced. compared to what would have been obtained at 800 MHz.Propagation at 1900 MHz. Q Overall. Q The net result of all these effects is to increase the “contrast” of hot and cold signal areas throughout a 1900 MHz.55 . system. 800 MHz. at 800 MHz. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .. Q Propagation at 1900 MHz. July. coverage radius of a 1900 MHz.0 . vs. same antenna height. but absorbing materials within buildings and their walls attenuate the signal more severely than at 800 MHz. is similar to 800 MHz. BTS is approximately two-thirds the distance which would be obtained with the same ERP.RF100 v3.

56 .0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .Walfisch-Betroni/Walfisch-Ikegami Models Q Ordinary Okumura-type models do work in this environment. but the Walfisch models attempt to improve accuracy by exploiting the actual propagation mechanisms involved Path Loss = LFS + LRT + LMS LFS = free space path loss (Friis formula) LRT = rooftop diffraction loss LMS = multiscreen reflection loss Signal Level Legend -20 dBm -30 dBm -40 dBm -50 dBm -60 dBm -70 dBm -80 dBm -90 dBm -100 dBm -110 dBm -120 dBm Area View Q Propagation in built-up portions of cities is dominated by ray diffraction over the tops of buildings and by ray “channeling” through multiple reflections down the street canyons July.RF100 v3.

averaging capability Q Location Data Collection Methods: • Global Positioning System (GPS) • Dead reckoning on digitized map database using on-board compass and wheel revolutions sensor • A combination of both methods is recommended for the best results Q Ideally. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.57 .RF100 v3. measured line loss Wireless Receiver GPS Receiver Dead Reckoning PC or Collector July.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . a system should be calibrated in absolute units.Elements of Typical Measurement Systems Main Features Q Field strength measurement • Accurate collection in real-time • Multi-channel. not just raw received power level indications • Record normalized antenna gain.

0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .58 .Typical Test Transmitter Operations Q Typical Characteristics • portable.RF100 v3. or tripping on obstacles – electric shock – damage to rooftop July. low power needs • weatherproof or weather resistant • regulated power output • frequency-agile: synthesized Q Operational Concerns • spectrum coordination and proper authorization to radiate test signal • antenna unobstructed • stable AC power • SAFETY: – people/equipment falling due to wind.

59 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Chapter 5 Antennas Antennas for for Wireless Wireless Systems Systems Dipole Isotropic Typical Wireless Omni Antenna July.RF100 v3.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

0 .RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.60 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . at the phase of the current July.Understanding Antenna Radiation The Principle Of Current Moments Zero current at each end each tiny imaginary “slice” of the antenna does its share of radiating Q An antenna is just a passive conductor carrying RF current TX RX Maximum current at the middle Current induced in receiving antenna is vector sum of contribution of every tiny “slice” of radiating antenna Width of band denotes current magnitude • RF power causes the current flow • Current flowing radiates electromagnetic fields • Electromagnetic fields cause current in receiving antennas Q The effect of the total antenna is the sum of what every tiny “slice” of the antenna is doing • Radiation of a tiny “slice” is proportional to its length times the magnitude of the current in it.

This gain can be expressed in dB or as a power ratio. in its direction of maximum radiation. appears to have “gain” compared against a non-directional antenna Q Gain in one direction comes at the expense of less radiation in other directions Q Antenna Gain is RELATIVE. not ABSOLUTE Omni-directional Antenna • When describing antenna “gain”. minus incidental losses • Cannot generate power or “amplify” Q However.RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter Directional Antenna RF100 .61 . an antenna can appear to have “gain” compared against another antenna or condition.0 . It applies both to radiating and receiving Q A directional antenna. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Antenna Gain Q Antennas are passive devices: they do not produce power • Can only receive power in one form and pass it on in another. the comparison condition must be stated or implied July.

land mobile. Isotropic Effective Radiated Power Vs.0 .in 3 dimensions • Difficult to build or approximate physically.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .62 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. microwave. etc. RF100 .RF100 v3. Q Dipole Antenna • Non-directional in 2-dimensional plane only • Can be easily constructed. Isotropic Antenna but mathematically very simple to describe • A popular reference: 1000 MHz and above – PCS. TV & FM Quantity Gain above Isotropic radiator Gain above Dipole reference Effective Radiated Power Vs. Dipole July. physically practical • A popular reference: below 1000 MHz – 800 MHz.15 dB gain compared to an isotropic antenna. 2008 Units dBi dBd (watts or dBm) EIRP (watts or dBm) ERP Dipole Antenna Notice that a dipole has 2.Defining Gain And Effective Radiated Power Q Isotropic Radiator Reference Antennas • Truly non-directional -. cellular.

direction N-E-S-W) Q The Vertical Plane Pattern graphs the radiation as a function of elevation (i.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .e. nulls or a Minor minima Lobe Front-to-back Ratio 180 (S) July.63 . minor lobes. down. -10 dB points • Front-to-back ratio • Angles of nulls.RF100 v3. up...Key Features And Terminology An antenna’s directivity is expressed as a series of patterns Q The Horizontal Plane Pattern graphs the radiation as a function of azimuth (i. -6 dB.0 .e. etc. horizontal) Q Antennas are often compared by noting specific landmark points on their patterns: Typical Example Radiation Patterns Horizontal Plane Pattern Notice -3 dB points 0 (N) 0 -10 -20 -30 dB 270 (W) 10 dB points Main Lobe 90 (E) • -3 dB (“HPBW”). 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -...

How Antennas Achieve Their Gain Quasi-Optical Techniques (reflection. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter Out of phase RF100 .0 .64 . a phase delay for each element creates pattern lobes and nulls July. focusing) • Reflectors can be used to concentrate radiation – technique works best at microwave frequencies.RF100 v3. each element radiates • Elements’ radiation in phase in some directions • In other directions. where reflectors are small • Examples: – corner reflector used at cellular or higher frequencies – parabolic reflector used at microwave frequencies – grid or single pipe reflector for cellular Array techniques (discrete elements) In phase • Power is fed or coupled to multiple antenna elements.

RF100 v3. parasitic coupling to others RF power • Log-periodic – all elements driven – wide bandwidth RF power Q All of these types of antennas are used in wireless July.0 .65 .Types Of Arrays Q Collinear vertical arrays • Essentially omnidirectional in horizontal plane • Power gain approximately equal to the number of elements • Nulls exist in vertical pattern. unless deliberately filled Q Arrays in horizontal plane • Directional in horizontal plane: useful for sectorization • Yagi – one driven element.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.

: dB-910.99 7.09° • Physical size • Gain • Beamwidth.01 4.41 10.0 .66 . dB 0. ASPP2933 July.00 3.13° 7.00 10.13° 6.04° 11.31° 9.14 11.77 6.46° 8.03 9.19° 4.76° 4.34° 5. 2008 -3 d B Vertical Plane Pattern beamwidth θ Angle of first null Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Collinear Vertical Arrays The family of omni-directional wireless antennas: Q Number of elements determines Omni Antennas Typical Collinear Arrays Number of Elements 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Power Gain 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Gain.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .: dB803.79 11.RF100 v3.46 Angle θ n/a 26.57° 18. PD10017.71° 5.43° 14.54 10. BCR-10O.40° 4.78 8. Kathrein 740-198 1900 MHz.02 6.45 9. first null angle Q Models with many elements have very narrow beamwidths • Require stable mounting and careful alignment • Watch out: be sure nulls do not fall in important coverage areas Q Rod and grid reflectors are sometimes added for mild directivity Examples: 800 MHz.

(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . yagis. affecting mainly gain and vertical plane beamwidth Down Horizontal Plane Pattern N • Horizontal plane pattern is determined by: – number of horizontally-spaced elements – shape of reflectors (is reflector folded?) W E S July.RF100 v3.Reflectors And Vertical Arrays Q Typical commercial sector antennas are vertical combinations of dipoles. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 .67 . or log-periodic elements with reflector (panel or grid) backing Vertical Plane Pattern Up Sector Antennas • Vertical plane pattern is determined by number of vertically-separated elements – varies from 1 to 8.

4) .Example Of Antenna Catalog Specifications Electrical Data ASPP2933 1850-1990 3/5.0155) Wind load @ 125 mph/201 kph lb-f (n) 4 (17) Maximum wind speed .2 (2.8) 11 (4. Gain .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .mph (kph) 140 (225) Weight .25 (.7) 13 (5.9) ASPA320 ASPP2936 36 (915) 1.lbs (kg) Shipping Weight .Watts Input Impedance .1 (25.05) 14 (61) 125 (201) 5. Mechanical Data Antenna Model ASPP2933 Overall length .Ohms Lightning Protection Termination .17 (.1 <1.in (mm) 1.dBd/dBi VSWR Beamwidth (3 dB from maximum) Polarization Maximum power input .ft2 (m2) .4) Wind area .1 <1.5:1 5° Vertical 400 50 Direct Ground N-Female Order Sep. MHz.in (mm) 24 (610) Radome OD .1 <1.5:1 32° Vertical 400 50 Direct Ground N-Female Order Sep. dB910C-M 1850-1970 10/12.Standard Jumper Cable ASPP2936 1850-1990 6/8.RF100 v3.0 .68 .0 (25. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.54 (.4) 9 (4.lbs (kg) Clamps (steel) 4 (1.5:1 15° Vertical 400 50 Direct Ground N-Female Order Sep.9) ASPA320 dB910C-M 77 (1955) 1.0233) 6 (26) 140 (225) 6 (2. Antenna Model Frequency Range.1) Integral July.5 (38) .

(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .69 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Example Of Antenna Catalog Radiation Pattern Q Vertical Plane Pattern • E-Plane (elevation plane) • Gain: 10 dBd • Dipole pattern is superimposed at scale for comparison (not often shown in commercial catalogs) • Frequency is shown • Pattern values shown in dBd • Note 1-degree indices through region of main lobe for most accurate reading • Notice minor lobe and null detail! July.0 .RF100 v3.

0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.70 .Other Other Parts Parts of of Antenna Antenna Systems Systems July.

71 July.for measurement of performance Q Manufacturer’s system may include some or all of these items • Remaining items are added individually as needed by system operator RF100 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .0 . Duplexers .RF100 v3. wattmeters . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Combiners.Antenna Systems Antenna Jumper Transmission Line Directional Coupler F R Jumpers D u p l e x e r Combiner TX TX RX BPF Q Antenna systems include more than just antennas Q Transmission Lines • Necessary to connect transmitting and receiving equipment Q Other Components necessary to achieve desired system function • Filters.to achieve desired connections • Directional Couplers.

unbalanced Q Physical configuration • Dielectric: – air – foam • Outside surface – unjacketed – jacketed Q Size (nominal outer diameter) • 1/4”.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 3” Foam Dielectric Air Dielectric July.72 . 2-1/4”. 1-1/4”. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.1/2”.Types of Transmission Lines Physical Characteristics Q Type of line Used as feeders in wireless applications Typical coaxial cables • Coaxial. 17/8”. 7/8”. openwire • Balanced. stripline.RF100 v3.

dielectric D d characteristics of insulation • Usually specified in dB/100 ft and/or dB/100 m Q Characteristic impedance Z0 (50 ohms is the Impedance usual standard. Q Power-handling capability • Varies with size. Velocity. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. conductor materials. 75 ohms is sometimes used) Characteristic of a Coaxial Line • Value set by inner/outer diameter ratio Zo = ( 138 / ( ε 1/2 ) ) Log10 ( D / d ) and dielectric characteristics of ε = Dielectric Constant insulation = 1 for vacuum or dry air • Connectors must preserve constant impedance (see figure at right) Q Velocity factor • Determined by dielectric characteristics of insulation. Power Handling Electrical Characteristics Q Attenuation • Varies with frequency.Attenuation. Impedance.73 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .RF100 v3. dielectric characteristics July.0 . size.

(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . stiff lines (15/8” or larger) to make direct connection with antennas Q Use appropriate jumpers. weatherproofed properly.74 .0 . Observe Minimum Bending Radius! July. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Q Secure jumpers against wind vibration.RF100 v3. otherwise Zo changes • Dents.Important Installation Practices Q Respect specified minimum bending radius! Transmission Lines • Inner conductor must remain concentric. kinks in outer conductor change Zo Q Don’t bend large.

messenger cable Q After mounting • Support the line with proper mounting clamps at manufacturer’s recommended spacing intervals • Strong winds will set up damaging metal-fatigueinducing vibrations July. Continued Q During hoisting • Allow line to support its own weight only for distances approved by manufacturer • Deformation and stretching may result.75 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .Important Installation Practices. Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.RF100 v3. 2008 Transmission Lines 200 ft 3-6 ft ~60 m Max.0 . changing the Zo • Use hoisting grips.

Types And Applications Q Filters are the basic building blocks of duplexers and more complex devices Q Most manufacturers’ network equipment includes internal bandpass filters at receiver input and transmitter output Q Filters are also available for special applications Q Number of poles (filter elements) and other design variables determine filter’s electrical characteristics RF Filters Typical RF Bandpass Filter ∼λ/4 • • • • Bandwidth rejection Insertion loss Slopes Ripple.RF100 v3. Each element is individually set and forms a pole in the filter’s overall response curve.0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. finally exciting the last element which is directly coupled to the output. RF100 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter . etc.76 July. Notice construction: RF input excites one quarter-wave element and electromagnet fields propagate from element to element.

Attenuation slope and out-of-band attenuation depend on # of poles & design Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Basic Characteristics And Specifications Typical RF bandpass filter Q Types of Filters insertion loss 0 passband ripple passband width RF Filters Attenuation.0 . depending on application.RF100 v3. megaHertz • Insertion loss • Passband ripple • Passband width – upper. lower cutoff frequencies • Attenuation slope at band edge • Ultimate out-of-band attenuation July.77 . and passband ripple of 2-6 dB. 2008 Typical bandpass filters have insertion loss of 1-3 dB.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . Bandwidth is typically 1-20% of center frequency. dB • Single-pole: – pass – reject (notch) -3 dB • Multi-pole: – band-pass – band-reject Q Key electrical characteristics Frequency.

78 .0 .Basics Of Transmitting Combiners Q Allows multiple transmitters to feed single antenna. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.RF100 v3. providing Typical tuned combiner application Antenna • Minimum power loss from transmitter to antenna • Maximum isolation between transmitters Q Combiner types TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX • Tuned – low insertion loss ~1-3 dB – transmitter frequencies must be significantly separated Typical hybrid combiner application Antenna ~-3 dB ~-3 dB ~-3 dB TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX • Hybrid – insertion loss -3 dB per stage – no restriction on transmitter frequencies • Linear amplifier – linearity and intermodulation are major design and operation issues July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

and insertion loss TX-to-Antenna and RX-to-Antenna. 2008 Antenna Duplexer fR RX fT TX Principle of operation Duplexer is composed of individual bandpass filters to isolate TX from RX while allowing access to antenna for both. Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.79 .RF100 v3.Duplexer Basics Q Duplexer allows simultaneous transmitting and receiving on one antenna • Nortel 1900 MHz BTS RFFEs include internal duplexer • Nortel 800 MHz BTS does not include duplexer but commercial units can be used if desired Q Important duplexer specifications • TX pass-through insertion loss • RX pass-through insertion loss • TX-to-RX isolation at TX frequency (RX intermodulation issue) • TX-to-RX isolation at RX frequency (TX noise floor issue) • Internally-generated IMP limit specification July.0 . Filter design determines actual isolation between TX and RX.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

. ~40 dB. order as appropriate for application • Directivity ~30-~40 dB. but I’s polarity depends on direction and cancels sample induced in one direction. f($) – defined as relative attenuation of unwanted direction in each sample July. Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . it has 4 ports: • Input (from TX). Thus sense loop signals are directional. Output (to load) • Forward and Reverse Samples Q Sensing loops probe E& I in line • Equal sensitivity to E & H fields • Terminations absorb induced current in one direction.RF100 v3.80 . ~30. One end is used. E is direction-independent. the other terminated.Directional Couplers Q Couplers are used to measure forward and reflected energy in a transmission line.0 .. leaving only sample of other direction Q Typical performance specifications • Coupling factor ~20. 2008 Typical directional coupler Principle of operation RT Input ZLOAD= 50Ω Reverse Sample Forward Sample RT Main line’s E & I induce equal signals in sense loops.

0 .RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .Testing Testing Antenna Antenna Systems Systems July.81 .

causing many problems Q Precisely shaped cables and connectors. and you’ll have good results • AC power frequencies and audio signal frequencies have wavelengths of many miles – a few feet of wire won’t radiate much energy Q High frequency RF wiring practice is much more critical since signal wavelengths are only a few inches or feet • any bend or protruding bit of wire can serve as an unintentional antenna.0 . heat is not allowed to build up. careful installation and accurate testing are required to avoid significant antenna system performance problems July. “leaking” energy • even splices and connections can leak energy unless their shape and dimensions are closely controlled • abrupt changes in cable shape “reflect” energy back down the transmission line.RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .Testing Communications Feedlines and Antennas Q AC power wiring and voice telephone wiring do not require extremely critical wiring practices • just make sure the connections and insulation are good. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.82 .

the transmission line and the antenna have the same impedance • we say they are “impedance matched” Q All the energy from the transmitter passes through and is radiated from the antenna • virtually no energy is reflected back to the transmitter July.RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.83 .Forward and Reflected Energy Antenna 50Ω Transmitter 50Ω Transmission Line Forward Power Virtually no reflected power 50Ω Q In a perfect antenna system.

0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. kink.84 . causing it to have an altered impedance – the antenna’s different impedance will reflect some of the energy backwards down the line Q The Site Master® Distance-To-Fault mode will be helpful in finding the location of the damage July. or a spot with water in the transmission line – the different impedance in the line at this spot will cause some of the energy to be reflected backwards • the antenna could be damaged or dangling.RF100 v3.Forward and Reflected Energy Antenna 42-j17Ω Transmitter dent or kink 50Ω Transmission Line 37Ω Forward Power Significant Reflected Power Q In a damaged antenna system. the impedance match is not good • there could be a dent.

RF100 v3. 2008 SWR: Standing Wave Ratio = Vmax/ Vmin Vmin Vmax Reflected Power (%) FORWARD REFLECTED = 100 x RevPwr FwdPwr Return Loss (db) FORWARD REFLECTED = 10 x Log10 RevPwr FwdPwr Reflection Coefficient (vector ratio) FORWARD REFLECTED = Vreflected Vincident Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 .85 . use percent Q Return Loss (used by field personnel) • how many db weaker is the reflected energy than the forward energy Q Reflection Coefficient (academic users) • vector ratio of reflected/incident voltage or current • usually expressed as a polar vector.How Much Reflection? Four Ways to Say It Q There are four ways of expressing how much energy is being reflected • different users like different methods Q Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) (used by hobbyists and consumers) • the reflected voltage is in phase with the incident voltage at some places and out of phase at others • VSWR is the ratio of Vmax/Vmin Q Reflected Power as % of Forward Power (used by field personnel in some industries) • just divide Rev by Fwd.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . with magnitude and phase July.

(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . Return Loss 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 1.0 . consider a VSWR of 1.86 .RF100 v3.5 : 1 • this is 4% reflected power • this is a return loss of 14 db • to calculate the reflection coefficient. 2008 REFLECTED Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.5 3 SWR: STANDING WAVE RATIO = Vmax/ Vmin Reflected Power Forward Power Reflected Power Forward Power 1+ Vmin = Vmax 1- Reflected Power (%) FORWARD REFLECTED = 100 x RevPwr FwdPwr Return Loss (db) FORWARD REFLECTED = 10 x Log10 RevPwr FwdPwr Reflection Coefficient (vector ratio) FORWARD = Vreflected Vincident VSWR July.5 2 2. the phase of the reflection is also needed VSWR vs.Comparing Reflection Reports in Different Forms Q Reflection expressed in one form can be converted and expressed in the other forms Q For example.

In the past. a Site Master® can even be carried to the tower top if needed. Today. July. it provides the functions of a spectrum analyzer with tracking sweep generator.The Anritsu®/Wiltron Site Master® Q The Site Master® is one of the most convenient and popular “combination” instruments for testing communications feedlines and antennas Q Built Into a Site Master® are: • sweep signal generator • directional coupler • signal detector • processing software to display return loss and distance to fault • Optional: Spectrum Analyzer • Optional: Power Meter • Battery and charging circuit RF100 . directional coupler.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .87 The Site Master® is a “combination” instrument not much larger than a cigar box. In the field. a trunk full of instruments were required to test communications antenna systems. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 . and power meter.RF100 v3.

(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .88 .RF100 v3.0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Estimating Isolation Between Antennas Often multiple antennas are needed at a site and interaction is troublesome Q Electrical isolation between antennas • Coupling loss between isotropic antennas one wavelength apart is 22 dB • 6 dB additional coupling loss with each doubling of separation • Add gain or loss referenced from horizontal plane patterns • Measure vertical separation between centers of the antennas – vertical separation usually is very effective Q One antenna should not be mounted in main lobe and near-field of another • Typically within 10 feet @ 800 MHz • Typically 5-10 feet @ 1900 MHz July.

(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . like an inverted saucer • Common technique when downtilting omni cells July.RF100 v3.89 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 . and behind goes up • Popular for sectorization and special omni applications Q Electrical downtilt • Incremental phase shift is applied in the feed network • The pattern “droops” all around.Types Of Downtilt Q Mechanical downtilt • Physically tilt the antenna • The pattern in front goes down.

Chapter 6 Traffic Traffic Engineering Engineering Typical Traffic Distribution on a Cellular System 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Hour SUN MON TUE WED THU FRI SAT 80% Efficiency % 41 Capacity.0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Erlangs 1 # Trunks 50 July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .90 .RF100 v3.

RF100 v3.91 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 . cancel service • very poor economic efficiency! July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .A Game of Avoiding Extremes The traffic engineer must walk a fine line between two problems: Q Overdimensioning • too much cost • insufficient resources to construct • traffic revenue is too low to support costs • very poor economic efficiency! Q Underdimensioning • blocking • poor technical performance (interference) • capacity for billable revenue is low • revenue is low due to poor quality • users unhappy.

0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . TDMA). They are called by many different names: • trunks • circuits • radios (AMPS.92 Basics of Traffic Engineering . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. transceivers (“TRXs” in GSM). channel elements (CDMA) Q Some other common terms are: • trunk group – a trunk group is several trunks going to the same destination.Terminology & Concept of a Trunk Q Traffic engineering in telephony is focused on the voice paths which users occupy. combined and addressed in switch translations as a unit . for traffic routing purposes • member – one of the trunks in a trunk group July.RF100 v3.

Q An Erlang of traffic is one circuit continuously used during an observation period one hour long. Erlang. In his honor.0 .93 . An engineer in the Danish telephone system. the basic unit of traffic is named the Erlang.RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Other units have become popular among various users: Q CCS (Hundred-Call-Seconds) Q MOU (Minutes Of Use) Q It’s easy to convert between traffic units if the need arises: 1 Erlang = 60 MOU = 36 CCS July.Units of Traffic Measurement Traffic is expressed in units of Circuit Time General understanding of telephone traffic engineering began around 1910. Anger K. was one of the first to master the science of trunk dimensioning and publish the knowledge for others.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

0 .94 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . this is the limit! If anyone else wants to talk -.sorry! Absolute Maximum Capacity of One Trunk One Trunk Constant Talker One Erlang Q We must not plan to keep trunks busy all the time. one trunk can carry one hour of traffic -. There must be a reserve to accommodate new talkers! How much reserve? next! July.How Much Traffic Can One Trunk Carry? Q Q Q Q Traffic studies are usually for periods of one hour In one hour.One Erlang If nothing else matters.RF100 v3.

(c) 2008 Scott Baxter . packet-like transactions such as paging channels RF100 . Binomial & Poisson formulae apply • Engset formulae apply to rapid.0 . with the probability of a user receiving service • If waiting is not allowed.95 July. number of servers. and a blocked call simply goes away.Traffic Engineering And Queuing Theory Ticket counter analogy Servers Queue User population Queues we face in everyday life 1) for telephone calls 2) at the bank 3) at the gas station 4) at the airline counter Q Traffic engineering is an application of a science called queuing theory • Queuing theory relates user arrival statistics. the Erlang-C formula applies • If a wait is allowed but is limited in time. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Erlang-B formula applies (popular in wireless) • If unlimited waiting is allowed before a call receives service.RF100 v3. and various queue strategies.

RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .Offered And Carried Traffic PSTN or other Wireless user Carried Traffic MTXBSC BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS Offered Traffic Q Offered traffic is what users attempt to originate Q Carried traffic is the traffic actually successfully handled by the system Q Blocked traffic is the traffic that could not be handled • Since blocked call attempts never materialize.96 .0 . blocked traffic must be estimated based on number of blocked attempts and average duration of successful calls BTS Blocked Offered Traffic = Traffic Carried Traffic + Blocked Traffic TOff = NCA x TCD TOff = Offered traffic NCA = Number of call attempts TCD = Average call duration July.

0 .Blocking Probability / Grade of Service Q Blocking is inability to get a circuit when one is needed Q Probability of Blocking is the likelihood that blocking will happen Q In principle.RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.02 is 2% probability. • P. etc. the cell is full • not enough paths between cell site and switch • not enough paths through the switching complex • not enough trunks from switch to PSTN Q Blocking probability is usually Typical Wireless System expressed as a percentage Design Blocking Probabilities using a “shorthand” notation: PSTN Office • P.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . • Blocking probability sometimes P.02 is a common goal at the P.02 occurs at the radio level.005 radio level in a system Cell Principles of Traffic Engineering Cell July. blocking can occur anywhere in a wireless system: • not enough radios.97 .005 is called “Grade Of Service” Cell DMS-MTX Q Most blocking in cellular systems P.001 P.

Number of Trunks vs. Utilization Efficiency
Q Imagine a cell site with just one voice channel. At a P.02 Grade of Service, how much traffic could it carry? • The trunk can only be used 2% of the time, otherwise the blocking will be worse than 2%. • 98% availability forces 98% idleness. It can only carry .02 Erlangs. Efficiency 2%! Q Adding just one trunk relieves things greatly. Now we can use trunk 1 heavily, with trunk 2 handling the overflow. Efficiency rises to 11%
Erlang-B P.02 GOS Trks Erl Eff% 1 2 0.02 2% 0.22 11%

The Principle of Trunking Efficiency 80% Efficiency % Q For a given grade of service, trunk 41 utilization efficiency increases as the number of trunks in the pool grows larger. Capacity, • For trunk groups of several hundred, Erlangs utilization approaches 100%.
1
July, 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

# Trunks
RF100 - 98

50

Number of Trunks, Capacity, and Utilization Efficiency
Q The graph at left illustrates the capacity in Erlangs of a given number of trunks, as well as the achievable utilization efficiency Q For accurate work, tables of traffic data are available • Capacity, Erlangs • Blocking Probability (GOS) • Number of Trunks Q Notice how capacity and utilization behave for the numbers of trunks in typical cell sites
RF100 - 99

Capacity and Trunk Utilization Erlang-B for P.02 Grade of Service
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Utilization Efficiency Percent

Trunks

Capacity, Erlangs

July, 2008

Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

Traffic Engineering & System Dimensioning
Using Erlang-B Tables to determine Number of Circuits Required
E n 1 2 0.0001 0.002 0.02

Probability of blocking
0.2

7

2.935

Number of available circuits

Capacity in Erlangs

300 A = f (E,n)

July, 2008

Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

RF100 - 100

Erlang-B Traffic Tables Abbreviated - For P.02 Grade of Service Only

July, 2008

Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

RF100 - 101

Wireless Traffic Variation with Time: A Cellular Example
Typical Traffic Distribution on a Cellular System
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Hour FRI SAT SUN MON TUE WED THU

Actual traffic from a cellular system in the mid-south USA in summer 1992. This system had 45 cells and served an area of approximately 1,000,000 population.
July, 2008

Q Peak traffic on cellular systems is usually daytime businessrelated traffic; on PCS systems, evening traffic becomes much more important and may actually contain the system busy hour Q Evening taper is more gradual than morning rise Q Wireless systems for PCS and LEC-displacement have peaks of residential traffic during early evening hours, like wireline systems Q Friday is the busiest day, followed by other weekdays in backwards order, then Saturday, then Sunday Q There are seasonal and annual variations, as well as long term growth trends

Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

RF100 - 102

etc. we plan the trunks needed to support the busiest hour of a normal day • Special events (disasters.) are not considered in the analysis (unless a marketingsponsored event) Q Which Hour should be used as the Busy-Hour? • Some planners choose one specific hour and use it every day • Some planners choose the busiest hour of each individual day (“floating busy hour”) • Most common preference is to use “floating (bouncing)” busy hour determined individually for the total system and for each cell. 4 PM was the busy hour every day July. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . and to track trends over months. and years • When making decisions about number of trunks required.Busy-Hour Q In telephony.RF100 v3. it is customary to collect and analyze traffic in hourly blocks. but to exclude special events and disasters • In the example just presented.103 . quarters. one-of-a-kind traffic tie-ups.0 .

104 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 . • They know the addresses where their customers generate the traffic! Q Wireless systems have to guess where the customers will be next • on existing systems.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .Where is the Traffic? Q Wireline telephone systems have a big advantage in traffic planning. find overloads • for new systems or new cells. use measured traffic data by sector and cell – analyze past trends – compare subscriber forecast – trend into future.RF100 v3. we must use all available clues Existing System Traffic In Erlangs 8 2 5 7 11 7 10 7 6 11 16 19 8 7 16 7 6 3 9 9 5 July.

550 Subscribers 1. usage forecasts Q Population Density • Geographic Distribution Q Construction Activity Q Vehicular Traffic Data • Vehicle counts on roads • Calculations of density on major roadways from knowledge of vehicle movement.100 3620 6620 Q Subscriber Profiles: • Busy Hour Usage. Call Attempts. spacing. etc.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .Traffic Clues 27 mE/Sub in BH 103. Q Market Penetration: • # Subscribers/Market Population • use Sales forecasts.350 subs/month Population Density new Shopping Center Vehicular Traffic 920 Land Use Databases 5110 4215 1230 22.239.171 Market Population adding 4.RF100 v3.105 July. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. market penetration Q Land Use Database: Area Profiles Q Aerial Photographs: Count Vehicles! RF100 .0 .

users generally increase calling activity Q Multiply number of vehicles by percentage penetration of population to estimate number of subscriber vehicles 0 Vehicle Spacing At Common Roadway Speeds 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 feet 0 MPH 10 MPH 20 MPH 30 MPH 40 MPH 50 MPH July.Traffic Density Along Roadways Vehicles per mile Vehicle Vehicle Vehicles Speed. @stop Running Headway 1.0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . per mile.5 seconds Q Number of lanes and speed are the main variable determining number of vehicles on major highways • Typical headway ~1. MPH feet per lane 0 20 264 10 42 126 20 64 83 30 86 61 45 119 44 60 152 35 Vehicle spacing 20 ft.106 .5 seconds • Table and figure show capacity of 1 lane Q When traffic stops.RF100 v3. Spacing.

RF100 v3.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .107 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Chapter 7 Planning Planning & & Growing Growing Networks Networks Link Budgets Performance Measurements Re-Radiators July.

2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. and adjust the network to deliver reliable service free from excessive origination and call delivery failures.e. and service outages • ECONOMICS: provide return on investment sufficient to support operating and capital expenses.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 ..0 .RF100 v3.108 .Basic Network Objectives Q The basic basic objectives of a wireless system are: • COVERAGE: provide sufficient cells to deliver RF coverage of the entire desired area • BUILDING/VEHICLE PENETRATION: deliver sufficient signal levels to adequately penetrate buildings and vehicles where appropriate • TRAFFIC: ensure that no cell captures more traffic than it can handle at the desired grade of service (i. and retire costs of construction prior to depreciation of the network equipment July. expand the network to take advantage of growth opportunities. construct. quality impairments. blocking percentage) • SCHEDULE: construct the network and bring it to successful commercial launch at a date which will prevent significant loss of potential customers to competitors • PERFORMANCE: design. dropped calls.

0 .109 . Q A spreadsheet file will be provided on diskette by your instructor for your own interactive use in exploring a test network design for your own market July.RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Q The following design example in a typical large market shows the high-level planning and decision-making that goes into successful network design. and provides data to illustrate the tradeoffs involved. while the final three are largely results of a good network design.General Design Considerations and Examples Q Network design impacts every network objective listed on the previous page.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . The first three items actually drive successful network designs.

RF100 v3.0 .110 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Link Link Budgets Budgets July.

Enter building penetration loss and standard deviations from measurements. dB.57% 402.0 .0% 11.4 5.0% 11. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. 7.60% 314.31 Suburban 15 8 8 75.139.31 Urban 15 8 8 75.00 Fade Margin. % Deviation Dense Urban 20 8 8 75.0 7.0 2. Dev.7 3.949. dB dB dB.118.933 0.750 0.497. and the building penetration loss 1 3. Standard Desired Reliability at ("morphology") Loss.646. Dev.63 7.700 3 4.725.045 6. Basic Business Plan Details Year Population Penetration.0% 11.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . Cell Edge.360 0.111 .74 July.1 178.2 fill in GREEN fields YELLOW fields calculate automatically Step 1.050 4 4.31 Rural 10 8 8 75.012.05 20.451 0.886.000 Q This section outlines the number of subscribers and amount of traffic by year Q This section shows the variability of outdoor and indoor signals.05 3.RF100 v3.0% 11.05 11.6 9.05% 1.350 2 4.63 6.31 Highway 8 6 8 75.941 0.0% 10.1 1.781 0.202.076.Link Budget Example: Usage Model and Service Assumptions Interactive Initial System Design Example v1.64% 229.05 15. Composite Probability Of Service & Required Fade Margin Environment Building Building Outdoor Composite Type Median Std.72% 149. Std.453 0.400 5 4.63 7.722. % #Customers BH Erl/Cust Total BH erl Launch 3.85% 72.63 7.

Margin (dB) (-) Building Penetration Loss (dB) (-) BTS RX antenna gain (dBi) (+) BTS cable loss (dB) (-) kTB (dBm/14.00 -7.4 -120.00 -7.9 -120.00 17 -3 23.5 5.00 17 -3 23.00 17 -3 -132.4 KHz.4 -120.3 Q The Reverse Link Budget describes how the energy from the phone is distributed to the base station.4 -120.112 .00 -6.Reverse Link Budget Example 3. (dB) (-) Soft Handoff Gain (dB) (+) Receiver Interf.00 -7. Urban Suburban Rural Highway Formula Survivable Uplink Path Loss (dB) (+) A+B+C+D+E +F+G(H+I+J) 143.00 17 -3 A B C D E F G H I J H+I+J Dense Urb.63 4 -3 -15. including the major components of loss and gain within the system July.74 4 -3 -8.63 4 -3 -10.4 6.00 -7.0 135.0 140.63 4 -3 -20.) BTS noise figure (dB) Eb/Nt (dB) BTS RX sensitivity (dBm) (-) Given 23 0 23. Construct Link Budgets Reverse Link Budget Term or Factor MS TX Power (dbm) (+) MS antenna gain and body loss (+/-) MS EIRP (dBm) (+) Fade Margin. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .4 -120.RF100 v3.0 135.63 4 -3 -15.0 130.0 .0 23.00 17 -3 23.

4 KHz.0% 19 -3 17 A 44.0% 19 -3 17 44.2 135.62 74.0 0 Rural 45 31.9 -7.2 135.0 0 Urban 45 31.62 74.9 -7.63 -3 -15.2 140.Forward Link Budget Example Forward Link Budget Term or Factor BTS TX power (dBm) (+) BTS TX power (watts) % Power for traffic channels Number of Traffic Channels in use BTS cable loss (dB) (-) BTS TX antenna gain (dBi) (+) BTS EIRP/traffic channel (dBm) (+.9 -115.9 -115.2 Highway Reverse 0.0 0 E -132.62 74.74 -3 C D -8.0% 19 -3 17 44.5 6 -115.63 -3 -15.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .9 -115. dB (+) Forward/Reverse Link Balance Which link is dominant? What advantage.0 .9 B -6.0% 19 -3 17 44.RF100 v3.) Subscriber RX noise figure (dB) Eb/Nt (dB) Subscriber RX sensitivity (dBm) (-) Survivable Downlink Path Loss.9 -7.2 Urban Reverse 0.62 74.62 74.9 -7.9 -115. and compares the relative balance of the forward and reverse links July. dB? Dense Urban Reverse 0. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. 45 31.0% 19 -3 17 44.113 .-) Fade margin (dB) (-) Receiver interference margin (db) (-) Building Penetration Loss (dB) (-) MS antenna gain & body loss (dB) (+.63 -3 -20.1 Q This section shows the forward link power distribution.63 -3 -10.0 0 Highway Formula 45 31.2 Rural Reverse 0.-) kTB (dBm/14.4 10.2 143.2 Suburban Reverse 0.2 Given Dense Urb.0 0 Suburban 45 31.9 F A+B+C+D +E-F 130.

kM Coverage Radius. M Urban Suburban 20 30 Rural 50 Highway 50 Urban -5 Suburban -10 Rural Highway -17 -17 1. antenna heights.40 15.0 .81 2. MHz.5 Dense Urban 20 Dense Urban Environmental Correction. and their relationship on the cell’s coverage distance July. Miles -2 Base Station Antenna Height. Explore propagation model to figure coverage radius of cell. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. M 870 1.27 20.78 Q This section uses the Okumura-Hata/Cost-231 model to describe the frequency.30 0.17 1.35 6.RF100 v3.114 . dB Coverage Radius. Frequency.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .86 12.96 25.Link Budgets: What is the Radius of a Cell? 4.87 4. Subscriber Antenna Height. and environmental factors.

7 1 3. What is the traffic capacity (in erlangs) of your chosen BTS configuration.115 .3 1 18.7 56.5 44. Examine your market.7 9.34 2026.8 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. erlangs # BTS required to handle all the traffic Launch 178.7 18. and the number of cells required July.3 206.497.722. kM^2 # Cells required to cover zone Dense Urban 55 5. estimate total number of BTS required.7 4 55.5 127.5 74.7 1 55.3 Urban Suburban 450 1700 14.3 199.8 206. kM^2 One cell's coverage in this zone. and 7 estimate the RF coverage from each cell. #BTS required for coverage and capacity.5 6. 2008 Covered Area of this type.0 90 127. Year #BTS req'd just to achieve coverage #BTS required just to carry traffic Estimated total #BTS required Launch 55.7 55.35 10.646.5 199.Link Budgets: Putting It All Together 5.1 18. Calculate number of cells required for coverage.7 3 11.725.46 30.9 5 20. 8.73 148.7 4 15.7 3 55.3 2 55.6 11. ignoring traffic considerations.6 450 34.0 .RF100 v3.5 34. Q Step 4 estimates the number of cells required to serve each distinct environment within the system Q Steps 5.5 9.118. 6.0 450 44.8 206.3 2 90 3 90 4 450 5 450 7.3 2 6. What is the total busy-hour erlang traffic on your system? How many BTS are required? Year Total System Busy-Hour Erlangs Capacity of One BTS.3 9.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .5 Total Rural Highway # Cells 3400 1400 Required 1367. year-by-year? Year Erlangs which one BTS can carry Launch 18.8 206.72 for System 2.5 0.4 90 74.8 206.9 5 55.

0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .116 .Operational Operational Measurements Measurements Some Some Capacity Capacity Considerations Considerations July.

5% 7.0% 5.0% 4.0% 2.5% 5.5% 2.0% Blkd Date Q This is an example of a cumulative system-wide total blocked call percentage chart maintained by one PCS system July.5% 3.117 .0% 1.RF100 v3.5% 6.0 .5% 1. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0% 3.0% 6.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .0% 7.5% 4.Total Blocked Call Percentage Example Percent Total Block Call Percentage 8.

5% 2.5% 3.0% 3.0 .RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.5% 4.0% 1.Dropped Call Percentage Tracking Example Percent Total Drop Call Percentage 5.118 .0% %Drops Date Q Dropped call percentage tracking by a PCS system.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .5% 1.0% 0.5% 0.0% 4. July.0% 2.

119 .RF100 v3.0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Total System Daily MOU Example Daily Total System MOU Daily Total System MOU 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 MOU 50000 0 Date Q Total system daily MOU plotted by a PCS system July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

1 64.0 1.0 4.0 1.1 4.3 % Blocked Calls Q Many operators use scripts or spreadsheet macros to produce ranked lists of sites with heavy traffic.0 .3 3.3 2.RF100 v3.120 .3 63.5 4.8 0.6 91.2 63.6 90.3 6.2 Sector 1.9 Acc Fail 136 130 65 101 83 49 30 24 45 31 September 5.0 2.1 3.0 3.9 2.1 1.3 3.1 2.3 63.3 Acc Fail 130 101 83 136 45 31 49 18 27 4 %Acc Drop %Drop Fail Calls Calls 5.6 1.7 89.8 5.5 4.5 4.0 5.3 MSC Site 13X 2X 1Y 93Z 30Y 1Z 57Y 4Y 30X 42Z Call %Call Block %Blck Call Att Succ Succ Calls Calls 2561 2244 1922 1833 1740 1630 1623 1615 1490 1488 2234 2017 1743 1549 1589 1495 1486 1495 1387 1410 87.0 8.2 64.0 1.1 26.3 7.8 2.1 5.7 91.9 90.2 108.0 6.6 92.9 3.3 MSC Site 93Z 13X 57Z 2X 1Y 57Y 93X 35Z 30Y 1Z Call %Call Block %Blck Call Att Succ Succ Calls Calls 1833 2561 1282 2244 1922 1623 1027 855 1740 1630 1549 2234 1098 2017 1743 1486 926 698 1589 1495 84.0 5.9 2.5 2.“Top Ten” Performance Tracking Example Call Attempts Eng Site 6.7 7. 1997 %Acc Drop %Drop Fail Calls Calls 7.1 1.5 91. performance problems.1 5.3 91.1 2.0 2.0 7.2 43.1 4.4 2.1 63.1 4.2 1.3 3.4 6.8 0.8 5.5 5.1 1.6 1.1 1.3 145 93 66 110 83 81 66 70 54 53 5.3 91. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.3 Call Attempts Sector % Blocked Calls Eng Site 64. etc.0 4.0 4.1 1.4 4.0 2.4 5.2 85.7 4.1 2.1 43.1 94.2 1.2 64.7 91.2 102.3 63.3 6.1 4.6 1.0 4.6 3.1 5.3 108.2 81.3 63.1 3.6 1.1 1.1 4.3 6.9 3.3 108.6 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 Calls 0 108.5 4.1 26.0 % 108.8 2.5 87.7 137 130 65 101 83 49 30 24 46 31 7.8 130 101 83 137 46 31 49 18 27 4 5.2 64.6 93.2 1.3 7.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .2 89.9 90.2 64.7 13.9 110 145 90 93 66 66 58 112 83 81 6. July.0 0.7 84.1 4.2 102.2 108.

Card ACC TFU1 CDSU DISCO 1 DISCO 2 CDSU CDSU CDSU LPP ENET LPP CDSU Txcvr RFFE Codes/sector Σα64 Walsh A A Txcvr RFFE Codes/sector Σβ64 Walsh B B Codes/sector Txcvr RFFE Σχ64 Walsh C C Forward RF Capacity: links use available BTS TX power DTCs DTC & ENET: One port per Vocoder plus one port per outgoing trunk. BSC-BSM BSM One T-1 can carry all traffic originated by a one-carrier BTS. Each GPS BTS uses 1. 4 shelves per SBS cabinet. roughly 6000 erlangs capacity •Each MTX can have up to 2 BSCs RF100 . Link 2. 8 Vocoders per SBS card. 20 CE per Channel Card CDSU CDSU CDSU DISCO Ch. •1-2001 Current Product Capabilities: •Each BSC can have up to 4 DISCO shelves •About 240 sites. one per simultaneous call on the system. 12 cards per shelf. 600 DMS-BUS erlangs DISCO has 192 ports max. special consideration required if daisy-chaining BTS GPS GPSR TFU Sufficient channel elements required for traffic of all sectors: one CE per link. SBS shelf 1. CDSU SBS IOC Vocoders Selectors Sufficient vocoders/selectors required in BSC SBS.0 . GPSR BSM 4. Reverse RF Capacity: links cause noise floor rise.RF100 v3. 2.121 July. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Ctrl.Nortel Operational Capacity Considerations MTX Typical CM processor capacity considerations CDMA LPP: CM One pair SLM CIUs and One pair CAUs per approx.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter . LPP CIU 1. use mobile power PSTN PSTN trunk groups must be dimensioned to support erlang load.

Reradiators Reradiators July. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.122 .0 .RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

RF100 v3. RF100 . on either uplink or downlink Q Careful attention is required when using reradiators to solve coverage problems • to achieve the desired coverage improvement • to avoid creating interference • to ensure the active search window is large enough to accommodate both donor signal and reradiator signal as seen by mobiles Cell RR Reradiators are a ‘“crutch” with definite application restrictions.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter . reradiators are a cost-effective solution for some problems. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. uplink and downlink • The system does not control reradiators and has no knowledge of anything they do to the signals they amplify. Many operators prefer not to use re-radiators at all.0 .123 July. “cell enhancers”) are amplifying devices intended to add coverage to a cell site or service inside a large building Q Reradiators are transparent to the host Wireless system • A reradiator amplifies RF signals in both directions.Wireless Reradiators Q Reradiators (also called “boosters”. “repeaters”. However.

(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .RF100 v3.valleys and other obstructed locations. channelized frequency-translating reradiators are used for this purpose – Only used in AMPS.0 . convention centers. TDMA.Wireless Reradiators Q Two types of Reradiators commonly are applied to solve two types of situations: • “filling in” holes within the coverage area of a cell site -. not currently feasible for CDMA July. CDMA) • expanding the service area of a cell to large areas beyond its natural coverage area – High-Power.124 . – Low-Power broadband reradiators are used for this purpose (AMPS. GSM. 2008 Cell RR RR Cell Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. etc. TDMA.

0 .Propagation Path Loss Considerations Q To solve a coverage problem using a reradiator. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.125 Wireless Reradiators (free space ERP usually applies) Line Loss RR Gain July. in chips? • Will search windows need to be adjusted for compensation? Path Loss Cell Gain RR Gain Path Loss (free space??) Signal Level in target area RF100 .RF100 v3. path loss and link budget must be considered • how much reradiator gain is required? • how much reradiator output power is required? • what type of antennas would be best? • how much antenna isolation is needed? • how big will the reradiator footprint be? • how far can the reradiator be from the cell? • will the reradiator interfere with the cell in other areas? • What is the propagation delay through the reradiator.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .

2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.126 Wireless Reradiators Reradiator Energy Direct Signal from Donor Cell July. Srch_Win_R.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .RF100 v3. Srch_Win_N •Base station Acquisition & Demodulation search windows Donor Cell RR Delay = ? chips Reradiator Signal RF100 .0 .Search Window Considerations Q A reradiator introduces additional PN delay • typically 5 to 30 chips • the energy seen by the mobile and by the base station is spread out over a wider range of delays Reference PN DON’T FORGET THE WINDOWS! Search Windows must be widened by Donor Energy approximately 2 x reradiator delay to ensure capture of both donor and rerad energy by mobile and base station. •Srch_Win_A.

etc.RF100 v3. Gain +12 Path Loss RR<>User -69 Signal Level @ User -91 dBm dB dBi dBm dB dBi dB dBm Basement Auditorium. it is possible to reradiate useful Wireless coverage without any amplifiers involved! Q Link budget is marginal • donor cell must be nearby • high-gain antenna required toward donor cell • distance from RR to user must be small – ≅100 feet feasible w/omni antenna – ≅500 feet w/directional antenna Donor Cell Path Loss (2.Passive Wireless Reradiators Typical Link Budget Q In a few special cases.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .1 miles. Gain +22 Signal Level into Line -28 RR Line Loss -6 RR Serving Ant.127 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.. Path Loss (250 ft. free space) July.0 . ERP free space) Line Loss -6 db Passive Reradiator Link Budget Example Donor cell EIRP +52 Path Loss Donor<>RR -102 RR Donor Ant.

or oscillation occurs • this gain restriction seriously limits available coverage • Typically achievable isolations: 70-95 dB • Good point: every channel in donor cell is re-radiated July.RF100 v3.Broadband Low-Power Wireless Reradiators Q Used mainly for filling small “holes” in coverage area of a cell Q Input and output on same frequency • usable gain: must be less than isolation between antennas. 2008 Broadband Reradiator Cell Unavoidable Coupling C o m b i n e r BPF: Uplink BPF: Downlink C o m b i n e r Wireless Spectrum Frequency Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 .128 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

free space) Gain Line Loss RR Gain RR Gain Broadband Reradiator Link Budget Example Donor cell EIRP +52 Path Loss Donor<>RR -111 RR Donor Ant.4 Signal Level @ User -80.RF100 v3.0 .4 dBm dB dBi dB dBm dB dBm dB dBi dB dBm Path Loss (1/2 mile. Gain +12 RR Line Loss -3 Signal Level into RR -50 RR Gain +50 RR Power Output +0 RR Line Loss -3 RR Serving Ant. Gain +12 Path Loss RR<>User -89. free space) Signal Level in target area RF100 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.129 July.Broadband Low-Power Wireless Reradiators Typical Link Budget Q Broadband low-power reradiators can deliver useful signal levels over footprints up to roughly 1 mile using nearby donor cells Q Link budget is usually very “tight” • paths can’t be seriously obstructed • antenna isolation must be at least 10 db more than desired RR gain • can’t overdrive reradiator 3rd.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter . order IM Donor Cell ERP Path Loss (6 miles.

Overdriving would produce clipping or other nonlinearities.RF100 v3.0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. cause unwanted interference. or overdrive CDMA handsets or the base station? Q Linearity • CDMA reradiators must be carefully adjusted to ensure they are not overdriven. resulting in code interference Q Traffic Capacity • Re-radiators may introduce enough new traffic to create overloads in the donor cell Q Alarms • Separate arrangements must be made for integrating alarms and surveillance reports from reradiators into the system July. both on uplink and downlink.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . Will these signals capture unwanted traffic.130 .Other Reradiator Issues Q Amplification of Undesired Signals • The reradiator is a broadband device capable of amplifying other signals near the intended CDMA carrier.

Chapter 8 Technical Technical Introduction Introduction to to CDMA CDMA IS-95.131 .RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . CDMA2000 and a glimpse of 1xEV July.0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.

CDMA: -10 to -17 dB.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . CDMA: Eb/No ~+6 dB.CDMA: Using A New Dimension Q All CDMA users occupy the same frequency at the same time! Frequency and time are not used as discriminators Q CDMA operates by using CODING to discriminate between users Q CDMA interference comes mainly from nearby users Q Each user is a small voice in a roaring crowd -.132 .RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. (carrier/interference ratio) Figure of Merit: C/I July.but with a uniquely recoverable code CDMA AMPS: +17 dB TDMA: +14 to +17 dB GSM: +7 to 9 dB.

applies user’s code.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .133 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. although used by the military User 3 User 4 User 1 unused User 2 User 1 User 4 User 3 User 2 unused unused User 1 User 2 User 4 User 3 Q Direct Sequence Frequency Direct Sequence CDMA Time Frequency User 1 + = July. and the receiver follows in sequence • Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) CDMA is NOT currently used in wireless systems. receiver knows. then transmitted • broadband signal is received.Two Types of CDMA Frequency Hopping CDMA User 1 User 2 User 3 User 4 There are Two types of CDMA: Q Frequency-Hopping • Each user’s narrowband signal hops among discrete frequencies. 2008 Code 1 Composite • narrowband input from a user is coded (“spread”) by a user-unique broadband code.RF100 v3.0 . recovers users’ data • Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) CDMA IS the method used in IS-95 commercial systems RF100 .

(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .200 bits/second just as originally sent July.134 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.200 bits/second Q Input B: Walsh Code #23 @ 1.0 .DSSS Spreading: Time-Domain View Input A: User’s Data Originating Site XOR Exclusive-OR At Originating Site: Q Input A: User’s Data @ 19.2288 Mcps Q Output: User’s Data @ 19. 2008 Input B: Spreading Code Output: User’s Original Data 1 Drawn to actual scale and time alignment RF100 .RF100 v3.2288 Mcps Q Output: Spread spectrum signal 1 Input B: Spreading Code Gate Spread Spectrum Signal via air interface Input A: Received Signal Destination Site XOR Exclusive-OR Gate At Destination Site: Q Input A: Received spread spectrum signal Q Input B: Walsh Code #23 @ 1.

Spreading from a Frequency-Domain View TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM Spread Spectrum Narrowband Slow Information Sent TX Signal RX Slow Information Recovered Q Traditional technologies try to squeeze signal into minimum required bandwidth Q CDMA uses larger bandwidth but uses resulting processing gain to increase capacity SPREAD-SPECTRUM SYSTEM Wideband Signal Slow Information Sent TX Fast Spreading Sequence Slow Information Recovered RX Fast Spreading Sequence Spread Spectrum Payoff: Processing Gain July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.135 .0 .RF100 v3.

2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -..0 .800/9600 = 128. or monthly payments? Q Shannon's work suggests that a certain bit rate of information deserves a certain bandwidth Q If one CDMA user is carried alone by a CDMA signal. the signal-to-noise ratio becomes undesirable and the ultimate capacity of the sector is reached Q Practical CDMA systems restrict the number of users per sector to ensure processing gain remains at usable levels CDMA Spreading Gain Consider a user with a 9600 bps vocoder talking on a CDMA signal 1. Regis. The processing gain is 1. the processing gain is large .228. can I just take the money I've already won. • Each doubling of the number of users consumes 3 db of the processing gain • Somewhere above 32 users.RF100 v3.roughly 21 db for an 8k vocoder. and go home now? July.800 hz wide.136 .Uh.228. What happens if additional users are added? The CDMA Spread Spectrum Payoff: # Users Processing Gain 1 2 4 8 16 32 21 db 18 db 15 db 12 db 9 db 6 db 64….Would you like a lump-sum.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . which is 21 db.

RF100 v3. don’t disturb the bit decoding decision being made with the proper code pattern Coding and Spreading Building a CDMA Signal Chips July. integrate a large number of chips interpreted by the user’s known code pattern Forward Error Correction Q Other users’ code patterns appear random and Symbols integrate in a random self-canceling fashion.137 .CDMA Uses Code Channels Q A CDMA signal uses many chips to convey just one bit of information Bits Q Each user has a unique chip pattern. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 . in effect a from User’s Vocoder code channel Q To recover a bit.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

robust channels Q The sequences are easy to generate on both sending and receiving ends of each link Q “What we do.CDMA’s Nested Spreading Sequences ORIGINATING SITE X+A Spread-Spectrum Chip Streams X+A+B X+A+B+C X+A+B DESTINATION X+A Input Data X Recovered Data X Spreading Spreading Spreading Sequence Sequence Sequence A B C Spreading Spreading Spreading Sequence Sequence Sequence C B A Q CDMA combines three different spreading sequences to create unique. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.138 . we can undo” July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .RF100 v3.0 .

each 64 chips long Q Each Walsh Code is precisely Orthogonal with respect to all other Walsh Codes • it’s simple to generate the codes.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .64-Chip Sequence -----------------------------------------0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 0011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011 0110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110 0000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111 0101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010 0011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100 0110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001 0000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000000011111111 0101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101010110101010 0011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011001111001100 0110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000 0101101010100101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101 0011110011000011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011 0110100110010110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110 0000000000000000111111111111111100000000000000001111111111111111 0101010101010101101010101010101001010101010101011010101010101010 0011001100110011110011001100110000110011001100111100110011001100 0110011001100110100110011001100101100110011001101001100110011001 0000111100001111111100001111000000001111000011111111000011110000 0101101001011010101001011010010101011010010110101010010110100101 0011110000111100110000111100001100111100001111001100001111000011 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0000000011111111111111110000000000000000111111111111111100000000 0101010110101010101010100101010101010101101010101010101001010101 0011001111001100110011000011001100110011110011001100110000110011 0110011010011001100110010110011001100110100110011001100101100110 0000111111110000111100000000111100001111111100001111000000001111 0101101010100101101001010101101001011010101001011010010101011010 0011110011000011110000110011110000111100110000111100001100111100 0110100110010110100101100110100101101001100101101001011001101001 0000000000000000000000000000000011111111111111111111111111111111 0101010101010101010101010101010110101010101010101010101010101010 0011001100110011001100110011001111001100110011001100110011001100 0110011001100110011001100110011010011001100110011001100110011001 0000111100001111000011110000111111110000111100001111000011110000 0101101001011010010110100101101010100101101001011010010110100101 0011110000111100001111000011110011000011110000111100001111000011 0110100101101001011010010110100110010110100101101001011010010110 0000000011111111000000001111111111111111000000001111111100000000 0101010110101010010101011010101010101010010101011010101001010101 0011001111001100001100111100110011001100001100111100110000110011 0110011010011001011001101001100110011001011001101001100101100110 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 0101101010100101010110101010010110100101010110101010010101011010 0011110011000011001111001100001111000011001111001100001100111100 0110100110010110011010011001011010010110011010011001011001101001 0000000000000000111111111111111111111111111111110000000000000000 0101010101010101101010101010101010101010101010100101010101010101 0011001100110011110011001100110011001100110011000011001100110011 0110011001100110100110011001100110011001100110010110011001100110 0000111100001111111100001111000011110000111100000000111100001111 0101101001011010101001011010010110100101101001010101101001011010 0011110000111100110000111100001111000011110000110011110000111100 0110100101101001100101101001011010010110100101100110100101101001 0000000011111111111111110000000011111111000000000000000011111111 0101010110101010101010100101010110101010010101010101010110101010 0011001111001100110011000011001111001100001100110011001111001100 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000111100000000111111110000000011110000111111110000 0101101010100101101001010101101010100101010110100101101010100101 0011110011000011110000110011110011000011001111000011110011000011 0110100110010110100101100110100110010110011010010110100110010110 In CDMA2000.139 .RF100 v3. and different lengths of walsh codes can exist. user data comes at various speeds. See Course 332 for more details on CDMA2000 1xRTT fast data channels and additional Walsh codes.One of the CDMA Spreading Sequences: The Family of Walsh Codes WALSH CODES Q 64 “Magic” Sequences.0 . or • they’re small enough to use from ROM Unique Properties: Mutual Orthogonality EXAMPLE: Correlation of Walsh Code #23 with Walsh Code #59 #23 #59 Sum 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 Correlation Results: 32 1’s. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. 32 0’s: Orthogonal!! # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 ---------------------------------. July.

where N is number of cells in register A Tapped. in sync: Sum: Complete Correlation: All 0’s Compared Shifted: Little Correlation Sequence: Self.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .RF100 v3. self-mutating sequence 2N-1 chips long (N=register length) • Such sequences match if compared in step (no-brainer.The Other Two Spreading Sequences: The Pseudo-random Noise (PN) codes An Ordinary Shift Register Q Other CDMA sequences are generated in shift registers Q Plain shift register: no fun. Half 0’s Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 . Summing Shift Register Sequence repeats every 2N-1 chips.140 . 2008 Sequence repeats every N chips. Shifted: Sum: Practically Orthogonal: Half 1’s. where N is number of cells in register A Special Characteristic of Sequences Generated in Tapped Shift Registers Compared In-Step: Matches Itself Sequence: Self. sequence = length of register Q Tapped shift register generates a wild. any sequence matches itself) • Such sequences appear approximately orthogonal if compared with themselves not exactly matched in time • false correlation typically <2% July.

768 chips long RF: • Generated in similar but cos ωt differently-tapped 15-bit shift I-sequence + registers user’s Σ Walsh symbols • the two sequences scramble Σ + the information on the I and Q Σ Different phase channels + Information Q-sequence on I and Q Q Figures to the right show how one sin ωt user’s channel is built at the bTS RF Complex Scrambling Serial to Parallel July.768 chips long 26-2/3 ms. used for Scrambling Original IS-95 CDMA PN Scrambling 32.) I-sequence Walsh user’s symbols Same information duplicated on I and Q Q-sequence Short PN Scrambling RF: cos ωt QPSKmodulated RF Output I Q Σ RF: sin ωt Q The short PN code consists of two PN Sequences. each New CDMA2000 1x Complex Scrambling 32.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . I and Q. (75 repetitions in 2 sec.0 .141 QPSK Output . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.RF100 v3.Another CDMA Spreading Sequence: The Short PN Code.

RF100 v3. all the Summer bits are added into a single-bit modulo-2 sum The shifted Long Code emerges.Another CDMA Spreading Sequence: The PN Long Code LONG CODE STATE REGISTER dynamic contents.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .142 .0 . chip by chip! Q Every phone and every BTS channel element has a Long Code generator • Long Code State Register makes long code at system reference timing • A Mask Register holds a user-specific unique pattern of bits Q Each clock pulse drives the Long Code State Register to its next state • State register and Mask register contents are added in the Summer • Summer contents are modulo-2 added to produce just a single bit output Q The output bits are the Long Code. but shifted to the user’s unique offset July. zero timing shift MASK REGISTER unique steady contents cause unique timing shift SUMMER holds dynamic modulo-2 sum of LC State and Mask registers clock Each clock cycle. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.

RF100 v3. Paging Channel #.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .143 July.0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Different Masks Produce Different Long PN Offsets TRAFFIC CHANNEL – NORMAL USING THE PUBLIC LONG CODE MASK LONG CODE STATE REGISTER fixed PERMUTED ESN SUMMING REGISTER TRAFFIC CHANNEL – PRIVATE USING THE PRIVATE LONG CODE MASK LONG CODE STATE REGISTER calculated PRIVATE LONG CODE MASK SUMMING REGISTER ACCESS CHANNEL (IDLE MODE) USING THE ACCESS CHANNEL LONG CODE MASK LONG CODE STATE REGISTER fixed AC# PC# BASE_ID PILOT PN SUMMING REGISTER Q Ordinary mobiles use their ESNs and the Public Long Code Mask to produce their unique Long Code PN offsets • main ingredient: mobile ESN Q Mobiles needing greater privacy use the Private Long Code Mask • instead of 32-bit ESN. and Pilot PN • The BTS transmits all of these parameters on the Paging Channel RF100 . the mask value is produced from SSD Word B in a calculation similar to authentication Q Each BTS sector has an Access Channel where mobiles transmit for registration and call setup • the Access Channel Long Code Mask includes Access Channel #. BTS ID.

2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.IS-95 IS-95 CDMA CDMA Forward Forward and and Reverse Reverse Channels Channels July.144 .0 .RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

The Original IS-95 CDMA Code Channels FORWARD CHANNELS REVERSE CHANNELS W0: PILOT W32: SYNC BTS W1: PAGING Wn: TRAFFIC ACCESS TRAFFIC Q Existing IS-95A/JStd-008 CDMA uses the channels above for call setup and traffic channels – all call processing transactions use these channels • traffic channels are 9600 bps (rate set 1) or 14400 bps (rate set 2) Q IS-2000 CDMA is backward-compatible with IS-95.0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .145 .RF100 v3. but offers additional radio configurations and additional kinds of possible channels • These additional modes are called Radio Configurations • IS-95 Rate Set 1 and 2 are IS-2000 Radio Configurations 1 & 2 July.

Backward compatible Same coding as IS-95B.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter . Backward compatible Broadcast Channel Quick Paging Channel Common Power Control Channel Common Assignment Channel Common Control Channels Forward Traffic Channels Fundamental Channel Dedicated Control Channel Supplemental Reverse Fundamental Channel (IS95B comp. RF100 .The Code Channels of 1xRTT Rev.RF100 v3. 0 FORWARD CHANNELS How many 1 Possible: 1 1 to 7 0 to 8 0 to 3 0 to 4 REVERSE CHANNELS Same coding as IS-95B.) Dedicated Control Channel Reverse Supplemental Channel Includes Power Control Subchannel Access Channel (IS-95B compatible) Enhanced Access Channel Common Control Channel F-Pilot F-Sync PAGING F-BCH F-QPCH F-CPCCH F-CACH F-CCCH F-TRAFFIC F-FCH F-DCCH R-Pilot 1 R-ACH or R-EACH 1 R-CCCH 0 or 1 R-TRAFFIC R-FCH 1 R-DCCH 0 or 1 R-SCH 0 to 2 BTS 0 to 7 0 to 7 Users: 0 to many 1 0 or 1 0 to 7 0 to 2 F-SCH IS-95B only Channels IS-95B only F-SCH Supplemental Channels RC3.146 July.5 Q CDMA2000 1xRTT has a rich variety of traffic channels for voice and fast data Q There are also optional additional control channels for more effective operation See Course 332 for more details. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Backward compatible Same coding as IS-95B.4.0 .

IS-95B Compatible No CDMA2000 coding features Radio Configuration Data Rates Data Rates Radio Configuration Reverse Link Required. base rate 9600 Half-rate convolutional or Turbo Coding. base rate 9600 ¼ or 1/3 rate convolutional or Turbo coding.0 . 1/3 rate convolutional or Turbo coding. base rate 9600 Quarter rate convolutional or Turbo Coding.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . base rate 9600 RC6 ¼ or ½ convolutional or Turbo encoding. base rate 14400 SR3 3xRTT Fwd: 3 carriers 1.6864 MCPS 1/6 rate convolutional or Turbo coding.RF100 v3. Half rate convolutional or Turbo coding. ¼ or 1/3 convolutional or Turbo coding. base rate 14400 RC1 RC2 RC3 RC4 RC5 RC6 RC7 RC8 RC9 9600 14400 9600 153600 9600 307200 14400 230400 9600 307200 9600 614400 14400 460800 14400 1036800 9600 14400 9600 153600 307200 14400 230400 9600 307200 614400 14400 460800 1036800 RC1 RC2 RC3 RC4 RC5 SR1 1xRTT 1 carrier 1. base rate 9600 Quarter-rate convolutional or Turbo Coding. base rate 9600 Required.2288 MCPS Rev: 3.2288 MCPS Compatible with IS-95B RS2 No CDMA2000 coding features Quarter-rate convolutional or Turbo Coding.147 . IS-95B Compatible No CDMA2000 coding features Compatible with IS-95B RS2 No CDMA2000 coding features Quarter rate convolutional or Turbo coding. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. base rate 14400 July.Spreading Rates & Radio Configurations Spreading Rate Forward Link Required. base rate 14400 ½ or 1/3 rate convolutional or Turbo encoder. base rate 14400 Required.

148 July. but Chip Rates must stay the same! SYMBOLS of 3G 153.228.0 .Walsh Codes in 1xRTT SYMBOLS of 2G VOICE or DATA One Symbol of Information 19.200 symbols/second 4 Chips of Walsh Code 1. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.RF100 v3.800 walsh chips/second RF100 .6 kb/s DATA One Symbol of Fast Data DATA SYMBOLS WALSH CODE 307.200 symbols/second DATA SYMBOLS WALSH CODE 1.228.800 walsh chips/second 64 chips of Walsh Code Data Rates are different.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .

or • they’re small enough to use from ROM Unique Properties: Mutual Orthogonality EXAMPLE: Correlation of Walsh Code #23 with Walsh Code #59 #23 #59 Sum 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 Correlation Results: 32 1’s.The Famous Walsh Codes from IS-95 Days WALSH CODES Q 64 “Magic” Sequences.149 .0 . 32 0’s: Orthogonal!! # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 ---------------------------------. each 64 chips long Q Each Walsh Code is precisely Orthogonal with respect to all other Walsh Codes and their opposites too! • it’s simple to generate the codes.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .64-Chip Sequence -----------------------------------------0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 0011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011 0110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110 0000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111 0101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010 0011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100 0110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001 0000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000000011111111 0101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101010110101010 0011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011001111001100 0110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000 0101101010100101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101 0011110011000011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011 0110100110010110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110 0000000000000000111111111111111100000000000000001111111111111111 0101010101010101101010101010101001010101010101011010101010101010 0011001100110011110011001100110000110011001100111100110011001100 0110011001100110100110011001100101100110011001101001100110011001 0000111100001111111100001111000000001111000011111111000011110000 0101101001011010101001011010010101011010010110101010010110100101 0011110000111100110000111100001100111100001111001100001111000011 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0000000011111111111111110000000000000000111111111111111100000000 0101010110101010101010100101010101010101101010101010101001010101 0011001111001100110011000011001100110011110011001100110000110011 0110011010011001100110010110011001100110100110011001100101100110 0000111111110000111100000000111100001111111100001111000000001111 0101101010100101101001010101101001011010101001011010010101011010 0011110011000011110000110011110000111100110000111100001100111100 0110100110010110100101100110100101101001100101101001011001101001 0000000000000000000000000000000011111111111111111111111111111111 0101010101010101010101010101010110101010101010101010101010101010 0011001100110011001100110011001111001100110011001100110011001100 0110011001100110011001100110011010011001100110011001100110011001 0000111100001111000011110000111111110000111100001111000011110000 0101101001011010010110100101101010100101101001011010010110100101 0011110000111100001111000011110011000011110000111100001111000011 0110100101101001011010010110100110010110100101101001011010010110 0000000011111111000000001111111111111111000000001111111100000000 0101010110101010010101011010101010101010010101011010101001010101 0011001111001100001100111100110011001100001100111100110000110011 0110011010011001011001101001100110011001011001101001100101100110 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 0101101010100101010110101010010110100101010110101010010101011010 0011110011000011001111001100001111000011001111001100001100111100 0110100110010110011010011001011010010110011010011001011001101001 0000000000000000111111111111111111111111111111110000000000000000 0101010101010101101010101010101010101010101010100101010101010101 0011001100110011110011001100110011001100110011000011001100110011 0110011001100110100110011001100110011001100110010110011001100110 0000111100001111111100001111000011110000111100000000111100001111 0101101001011010101001011010010110100101101001010101101001011010 0011110000111100110000111100001111000011110000110011110000111100 0110100101101001100101101001011010010110100101100110100101101001 0000000011111111111111110000000011111111000000000000000011111111 0101010110101010101010100101010110101010010101010101010110101010 0011001111001100110011000011001111001100001100110011001111001100 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000111100000000111111110000000011110000111111110000 0101101010100101101001010101101010100101010110100101101010100101 0011110011000011110000110011110011000011001111000011110011000011 0110100110010110100101100110100110010110011010010110100110010110 July.RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.

64-Chip Sequence -----------------------------------------0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 0011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011 0110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110 0000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111 0101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010 0011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100 0110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001 0000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000000011111111 0101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101010110101010 0011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011001111001100 0110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000 0101101010100101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101 0011110011000011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011 0110100110010110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110 0000000000000000111111111111111100000000000000001111111111111111 0101010101010101101010101010101001010101010101011010101010101010 0011001100110011110011001100110000110011001100111100110011001100 0110011001100110100110011001100101100110011001101001100110011001 0000111100001111111100001111000000001111000011111111000011110000 0101101001011010101001011010010101011010010110101010010110100101 0011110000111100110000111100001100111100001111001100001111000011 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0000000011111111111111110000000000000000111111111111111100000000 0101010110101010101010100101010101010101101010101010101001010101 0011001111001100110011000011001100110011110011001100110000110011 0110011010011001100110010110011001100110100110011001100101100110 0000111111110000111100000000111100001111111100001111000000001111 0101101010100101101001010101101001011010101001011010010101011010 0011110011000011110000110011110000111100110000111100001100111100 0110100110010110100101100110100101101001100101101001011001101001 0000000000000000000000000000000011111111111111111111111111111111 0101010101010101010101010101010110101010101010101010101010101010 0011001100110011001100110011001111001100110011001100110011001100 0110011001100110011001100110011010011001100110011001100110011001 0000111100001111000011110000111111110000111100001111000011110000 0101101001011010010110100101101010100101101001011010010110100101 0011110000111100001111000011110011000011110000111100001111000011 0110100101101001011010010110100110010110100101101001011010010110 0000000011111111000000001111111111111111000000001111111100000000 0101010110101010010101011010101010101010010101011010101001010101 0011001111001100001100111100110011001100001100111100110000110011 0110011010011001011001101001100110011001011001101001100101100110 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 0101101010100101010110101010010110100101010110101010010101011010 0011110011000011001111001100001111000011001111001100001100111100 0110100110010110011010011001011010010110011010011001011001101001 0000000000000000111111111111111111111111111111110000000000000000 0101010101010101101010101010101010101010101010100101010101010101 0011001100110011110011001100110011001100110011000011001100110011 0110011001100110100110011001100110011001100110010110011001100110 0000111100001111111100001111000011110000111100000000111100001111 0101101001011010101001011010010110100101101001010101101001011010 0011110000111100110000111100001111000011110000110011110000111100 0110100101101001100101101001011010010110100101100110100101101001 0000000011111111111111110000000011111111000000000000000011111111 0101010110101010101010100101010110101010010101010101010110101010 0011001111001100110011000011001111001100001100110011001111001100 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000111100000000111111110000000011110000111111110000 0101101010100101101001010101101010100101010110100101101010100101 0011110011000011110000110011110011000011001111000011110011000011 0110100110010110100101100110100110010110011010010110100110010110 2x2 4x4 8x8 16x16 Walsh Code Names W1232 = “Walsh Code #12. -1 Physical 32x32 Q All Walsh codes can be built to any size from a single zero by replicating and inverting Q All Walsh matrixes are square -.150 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. 2008 64x64 RF100 . Mapping: Logical 0.16-Chips ------0000000000000000 0101010101010101 0011001100110011 0110011001100110 0000111100001111 0101101001011010 0011110000111100 0110100101101001 0000000011111111 0101010110101010 0011001111001100 0110011010011001 0000111111110000 0101101010100101 0011110011000011 0110100110010110 WALSH CODES # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 ----------.” Walsh Level Mapping The Walsh Codes shown here are in logical state values 0 and 1. 32 chips long. Walsh Codes also can exist as physical bipolar signals.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .RF100 v3.Families of the Walsh Codes WALSH # 1-Chip 0 0 WALSH # 2-Chips 0 00 1 01 WALSH # 0 1 2 3 4-Chips 0000 0101 0011 0110 WALSH # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8-Chips 00000000 01010101 00110011 01100110 00001111 01011010 00111100 01101001 WALSH # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ---.0 . Logical zero is the signal value +1 and Logical 1 is the signal value -1.same number of codes and number of chips per code July.32-Chip Sequence ------------00000000000000000000000000000000 01010101010101010101010101010101 00110011001100110011001100110011 01100110011001100110011001100110 00001111000011110000111100001111 01011010010110100101101001011010 00111100001111000011110000111100 01101001011010010110100101101001 00000000111111110000000011111111 01010101101010100101010110101010 00110011110011000011001111001100 01100110100110010110011010011001 00001111111100000000111111110000 01011010101001010101101010100101 00111100110000110011110011000011 01101001100101100110100110010110 00000000000000001111111111111111 01010101010101011010101010101010 00110011001100111100110011001100 01100110011001101001100110011001 00001111000011111111000011110000 01011010010110101010010110100101 00111100001111001100001111000011 01101001011010011001011010010110 00000000111111111111111100000000 01010101101010101010101001010101 00110011110011001100110000110011 01100110100110011001100101100110 00001111111100001111000000001111 01011010101001011010010101011010 00111100110000111100001100111100 01101001100101101001011001101001 WALSH CODES # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 ---------------------------------.1 > +1.

2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Individual Walsh codes can also be expanded in the same way.RF100 v3.151 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . Q CDMA adds each symbol of information to one complete Walsh code Q Faster symbol rates therefore require shorter Walsh codes Q If a short Walsh code is chosen to carry a fast data channel.0 .Walsh Code Trees and Interdependencies W316 0110 0110 0110 0110 W3 8 W332 0110 0110 0110 0110 0110 0110 0110 0110 W1932 0110 0110 0110 0110 1001 1001 1001 1001 W1132 0110 0110 1001 1001 0110 0110 1001 1001 0110 0110 W11 W34 0110 16 0110 0110 1001 1001 W2732 0110 0110 1001 1001 1001 1001 0110 0110 W732 0110 1001 0110 1001 0110 1001 0110 1001 W2332 0110 1001 0110 1001 1001 0110 1001 0110 W1532 0110 1001 1001 0110 0110 1001 1001 0110 W364 W3564 W1964 W5164 W1164 W4364 W2764 W5964 W764 W3964 W2364 W5564 W1564 W4764 W3164 W6364 W716 0110 1001 0110 1001 W7 8 0110 1001 W15 16 0110 1001 1001 0110 W3132 0110 1001 1001 0110 1001 0110 0110 1001 Q Entire Walsh matrices can be built by replicating and inverting -. that walsh code and all its replicative descendants are compromised and cannot be reused to carry other signals Q Therefore. the supply of available Walsh codes on a sector diminishes greatly while a fast data channel is being transmitted! Q CDMA2000 Base stations can dip into a supply of quasi-orthogonal codes if needed to permit additional channels during times of heavy loading July.

31. • A 4-chip walsh code will be used for this channel Q If Walsh Code #3 (4 chips) is chosen for this channel: • Use of W34 will preclude other usage of the following 64-chip walsh codes: • 3. 11.200 symbols/second • Each symbol will occupy 4 chips at the 1x rate of 1. 15. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.64-Chip Sequence -----------------------------------------0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 0011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011 0110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110 0000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111 0101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010 0011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100 0110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001 0000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000000011111111 0101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101010110101010 0011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011001111001100 0110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000 0101101010100101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101 0011110011000011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011 0110100110010110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110 0000000000000000111111111111111100000000000000001111111111111111 0101010101010101101010101010101001010101010101011010101010101010 0011001100110011110011001100110000110011001100111100110011001100 0110011001100110100110011001100101100110011001101001100110011001 0000111100001111111100001111000000001111000011111111000011110000 0101101001011010101001011010010101011010010110101010010110100101 0011110000111100110000111100001100111100001111001100001111000011 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0000000011111111111111110000000000000000111111111111111100000000 0101010110101010101010100101010101010101101010101010101001010101 0011001111001100110011000011001100110011110011001100110000110011 0110011010011001100110010110011001100110100110011001100101100110 0000111111110000111100000000111100001111111100001111000000001111 0101101010100101101001010101101001011010101001011010010101011010 0011110011000011110000110011110000111100110000111100001100111100 0110100110010110100101100110100101101001100101101001011001101001 0000000000000000000000000000000011111111111111111111111111111111 0101010101010101010101010101010110101010101010101010101010101010 0011001100110011001100110011001111001100110011001100110011001100 0110011001100110011001100110011010011001100110011001100110011001 0000111100001111000011110000111111110000111100001111000011110000 0101101001011010010110100101101010100101101001011010010110100101 0011110000111100001111000011110011000011110000111100001111000011 0110100101101001011010010110100110010110100101101001011010010110 0000000011111111000000001111111111111111000000001111111100000000 0101010110101010010101011010101010101010010101011010101001010101 0011001111001100001100111100110011001100001100111100110000110011 0110011010011001011001101001100110011001011001101001100101100110 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 0101101010100101010110101010010110100101010110101010010101011010 0011110011000011001111001100001111000011001111001100001100111100 0110100110010110011010011001011010010110011010011001011001101001 0000000000000000111111111111111111111111111111110000000000000000 0101010101010101101010101010101010101010101010100101010101010101 0011001100110011110011001100110011001100110011000011001100110011 0110011001100110100110011001100110011001100110010110011001100110 0000111100001111111100001111000011110000111100000000111100001111 0101101001011010101001011010010110100101101001010101101001011010 0011110000111100110000111100001111000011110000110011110000111100 0110100101101001100101101001011010010110100101100110100101101001 0000000011111111111111110000000011111111000000000000000011111111 0101010110101010101010100101010110101010010101010101010110101010 0011001111001100110011000011001111001100001100110011001111001100 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000111100000000111111110000000011110000111111110000 0101101010100101101001010101101010100101010110100101101010100101 0011110011000011110000110011110011000011001111000011110011000011 0110100110010110100101100110100110010110011010010110100110010110 Which Walsh Codes get tied up by another? Wxxyyties up every YYth Walsh Code starting with #XX. 39. 27.Walsh Code Families and Exclusions Q Consider a forward link supplemental channel being transmitted with a data W34 rate of 307. 51. 7. July. 23. 47. 55. 19. 35. 59.152 . 43. 63 -.RF100 v3.228.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .0 .800 c/s.all forbidden! • 16 codes are tied up since the data is being sent at 16 times the rate of conventional 64-chip walsh codes Q The BTS controller managing this sector must track the precluded walsh codes and ensure they aren’t assigned WALSH CODES 0110 # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 ---------------------------------.

F-SCH 307.2k 19.6 ksps 76.2k 127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0 Code# 9.2k 19.4k 38.4k F-SCH 153.8 ksps 38.2k 19.200 sps Code# Code# Code# 31 Code# Code# 76.8 ksps 11 3 19 11 27 38. 2008 24 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.2k 19.600 sps 307200 sps 76.4k 0 8 0 16 QPCH QPCH QPCH TX Div PIlot Code# 0 Sync Pilot Code# Code# Code# Code# 4 chips 8 chips 16 chips 32 chips 64 chips Code# 128 chips July.2k 19.2k Paging 7 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k Paging 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k PCH 4 19.2k 19.8 ksps 38.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter 76.8 ksps 10 38.4k 1 F-SCH 307.2k 19.153 F-SCH 153.2k 19.800 sps 38.2k PCH 2 19.800 2.6 ksps 15 38. we cannot use any Walsh code if another Walsh code directly above it or below it is in use.4k 38.6 ksps 76.4k 4 0 76.8 ksps 3 F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.2k Paging 5 19.8 ksps 12 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k PCH 6 19.2 ksps 2 RF100 .2k 19.4k 38.6 ksps 76.8 ksps 38.2k 19.2 ksps Forward Link Walsh Codes in 1xRTT 3 F-SCH 153.8 ksps 9 1 1 6 76. It shows each Walsh code’s parents and children.4k This way of arranging Walsh codes is called “bit reversal order”. Remember.2k 19.4k 4 20 76.4k 10 38.8 ksps 5 76.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 13 5 76.0 .4k 38.4k 28 2 F-SCH 153.8 ksps 7 7 23 15 19.4k 8 38.2k 19.4k 38.6 ksps 76.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 38.4k 63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 7 76.4k F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.400 sps .600 4.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.8 ksps 6 2 2 26 6 22 14 30 1 17 9 25 5 21 13 29 3 38.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.RF100 v3.2k 19.6 ksps 76.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.400 sps 19.153.8 ksps 14 38.4k 4 38.4k 18 76.2k 19.4k 12 38.2k 19.2k Paging 3 19.4k 38.

154 F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19. In fixed-wireless or “stadium” type applications.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.600 sps 307200 sps 76.4k 76.2k 19.4k F-SCH 307.2k 19.400 sps 19.8 ksps 9 1 1 6 76.2k 19.4k 10 38.4k 0 16 8 38.2 ksps 2 RF100 .2k 19.4k 38.800 sps 38.8 ksps But if the users are highly mobile.6 ksps 76.4k 1 F-SCH 307.4k 38.6 ksps 76.800 2.600 4.2k 19.6k/14.4k 63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 7 76.4k 12 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 4 0 Traffic Channels Voice or Data 9. forward power may exhaust at typically 30-40 users.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.4k 76.2k 19.2k 19.4k 18 76.6 ksps 14 38.2k 19.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter 76.4k 38.2k 19.4k 38.8 ksps 38.2k 19.2k 19.200 sps Code# Code# Code# 31 Code# Code# ??????? QPCH QPCH QPCH TX Div PIlot 76.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 3 F-SCH 153.4k 38. up to 61 Voice Users 3 F-SCH 153.2k 19.2 ksps Pilot.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 38.8 ksps 5 76.2k 19. 2008 24 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.2k 19.8 ksps 6 2 2 26 6 22 14 30 1 17 9 25 5 21 13 29 3 IS-95 Today Typical Usage: 38.6 ksps 76.8 ksps 12 38.400 sps .RF100 v3.4k 38.2k 19.6 ksps 15 38.2k 19.8 ksps 38.4k 0 Code# 0 Code# Code# Code# Code# 4 chips 8 chips 16 chips 32 chips 64 chips Code# 128 chips July. all walsh codes may be usable.4k 38.2k 19.4k 4 38.2k 19.8 ksps 10 38.2k Sync Pilot 127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0 Code# 9.8 ksps 7 7 23 15 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.153.2k 19.4k 38.6 ksps 76.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 28 2 F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k F-SCH 153.4k 8 38.4k 4 20 76.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 13 5 76.2k 19.0 .2k 19. 38. Paging Sync.2k 19.2k Paging 19.8 ksps 11 3 19 11 27 38.2k 19.4k F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 38.2k 19.2k 19.

4k 1 F-FCHs mixed RC1.4k 38.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.4k 38.8 ksps 38.4k F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.4k F-SCH 307.2k 19.153.4k 4 20 76.2k 19.2 ksps 3 Pilot.4k F-SCH 153.2k 19.4k 38.6 ksps 76.8 ksps 6 2 2 2 26 6 22 14 RF100 .6 ksps 76.800 sps 38.8 ksps 38.4k 4 0 76. so more total users are possible than in IS-95.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.6 ksps 15 38.2k 19.2k 19.400 sps .8 ksps 10 38.2k 19.3 Voice 6 F-SCH 307.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 4 38.4k 18 76.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.RF100 v3. The BTS will probably have enough forward power to carry calls on all 61 walsh codes! ?? QPCH QPCH QPCH TX Div PIlot 76.8 ksps 7 7 23 15 19.4k 38.2k 19.6 ksps 76.2.2k 19.2 ksps 76.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 38.2k 19.4k 38.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter 76.4k 38.8 ksps 38.155 F-SCH 153.2k 19.600 sps 307200 sps 76.600 4.2k 19.4k 8 38.2k 19.2k 19.4k 0 0 16 8 Code# 0 Code# Code# Code# Code# 4 chips 8 chips 16 chips 32 chips 64 chips Code# 128 chips July.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.4k 12 38.2k 19. 2008 24 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.2k 19.4k 38.8 ksps 14 38.200 sps Code# Code# Code# 31 Code# Code# Mixed IS-95 / 1xRTT RC3 Voice Typical Usage: FCHs of 1xRTT RC3 users consume less power.4k 38. up to 61 Voice Users F-SCH 153.2k 19.8 ksps 13 5 76.6 ksps 76.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19. Paging Sync.4k 38.2k 19.800 2.8 ksps 5 76.8 ksps 3 F-SCH 153.0 .2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.6 ksps 76.4k 10 38.4k 28 2 F-SCH 153.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k Sync Pilot 127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0 Code# 9.4k 63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 7 76.8 ksps 11 3 19 11 27 38.4k 38.2k 19.2k Paging 19.2k 19.400 sps 19.8 ksps 9 1 1 30 1 17 9 25 5 21 13 29 3 38.8 ksps 12 38.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.

2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 38.2 ksps 76.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.800 sps 38.4k 2 38.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.4k 63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 7 76.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2 ksps 3 F-SCH 153. user rates.2k 19.400 sps .2k 19.8 ksps 13 29 3 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.6 ksps 76.RF100 v3.4k A Possible 1xRTT RC3 BTS Dynamic State: F-SCH 307.2k 19.4k F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 14 38.2k 19.800 2.2k 19. 27 Voice IS-95/1xRTT RC3 Users.2k 19.4k 1 1 30 1 17 F-SCH 153.400 sps 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter 76.4k 8 38.2k 19.8 ksps 11 3 19 11 27 38.6k 5 5 1 76.4k 4 38.2k 19. reduce number of voice users! 76.6 ksps 76.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.0 .2k 19.2k 19.200 sps Code# Code# Code# 31 Code# Code# The data users can rapidly share the one F-SCH for 153 kb/s peak.6 ksps 76.4k 76.8 ksps 7 7 23 15 19.4k 38.4k F-FCHs 9.2k 19.4k F-FCHs 9.2k 19.8 ksps 38.600 4.2k 19.2k Paging 19.4k 4 RC3 Voice 4 0 20 RC3 Voice F-SCH 307.156 F-SCH 153. 2008 24 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.600 sps 307200 sps 76.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.8 ksps 10 38.6 ksps 76.2k 19.4k 10 38.2k 19.4k 76.2k 19.2k 19.4k 18 76.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.4k 0 8 0 16 QPCH QPCH QPCH TX Div PIlot Code# 0 Sync Pilot Code# Code# Code# Code# 4 chips 8 chips 16 chips 32 chips 64 chips Code# 128 chips July.8 ksps 9 9 25 5 21 13 RF100 .4k 38.2k 19.6 ksps 15 38.8 ksps 12 38.8 ksps F-SCH 153K RC3 1 F-SCH.6k 76.8 ksps 38.2k 19.2k 127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0 Code# 9.8 ksps 3 F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.153.2k 19.8 ksps 38.2k 19.2k 19.6 ksps 12 38. 16 Active Data Users 38.4k 14 F-FCHs 9.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.4k 38. ~9Kb/s avg. But so many active data users F-FCHs consume a lot of capacity.8 ksps 6 2 2 26 6 22 RC3 Data 38.4k 28 2 76.2k 19.6k 6 F-SCH 153.2k 19.

2k 19.4k F-SCH 153.RF100 v3.4k 38.8 ksps 13 5 76.6 ksps 76.2k 19.4k 38.4k 38.4k 38.4k 4 38.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.8 ksps F-SCH 153K RC3 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.157 F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 38.2k 19.600 sps 307200 sps 76.4k F-SCH 153.2k 19.6k RC3 Voice 76.8 ksps 11 3 19 11 27 38.2k 19.2k 19.6 ksps 12 38.4k F-SCH 153. 4 Active+12 Dormant Data Users A Possible 1xRTT RC3 BTS Dynamic State: But it takes seconds to move various data users from Dormant to Active! Data users will get 153 kb/s peak.2 ksps 3 F-SCH 153.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2 ksps 76.4k 38.4k 38.4k F-FCHs 9.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 6 2 2 26 6 22 RF100 .2k 19.4k 63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 7 76.400 sps .8 ksps 10 38.2k 19.2k 19.6k 76.4k 0 8 0 16 QPCH QPCH QPCH TX Div PIlot Code# 0 Sync Pilot Code# Code# Code# Code# 4 chips 8 chips 16 chips 32 chips 64 chips Code# 128 chips July. but latency will be high.2k 19.2k 19.200 sps Code# Code# Code# 31 Code# Code# 76.8 ksps 38.2k 19.6 ksps 76.2k 19.0 .2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 1 F-FCHs 9.2k 19.2k 19.4k 4 RC3 Voice 4 0 20 76.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 1 F-SCH.4k 38.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 3 76. F-SCH 307.4k 28 2 76.4k F-SCH 153.4k 8 38.4k 10 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 12 38.2k Paging 19.2k 127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0 Code# 9.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.153.4k 38.6 ksps 5 F-FCHs Data F-FCHs 9.2k 19.800 sps 38.800 2.2k 19.600 4.4k 38.8 ksps 38.2k 19.6 ksps 15 38.8 ksps 38. 2008 24 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.400 sps 19.8 ksps 9 1 1 14 30 1 17 9 25 5 21 13 29 3 38.8 ksps 7 7 23 15 19.2k 19.4k 18 76.2k 19.6k 6 2 RC3 Voice F-SCH 307. ~9 kb/s average.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter 76.2k 19.8 ksps 14 38.2k 19.2k 19.6 ksps 76. 39 IS-95/1xRTT RC3 Voice Users.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.

2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.6 ksps 76.2 ksps 76.4k 14 F-FCHs 9.8 ksps 13 5 9 1 17 9 25 5 21 13 29 3 38.4k 38.2k 19.6 ksps 76.2k 19.8 ksps 38.4k Instead of sending 16 data users to Dormant State. 2008 24 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.6 ksps 76.0 .158 F-SCH 153.153.2k 19.6k F-FCHs Data F-DCCHs 76.2k 19.8 ksps 14 38.8 ksps 5 76.2k 19. Not yet available or implemented.8 ksps 3 76.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19. Data users will get 153 kb/s peak.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k Paging 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k F-FCHs 9.4k 38.8 ksps 11 3 19 11 27 38.4k 63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 7 76.2k 19.6 ksps 12 38.2k 19.4k 4 RC3 Voice 4 0 20 RC3 Voice F-SCH 307.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 38.2k 19.2 ksps 3 F-SCH 153.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 12 38.800 2.2k 19.2k 19.200 sps Code# Code# Code# 31 Code# Code# 76.4k 0 8 0 16 QPCH QPCH QPCH TX Div PIlot Code# 0 Sync Pilot Code# Code# Code# Code# 4 chips 8 chips 16 chips 32 chips 64 chips Code# 128 chips July.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.800 sps 38.2k 19.400 sps .8 ksps 7 7 23 15 19.2k 19.6k 6 F-SCH 153.4k 38. good latency.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.RF100 v3.2k 19.600 sps 307200 sps 76.2k 19. F-SCH 307.8 ksps 38.4k 2 38.2k 19. 4 Active+12 Control-Hold Data Users 38.4k 38.2k 19.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter 76.2k 19.8 ksps 38.4k 38.8 ksps 6 2 2 26 6 22 RC3 Voice 38.4k 1 RF100 .6 ksps 76.4k 8 38.4k 38.4k F-FCHs 9.2k 19.4k F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.2k 127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0 Code# 9.4k 38.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19. 37 IS-95/1xRTT RC3 Voice Users.400 sps 19.4k 28 2 76.4k 1 30 1 F-SCH 153.2k 19. let them time-share 2 F-DCCH for Control Hold state.2k 19.600 4.4k 18 76.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 4 38.2k 19.6k 76.4k 10 38.6 ksps 15 38.2k 19.4k F-SCH 153. ~9 kb/s average.2k 19.8 ksps F-SCH 153K RC3 Slightly Improved 1xRTT RC3 BTS Dynamic State: 1 F-SCH.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 10 38.

2k 19.8 ksps 38.2k 127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0 Code# 9.400 sps 19.2k 19.8 ksps 38.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.800 2.2k 19.6 ksps 15 38.200 sps Code# Code# Code# 31 Code# Code# ??????? F-FCHs 9.RF100 v3.6 ksps 76.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.400 sps .4k 5 5 1 76.6k RC4 Voice 4 0 24 20 QPCH QPCH QPCH TX Div PIlot F-FCHs 9.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.4k 38.8 ksps 38.8 ksps Wow! 118 users! But RC4 users F-FCHs consume as much power as old IS-95 calls.4k 63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 7 76.2k 19. up to 118 Voice Users 3 F-SCH 153.4k 38.4k 14 F-SCH 153.800 sps 38.4k 38.6 ksps 12 38.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.2 ksps 2 2 6 F-FCHs 9.2k 19.8 ksps 3 1xRTT RC4 Voice Only: F-SCH 153.2k 19.4k 4 38.8 ksps 10 38.6 ksps 76.4k 18 76.2k 19.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter Code# 76.4k 2 38.4k 1 30 1 17 F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.4k 8 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.6 ksps 76.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.6k RC4 Voice 76.2k 19.8 ksps 6 26 6 22 128 chips F-SCH 307.2k 19.2 ksps Pilot.2k 19.4k 28 2 76.4k 76.8 ksps 13 13 29 3 19 11 27 76.4k 12 38.2k 19.4k 38.6k RC4 Voice 38.153.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 4 76.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38.8 ksps 7 7 23 15 19.8 ksps 11 3 76.2k Paging 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 38.2k 19.2k 19.4k F-SCH 307. Paging Sync.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 0 8 0 16 Code# 0 Sync Pilot Code# Code# Code# 4 chips 8 chips 16 chips 32 chips Code# 64 chips F-FCHs 9.6 ksps 76.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.4k 10 38.2k 19.4k 38.600 4. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. BTS may run out of forward power before the all walsh codes are used.159 F-SCH 153.600 sps 307200 sps 76.8 ksps 9 1 9 25 5 21 RF100 .6k RC4 Voice July.2k 19.2k 19.0 .8 ksps 14 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps F-SCH 153.2k 19. 38.

8 ksps 38.2k 19.4k 38.4k 4 F-FCHs 9.2k 19.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter 76.4k 38.2k 19.4k 10 38.4k 18 76.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38. 4 Active+12 Control-Hold RC4 Data Users 16 data users time-share 2 F-DCCH for Control Hold state.6 ksps 76.600 sps 307200 sps 76.2k 19. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.4k 1 1 17 F-SCH 153.2k 19.4k 12 38.2k 19.800 2.2k 19.2k 19.6 ksps 76.2 ksps 2 2 6 14 30 F-FCHs 9.2k 19.4k 38.8 ksps 13 5 5 1 76.6 ksps 76.2k 19.8 ksps 38.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.4k 38. 76.2k 19. 80 1xRTT RC4 Voice Users.6 ksps 76.8 ksps 38.2k 19.2k 19.153.2k 19.2 ksps 3 F-SCH 153.2k 127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0 Code# 9.2k 19.2k 19.4. ~19 kb/s average.4. But fwd power may exhaust! 38.2k 19.8 ksps 6 26 6 22 Code# 0 Sync Pilot Code# Code# 16 chips 32 chips 64 chips F-FCHs F-DCCHs F-SCH 307.2k 19.8 ksps 14 38.4k 0 8 0 16 QPCH QPCH QPCH TX Div PIlot F-FCHs 9.6 or 307.2k 19.4k 38.8 ksps 11 3 19 11 27 38.4k ???? F-SCH 153.8 ksps F-SCH 307K RC4 1 F-SCH.6k RC4 Voice Code# 38. good latency.400 sps 19.2k 19.6k RC4 Voice 76.4k 4 38.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 10 38.2k 19.2k Paging 19.4k F-SCH 307.0 .4k 2 38.2k 19.2k 19.6 ksps 15 38. 153.6k RC4 Voice 4 0 20 24 76.400 sps .2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 8 38.4k 38. Data users will get 38.8 ksps 7 7 23 15 19.2 kb/s peak.2k 19.600 4.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 9 1 9 25 5 21 13 29 RF100 .2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.200 sps Code# Code# Code# 31 Code# Code# 76.4k 63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 7 76.2k 19.160 F-SCH 153.8 ksps F-SCH 153.4k 38.2k 19.800 sps 38.8 ksps 3 3 38.4k F-SCH 153.6 ksps 12 38.4k 28 2 76.2k 19.4k 1xRTT RC4 Voice and Data: 76.2k 19.4k 38.2k 19.4k 38.4k 76.4k 38.2k 19.2k 19.4k Code# 4 chips Code# 8 chips 128 chips July.RF100 v3.

8 ksps 10 38.4k F-SCH 153.200 sps Code# 9.2k 19.2k 19.4k 30 38.2k 19.4k 12 76.4k 5 76.4k 11 38.0 .2k 19.6k RC4 Voice ???? F-FCHs 9.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.4k 31 Code# 38.2k 19.4k 14 76.6 ksps 11 bi m Co 0 8 76.2k 19.6k RC3 Voice 19.2k 19.4.2k 19.8 ksps 3 38.2k 19. 153.6 or 307.2k 19.4k 26 38.2k 19. Data users will get 38.4k 24 38.6k RC3 Voice F-FCHs 9.2k 19.2k 19.Mature 1xRTT Mixed-Mode Voice and Data: 1 RC3/RC4 Shared F-SCH.4k 29 38.8 ksps 12 38.8 ksps 4 38.6k RC3 Voice F-FCHs 9.4k ns io 63 31 47 15 55 23 39 7 59 27 43 11 51 19 35 3 61 29 45 13 53 21 37 5 57 25 41 9 49 17 33 1 62 30 46 14 54 22 38 6 58 26 42 10 50 18 34 2 60 28 44 12 52 20 36 4 56 24 40 8 48 16 32 0 F-FCHs 9.2k 19.4k 28 38.2k 19.4k Or F-SCH 153.2k 19.2k 19.800 sps F-SCH 153K RC3 F-SCH or 307.2k 19.2k 19.6k RC4 Voice F-FCHs 9.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 15 0 4 F-SCH 153.2k 19.400 sps Code# 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 16 8 38.2k 19.2k 19.6 ksps 6 76.2k Paging 19.6k RC4 Voice 127 63 95 31 111 47 79 15 119 55 87 23 103 39 71 7 123 59 91 27 107 43 75 11 115 51 83 19 99 35 67 3 125 61 93 29 109 45 77 13 117 53 85 21 101 37 69 5 121 57 89 25 105 41 73 9 113 49 81 18 97 33 65 1 126 62 94 30 110 46 78 14 118 54 86 22 102 38 70 6 122 58 90 26 106 42 74 10 114 50 82 18 98 34 66 2 124 60 92 28 108 44 76 12 116 52 84 20 100 36 68 4 120 56 88 24 104 40 72 8 112 48 80 16 96 32 64 0 July.4k 22 38.2k 19.4k 76.4k 38. 4 Active+12 Control-Hold RC3 and RC4 Data Users 16 data users time-share 2 F-DCCH for Control Hold state. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.4k 18 38.2k 19.4k 19 38.2k 19.4k 13 76.6 ksps 2 F-SCH 153.2k Sync Pilot F-FCHs F-DCCHs F-FCHs 9.8 ksps 1 17 38.RF100 v3.2 kb/s peak.2k 19.8 ksps 23 t na 7 38.4. good latency.2k 19.8 ksps 5 38.4k 38. ~9 or 19 kb/s average.2k 19.600 sps Code# 76.2k 19. 76.2k 19.2k 19.8 ksps 2 38.2k 19.2k 19.2k 19. Fwd power tight! Code# 4 chips Code# 8 chips Code# 16 chips Code# 0 32 chips Code# 64 chips Code# 128 chips QPCH QPCH QPCH TX Div PIlot 0 2 F-SCH 307.2k 19.2k 19.600 4.4k 25 38.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .8 ksps 13 38.4k 3 76.2k 19.8 ksps 6 38.6 ksps 7 15 76.2k 19.4k 4 76. 20 RC3 Voice Users.4k 3 7 F-SCH 153.2 ksps 1 3 Code# 307200 sps Code# 153.2k 19.2 ksps RC4 F-SCH 307K 6 1 5 F-SCH 153.400 sps 38.6 ksps 2 76.2k 19.4k 27 38.4k 10 76.2k 19.2k 19.4k 20 38.2k 19.2k 19.6 ksps 1 9 76.2k 19.2k 19.800 2.2k 19.8 ksps 14 38.4k 21 38. 38 RC4 Voice Users.161 .2k 19.8 ksps 76.4k 9 38.2k 19.

6 kbps +CRC & Tail bits 1/2 rate Conv Encoder Symbol Repetition Interleaver Pwr Ctrl Bits 800 bps Gain Gain PC 19.2 ksps Punc 800 bps Power Ctrl Decimator 1228.RF100 v3.600 bps F-FCH (IS-95-Compatible) Orthogonal Spreading Power Control Puncturing Data Bits 8.SR1.6 kbps 19.8 kbps Long Code Decimator /W Σ Q FIR LPF Q Q Short Code July.8 kcps 1228. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.162 .8 kcps Walsh 64 Generator Same symbols go on both I and Q! I Short Code 9. RC1 9.0 .8 kcps BTS Long Code Generator 1228.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .2 ksps User Long Code Mask Σ I FIR LPF I 1228.

2 ksps Punc 1228.35 kbps +CRC & Tail bits 1/2 rate Conv Encoder Symbol Repetition Symbol Puncturing 14.SR1. RC2 14. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.163 .8 kcps BTS Long Code Generator 1228.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .400 bps F-FCH (IS-95-Compatible) Orthogonal Spreading Power Control Puncturing Interleaver Pwr Ctrl Bits 800 bps Gain Gain PC 19.4 kbps 28.RF100 v3.0 .8 kcps User Long Code Mask 1228.8 ksps 19.8 kbps Long Code Decimator /W Σ Q FIR LPF Q Q Short Code July.8 kcps 800 bps Power Ctrl Walsh 64 Decimator Generator Same symbols go on both I and Q! I Short Code 2 of 6 Data Bits 13.2 ksps Σ I FIR LPF I 1228.

8 kcps Complex scrambling ensures that the physical I and Q phase planes contain equal amplitudes at all times.2 ksps Q 1228.600 bps) Complex Scrambling Power Control Puncturing Full Rate Data Bits 8.8 kcps Walsh 64 Generator 1228.8 kcps Q Short Code + + Power control information may be carried as shown or on the F-DCCH The stream of symbols is divided into two parts: one on logical I and one on logical Q Σ Q FIR LPF Q 1228.RF100 v3.8 kcps + - I I Short Code Σ I FIR LPF I 1228.2 ksps 1228.6 kbps +CRC & Tail bits 1/4 rate Conv Encoder Interleaver Pwr Ctrl Bits 800 bps Gain Gain PC Punc 38.4 ksps 800 bps Power Ctrl Decimator Orthogonal Spreading 19.4 ksps I Serial to Parallel 1228. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 . July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .6 kbps 38.SR1. RC3 F-FCH (9.8 kbps Long Code Decimator /W/2 Q 19.8 kcps User Long Code Mask BTS Long Code Generator 1228.8 kcps 9. This minimizes the peak-to-average power levels in the signal.164 .

This minimizes the peak-to-average power levels in the signal. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .8 kcps Q Short Code + + Σ Q FIR LPF Q 1228. July.6 ksps 1228.0 .2 ksps I 1228.8 kcps User Long Code Mask Serial to Walsh 128 Parallel Generator BTS Long Code Generator 1228.2 ksps Long Code Decimator /W/2 Power control information may be carried as shown or on the F-DCCH The stream of symbols is divided into two parts: one on logical I and one on logical Q 800 bps Power Ctrl Decimator Orthogonal Spreading 9.8 kbps Q 1228.8 kcps 9.6 kbps +CRC & Tail bits 1/2 rate Conv Encoder Interleaver Pwr Ctrl Bits 800 bps Gain Gain PC Punc 19.SR1.6 kbps 19.8 kcps 9.8 kcps Complex scrambling ensures that the physical I and Q phase planes contain equal amplitudes at all times.6 ksps Q 1228. RC4 F-FCH (9.600 bps) Complex Scrambling Power Control Puncturing Full Rate Data Bits 8.RF100 v3.8 kcps + - I I Short Code Σ I FIR LPF I 1228.165 .

RC3 F-SCH (153. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.6 kbps User Long Code Mask I Serial to Parallel 1228. July.RF100 v3.8 kcps Q Short Code + + Σ Q FIR LPF Q 1228.2 ksps 1228. This minimizes the peak-to-average power levels in the signal.4 ksps BTS Long Code Generator 1228.8 kcps + - I I Short Code Σ I FIR LPF I 1228.8 kcps 614.8 kcps Walsh 4 Generator 1228.166 .SR1.4 ksps Gain 307.8 kbps Long Code Decimator /W/2 Q 307.0 .4 ksps Payload Data Bits 152.600 bps) Complex Scrambling Orthogonal Spreading 614.8 kcps 153.2 ksps Q 1228.8 kcps The stream of symbols is divided into two parts: one on logical I and one on logical Q Complex scrambling ensures that the physical I and Q phase planes contain equal amplitudes at all times.4 kbps +CRC & Tail bits 1/4 rate Conv Encoder Interleaver 614.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

SR1.200 bps) Complex Scrambling Orthogonal Spreading 614.8 kbps +CRC & Tail bits 1/2 rate Conv Encoder Interleaver 614.4 ksps Gain 307.8 kcps + - I I Short Code Σ I FIR LPF I 1228.8 kcps Q Short Code + + Σ Q FIR LPF Q 1228. RC4 F-SCH (307.8 kbps Long Code Decimator /W/2 Q 307.8 kcps 614. July.2 kbps User Long Code Mask I Serial to Parallel 1228. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .8 kcps 307.4 ksps Payload Data Bits 304.167 .4 ksps BTS Long Code Generator 1228.2 ksps 1228.8 kcps Walsh 4 Generator 1228. This minimizes the peak-to-average power levels in the signal.RF100 v3.2 ksps Q 1228.8 kcps The stream of symbols is divided into two parts: one on logical I and one on logical Q Complex scrambling ensures that the physical I and Q phase planes contain equal amplitudes at all times.

0 .CDMA CDMA Network Network Architecture Architecture July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .RF100 v3.168 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.

Structure of a Typical CDMA System
HLR Home Location Register (subscriber database)

SUPPORT FUNCTIONS

BASE STATIONS Voice Mail System SWITCH BASE STATION CONTROLLER

PSTN Local Carriers Long Distance Carriers

Mobile Telephone Switching Office
ATM Link to other CDMA Networks (Future)

July, 2008

Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

RF100 - 169

CDMA Network for Circuit-Switched Voice Calls

(C)BSC/Access Manager Switch

PSTN

t1

t1

v

SEL

t1

CE
BTS

Q The first commercial IS-95 CDMA systems provided only circuitswitched voice calls

July, 2008

Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

RF100 - 170

CDMA 1xRTT Voice and Data Network
Internet VPNs
PDSN Home Agent PDSN Foreign Agent Backbone Network
Authentication Authorization Accounting

AAA
Switch

(C)BSC/Access Manager

PSTN

t1

t1

v

SEL

t1

CE
BTS

Q CDMA2000 1xRTT networks added two new capabilities: • channel elements able to generate and carry independent streams of symbols on the I and Q channels of the QPSK RF signal – this roughly doubles capacity compared to IS-95 • a separate IP network implementing packet connections from the mobile through to the outside internet – including Packet Data Serving Nodes (PDSNs) and a dedicated direct data connection (the Packet-Radio Interface) to the heart of the BSC Q The overall connection speed was still limited by the 1xRTT air interface
July, 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 - 171

1xEV-DO Overlaid On Existing 1xRTT Network
Internet VPNs
PDSN Home Agent PDSN Foreign Agent Backbone Network
Authentication Authorization Accounting

DO Radio Network Controller
(C)BSC/Access Manager

DO-OMC

AAA
Switch

CE

PSTN

t1

t1

v

SEL

t1

CE
BTS

Q 1xEV-DO requires faster resource management than 1x BSCs can give • this is provided by the new Data Only Radio Network Controller (DO-RNC) Q A new controller and packet controller software are needed in the BTS to manage the radio resources for EV sessions • in some cases dedicated channel elements and even dedicated backhaul is used for the EV-DO traffic Q The new DO-OMC administers the DO-RNC and BTS PCF addition Q Existing PDSNs and backbone network are used with minor upgrading Q The following sections show Lucent, Motorola, and Nortel’s specific solutions
July, 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 - 172

Voice Call Path through the CDMA Network
MTX
SLM CM

GPS
GPSR

BSC-BSM
BSM

BTS
GPS
GPSR CDSU CDSU CDSU DISCO
Ch. Card ACC

TFU

DMS-BUS LPP ENET LPP

TFU1 CDSU CDSU DISCO 1 DISCO 2

Packets
CDSU CDSU CDSU

DS0 in T1
DTCs

SBS
IOC
Vocoders Selectors

Vocoder, Selector

CDSU

Chips
Σβ Σχ

Σα

Txcvr A Txcvr B Txcvr C

RFFE A RFFE B RFFE C

Channel Element

RF

PSTN

July, 2008

Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

RF100 - 173

0 . 2008 R-P Channel Elements (FCH.RF100 v3. Card ACC TFU DMS-BUS LPP ENET LPP TFU1 CDSU CDSU DISCO 1 DISCO 2 Packets CDSU CDSU CDSU DTCs SBS IOC Vocoders Selectors Selector CDSU Chips Σβ Σχ Σα Txcvr A Txcvr B Txcvr C RFFE A RFFE B RFFE C PSTN Interface Internet VPNs July.1x Data Call Path through the CDMA Network MTX SLM CM GPS GPSR BSC-BSM BSM BTS GPS GPSR CDSU CDSU CDSU DISCO Ch.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .174 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. SCH) RF PDSN RF100 .

(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .036 Mb/s DS-3 = 28 DS-1 = 672 DS-0 OC-1 = 28 DS-1 = 672 DS-0 FIBER 1.5 Gb/s OC-24 1.032 2.2 Gb/s OC-12 622 Mb/s OC-3 155 Mb/s 51.175 .544 Mb/s DS-1/T-1 = 24 DS-0 64 kb/s E-1 = 28+2 DS-0 64 kb/s DS-0 July.0 .RF100 v3.016 DS-0 Q Worldwide telecom rides on the standard signal formats shown at left Q Lower speeds are used on copper twisted pairs or coaxial cable Q Higher speeds are carried on fiber Q Multiplexers bundle and unbundle channels Q Channelized and unchannelized modes are provided European Heirarchy in Copper Media 2.Telecom Transmission Standards 170 OC-192s on One Fiber Strand!! 64.064 North American Heirarchy in Copper Media ~45 Mb/s 4. 2008 DS-0 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.84 Mb/s 32.512 OC-192 10 Gb/s OC-96 5 Gb/s OC-48 2.128 8.256 16.

Multiplexing. Power Power Control Control IS-95 IS-95 Operational Operational Details Details July.176 .RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Vocoding. Multiplexing.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .0 .Vocoding.

etc) July.0 .Variable Rate Vocoding & Multiplexing DSP QCELP VOCODER 20ms Sample Q Vocoders compress speech. reduce bit Pitch rate. and user secondary 96/144 1/2 Rate Frame data may be mixed in CDMA frames 48/72 1/4 Rt.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . greatly increasing capacity Filter Q CDMA uses a superior Variable Rate Codebook Vocoder FeedCoded Result back Formant • full rate during speech Filter • low rates in speech pauses • increased capacity bits Frame Sizes • more natural sound 192/288 Full Rate Frame Q Voice. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.177 .RF100 v3. signaling. 24/36 1/8 Frame Contents: can be a mixture of Primary Signaling Secondary Traffic (System (On-Air (Voice or data) Messaging) activation.

Selecoder tor I Q Short PN Forward Link Bad Frame PMRM POWER MEAS.178 FEI Bits Eb/No Setpoint July. Help!!” Counter FEI Bits Mark Bad Frames Received POWER CONTROL BITSTREAM RIDING ON MOBILE PILOT IS-95 RS1 Method IS-95 RS2 Method 1xRTT Method RF100 . Sector X TXPO = -(RXdbm) -C + TXGA MOBILE FORWARD LINK POWER ADJUSTMENT Σ DGU Voc.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .0 . 1xRTT 800 Power Control Bits per second! ALL SAME METHOD BSC Pilot Sync Paging User 1 User 2 User 3 BTS (1 sector) Transmitter.How Power Control Works REVERSE LINK POWER ADJUSTMENT BSC Bad FER? Raise Setpoint BTS Stronger than setpoint? Eb/No Setpoint Reverse Link RX RF Digital Open Loop Closed Loop TX RF Digital MOBILE IS-95.RF100 v3. REPORT MSG “2 bad in last 4. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.

RF100 v3.Details of Reverse Link Power Control Q TXPO Handset Transmit Power • Actual RF power output of the handset transmitter.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .179 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. 2008 Time. including combined effects of open loop power control from receiver AGC and closed loop power control by BTS • can’t exceed handset’s maximum (typ. systems Subscriber Handset BTS DUP Receiver>> LNA x TXPO x PA LO ∼ LO I ≈ Rake R R R S Σ Viterbi Decoder IF ~ Open Loop Long PN x Orth Mod Closed Loop Pwr Ctrl x Vocoder IF IF Mod x FEC Q <<Transmitter Typical TXPO: +23 dBm in a coverage hole 0 dBm near middle of cell -50 dBm up close to BTS 0 dB -10 dB -20 dB Typical Transmit Gain Adjust Q TXGA Transmit Gain Adjust • Sum of all closed-loop power control commands from the BTS since the beginning of this call July.0 . systems = +76 for 1900 MHz. Seconds RF100 . +23 dBm) TXPO = -(RXdbm) -C + TXGA C = +73 for 800 MHz.

180 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .A A Quick Quick Introduction Introduction to to CDMA CDMA Messages Messages and and Call Call Processing Processing July.RF100 v3.0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.

most of the time is filled with traffic and messages are sent only when there is something to do Q All CDMA messages have very similar structure.RF100 v3. there are only messages. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .0 . most call processing events are driven by messages Q Some CDMA channels exist for the sole purpose of carrying messages. they never carry user’s voice traffic • Sync Channel (a forward channel) • Paging Channel (a forward channel) • Access Channel (a reverse channel) • On these channels. continuously all of the time Q Some CDMA channels exist just to carry user traffic • Forward Traffic Channel • Reverse Traffic Channel • On these channels.181 . regardless of the channel on which they are sent July.Messages in CDMA Q In CDMA.

How CDMA Messages are Sent Q CDMA messages on both forward and reverse traffic channels are normally sent via dim-and-burst Q Messages include many fields of binary data Q The first byte of each message identifies message type: this allows the recipient to parse the contents Q To ensure no messages are missed.0 . all CDMA messages bear serial numbers and important messages contain a bit requesting acknowledgment Q Messages not promptly acknowledged are retransmitted several times. 2008 EXAMPLE: A POWER MEASUREMENT REPORT MESSAGE Field MSG_TYPE (‘00000110’) ACK_SEQ MSG_SEQ ACK_REQ ENCRYPTION ERRORS_DETECTED POWER_MEAS_FRAMES LAST_HDM_SEQ NUM_PILOTS Length (in bits) 8 3 3 1 2 5 10 2 4 NUM_PILOTS occurrences of this field: PILOT_STRENGTH RESERVED (‘0’s) 6 0-7 RF100 . If not acknowledged.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .RF100 v3.182 t Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. the sender may release the call Q Field data processing tools capture and display the messages for study July.

183 .Message Vocabulary: Acquisition & Idle States Pilot Channel No Messages Sync Channel Sync Channel Msg BTS Paging Channel Access Parameters Msg System Parameters Msg CDMA Channel List Msg Extended System Parameters Msg Extended Neighbor List Msg Global Service Redirection Msg Service Redirection Msg SSD Update Msg Null Msg General Page Msg Order Msg Access Channel Registration Msg Order Msg • Mobile Station Acknowldgment • Long Code Transition Request • SSD Update Confirmation many others…..RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Channel Assignment Msg Feature Notification Msg Authentication Challenge Msg Status Request Msg TMSI Assignment Msg Data Burst Msg Origination Msg Page Response Msg Authentication Challenge Response Msg Status Response Msg TMSI Assignment Completion Message Data Burst Msg July. •Base Station Acknowledgment •Lock until Power-Cycled • Maintenance required many others….0 .

Acknowledgment •Long Code Transition Request • SSD Update Confirmation • Connect Authentication Challenge Msg TMSI Assignment Msg Send Burst DTMF Msg Set Parameters Msg Power Control Parameters Msg.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .RF100 v3. Retrieve Parameters Msg Analog Handoff Direction Msg SSD Update Msg Mobile Station Registered Msg July.184 .Message Vocabulary: Conversation State Forward Traffic Channel Order Msg • Base Station Acknowledgment • Base Station Challenge Confirmation • Message Encryption Mode Alert With Information Msg Service Request Msg Service Response Msg Service Connect Msg Service Option Control Msg Status Request Msg Flash With Information Msg Data Burst Msg Extended Handoff Direction Msg Neighbor List Update Msg In-Traffic System Parameters Msg Reverse Traffic Channel Service Request Msg Service Response Msg Service Connect Completion Message Service Option Control Message Status Response Msg Flash With Information Msg Data Burst Message Pilot Strength Measurement Msg Handoff Completion Msg Origination Continuation Msg Authentication Challenge Response Msg TMSI Assignment Completion Message Send Burst DTMF Msg Parameters Response Message Power Measurement Report Msg Order Message • Mobile Sta. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.

A A Streamlined Streamlined Visual Visual Tour Tour Of Of CDMA CDMA Call Call Processing Processing July. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.185 .RF100 v3.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.186 .0 . Messages Transmitter RF Section July. Convl.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . Demultiplexer Packets Messages Audio Vocoder Audio CPU Transmit Gain Adjust Transmitter Digital Section Long Code Gen.What’s In a Handset? How does it work? summing time-aligned Chips control Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Receiver RF Section IF. Detector AGC RF Duplexer RF Open Loop Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Pilot Searcher PN xxx Walsh 0 bits Digital Rake Receiver Symbols Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Δt Σ Symbols power Viterbi Decoder. Decoder.

RF100 v3.Let's Let's Acquire Acquire The The System! System! July. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.187 .0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

0 . Find the Strongest Pilot! PN 168 BTS W0 PILOT TIME Rake Receiver #1 unassigned #2 unassigned #3 unassigned #4 unassigned Pilot Searcher SCAN Find Strongest Q The pilot searcher of the phone spends about 3. in miniscule 1/8 chip delay steps. 2008 .188 -20 Chips 0 PN 0 July. to see how much energy is being received from every nearby sector Q The sector with the strongest pilot is chosen Ec/Io 0 Pilot Searcher Scans the Entire Range of PNs 32K 512 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.1.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .4 seconds measuring the pilot strength at every possible PN delay.RF100 v3.

28 octets MSG_TYPE.189 . 274 (1xRTT) SR1_BCCH_SUPPORTED. PILOT_PN 168 LC_STATE. 6.2. 0x02 20 34 B7 53. IS-2000 Revision 0 MIN_P_REV. 0 SR3_INCL.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. 0. 0x00 25 93 12 7C FA. 0. SYS_TIME.0 . LTM_OFF. -660 minutes DAYLT. Now we know: • The strongest pilot available • The exact timing of this pilot Q We do NOT yet know • This pilot’s PN offset • 20 msec frame timing of channels • Long Code State Q The SYNC channel is a special channel timed exactly in step with the short PN sequence • It tells us all these unknown quantities July. Read the Sync Channel Message PN 168 W32 BTS W0 The Sync Channel is a “Sesame Street” for mobiles! SYNC PILOT TIME SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYNSYN Read Sync Ch. 1. J-STD-008 SID 995. Msg Rake Receiver #1 PN168+0 W32 Stay Locked! #2 PN168+2 W32 #3 PN168+9 W32 #4 PN168+5 W32 Pilot Searcher SYNC CHANNEL MESSAGE MSG_LENGTH. 13. No RESERVED. 274 (IS-95) EXT_CDMA_FREQ. 1. Yes PRAT. 54.RF100 v3. 4800 bps CDMA_FREQ. NID 3. Q Great! We found a signal. 1. 10/23/2001 11:02:54 LP_SEC. 28. 1. Sync Channel Message P_REV.

3.RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. This waiting period is called the Timing Change. The Timing Shift: Adjust all Internal Clocks PN 168 End of SCH SuperFrame W32 SYNC PILOT TIME Rake Receiver #1 unassigned Stay Locked! #2 unassigned #3 unassigned #4 unassigned Pilot Searcher +320 ms -PN 168 The Timing Change SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYNSYN BTS W0 Ref Time Q This timeline shows each step as the mobile acquires the system Q First search all PNs to find the strongest pilot Q Read the Sync Channel Message to learn times and LC state • The times and state refer to a future moment 320 ms after the end of the Sync Channel superframe.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . minus the BTS PN offset.190 . July.

(c) 2008 Scott Baxter . or look down the list level by level July. Is This the Right System to Use? Scan the PRL for Anything Better ROAMING LIST Roaming List Type: IS-683A Preferred Only: FALSE Default Roaming Indicator: 0 Preferred List ID: 10018 SYSTEM TABLE INDEX 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 SID 4144 4812 205 208 208 342 342 478 1038 1050 1058 1375 1385 143 143 4103 4157 312 444 444 1008 1012 1014 1688 113 113 179 179 465 2119 2094 1005 1013 NEG/ NID PREF 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref 65535 Pref GEO NEW SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME NEW SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME SAME ACQ ROAM PRI INDEX IND SAME 13 1 MORE 21 1 SAME 4 0 MORE 37 0 SAME 4 0 MORE 37 0 SAME 4 0 SAME 4 0 SAME 4 0 SAME 4 0 SAME 4 0 SAME 4 0 MORE 4 0 MORE 37 0 MORE 4 0 SAME 3 1 MORE 2 1 SAME 4 0 MORE 37 0 SAME 4 0 SAME 4 0 SAME 4 0 SAME 4 0 MORE 4 0 MORE 37 0 SAME 4 0 MORE 37 0 SAME 4 0 SAME 4 0 MORE 4 0 MORE 4 0 SAME 4 0 SAME 4 0 ACQUISITION TABLE INDEX ACQ TYPE 0 6 1 6 2 6 3 6 4 1 5 6 6 6 7 6 8 6 9 6 10 6 11 6 12 6 13 6 14 6 15 6 16 6 17 6 18 6 19 6 20 6 21 6 22 6 23 6 24 6 25 6 26 6 27 1 28 1 29 5 30 5 31 5 32 5 33 5 34 5 35 4 36 4 37 4 38 6 39 6 40 6 41 6 42 6 43 6 44 6 45 6 46 6 CH1 500 575 50 25 Both 450 675 250 550 75 200 425 500 500 650 25 425 200 825 350 750 325 1150 350 25 50 500 A B A B C D E F A B Both 350 25 675 850 650 450 325 150 1025 CH2 425 625 100 200 500 500 50 375 50 250 500 575 625 500 50 550 50 850 325 725 725 1175 875 1175 200 1075 CH3 825 500 75 350 350 600 175 425 175 175 575 475 350 675 375 225 175 925 375 775 350 325 825 25 850 CH4 575 425 475 375 575 575 625 250 50 25 25 50 25 350 725 375 675 750 CH5 CH6 CH7 CH8 CH9 850 325 625 825 725 650 475 850 175 250 50 475 175 250 a GEO GROUP Climb! Q It’s not enough just to find a CDMA signal • We want the CDMA signal of our own system or a favorite roaming partner Q Phones look in the PRL to see if there is a more preferred signal than whatever they find first • They check frequencies in the Acquisition Table until they find the best system. can be updated over the air.RF100 v3. RF100 .0 . 2008 325 675 375 75 250 750 250 25 375 650 775 575 725 425 425 50 575 175 775 1175 725 600 100 775 425 575 625 a GEO GROUP 375 1175 200 75 175 250 100 250 75 825 825 100 600 750 850 1175 775 475 350 375 1025 1050 1075 475 625 675 1050 1075 PRL: Preferred Roaming List Programmed into each phone by the system operator.191 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.4.

28 sec) ACK SYS ChASN CHN XSYS NBR ChASN GSRM APM ACK GPAG ACK SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYNSYN BTS W0 Ref Time Collect all the Configuration Messages Absorb and store all their parameters.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .0 . packet details) • Channel List Message (list of all carrier frequencies on this sector) • Neighbor List Message (list of nearby sectors to watch out for) • Global Service Redirection Message (“don’t stay here .RF100 v3. handoff.go over there”) July. Collect the Configuration Messages! PN 168 W1 PAGING W32 SYNC PILOT TIME Global Service ** Redirection Message Extended System Parameters Message Access Parameters Message ** CDMA Channel List Message Neighbor ** List Message Rake Receiver #1 PN168+0 W1 Stay Locked! #2 PN168+2 W1 #3 PN168+9 W1 #4 PN168+5 W1 Pilot Searcher System Parameters Message Collect all the Configuration Messages (all config. window settings) • Extended System Parameters Message (how to identify. Q The Configuration Messages tell the mobile everything it needs to know to successfully operate on the system • Access Parameters Message (how to behave on the access channel) • System Parameters Message (registration.192 .messages are repeated every 1. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.5.

0 . Welcome! Just Monitor the Paging Channel PN 168 W1 PAGING W32 SYNC PILOT TIME Rake Receiver #1 PN168+0 W1 #2 PN168+2 W1 #3 PN168+9 W1 #4 PN168+5 W1 Pilot Searcher Now monitor the Paging Channel for any incoming calls or messages ACK SYS ChASN CHN XSYS NBR ChASN GSRM APM ACK GPAG ACK SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYNSYN BTS W0 Ref Time Q Listen to see if you get any incoming calls or short messages! July.RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .6.193 .

The mobile is now Registered and can begin slotted mode paging. all declared by the system on the paging channel in the System Parameters Message July. the mobile sends a Registration Message on the access channel. R The BTS sends an ACK on the Paging Channel. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. the mobile must register • This allows the current system to update the HLR with the mobile’s location. what Slot Cycle Index. Sign In Please W1 W32 PAGING KSAKX KPCKGKSAKXPNKPPCKGKSAKXPNKPPCKGKSAKXPNKPPCKGSAKXPNGKSAKXPNKGKSAKXPG NSA SYNC SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS PILOT TIME ACCESS CHANNEL 20 sec. so incoming calls can be delivered here • It also allows the mobile to tell the system if it wants to do slotted mode paging.194 . or other short power-on/off uses Q Registration has many different controlling parameters. BTS W0 Q After acquiring the system. 20 seconds after system acquisition. and if so.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . Q A “holdoff” timer delays initial registration 20 seconds after acquisition • This avoids needless registration by mobiles just being turned on to check who is the owner.Registration: Mobile.RF100 v3.

92 sec.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .RF100 v3. the mobile goes into sleep mode with low battery drain • It wakes on a schedule to listen for pages Q Page slots are 80 ms.195 . 10.Stretch Your Battery! IS-95 Slotted Mode Paging W1 W32 Mobile listens during its slot. but introduce longer possible delays in call delivery Q Each mobile uses Hashing with its IMSI and SCI to determine which slot it should always monitor July. sec. 5.12 sec.24 sec.0 . Slot Cycle Index (SCI) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Number Slots in Cycle 16 32 64 128 256 512 1024 2048 Length of Cycle. 1.96 sec. Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. which mobiles may not exceed. 2.84 sec. The system also declares a maximum slot cycle index. 163. every cycle NSA PAGING KGKSAKKGCKGKSAKXPNKPPCKGKSAKXPNKPPCKGKSGKXPNKPPCKGSAKXPNGKSAKXPNKGKSAKXPG SYNC SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS PILOT TIME Rake Receiver #1 PN168+0 W1 #2 PN168+2 W1 #3 PN168+9 W1 #4 PN168+5 W1 Pilot Searcher BTS W0 P E E L S 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 Slot Cycle Battery Drain 1 Slot 80 ms 1 Slot Cycle Q Slotted Mode Paging is a battery-saving trick • After registering with the system. Long Q Slot cycles can be set to many lengths Q Longer cycles give better battery life.48 sec. 40. 81.56 sec. 2008 Each mobile has a preferred SCI programmed by the vendor. 20.28 sec.

0 . A mobile knows its group by hashing. 2008 Mobile hashes using its IMSI to recognize which indicator bits it should monitor. the mobile wakes up and listen to the next PCH slot – somebody watching those bits will be paged. only when a page is coming for its IMSI group • There are at least xx IMSI groups.196 . PCH SLOT GenPG 20 ms 80 ms QPCH SLOT 80 ms 100 ms Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Even Better: CDMA2000 Slotted Mode Paging Using the Quick Paging Channel (QPCH) W1 W48 W32 Mobile listens to PCH only when QPCH requires NSA PAGING KGKSAKKGCKGKSAKXPNKPPCKGKSAKXPNKPPCKGKSGKXPNKPPCKGSAKXPNGKSAKXPNKGKSAKXPG QPCH SYNC SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS PILOT TIME Rake Receiver #1 PN168+0 W1 #2 PN168+2 W1 #4 PN168+5 W1 Pilot Searcher Paging Channel Slots Paging Channel Slots 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Battery Drain QPCH Slots QPCH Slots BTS W0 er p e W1P #3 PN168+9 De E E L S Q IS-95 mobiles must monitor their PCH slots during every slot cycle • Must wake up 1000’s of times per hour and run high-drain message parsers.RF100 v3. July. even if they are not paged Q The Quick Paging Channel (QPCH) is a simpler bitstream which notifies a 1xRTT mobile to monitor the PCH.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . If the bits are on.

not synchronous -.0 .RF100 v3. change immediately to the new one. and CNN TV news programs aren’t in word-sync for simultaneous viewing • Since a mobile can’t combine signals. the mobile must switch quickly. Q On the new paging channel. NBC.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . If another signal is better than the old active sector.the paging channel information stream is different on each sector. CBS.197 .Idle Mode Handoff Q An idle mobile always uses the best available signal • In idle mode. it re-registers on the new sector July. it isn’t possible to do soft handoff and listen to multiple sectors or base stations at the same time -. always enjoying the best available signal Q The mobile’s pilot searcher is constantly checking neighbor pilots Q A Mobile might change pilots for either of two reasons: • It notices another pilot at least 3 db stronger than the current active pilot. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. if the mobile learns that registration is required.just like ABC. and it stays this good continuously for at least five seconds: mobile switches at end of the next superframe • Mobile loses the current paging channel.

This is called an idle mode handoff.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .RF100 v3.0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. track the Strongest Pilot Ec/Io 0 All PN Offsets -20 Chips 0 PN 0 SRCH_WIN_A Mobile Rake RX F1 PN168 W01 F2 PN168 W01 F3 PN168 W01 Srch PN??? W0 Active Pilot Rake Fingers 32K 512 n o p SRCH_WIN_N Reference PN The phone’s pilot searcher constantly checks the pilots listed in the Neighbor List Message Neighbor Set If the searcher ever notices a neighbor pilot substantially stronger than the current reference pilot.Idle Mode on the Paging Channel: Meet the Neighbors.198 . July. it becomes the new reference pilot and the phone switches over to its paging channel on the next superframe.

2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.199 .RF100 v3.Receiving Receiving An An Incoming Incoming Call Call July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .0 .

I am. SEND Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. are you there? You have a call. for voice with 8k EVRC SVCcon OK! Then start ringing and show this: 615-300-0124 Alert/Inf OK.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . Your channel Is ready! Walsh 23 I see frames! I see you! ACK Then let’s use Service Option X.Incoming Call Termination – Voice MSC HLR SS7 PSTN switch VLR α β χ BSC BTS A Scott’s mobile.200 July. Just a moment.0 . My owner answered! Connect the audio.RF100 v3. too! I accept. ACK V W23 TRAFFIC W1 PAGING KG GenPag KS PCGKSPKG ACK KPC CHasn KPNKPPCKGKSGKXPNKPPCKGSAKXPNGKSAKXPNKGKSAKXPG NSAGSAKXPNGKSAK W32 SYNC S SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS PILOT TIME ACCESS TRAFFIC Rake Receiver #1 PN168+0 W23 #2 PN168+2 W23 #3 PN168+9 W23 #4 PN168+5 W23 Pilot Searcher PgResp ACK SVCncmp ACK Con V BTS W0 I’m here! What should I do? I see frames! I see you. I hear you. 2008 .

RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.201 .Making Making an an Outgoing Outgoing Call! Call! July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .0 .

ESN 2E5FC31.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . W23 TRAFFIC Your channel Is ready! Walsh 23 I see frames! I see you! ACK Then let’s use Service Option X. SEND Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Let me call 615-555-1234 using EVRC voice.0 .202 July.RF100 v3.Outgoing Call Origination – IS-95 Voice MSC HLR SS7 PSTN switch VLR α β χ BSC BTS A I hear you. 2008 . for voice with 8k EVRC SVCcon OK! ACK Voice conversation W1 PAGING KGKSPCGGPCGKSPKG NSAGSAKXPNGKSAK ACK KPC CHasn KPNKPPCKGKSGKXPNKPPCKGSAKXPNGKSAKXPNKGKSAKXPG W32 SYNC S SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS PILOT TIME ACCESS TRAFFIC Rake Receiver #1 PN168+0 W23 #2 PN168+2 W23 #3 PN168+9 W23 #4 PN168+5 W23 Pilot Searcher Hey system! I am 615-300-0124. 6 1 5 5 5 5 1 2 3 4 Origination ACK SVCncmp Voice conversation BTS W0 I see frames! I see you. too! I accept. Just a moment.

2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Power-Controlled Power-Controlled Reservation Reservation Access Access Mode Mode July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .203 .0 .RF100 v3.

2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. if needed July.RF100 v3.204 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .0 .Power Controlled Reservation Access Mode Enhanced Access Probe EACH PREAMBLE EACH HEADER BTS Early Acknowledgment Channel Assignment Message MESSAGE CAPSULE CACH PREAMBLE F-CACH F-CPCCH Power Control Bits Enhanced Access Data CCCH PREAMBLE CCCH HEADER R-EACH R-CCCH F-CCCH Acknowledgment Q Reservation Access Mode procedures: • On R-EACH. mobile asks permission to transmit • The associated F-CACH gives permission • Mobile transmits on R-CCCH during scheduled slot • F-CPCCH gives power control during R-CCCH transmission • F-CCCH gives acknowledgment and TCH assignment.

Forward Forward Link Link Supplemental Supplemental Channel Channel Downloading Downloading Data Data on on a a July.205 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 .

2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.206 . Supplemental Channel Burst ESCAM ESCAM Supplemental Channel Burst W2 W23 F-SCH F-FCH PN 168 BTS W1 W32 W0 TIME PAGING KGKSAKKNKGGKSKPG NSASPPCKGKSAKGKSAKKNKGGKSKPG NSASPPCKGKSAKGKSAKKNKGGKSKPG NSASPPCK SYNC SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS PILOT ACCESS CHANNEL R-FCH July.Forward Supplemental Channel Assignment Mobile: Watch Walsh Code 2 Starting in 320 ms For 1000 ms.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . Mobile: Watch Walsh Code 2 Starting in 320 ms For 1000 ms.0 .RF100 v3.

RF100 v3.Reverse Reverse Link Link Supplemental Supplemental Channel Channel Uploading Uploading Data Data on on a a July.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .207 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.

Mobile: Send Walsh Code 1 Starting in 320 ms For 1000 ms.Reverse Supplemental Channel Assignment Mobile: Send Walsh Code 1 Starting in 320 ms For 1000 ms.RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.208 .0 . W23 F-FCH ESCAM ESCAM PN 168 BTS W1 W32 W0 TIME PAGING KGKSAKKNKGGKSKPG NSASPPCKGKSAKGKSAKKNKGGKSKPG NSASPPCKGKSAKGKSAKKNKGGKSKPG NSASPPCK SYNC SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS PILOT ACCESS CHANNEL R-FCH SCRM Supplemental Channel Burst System: I need to Send you the Following blocks: System: I need to Send you the Following blocks: SCRM Supplemental Channel Burst R-SCH July.

0 .RF100 v3.209 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Ending Ending A A Call Call July.

if it cannot give the release order immediately Q After the system receives a release order from the mobile. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 . it releases the resources it used for the call Q After the mobile receives a release order from the base station. it is because the caller on one side of the conversation decided to hang up Q The side ending the call sends a “Release – Normal” order Q The other side sends a “Release – No reason” order • It may send an acknowledgment first.Normal End of Call W23 W1 W32 TRAFFIC Voice RELnorm ACK SYS ChASN CHN XSYS NBR SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN PAGING KGKSAKKNKGGKSKPG NSASPPCKGKSA SYNC SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS PILOT BTS W0 TIME SCAN Ref Time MOBILE REACQUIRES SYSTEM NORMALLY Voice RELnoRsn ACCESS CHANNEL TRAFFIC CHANNEL Q When a call ends normally. it stops listening to the traffic channel and freshly reacquires the system July.210 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .RF100 v3.

211 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. the mobile tries to reacquire the system. if available Voice Mute! No pc 5s timer ACCESS CHANNEL TRAFFIC CHANNEL Q The mobile is always counting and tracking the bad frames it receives on the forward link Q Forward Link Fade Timer: If the mobile does not receive any good frames during a 5-second period. it aborts the call Q If a mobile receives 10 consecutive bad frames.Abnormal End of Call – Forward Link Failure W23 W1 W32 TRAFFIC Voice 5s timer All bad frames ACK SYS ChASN CHN XSYS SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN PAGING KGKSAKKNKGGKSKPG NSASPPCKGKSA SYNC SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS PILOT BTS W0 TIME SCAN Ref Time MOBILE REACQUIRES SYSTEM. making an independent cold start July.RF100 v3.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . it mutes its transmitter until at least 2 consecutive good frames are heard • If the mobile stays muted 5 seconds. the BTS will release too Q After a call ends for any reason.

2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. the mobile tries to reacquire the system. it releases the call Q After a call ends for any reason. if available Voice All bad frames 5s timer ACCESS CHANNEL TRAFFIC CHANNEL Q The BTS is always counting and tracking the bad frames it receives on the reverse link from the mobile Q Reverse Link Fade Timer: If the BTS does not receive any good frames during a 5-second period.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . making an independent cold start July.0 .Abnormal End of Call – Reverse Link Failure W23 W1 W32 TRAFFIC Voice RELnoRsn ACK SYS ChASN CHN XSYS SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN SYN PAGING KGKSAKKNKGGKSKPG NSASPPCKGKSAAKSKPG NSAS SYNC SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS PILOT BTS W0 TIME SCAN Ref Time MOBILE REACQUIRES SYSTEM.212 .RF100 v3.

2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .0 .213 .Feature Feature Notification: Notification: You You Have Have Voicemail! Voicemail! July.RF100 v3.

RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .368 [PCH] Feature Notification Message MSG_LENGTH = 144 bits MSG_TYPE = Feature Notification Message ACK_SEQ = 0 MSG_SEQ = 0 ACK_REQ = 1 VALID_ACK = 0 ADDR_TYPE = IMSI ADDR_LEN = 56 bits IMSI_CLASS = 0 IMSI_CLASS_0_TYPE = 3 RESERVED = 0 MCC = 302 IMSI_11_12 = 00 IMSI_S = 9055170325 RELEASE = 0 RECORD_TYPE = Message Waiting RECORD_LEN = 8 bits MSG_COUNT = 1 RESERVED = 0 The Feature Notification Message on the Paging Channel tells a specific mobile it has voice messages waiting. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. There are other record types to notify the mobile of other features.0 . July.214 . MOBILE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT The mobile confirms it has received the notification by sending a Mobile Station Acknowledgment Order on the access channel.Feature Notification FEATURE NOTIFICATION MESSAGE 98/06/30 21:16:44.

RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.215 .0 .CDMA CDMA Handset Handset Architecture Architecture CDMA CDMA Handoffs Handoffs July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

What’s In a Handset? How does it work? summing time-aligned Chips control Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Receiver RF Section IF. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Convl. Decoder.0 .RF100 v3. Demultiplexer Packets Messages Audio Vocoder Audio CPU Transmit Gain Adjust Transmitter Digital Section Long Code Gen. Detector AGC RF Duplexer RF Open Loop Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Pilot Searcher PN xxx Walsh 0 bits Digital Rake Receiver Symbols Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Δt Σ Symbols power Viterbi Decoder.216 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . Messages Transmitter RF Section July.

(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.217 . handset uses combined outputs of the three traffic correlators (“rake fingers”) Q Each finger can independently recover a particular PN offset and Walsh code Q Fingers can be targeted on delayed multipath reflections. or even on different BTSs Q Searcher continuously checks pilots July. Data.The Rake Receiver Handset RF BTS BTS Rake Receiver PN Walsh PN PN Walsh Σ Walsh Voice. Messages Pilot Ec/Io Searcher PN W=0 Q Every frame.RF100 v3.

BTS BTS Handset RF Rake Receiver PN Walsh PN PN Walsh Σ Walsh Voice.CDMA Soft Handoff Mechanics Switch BSC Sel.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . Messages Pilot Ec/Io Searcher PN W=0 Q CDMA soft handoff is driven by the handset • Handset continuously checks available pilots • Handset tells system pilots it currently sees • System assigns sectors (up to 6 max.218 . no muting! Q Each end of the link chooses what works best. on a frame-by-frame basis! • Users are totally unaware of handoff July.RF100 v3.). tells handset • Handset assigns its fingers accordingly • All messages sent by dim-and-burst. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 . Data.

RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter . for all cases? Identify the trigger.0 .The Complete Rules of Soft Handoff Q The Handset considers pilots in sets • Active: pilots of sectors actually in use • Candidates: pilots mobile requested. but not yet set up & transmitting by system • Neighbors: pilots told to mobile by system. RF100 . 2008 PILOT SETS Active 6 6 Candidate 5 10 Neighbor 20 40 Remaining HANDOFF PARAMETERS T_ADD T_TDROP T_DROP T_COMP Exercise: How does a pilot in one set migrate into another set. or it may apply special manufacturer-specific screening criteria and only authorize some July. Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. as nearby sectors to check • Remaining: any pilots used by system but not already in the other sets (div. by PILOT_INC) Q Handset sends Pilot Strength Measurement Message to the system whenever: • It notices a pilot in neighbor or remaining set exceeds T_ADD • An active set pilot drops below T_DROP for T_TDROP time • A candidate pilot exceeds an active by T_COMP Q The System may set up all requested handoffs. and the messages involved. By Std.219 IS-95/ J-Std008 IS-95B/ 1xRTT # Req’d`.

but softer handoff occurs in BTS in a single channel element Q Handset can even use combination soft-softer handoff on multiple BTS & sectors July.220 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .Softer Handoff Switch BSC Sel.0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Messages Pilot Ec/Io Searcher PN W=0 Q Each BTS sector has unique PN offset & pilot Q Handset will ask for whatever pilots it wants Q If multiple sectors of one BTS simultaneously serve a handset.RF100 v3. BTS Handset RF Rake Receiver PN Walsh PN PN Walsh Σ Walsh Voice. Data. this is called Softer Handoff Q Handset can’t tell the difference.

(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .221 .25 • Io means the total power currently S MHz. determining its strength as a percentage of total received power July.RF100 v3. Mobiles can easily measure the pilot of a sector. MHz.What is Ec/Io? Q Ec/Io is the measurement mobiles use to gauge strengths of the various Handset Receiver nearby sectors they encounter Rake LNA IF R • Ec means the energy per chip of x R ≈ ≈ the pilot of the observed sector R BW BW ~30 LO 1. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 . RX Level being picked up by the mobile (from AGC) Q Why can’t the mobile just measure the signal strength of a sector directly with its receiver? • all sectors are on the same frequency • the measurable signal strength on that frequency is just the sum of all the individual signal powers • to distinguish them individually CDMA decoding must be used Q Each sector dedicates 10-15% of its power to a steady test signal called the “pilot”.

0 . sync.5w 0.5w 2w Paging Sync Pilot EC July.How Ec/Io Varies with Traffic Loading Q Each sector transmits a certain amount of power. Paging Sync Pilot 1.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 6w I0 1. and paging • any traffic channels in use at that moment Q Ec/Io is the ratio of pilot power to total power • On a sector with nobody talking. Light Traffic Loading Ec/Io = (2/4) = 50% = -3 db.RF100 v3. the sum of: • pilot. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Ec/Io is typically about 20%. Ec/Io is typically about 50%.5w 0. which is -7 db.222 . which is -3 db • On a sector with maximum traffic.5w 2w EC I0 Heavily Loaded Traffic Channels Ec/Io = (2/10) = 20% = -7 db.

RF100 v3. one sector is dominant and the mobile enjoys an Ec/Io just as good as it was when transmitted Q In “pilot pollution”. too many sectors overlap and the mobile hears a “soup” made up of all their signals • Io is the power sum of all the signals reaching the mobile • Ec is the energy of a single sector’s pilot • The large Io overrides the weak Ec. Nobody Dominant Traffic Sync & Paging Pilot Traffic Sync & Paging Pilot Traffic Sync & Paging Pilot Traffic Sync & Paging Pilot Traffic Sync & Paging Pilot Traffic Sync & Paging Pilot Traffic Sync & Paging Pilot Traffic Sync & Paging Pilot Traffic Sync & Paging Pilot Traffic Sync & Paging BTS10 BTS9 BTS8 BTS7 BTS6 BTS5 BTS4 BTS3 BTS2 Io = 10 signals each -90 dbm = -80 dbm Ec of any one sector = -96 Ec/Io = -16 db I0 BTS1 Pilot EC RF100 .5w 2w Paging Sync Pilot I0 EC Many Sectors. 2008 One Sector Dominant Traffic Channels Io = -90 dbm Ec = -96 dbm Ec/Io = -6 db 4w 1. Ec/Io is low! July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .How Ec/Io varies with RF Environment Q In a “clean situation”.5w 0.0 .223 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.

2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 .RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .A A Soft Soft Handoff Handoff July.224 .

0 .RF100 v3. keep OK Great! I’m using PN168 + PN344 OK July.Basic Soft/Softer Handoff BTS A BSC ctrl BTSC BTS B α β χ BTSC α β χ OK! You can use: PN 168 W23 PN 344 W41 EHDM I hear you. -6. keep PN344. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.225 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . Hang on… W41 TRAFFIC PAGING SYNC PILOT TRAFFIC ACK OK ACK OK. -11. Here’s your new Neighbor list: PN164 PN172 PN340 PN420 PN084 PN132 PN434 PN504 PN016 PN028 PN508 PN372 NLum PN 344 BTS W1 W32 W0 W23 GGKSKPG NSASPPCKGKSAKGKSAKKNKGGKSKPG NSASPPCKGKSAKGKSAKKNKGGKSKPG NSASPPCK SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS EHDM ACK NLum PN 168 BTS W1 W32 W0 TIME PAGING KGKSAKKNKGGKSKPG NSASPPCKGKSAKGKSAKKNKGGKSKPG NSASPPCKGKSAKGKSAKKNKGGKSKPG NSASPPCK SYNC SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS PILOT ACCESS CHANNEL TRAFFIC CHANNEL Rake Receiver #1 PN344+0 W41 #2 PN344+3 W41 #3 PN168+2 W23 #4 PN168+5 W23 Pilot Searcher PSMM ACK HOcomp ACK !! Wow! PN344 is above T_ADD! Hey system! I want: PN168 (ref).

PN 168 is the only active signal.0 . Continue checking the neighbors. and also is our timing reference.Handoff Example Ec/Io 0 All PN Offsets -20 Chips 0 10752 14080 32002 32K PN 0 Mobile Rake RX F1 PN168 W61 F2 PN168 W61 F3 PN168 W61 Srch PN??? W0 168 220 500 512 Active Pilot Rake Fingers n o p The call is already in progress. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. ask to use it! Send a Pilot Strength Measurement Message! July.RF100 v3.226 If we ever notice a neighbor with Ec/Io above T_ADD. Neighbor Set Reference PN T_ADD ! ! RF100 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .

227 . If any are less than T_DROP and remain so for T_TDROP time. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. but still check Pilots! Ec/Io 0 All PN Offsets -20 Chips 0 10752 14080 32002 32K PN 0 Mobile Rake RX F1 PN168 W61 F2 PN500 W50 F3 PN220 W20 Srch PN??? W0 168 220 500 512 Active Set n T_DROP p Rake Fingers o Reference PN T_ADD Neighbor Set Continue checking each ACTIVE pilot. send Pilot Strength Measurement Message. send Pilot Strength Measurement Message.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . If any ever rises above T_ADD. ADD IT! July.Handoff Now In Effect.RF100 v3.0 . DROP IT!! Continue looking at each NEIGHBOR pilot.

or Neighbor sets SRCH_WIN_R July. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Candidate.The Complete Picture of Handoff & Pilot Sets Ec/Io 0 All PN Offsets -20 Chips 0 PN 0 SRCH_WIN_A Rake Fingers n SRCH_WIN_A o p Active Set Pilots of sectors now used for communication 32K 512 Mobile Rake RX F1 PN168 W61 F2 PN500 W50 F3 PN220 W20 Srch PN??? W0 T_DROP T_DROP Reference PN Candidate Set SRCH_WIN_N Pilots requested by mobile but not set up by system Neighbor Set Pilots suggested by system for more checking T_ADD Remaining Set T_ADD All other pilots divisible by PILOT_INC but not presently in Active.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .RF100 v3.228 .0 .

0 .229 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .RF100 v3.CDMA CDMA Call Call Processing Processing July.

the same sorts of tools are available for problem investigation: • Layer-3 message files contain user and system command/control details • Temporal analyzer data shows the RF environment up to the problem July.CDMA Troubleshooting is like Air Accident Investigation Control & Parameters 114.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .50 118. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.RF100 v3. mechanical.230 .25 11500 130.75 11500 Messaging Aeronautical Investigations Cockpit Voice Recorder Wireless Protocol Stack Layers 4 3 2 1 Application Message Data Link Layer LAC MAC Flight Data Recorder CDMA Investigations BTS Temporal Analyzer Data Layer 3 Message Files Physical Layer Q Air accidents are big news and reporters follow the investigations closely • Everybody’s familiar with the two main information sources at the crash – Cockpit voice recorder: record of conversation and sounds in the cockpit during the last 30 minutes up to the crash – Flight data recorder: record of major control settings. and hydraulic systems status for the last 30 minutes Q In CDMA. electrical.0 .

you’ve got to know call processing steps and details AND the RF basis of the transmission July. – What’s missing or wrong? Why did it happen? Q Messaging is a major blow-by-blow troubleshooting tool Q RF indications reveal the transmission risks and the channel configurations Bottom Line: To troubleshoot effectively. software • Multiple concurrent processes in the mobile and the system Q Troubleshooting focuses on the desired call events • What is the desired sequence of events? • Compare the actual sequence of events. configuration. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.231 .0 .physical.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .Troubleshooting Call Processing Q CDMA call processing is complex! • Calls are a relationship between mobile and system – the events driven by messaging – the channels carried by RF transmission • Multiple codes and channels available for use • Multiple possible problems .RF100 v3.

RF100 v3.Introduction Introduction to to Optimization Optimization July. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .0 .232 .

and recognizing problems before they become critical July.What is Performance Optimization? Q The words “performance optimization” mean different things to different people.233 . too much overlap/soft handoff.) • “cluster testing” and “cell integration” to ensure that new base station hardware works and that call processing is normal • “fine-tuning” system parameters to wring out the best possible call performance • identifying causes of specific problems and customer complaints. coverage holes. etc. and fixing them • carefully watching system traffic growth and the problems it causes . viewed from the perspective of their own jobs Q System Performance Optimization includes many different smaller processes at many points during a system’s life • recognizing and resolving system-design-related issues (can’t build a crucial site.0 .RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.implementing short-term fixes to ease “hot spots”.

Access Failures. Test Transmitters. prop.Performance Optimization Phases/Activities Phase RF Design and Cell Planning New Cluster Testing and Cell Integration Solve Specific Performance Problems Well-System Performance Management Capacity Optimization Growth Management: Optimizing both Performance and Capital Effectiveness Drivers/Objectives Cover desired area. Resolve performance problems Watch stats: Drops. Blocks. identify problem areas. Investigate. capital budget remains within comfortable bounds RF100 . competition for capital during tight times Predict sector and area exhaustion: plan and validate effective growth plan. system stats. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. models for cell spliiting. cell diagnostics and hardware test Drive-test tools. system statistics Success Indicators Model results All handoffs occur. have capacity for anticipated traffic Ensure cells properly constructed and configured to give normal performance Identify problems from complaints or statistics. identify/fix hot spots Watch capacity indicators. customer reports System statistics Smart optimization of parameters. Models. fix them! Ensure present ‘plant’ is giving best possible performance Manage congested areas for most effective performance Activities Plan cells to effectively cover as needed and divide traffic load appropriately Drive-test: coverage.234 Q hello Overall traffic increases and congestion.0 .RF100 v3. avoid integration impact Traffic analysis and trending tools. planning tools Drive-test tools. carrier additions July. carried traffic levels Sectors are expanded soon after first signs of congestion. tune parameters & configuration Main Tools Prop. all handoff boundaries.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter . all test cases verified Identified problems are resolved Acceptable levels and good trends for all indicators Stats-Derived indicators. all call events and scenarios Detect.

Good Performance is so Simple!! Q One.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .235 . or Three good signals in handoff • Composite Ec/Io > -10 db Q Enough capacity • No resource problems – I’ve got what I need BTS BTS BTS Ec/Io BTS A BTS B FORWARD LINK July.0 .RF100 v3. 2008 BTS C -10 available power Traffic Channels In use Paging Sync Pilot Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Two.

236 BTS Sector Transmitter July.RF100 v3. all of these problems’ bad effects happen because the simple few-signal ideal CDMA environment isn’t possible. RF100 .0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter . “Rogue” mobiles • Missing Neighbors • Search Windows Too Small • BTS Resource Overload / No Resources – No Forward Power. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Slow Handoffs Q PN Plan errors Q Slow Data Problems: RF or IP congestion Q Improper cell or reradiator configuration Q Hardware and software failures Q But on analysis.Bad Performance Has Many Causes +41 +8 360 A BTS 360+33c B BTS No Available Power! Traffic Channels In Use BTS Rx Pwr Overload CEs Vocoders Selectors Paging Sync Pilot x BTS B PN 99 BTS A PN 100 ACTIVE SEARCH WINDOW 1 mile 11 miles Q Weak Signal / Coverage Hole Q Pilot Pollution • Excessive Soft Handoff Q Handoff Failures. Channel Elements – No available Walsh Codes – No space in Packet Pipes Q Pilot “Surprise” ambush.

75 11500 Aeronautical Investigations Cockpit Voice Recorder Flight Data Recorder CDMA Investigations BTS Temporal Analyzer Data Layer 3 Message Files To study the cause of an aeronautical accident.50 118. we try to recover the Flight Data Recorder and the Cockpit Voice Recorder. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.for the same reasons.RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . July.0 . To study the cause of a CDMA call processing accident. we review data from the Temporal Analyzer and the Layer 3 Message Files -.Aeronautical Analogy: Tools for Problem Investigation Control & Parameters 11500 Messaging 114.237 .25 125.

Mobile TX plots Q Search Window Settings • find best settings for SRCH_WIN_A. iterative corrections until within numerical goals Getting these items into shape provides a solid baseline and foundation from which future performance issues can be addressed. avoiding gross spillover into other sectors • tools: PN Plots. Handoff State Plots.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . Dropped Call Analysis • finally.0 . has major impact on pilot search speed Q Neighbor List Tuning • try to groom each sector’s neighbors to only those necessary but be alert to special needs due to topography and traffic • tools: diagnostic data. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. July. _N. system logs Q Access Failures.RF100 v3.Starting Optimization on a New System Q RF Coverage Control • try to contain each sector’s coverage. _R • especially optimize SRCH_WIN_A per sector using collected finger separation data.238 .

239 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Autonomous Autonomous Data Data Collection Collection By By Stowaway Stowaway Mobiles Mobiles July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .0 .RF100 v3.

one for collection and one as a modem • a PN scanner • a GPS receiver Q The data collection begins anytime the vehicle is driven Q Collected data is uploaded to a server on the system Q The central server also provides post-processing functions via a web interface.0 .RF100 v3. of course) Q A typical installation includes: • a commercial data collection device by a manufacturer such as ZKcelltest • two attached phones.240 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Stowaway Mobiles Q Some operators are using “stowaway” mobiles in courier vehicles or public transport (under agreement.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . allowing remote users to examine data for their areas July.

2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.RF100 v3.241 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .0 .Autonomous Autonomous Data Data Collection Collection By By Subscriber Subscriber Handsets Handsets July.

Autonomous Collection: A New Way to See Network Performance Collection Server •software download •collected data upload •data management.242 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .RF100 v3.0 . analysis PDSN/Foreign Agent BTS Internet VPNs T Backbone Network SECURE TUNNELS Authentication Authorization Accounting BTS T PDSN Home Agent AAA R-P Interface BTS PSTN t1 Switch t1 v SEL t1 BTS (C)BSC/Access Manager Q An exciting new trend in network RF performance is to embed data collection software on mobile platforms Q Offers big advantages for RF optimization cost/effectiveness July.

Using Autonomous Collection Collection Server •software download •collected data upload •data management. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .RF100 v3. Q Server manages data. provides filtering and reporting Q Performance optimizers use terminals and post-processing software July. or at low-traffic pre-programmed times • collected data can include location/GPS/call event/L3 messaging/timestamps/etc.243 . analysis BTS PDSN/Foreign Agent BTS Backbone Internet Network T SECURE TUNNELS T VPNs PDSN Authentication Authorization R-P Interface Home Agent Accounting AAA PSTN Switch t1 t1 v BTS SEL t1 (C)BSC/Access Manager BTS Q A Server downloads software to a large population of subscriber mobiles Q Mobiles collect on custom profiles • all or groups of mobiles can be enabled/disabled • new triggers can be rapidly developed and downloaded when desired Q Mobiles upload compacted packets to server driven by custom triggers • may be immediately if needed.

Advantages of Autonomous Collection
Q Mobile-reported data can be location-binned • post-processing provides visual identification of problem areas Q Collection can be rapidly enabled per cell or area for immediate investigation of problem reports Q Requires less employee drive time for collection Q Customer mobiles cover area more densely than drivetesters Q Customer mobiles include inbuilding populations Q Individual mobile identification can be included with customer permission for direct customer service interaction

July, 2008

Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

RF100 - 244

Conventional Conventional Field Field Tools Tools

July, 2008

Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

RF100 - 245

CDMA Field Test Tools
Field Collection Tools using Handset Data
Motorola Grayson Agilent (HP + SAFCO) Comarco Qualcomm
MDM, CAIT

PN Scanners
Agilent (HP + SAFCO) Grayson DTI Berkeley Varitronics Qualcomm Willtech

Willtech Ericsson TEMS

Q There are many commercial CDMA field test tools Q Characteristics of many test tools: • capture data from data ports on commercial handsets • log data onto PCs using proprietary software • can display call parameters, messaging, graphs, and maps • store data in formats readable for post-processing analysis • small and portable, easy to use in vehicles or even on foot Q A few considerations when selecting test tools: • does it allow integration of network and mobile data? • Cost, features, convenience, availability, and support • new tools are introduced every few months - investigate!
July, 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 - 246

Grayson’s Invex3G Tool
Q 100 MB ethernet connection to PC Q the eight card slots can hold receivers or dual-phone cards Q there’s also room for two internal PN scanners Q Multiple Invex units can be cascaded for multi-phone loadtest applications Q Cards are field-swappable Users can reconfigure the unit in the field for different tasks without factory assistance

July, 2008

Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter

RF100 - 247

Grayson Invex 1x Data Example
153.6 kb/s

This mobile is in a 2-way soft handoff (two green FCH walsh codes assigned) in the middle of a downlink SCH burst. Notice walsh code #3, 4 chips long, is assigned as an SCH but only on one sector, and the downlink data speed is 153.6kb/s.
July, 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -- RF100 v3.0 - (c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 - 248

R-SCH 76.V0.RF100 v3.©1997 Scott249 .(c) 2008 Scott BaxterTechnical Introduction to Wireless -.8kbps CDMA Status PN Scanner Data Current Data Task Status Layer-3 Messages Introduction to Wireless Baxter .6 kbps.0 . 2008 & CDMA -.0 July.Grayson Invex 1xData Example F-SCH rates 153.

0 .250 .RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.WillTech Tools Q Blue Rose platform can manage multiple phones and collect data • Internal processor manages test operations independently for standalone operation • Internal PCMCIA flash card provides storage • An external PC can display collected data during or after data collection July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

0 . Q Post-Processing tool: OPAS32 July. Bands Q Base-Station Over-Air Tester (BOAT) • Can display all walsh channel activity on a specific sector • Useful for identifying hardware problems. can scan two carrier frequencies Q Spectrum Analyzer • Can scan entire 800 or 1900 mHz.251 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. monitoring instantaneous traffic levels.RF100 v3. GPS-locked. etc.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .Agilent Drive-Test Tools Q Agilent offers Drive-Test tools • Serial interfaces for up to four CDMA phones • A very flexible digital receiver with several modes Q PN Scanner • Fast.

(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.Comarco Mobile Tools Q X-Series Units for more dataintensive collection activities • Multiple handsets can be collected • Data is displayed and collected on PC Q LT-Series provides integrated display and logging Q "Workbench" Post-Processing tool analyzes drive-test files July.RF100 v3.0 .252 .

2 sec.0 . miss transient interfering signals Q Berkeley Varitronics • high-resolution. • Integrated with spectrum analyzer and phone call-processing tool Q Grayson Wireless • New digital receiver provides CDMA PN searcher and and sector walsh domain displays July.253 . • 2048 parallel processors for very fast detection of transient interferors Q Agilent (formerly Hewlett-Packard) • high resolution.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . GPS-locked – full-PN scan speed 1. GPS-locked – full-PN scan speed 26-2/3 ms. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.PN Scanners Q Why PN scanners? Because phones can’t scan remaining set fast enough.RF100 v3.

Post-Processing Tools Post-Processing tools display drive-test files for detailed analysis . Illuminator. and Invex3G Q Agilent OPAS32 • Imports/analyzes a variety of data Q Nortel RF Optimizer • Can merge/analyze drive-test and Nortel CDMA system data Q Wavelink Q Comarco "Workbench" Tool Q Verizon/Airtouch internal tool “DataPro” July.254 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter .Faster. more effective than studying data playback with collection tools alone Q Actix Analyzer • Imports/analyzes data from almost every brand of drive-test collection tool Q Grayson Interpreter • Imports/analyzes data from Grayson Wireless Inspector.0 . 2008 OPAS32 COMARCO RF100 .RF100 v3.

255 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.The The Key Key Features Features and and Structure Structure of of 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO July.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .RF100 v3.

requested.RF100 v3. 1xRTT CHANNEL STRUCTURE Q IS-95 and 1xRTT • many simultaneous users.Channel Structure of 1xEV-DO vs. to maximize average throughput • transmissions arranged and requested via steady MAC-layer walsh streams – very immediate! July. 2008 IS-95 AND 1xRTT Many users’ simultaneous forward and reverse traffic channels PILOT SYNC PAGING F-FCH1 F-FCH2 F-FCH3 F-SCH W0 W32 W1 W17 W25 W41 W3 BTS F-FCH4 W53 ATs 1xEV-DO AP (Access Terminals) (Access Point) 1xEV-DO Forward Link AP Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. each with steady forward and reverse traffic channels • transmissions arranged.Very Different: • Forward Link goes to one user at a time – like TDMA! • users are rapidly time-multiplexed.0 . each receives fair share of available sector time • instant preference given to user with ideal receiving conditions.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . confirmed by layer-3 messages – with some delay…… Q 1xEV-DO -.256 .

with only one user served at any instant • The transmission data rate is set to the maximum speed the user can receive at that moment July. 2008 IS-95: VARIABLE POWER TO MAINTAIN USER FER Maximum Sector Transmit Power 8 7 6 power 5 5 4 2 5 3 User 1 PAGING SYNC PILOT time 1xEV-DO: MAX POWER ALWAYS. DATA RATE OPTIMIZED power time Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.RF100 v3.Power Management of 1xEV-DO vs.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .257 . 1xRTT POWER MANAGEMENT Q IS-95 and 1xRTT: • sectors adjust each user’s channel power to maintain a preset target FER Q 1xEV-DO IS-856: • sectors always operate at maximum power • sector output is timemultiplexed.

Cell Site AP Access Point July. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Handset.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .0 . Mobile.RF100 v3. or Subscriber Terminal EV-DO AT Access Terminal Base Station.Some EV-DO Terminology IS-95. BTS.258 . IS-2000. 1xRTT Phone.

259 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO Technical Technical Details Details Data Data Flow Flow and and Channels Channels July.0 .

each slot or small string of slots is dynamically addressed to whoever needs it at the moment July.RF100 v3. called “slots” Q The Slot is the basic timing unit of 1xEV-DO transmission • Each slot is directed toward somebody and holds a subpacket of information for them • Some slots are used to carry the control channel for everyone to hear. long – same length as the short PN code One 1xEV-DO Frame – each 1xEV-DO frame is divided into 1/16ths.0 . IS-95B.260 .IS-95.1xEV-DO Transmission Timing Forward Link Q All members of the CDMA family . instead. long • 1xEV-DO frames are 26-2/3 ms.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 1xRTT. 1xRTT frames are usually 20 ms. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. 1xEV-DO and 1xEV-DV transmit “Frames” One Cycle of PN Short Code • IS-95. most slots are intended for individual users or private groups Q Users don’t “own” long continuing series of slots One Slot like in TDMA or GSM. IS-95B.

even when all the slots are going to somebody else Q Twice in every slot there is regularly-scheduled burst of timing and administrative information for everyone to use • MAC (Media Access Control) information such as power control bits • a burst of pure Pilot – allows new mobiles to acquire the cell and decide to use it – keeps existing user mobiles exactly on sector time – mobiles use it to decide which sector should send them their next forward link packet July. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.What’s In a Slot? ½ Slot – 1024 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips PILOT MAC MAC MAC DATA 400 chips DATA 400 chips DATA 400 chips MAC SLOT PILOT DATA 400 chips 64 96 64 64 96 64 Q The main “cargo” in a slot is the DATA being sent to a user Q But all users need to get continuous timing and administrative information.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .0 .RF100 v3.261 .

(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .What if there’s No Data to Send? ½ Slot – 1024 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips PILOT MAC MAC MAC empty 400 chips empty 400 chips empty 400 chips MAC SLOT PILOT empty 400 chips 64 96 64 64 96 64 Q Sometimes there may be no data waiting to be sent on a sector’s forward link • When there’s no data to transmit on a slot.262 . transmitting can be suspended during the data portions of that slot • But---the MAC and PILOT must be transmitted!! • New and existing mobiles on this sector and surrounding sectors need to monitor the relative strength of all the sectors and decide which one to use next.RF100 v3. even in an empty slot July. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. so they need the pilot • Mobiles TRANSMITTING data to the sector on the reverse link need power control bits • So MAC and PILOT are always transmitted.0 .

Slots and Frames ½ Slot – 1024 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips PILOT MAC MAC MAC DATA 400 chips DATA 400 chips DATA 400 chips MAC SLOT PILOT DATA 400 chips 64 96 64 64 96 64 Slot FRAME 1 Frame = 16 slots – 32k chips – 26-2/3 ms Q Two Half-Slots make a Slot Q 16 Slots make a frame July. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.RF100 v3.263 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .0 .

Frames and Control Channel Cycles Q A Control Channel Cycle is 16 frames (that’s 426-2/3 ms.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. have their slots available for ordinary use transmitting subpackets to users Slot FRAME 1 Frame = 16 slots – 32k chips – 26-2/3 ms CONTROL CHANNEL 16-FRAME CONTROL CHANNEL CYCLE USER(S) DATA CHANNEL 16 Frames – 524k chips – 426-2/3 ms That’s a lot of slots! 16 x 16 = 256 July.264 . about 1/2 second) Q The first half of the first frame has all of its slots reserved for possible use carrying Control Channel packets Q The last half of the first frame. and all of the remaining 15 frames.0 .

Forward Link Frame and Slot Structure: “Big Picture” Summary ½ Slot – 1024 chips ½ Slot – 1024 chips PILOT MAC MAC MAC DATA 400 chips DATA 400 chips DATA 400 chips MAC SLOT PILOT DATA 400 chips 64 96 64 64 96 64 FRAME 1 Frame = 16 slots – 32k chips – 26-2/3 ms CONTROL CHANNEL 16-FRAME CONTROL CHANNEL CYCLE USER(S) DATA CHANNEL 16 Frames – 524k chips – 426-2/3 ms Q Slots make Frames and Frames make Control Channel Cycles! July.RF100 v3.265 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.The 1xEV-DO Channels IN THE WORLD OF CODES FORWARD CHANNELS Sector has a Short PN Offset W064 Pilot W264 Rev Activity W 64 REVERSE CHANNELS Long PN offset ACCESS MAC Pilot W016 Data W24 Access Channel for session setup from Idle Mode Access just like IS-95 DRCLock RPC MAC Wx16 Control Wx16 Traffic Pilot W016 RRI Long PN offset Public or Private Access Point (AP) MAC DRC FORWARD Walsh code W0 W4 W1 W5 W816 W2 W6 W3 W7 Access Terminal (User Terminal) Traffic Channel as used during a data session Q These channels are NOT CONTINUOUS like IS-95 or 1xRTT! • They are made up of SLOTS carrying data subpackets to individual users or control channel subpackets for everyone to monitor • Regardless of who “owns” a SLOT.266 A TR IC FF ACK Data W48 W24 Walsh code .RF100 v3. the slot also carries two small generic bursts containing PILOT and MAC information everyone can monitor July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

Each DRC Index value is really a combined specification including specific values for: • what data speed will be transmitted • how big a “chunk” of waiting data will be sent (that amount of data will be cut of the front of the waiting data stream and will be the “Packet” transmitted) • what kind of encoding will be done to protect the data (3x Turbo. called “DRC Indices”. the sector starts transmitting the SUBpackets in SLOTS on the forward link Q The first slot will begin with a header that the mobile will recognize so it can begin the receiving process July.Information Flow Over 1xEV-DO Data from PDSN for the Mobile Data Ready DRC: 5 MP3. web page. 5x Turbo.RF100 v3.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .) and the symbol repetition. how many SUBpackets they will be divided into Q Then. etc. and requests the sector to send it a packet Q there are 16 possible transmission formats the mobile may request. if any • after the symbols are formed. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.267 . or other content AP Q The system notifies a mobile when data for it is waiting to be sent Q The mobile chooses which sector it hears best at that instant.

2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 .RF100 v3.268 . The requested page has just been received by the PDSN. or other content A user has initiated a1xEV-DO data session on their AT.Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO Data from PDSN for the Mobile Data Ready MP3. web page. AP July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . accessing a favorite website. The PDSN and Radio Network Controller send a “Data Ready” message to let the AT know it has data waiting.

2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.4 -0.269 .5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76. DRC Index 5.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1.4 -11. The PDSN and Radio Network Controller send a “Data Ready” message to let the AT know it has data waiting.2 kb/s.536.0 in Rev.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1. The AT quickly determines which of its active sectors is the strongest.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1.6 -6.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2.Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO Data from PDSN for the Mobile Data Ready DRC: 5 MP3. A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3.6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614. The packet will have 2048 bits.072.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307.228. or other content A user has initiated a1xEV-DO data session on their AT.8 +3.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1. There will be 4 subpackets (in slots 4 apart).843. The requested page has just been received by the PDSN.8 +4.2 +8. The mobile’s choice.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .4 -0.0 in Rev.6 +10.6 +2. accessing a favorite website. determines everything: The raw bit speed is 307.RF100 v3.228. On the AT’s DRC channel it asks that sector to send it a packet at speed “DRC Index 5”.Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38.0 .8 -9. web page. AP DRC Modu.2 -3.457.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307.2 -3.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153. The first subpacket will begin with a 128 chip preamble. A July.

0 in Rev.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1.5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614.2 -3. web page.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2. A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3.6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1.6 +10.4 -11.536.6 +2.2 -3.Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO Data from PDSN for the Mobile PACKET Data Ready DRC: 5 2048 bits MP3.228.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76. the correct-size packet + + + of bits is fed into the turbo + + + D D D + coder and the right number of + symbols are created.4 -0.228. or other content AP DRC Modu. A Turbo Coder Using the specifications for + + the mobile’s requested DRC + + + D D D + index.457.072.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153.8 +3.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .2 +8.4 -0.0 in Rev.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1.8 -9.8 +4.Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38.843.0 .RF100 v3.6 -6.270 .5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307. Symbols Interleaver July.

the correct-size packet + + + of bits is fed into the turbo + + + D D D + coder and the right number of + symbols are created.8 +4.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2. or other content AP DRC Modu.072.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1.4 -0.8 -9.6 +10.5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614.6 -6.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1.2 -3.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3.536.6 +2.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153. Symbols Interleaver To guard against bursty errors in transmission.4 -0.457.4 -11.0 in Rev.Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO Data from PDSN for the Mobile PACKET Data Ready DRC: 5 2048 bits MP3. web page.0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307.2 -3.6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1.0 in Rev.RF100 v3.271 . the symbols are completely “stirred up” in a block interleaver.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921.843.228.8 +3.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307. A Turbo Coder Using the specifications for + + the mobile’s requested DRC + + + D D D + index.2 +8.Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38. Block Interleaver July.228.

A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3.6 +10.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1.0 in Rev.843.6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614.4 -0.228.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1.6 -6.457. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307.8 +3.228.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2.8 -9.272 .0 .5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307. Block Interleaver Interleaved Symbols July.2 -3.2 -3. the correct-size packet + + + of bits is fed into the turbo + + + D D D + coder and the right number of + symbols are created.2 +8. A Turbo Coder Using the specifications for the mobile’s requested DRC + + + + + D D D + index. web page.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1.8 +4.4 -11.4 -0.Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76.5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .072. or other content AP DRC Modu.RF100 v3.Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO Data from PDSN for the Mobile PACKET Data Ready DRC: 5 2048 bits MP3. Symbols Interleaver To guard against bursty errors in transmission. the symbols are completely “stirred up” in a block interleaver.6 +2.536. The re-ordered stream of symbols is now ready to transmit.0 in Rev.

0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. which Interleaved Symbols will occupy the same number of transmission slots.2 -3.5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614.843. or other content AP DRC Modu.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76.4 -0.4 -11.2 +8.6 +10.0 in Rev.8 -9.273 .4 -0. Symbols To guard against bursty errors in transmission. A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3. spaced four apart. A Turbo Coder Using the specifications for the mobile’s requested DRC + + + + + D D D + index.Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO Data from PDSN for the Mobile PACKET Data Ready DRC: 5 2048 bits MP3. The symbols are divided into the correct number of subpackets.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter Subpacket 1 Subpacket 4 RF100 .Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38.228.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1. The re-ordered stream of symbols is now ready to transmit. Interleaver Subpacket 2 Subpacket 3 July.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1. taking into account any other pending subpackets for other users.536.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307.072.6 +2.6 -6. and “proportional fairness”.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921.457.2 -3.8 +4. It’s up to the AP to decide when it will start transmitting the stream. web page.228.8 +3.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1. the correct-size packet + + + of bits is fed into the turbo + + + D D D + coder and the right number of + symbols are created.0 in Rev. the symbols are completely “stirred up” in Block Interleaver a block interleaver.RF100 v3.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307.0 .6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1.

5 0x6 1 QPSK 64 1024 614.2 -3.2 0x9 1 QPSK 64 2048 1.4 -0. The user keeps collecting subpackets until either: 1) it has been able to reverse-turbo decode the Interleaved Symbols packet contents early.6 -6.3 0xd 2 16QAM 64 5120 1..843.RF100 v3.536.4 -0. and how Block Interleaver many subpackets are in the sequence. or 2) the whole schedule of subpackets has been transmitted.8 +3.8 -9.457.228. so the Symbols user knows this is the start of its sequence of subpackets.2 0x3 4 QPSK 256 1024 153.072. + + + The first subpacket begins with + + + D D D + a preamble carrying the + user’s MAC index. A Turbo Coder When the AP is ready.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter . 2008 2 3 4 RF100 .0 .6 0x7 2 QPSK 64 2048 614. A 0xe 1 16QAM 64 5120 3.5 0x8 2 QPSK 64 3072 921.8 +4.Preamble Payload Raw C/I Index Slots lation Chips Bits kb/s db 0x0 n/a QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a 0x1 16 QPSK 1024 1024 38. or other content AP DRC Modu.6 +10.5 0x2 8 QPSK 512 1024 76.0 in Rev.2 -3.228.5 0x4 2 QPSK 128 1024 307.0 0xc 1 16QAM 64 4096 2.274 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.2 +8. Interleaver Subpackets 1 SLOTS July.0 in Rev.4 -11.6 +2. web page.5 0x5 4 QPSK 128 2048 307.9 0xa 2 16QAM 64 4096 1.Transmission of a Packet over EV-DO Data from PDSN for the Mobile PACKET Data Ready DRC: 5 2048 bits MP3.0 0xb 1 8PSK 64 3072 1. the first subpacket is actually + + + + + D D D + transmitted in a slot.

A A July.275 . Rev.1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO Rev.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.RF100 v3.0 .

Q To allow real-time conversational services • push to talk.RF100 v3.1xEV-DO Rev. July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . Q multimedia multicasting using QUALCOMM's “Platinum Multicast” • enables high-quality video/audio to many users simultaneously. A Design Objectives Q To enable multimedia services • high-speed upload of multimedia files and attachments • interactive gaming • IP-based services such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP).0 .1 Mbps Q Peak reverse link data rates of 1. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Q Peak forward link data rates of 3. • video telephony • instant multimedia -.276 .an extension of push to talk that combines immediate voice with simultaneous delivery of video and pictures.8 Mbps Q Optimized packet data service • one of lowest costs per bit compared to other wireless technologies.

RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. A Differences Q Everything we’ve seen thus far applies to 1xEV-DO Revision 0.1xEV-DO Rev.277 . Q 1xEV-DO Rev.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . A is now officially standardized and ready for commercial deployment July.

256. A Q Forward Link Enhancements • Peak rates increased from 2.4 Mbps to 3.1 Mbps • Multi-user packet support • Small payload sizes (128.RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 512 bits) improve frame fill efficiency • The DRC channel functions are broken out into two channels – DRC retains rate control indication – new Data Source Control (DSC) Channel shows desired serving cell • Minimizes interruptions due to server switching on FL July.Forward Link Enhancements in 1xEV-DO Rev.0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.278 .

BPSK modulation – Medium rates: 1 walsh channel. QPSK modulation – High Rates: 2 walsh channels.279 . 8PSK modulation • Hybrid ARQ using fast re-transmission (re-tx) and early termination • Flexible rate allocation: each AT has autonomous and scheduled mode • Efficient VOIP support • 3-channel synchronous stop-and-wait protocol • The mobile can use higher power and finish earlier when transmitting packets of applications requiring minimum latency July.8 Mbps with 48 payload sizes • 4 slots/sub-packets regardless of payload size (6. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.8 kbps to 1. QPSK modulation – Highest Rate: 2 walsh channels.Reverse Link Enhancements in 1xEV-DO Rev.RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . A Q Reverse Link Enhancements • Higher data rates and finer quantization • Data rates from 4.0 .66 ms) • Modulation: – Low rates: 1 walsh channel.

228.072.2 12.6 +10.5 QPSK 64 1024 614.0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .0 +8.8 57. A forward has two available modes offering higher speeds than available in Rev.8 51.3 16QAM 64 5120 3.5 QPSK 128 2048 307.2 QPSK 64 2048 1.8 153.9 16QAM 64 4096 1.6 QPSK 64 2048 614.843.4 76.2 9.0 16QAM 64 4096 2. 0 • Modulation formats are hybrids defined in the standard Q The 1xEV-DO Rev.5 QPSK 128 1024 307.4 -11.8 9.8 2/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 Q The 1xEV-DO Rev.8 1/5 1/5 1/5 1/5 256 B4 38 19.8 1/2 1/4 1/5 1/5 3072 Q2 461 230 153.457.6 -6. 0.5 QPSK 64 3072 921.6 3/8 1/5 1/5 1/5 2048 Q4 307 153 102.6 +2.5 QPSK 512 1024 76.2 +8.2 QPSK 256 1024 153.4 1/2 1/4 1/5 1/5 1536 Q4 230 115 76.228.2 -3.2 2/3 1/3 2/9 1/5 12288 E4E2 1843 921 614 460.6 1/2 1/4 1/5 1/5 6144 Q4Q2 921 461 307 230.6 19.0 8PSK 64 3072 1.6 6.4 1/2 1/4 1/5 1/5 8192 Q4Q2 1228 614 409 307.536.4 25. July.Preamble Payload Raw C/I lation Chips Bits kb/s db QPSK n/a 0 null rate n/a QPSK 1024 1024 38.4 -0.4 -0. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.8 -9.3 16QAM 64 5120 1.6 1/5 1/5 1/5 1/5 512 B4 76 38. A FORWARD LINK DRC Index Slots 0x0 n/a 0x1 16 0x2 8 0x3 4 0x4 2 0x5 4 0x6 1 0x7 2 0x8 2 0x9 1 0xa 2 0xb 1 0xc 1 0xd 2 0xe 1 Modu.2 38.0 +11.6 115.8 +4.6 38.Available Link Rates in 1xEV-DO Rev. A reverse link has seven available modes offering higher speeds than available in Rev.4 4.8 +3.4 28.3 REVERSE LINK Payload Modu-Effective Rate kbps after: Code Rate (repetition) after Bits lation 4 slots 8 slots 12 slots16 slots 4 slots 8 slots 12 slots16 slots 128 B4 19.2 -3.280 .2 1/4 1/5 1/5 1/5 768 B4 115 57.2 3/8 1/5 1/5 1/5 4096 Q2 614 307 204.8 3/8 1/5 1/5 1/5 1024 B4 153 76.RF100 v3.

The CDG also plans to expand cdma2000 by improved roaming and a sub US$40 handset push. B Q CDG says 1Q06 for Rev. similar to the GSMA's emerging markets initiative. As well as supporting mobile broadband data and OFDM based multicasting.What’s Next? 1xEV-DO Rev. video calling.0 . B increases data throughput to 73. rufus. July.281 . push to talk over cellular.RF100 v3.com News 17 November 2005 Rufus Jay. B Telecoms. Rev. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.5Mbps in the forward link and 27Mbps in the reverse link. concurrent voice and multimedia and multiplayer online gaming.jay@informa. Rev.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .com Q The CDMA Development Group (CDG) has announced that the EV-DO Revision B standard is pencilled in for release in 1Q06. B's lower latency rates will improve the performance of VoIP.

2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.RF100 v3.1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO Network Network Architecture Architecture July.282 .0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.CDMA Network for Circuit-Switched Voice Calls (C)BSC/Access Manager Switch PSTN t1 t1 v SEL t1 CE BTS Q The first commercial IS-95 CDMA systems provided only circuitswitched voice calls July.RF100 v3.283 .0 .

CDMA 1xRTT Voice and Data Network Internet VPNs PDSN Home Agent PDSN Foreign Agent Backbone Network Authentication Authorization Accounting AAA Switch (C)BSC/Access Manager PSTN t1 t1 v SEL t1 CE BTS Q CDMA2000 1xRTT networks added two new capabilities: • channel elements able to generate and carry independent streams of symbols on the I and Q channels of the QPSK RF signal – this roughly doubles capacity compared to IS-95 • a separate IP network implementing packet connections from the mobile through to the outside internet – including Packet Data Serving Nodes (PDSNs) and a dedicated direct data connection (the Packet-Radio Interface) to the heart of the BSC Q The overall connection speed was still limited by the 1xRTT air interface July.284 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.RF100 v3.0 .

(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .0 .RF100 v3. Motorola. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.285 .1xEV-DO Overlaid On Existing 1xRTT Network Internet VPNs PDSN Home Agent PDSN Foreign Agent Backbone Network Authentication Authorization Accounting DO Radio Network Controller (C)BSC/Access Manager DO-OMC AAA Switch CE PSTN t1 t1 v SEL t1 CE BTS Q 1xEV-DO requires faster resource management than 1x BSCs can give • this is provided by the new Data Only Radio Network Controller (DO-RNC) Q A new controller and packet controller software are needed in the BTS to manage the radio resources for EV sessions • in some cases dedicated channel elements and even dedicated backhaul is used for the EV-DO traffic Q The new DO-OMC administers the DO-RNC and BTS PCF addition Q Existing PDSNs and backbone network are used with minor upgrading Q The following sections show Lucent. and Nortel’s specific solutions July.

RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO // 1xRTT 1xRTT Interoperability Interoperability July.0 .286 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.

a “Hybrid” mode has been developed to provide some types of handoff functions to the best extent possible Q Hybrid Mode • is a mobile only function – neither the EV nor 1xRTT network knows anything about it • is a proprietary feature with vendor-specific implementation • has no standard-defined RF “triggers”.0 . no “hooks” Q In the 1xEV rev. A standard. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . some new features will be provided • the 1xEV control channel will be able to carry 1xRTT pages too • this and other changes may make the “hybrid” mode unnecessary and obsolete July.1xEV-DO/1xRTT Interoperability Q The CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Standard IS-856 makes no provision for any kind of handoff to or from any other technology Q Driven by Operator interest.287 .

288 . it can be closed and then re-originated on the other system • In some cases this can be accomplished automatically without the end-user’s awareness – in other cases.RF100 v3. but NOT in active traffic state • If there is a connection.0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.What Handoffs are Possible in Hybrid Mode? Q All switching between systems occurs in Idle Mode • there are no “handoffs” in active traffic state in either mode Q Sessions can be transferred from one system to the other. this is not possible July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .

(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . F1 1:1 Deployment Q DO systems will be Implemented in Several Configurations • 1:1 overlays in busy core areas • 1:1 or 1:N overlays in less dense areas Q Many EV>1x and 1x>EV transition events may occur as a user transitions from area to area Q Initial system acquisition is also involved as a user activates their AT in different locations Q These transitions are dependent on the Hybrid mode implementation in the AT Q The following pages show some possible transitions assuming Mobile IP and AT Hybrid Mode are implemented July. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.289 .0 .RF100 v3. F2 1xRTT.Hybrid Mode Transition Scenarios 1:2 Deployment 1:1 Deployment EV-DO.

the hybrid-aware mobile can still keep monitoring 1xRTT paging channel Q During 1xRTT traffic operation.RF100 v3. 1xRTT traffic operation is continuous • no opportunity to see 1xEV-DO signal Q This hybrid Idle mode capability is the foundation for all 1xRTT/1xEV mode transfers • the network does not trigger any transfers 1xEV-DO Idle 1xEV-DO Active Idle Mode Hybrid Mode 1xRTT Idle Idle Mode 1xRTT Active July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .1xRTT / 1xEV-DO Hybrid Idle Mode Q 1xRTT/1xEV-DO Hybrid Mode • depends on being able to hear pages on both systems – 1xRTT and 1xEV-DO • is possible because of slotted mode paging • 1xRTT and 1xEV-DO paging slots do not occur simultaneously • mobile can monitor both Q During 1xEV-DO traffic operation. the hybrid-aware mobile is unable to break away. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 .290 .

291 .0 .(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . a standard feature in systems of both technologies July.RF100 v3. 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. conflicts can be avoided by page repetition./3 ms frames Q A dual-mode 1xRTT/1xEV-DO mobile using slotted-mode paging can effectively watch the paging channels of both 1xRTT and 1xEV-DO at the same time Q How is it possible for the mobile to monitor both at the same time? • The paging timeslots of the two technologies are staggered Q Three of the 16 timeslots in 1xRTT conflict with the control channel slots of 1xEV-DO • However.Hybrid Dual-Mode Idle Operation 1xRTT / 1xEV-DO Paging Interoperability 16-frame Control Channel Cycle 16 slots of 26-2/3 ms = 426-2/3 ms LONGEST POSSIBLE PACKET DRC 16 Subpackets 1xRTT Minimum Slot Cycle Index: 16 slots of 80 ms each = 48 26-2.

0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 .RF100 v3. can’t see EV Acquire 1xRTT System driven by PRL Register with 1xRTT Network 1xRTT Idle Idle Mode Classical 1xRTT Idle Mode After entering this state. the mobile will not search for 1xEV service again Voice Page! Idle Mode Release 1xRTT Active 1xRTT Voice Call July.292 .Initial System Acquisition by Hybrid Mobile when 1xEV-DO is NOT Available 1xEV-DO Active 1xEV-DO Idle Acquire 1xEV-DO System driven by PRL no.

found EV Idle Mode AT Data Ready! AN Data Page! Idle Mode Hybrid Mode Acquire 1xRTT System driven by PRL Register with 1xRTT Network Hybrid Mode Voice Page! Idle Mode Hybrid Mode Idle Mode 1xRTT Idle Idle Mode Idle Mode Release 1xRTT Active 1xRTT Voice Call July.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.0 .293 .Initial System Acquisition by Hybrid Mobile when 1xEV-DO is Available 1xEV-DO Active Set Up or Re-establish 1xEVDO Data Session 1xEV Traffic interrupted during 1xRTT voice call 1xEV Traffic Data Connection Closed Triggers: 1xEV-DO Idle Acquire 1xEV-DO System driven by PRL yes.RF100 v3.

In-Traffic: EV-DO Fade with 1xRTT Available Fade 1xEV-DO Active AT data ready Traffic Mode.294 . Traffic Mode.RF100 v3.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. Data Transfer AN data ready Fade 1xEV-DO Idle Get New UATI Dormant /Idle DO System Acquired no Same DO Subnet? 1xRTT Idle Idle Mode Dormant /Idle 1xRTT Active Reestablish Call PPP Resync MIP Registr.0 . Data Transfer Close Connection PPP Resync MIP Registr. Resume Data Transfer Transfer Finished July.

2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . Idle Search for Mode DO Found New DO Signal!! Triggers: AT Data Ready! AN Data Page! Same DO Subnet? Yes Idle Mode Idle Mode Hybrid Mode Fade Idle Mode Use 1x PRL. Search for 1xRTT Use 1x PRL.295 . Continue EV Operation 1xRTT Active July.RF100 v3.0 .Transition In-Traffic: Lost EV-DO and 1xRTT Fade 1xEV-DO Active Traffic Mode. Data Transfer Close Connection Set Up or Re-establish 1xEVDO Data Session Get New UATI No 1xEV Traffic Fade 1xEV-DO Idle DO PRL. Search for 1xRTT No Signal Found!! 1xRTT Idle Idle Mode Lost Signal!! No Signal Found!! No 1x Signal.

DO Available? No Signal Found!! DO PRL.Dormant Session. July.0 . 2008 Introduction to Wireless & CDMA -. 1xEV-DO Idle Get New UATI No Idle Mode DO PRL. Search for DO No Signal Found!! DO PRL.RF100 v3. Data Transfer Data Finished. DO Available? Same DO Subnet? Yes Idle Mode Hybrid Mode Idle Mode 1xRTT Idle Idle Mode Idle Mode 1xRTT Active PPP Resync MIP Registr.296 . EV-DO Lost > 1xRTT > 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO Active Coverage Edge Fade Traffic Mode. DO Available? No Signal Found!! DO PRL.(c) 2008 Scott Baxter RF100 . Call Dormant Fade Found New DO Signal!! PPP Resync MIP Registr.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful