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(ATM) CHALLAWA INDUSTRIAL AREA, KANO
28th July 2011
DEDICATION This project is dedicated to my Late Father Alhaji Danjummai his soul rest in perfect peace, amen.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT All praise be to Allah the beneficent the merciful and may peace and blessings be upon His servants and Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). My greatest gratitude goes to my Lecturer Malam Idris for his a untireless effort toward putting us through the research work and guidance
CERTIFICATION This is to certify that HAMISU DANJUMMAI com/hnd/09/143
undertook this work in the Department of Statistics and Computer Science, School of technology, Kano under the guidance of.
________________________ Supervisor Malam Idirs
ABSTRACT This project was informed by the general decline in the quality if demand and production in most of the textile manufacturing industries in Nigeria particularly the African Textile Manufacturing Industry at Challawa, in view of the apparent challenges facing it. The project was proposes to examine the challenges facing textile manufacturing Ltd. and also to identify the problems facing the industry, assess the effort of the management in overcoming constrains facing the industry and to suggest some ways of improving the functioning of the industry. To facilitate the research findings, an analysis was made about production capacity, the major problems confronting the companies operation and possible ways through which the company raises up to the challenges. To this end, it has being established beyond reasonable doughty that for ATM to function properly, the demand and supply of electric instability, fuel scarcity, lack of constant water supply and the effect of smuggling have to be properly made. It was recommended that they should make efforts to improve the availability water supply system within the country so as to attract or increase the demand and supply of the textile goods and to ensure an uninterrupted power supply to the industrial areas by providing modern equipments and also the price of fuel should be reduced to a certain level for easy movement of goods and services. Conclusively, I am optimistic that since its inception in 1998 given all the necessary inputs and processes the ATM will have met all the textile demand in Nigeria, African at large.
Title Page - - TABLE OF CONTENT - - - Dedication Acknowledgement CertificationAbstract CHAPTER ONE Introduction - vi .
INTRODUCTION TEXTILE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA One of the most important development which Nigerian economy has undergone amongst many rapid changes since independence in 1960 was the emergence of modern textile industries. Specifically. Two main reasons/factors could be responsible for the rapid development of this industry. modern large scale industries located in Kano is due to mainly two reasons. Textile manufacturers is one of the oldest and widespread traditional industry in West African cities. is the ready available market in a country of over 120 million people with a deep social and cultural heritage. Areas where this commercial activities situated at times tend to specialize and therefore be known and associated with particular aspect of commerce. First.CHAPTER ONE 1. 1 . which encourages the expression of this industry by private and government policies on industrialization also play a vital role towards the increasing growth of industrial establishment in Nigeria. is the available of the local raw materials provided by the rich ferruginous soil in a suitable climate which increased the growth of the industry. Second.
Therefore.. this research will focus to see what are the factors responsible for the shutdown of northern Nigerian textile yet ATM is still functioning. Gaskiya Textiles. Despite all the advantages that Kano is having in the location of industries. ATM manufacturing industry. Zamfara Textiles. Kano is said to be a centre of commerce and thus industrialization. Bagauda Textile Mills. Today. Hobron. STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM For this research was intended to analyse some of the challenges facing Nigerian textile manufacturing industries in particular. linking the southern part of the country. most of the industries in Kano are facing many challenges. location of industries in Kano reflect Kano’s position as an agricultural center and that cotton became established early in the colonial period as the major cash crop in the area. Universal Sinners. Thus. The second factor is that. the UNTL Area Textiles. the search for answer to this question forms our research problems. With roads passing through the area. Chellco. Dangote Textiles and Several others spread across the 19 northern states have effectively shutdown. Kano Textile Industries. Kaduna Textiles. Kano can be said to be a suitable place for the location of modern large scale industries.The first factor is that. ATM was the only 2 .
variable and running textile industry that was available at the time of conducting the research of this project. When confronted with the question that while several or even most of the textile industries within the vicinity of northern Nigeria with Kano in particular have opted to shutdown their operations ATM is still running? The management was eager to state that ATM has always been prudent in the utilization of both human and material resources and have been operating on a ten year plan of constant average production scheme which does not require a much significant increase in capital. At what production capacity is the company operating? 2. machinery or labour and has provision for small increament brought about by inflation and the constant fluctuation of the Niara. the following research questions were asked: 1. And how is the company facing up to the challenges? AIM AND OBJECTIVES 3 . In carrying out this research. What are the major problems confronting the companies operation? 3.
This research will yield data that will be also valuable for policy and basis for planning by prospective e business in future development of textile manufacturing industry in the country. SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH 4 . The objectives are: 1. This is because of the contribution it has made in the manufacturing industries through revenue generations and employment creation. to assess the effort of the management in overcoming constrains facing the industry. To identify the problems facing the industry. and 3.The aim is to examine the challenges facing African Textile Manufacturing Ltd. 2. to suggest ways in improving the functioning of the industry based on the findings JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY The important role played by textile manufacturing on the development of the Nigerian economy cannot be over emphasized.
DATA ANALYSIS Here. Challawa industrial area. 20. for detailed of the interview conducted. refer to appendix I. which was conducted to the personal officer of the ATM company. other relevant information related to the topic were asked at African textile manufacturing Ltd. STUDY AREA 5 . a table charts and proportion were used to analyse the data obtained during data analysis. the primary source of data “1o” data the secondary source of data “20”. Kano. A series of questions related to their production from 1999-2008. were asked. This is in order to facilitate quick and easy understanding. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Source of data: The sources of data are classified into two. 10 data was generated through an interview schedule.This research will be limited to African textile manufacturing industry.
Kano is located between lat 70 28’ east and long 100 35’ north. Panshekara Road. Jigawa to the North-east. It is close to the equator extending from longitude 30E to 140E. it is located in the northern inland. 768sq Km (356. Challawa industrial area. It occupies a total area of 360 KM sq. African Textile manufacturing is located in Kano at Sahail Akar lane plot No RC 32300. Kaduna to the south-west. 6 .669 sqm). Bauchi to the south-east. it is bourded by Katsina to the north-west. Moreover. the most of 923.
order of the member of Federal Republic (MFR).Akar and Sons Ltd. 1998 when it began with the preparation fro both the administrative and technical take-off. which is the marketing ATM . Mr. Suhail Akar. and Dala Agricultural and Allied products Ltd fully came into existence in 1999. Born in 1937.K. The chief promoter/chairman of the company is Mr. Suhail joined the business of his later father. which started in Kano about 64 years ago at the tender age of 16 years.Dala Agricultural and Allied Products Ltd.African Textile Manufacturers . . A cotton Ginning factory K.a composite textile mill. a Nigerian and one of the eminent citizens qualified for the conferment of the 2007 National Honours by President Umaru Musa’Yar’aduwa under the category. he found prospect in importing textile from abroad and this was done from Europe and far East. African textile Manufacturers Ltd. 7 . Akar and sons was established in 1975. No sooner had he joined them. ATM has three (3) companies in its fold” . Presently. where as.CHAPTER TWO DATA PRESENTATION Brief History of the Company The birth – data of the company was on 25 th January.
l beginning of Fagge Takudu in Kantin-Kwari to a multi-modern factory buildings at Suhail Akar Lane. has so far made on astormical progress in all sense of the word. THE COMPANIES PRODUCTION CAPACITY 8 . The company was originally to produce super prints and suiting materials. the products brand are: a) ABADA Real wax b) WAZOBIA c) Military force uniforms d) Suiting materials The company. super prints came under fierce pressure of pricing in year 2002-2004.The company started functioning and came to the market just after the government lifted the ban on imports in 1997. Presently. The rapid maturation of the company within the last ten (10) years that is quite regarded as deserving in the current textile hitch in the textile world. From a small. with over 2000 workers. Challawa industrial estate.
cotton harvest and availability is between the months of October and November on annual basis after rainy season. (a) Agricultural Factors: The cotton farm possessed by ATM at Malumfashi. Katsina state is usually run and boost well during rainy season. 75.000 meters produced on daily basis. and an average output of 2.000.700.000 (i.00 form 1999 to date. Funtua. Therefore. This in turn increases the level of production out-put. 9 .The production capacity of ATM is precisely determined by Agro-socio economic factors. The volume of production is affected annually by these factors. There is an average of 75. Chrisman.000 X 30 days (month X 12 months (year)). New year. Ester and political transition. year 2008. (b)Social Factor This has to do with ceremonies and festivals in a year which includes Edil-Fitir Kabir. there is no inform volume of production annually but is placed on average.e. Thus. which an annual average puts the total production of 27.000. Production level is high during these periods of ceremonies as the company have to strive hard to meet customers high demand.
They also complained that 97% of their machinery run on electric power. only 3% are ran manually. electric power is the third most important aspect governing production after infrastructure and raw materials and its constant supply is what has been lacking for the past then years.(c) Economic Factors Low demand from customers and banks failure to issue loan to the company leaves the company no option other than to bearer the unavailable sharp fall in its level of production. MAJOR PROBLEMS CONFRONTING ATM LTD a) Electric Instability: According to the management of ATM Nigeria Ltd. They reiterate that electric supply is so erratic that most of the time they are forced to use other sources of energy which are very expensive and in turn raises the cost of production which customers are unnecessarily made to bear. b) Fuel Scarcity: As a result of the erratic power supply being experienced by the company their only alternative is to purchase heavy duty. High level 10 .
d) High Bank Interest: This is also among the problems hindering upon the efficient production of textile industries in Nigeria. They also complained that it is very difficult to purchase the diesel fuel form filling stations because they normally sell it out to black marketers at arranged prices and if found in the filling stations the amount of litres they sell to them is ridiculous by low.consumption mechanical generators which operates on either diesel fuel or black fuel which very unfortunately government has forsaken their vending in the hands of merciless and greedy black marketers that hike the prices of such commodities at their own pleasure at the expense of the companies and their consumers. because just as their power generators run on diesel so also the heavy duty loading trucks they pay to ferry their services because of the high price at which they purchase diesel fuel. c) Transportation Cost: High transportation cost also among the factors making production a very tough business at ATM Nig. Ltd. The company is complaining that it is a well known fact that Nigerian banks pay 11 .
customers only 2-3% interest monthly on savings and charge an exorbitant 25% interest on both short and long term loans which is very exploitative and unidealistic. They stated that among the new taxes introduced by government are VAT (Value added tax) by the Abacha administration and ETF (education tax fund) by the Obansajo administration. They also argued that due to the constant inflation in the country the company cogent need to borrow from the banks and the interest is just so high and unbearable. and that these taxes are working alongside each other instead of one to give way to the other. 12 . e) High Tax Charges The management also complained that the tax charged by government is so high and that now taxes are just irrationally introduced on the inception of almost any new administration and this greatly hampers upon the effective growth of their industry. this causes them to lodge their funds in banks which would have generated a lot of interests but it doesn’t because the interest rate is only 3%. They argued that most textile companies go on break at the end of the year to enable their staff go for various festivities and also for the management to invite auditors to audit their account.
vatting and dyeing. g) Effect of Smuggling Lack of constant power and water supply and all the aforementioned problems has greatly increased the cost of production of the materials produced by ATM and this has brought about a hike in their production and given the porosity of the Nigerian borders goods of similar quality are being illegally smuggled into the country and sold at cheaper prices which customers obviously opt for.f) Lack of Constant Water Supply: Water is among the vital resources needed for the successful production of tax. MEASURES TAKEN BY THE COMPANY IN SOLVING THE ABOVE PROBLEM AND CHALLENGES 13 . it is needed in processes like smoothing. this has increased the cost of production and also the market cost price of such materials. the materials and its is needed in a very large amount and it has to be very constant. Water supply is almost zero in the industrial areas of Kano state and this has forced the company to be purchasing it from commercial vendors that ferry it in trucks.
Boreholes were dug as contingency due to the lack of constant water supply. state and federal arms of the government. Millions of naira went to excessive freight by roads for machinery/raw materials and finished products compared to the much less freight charges if railways were to be operating. Within the company’s might. e-mails) as there was no provision at all by the then NITEL. problems of unstable electric supply was tackled through the installation of the 33KVA high-tension and transformers. The company does not and cannot to some extend solve the problem directly but can only yearn the government either through media houses or other efficient channels. Within ten (10) years of the company’s existence. 14 . The company equally expended heavily on telecommunications (telephone. The company also provided generators to support PHCN irregular power supply. The company spent on fuel reservoirs contingencies to unreliable fuel and WRECCA supply. all due to the epilectric services of the power providers.Some of the above enumerated problems confronting and pervading the company are such that falls within the discretion of the government both local. faxes. it has spent heavily on repairs/replacement of vehicles due to bad roads.
Expenses incurred on this aspect runs in millions. Bank interest is another big blows that drastically impedes the companies competitive capacity. ATM is operating in the overseas markets only with limited volumes. Chinese goods being offered at much lower prices. form manufacturing of yarn. PERFORMANCE CENTRES The overall manufacturing activity is divided into (3) production units. as the company was located on in-accessible locations. More than the local manufacturers. The products of UNTL lead the market in terms of quality and price. ATM is competing more in terms of lead times. These are some of the problems which the company cannot solve directly as they are necessities to which the company cannot do without. weaving unit form 15 . By positioning the unique position for itself in terms of distribution channels and customer base. spinning units. the market is influenced by the influx of cheap textile products from Asia countries. as the factory was provided. ATM is positioning its product above the smuggled fabric from China and below the products of UNTL. ATM has a policy to follow the leader.Motorable – tarred road to the factory was provided.
making grey fabric form yarn and processing and printing of the fabric. WEAVING: In this unit. These three units are separate efficiency and cost centers.000 metres of fabric per day. being the last unit. there are about installed capacity of 26. The capacity have been filling this gap by sourcing for the woven.300 motor of cotton a day. Obviously. there are 178 sulzer projectiles looms. there have been a gap in the printing/processing and spinning and weaving capacity.152 spindles which produces 9. the weaving capacity is 43.000 metres per day. 16 . Presently. Fabric form local market or imports. The capacity of these units and the overall balancing of the plant is as follows: SPINNING: In this unit. process and dye 100. PRINTING AND PROCESSING: The company have installed capacity to print.
NIGERIA a cotton Growing GROWING AND HARVESTING OF SEED COTTON B COTTON GROWING GINNING SEED COTTON INTO COTTON UNIT C YARN SPINNING SPINNING COTTON UNIT INTO YARN D FABRIC WEAVING WEAVING YARN INTO GREY FABRIC E FABRIC PROCESSING AND PRINTING PROCESSING & PRINTING OF GREY FABRIC ATM’S POSITION IN WORK FLOW & SUPPLY CHAIN C. D & E ATM B ATM’S ASSOCIATE A OTHERS Sources: ARM. 2008 The chart above is explained below A.WORK FLOW AND SUPPLY CHAIN WORK FLOW & SUPPLY CHAIN OF COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY. COTTON GROWING: 17 .
COTTON GINNING: At this stage. C.Cotton growing is the agricultural activity involving seed cotton. YARN SPINNING 18 . ATM processes the grey fabric produce Real wax print fabric. grey fabric produced from weaving department is further processed and printed to produce fabric to be used in various products. using unique real wax technology and also production of super prints. Cotton lints is produced and compressed into bales and seeds are sold as a by-product to seed crushers to produce edible oil. seeds are removed from the cotton ball through a technological processes that separates and squeezes the seeds out of the cotton ball by mean of rolling rods or machine equipments. Growing areas in October/November and extends till March. FABRIC PROCESSING AND PRINTING At this stage. B. D. growing had harvesting. Farmers sell their crop of seed cotton to middle men who operates typically as individuals contracted by ginning mills or textile manufacturers to produce season’s supply of cotton..
Finally the roving bobbins are used in the spinning process to produce yarn. These are three basic weaves in fabric making-plain weave. bales of cotton lint are opened and processed in stages until yarn is produced. FABRIC WEAVING: At this stage. hundreds of yarn strands are wound from yarn cones into large warp beams. In preparation of warp yarns. Plain 19 . The procedure involves mixing the cotton and carding it into a web of fabres that is eventually condensed into a sliver of untwisted. The sized yarns are often waind onto a loom beam that will be placed on the fabric?.At this stage. grey fabric is produced through weaving of yarn. ATM uses ring frames to produce cotton yarn. This is followed by pulling the sliver into a thinner strand and then waind on bobbins for rolling. This involves the use of warp yarn and weft yarn. twill weave and satin weave. the former refers to yarn that runs length wise in woven fabric and the later refers to yarn that runs crosswise (also known as filling yarn). E. The slivers are then put through a canbing machine where short fibres and impurities are removed. Yarns are then coated with a sizing compound to add strength for weaving. ATM has production facilities to produce plain weave and twill weave. rope-like strand.
Digi-crock meter 20 .Digi-light fastness tester .Digi-wash fastness tester .Uster evenness tester .Uster simple yarn strength tester - Fibre fineness tester . RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT The research and development is an on-going process involving quality control and process development techniques aimed at process innovation and product development. ATM is having a sophisticated testing laboratories and are equipped with the following equipments: Physical Laboratory .Splice strength tester .weave is most common and is used for cotton printed fabric and ATM is presently utilizing all its production capacity to produce plain weave fabric.Polarizing projection microscope Chemical Laboratory .
4. Different colour recepes from various suppliers have been standardized. 5. 2. Designing and engraving department of ATM Ltd is equipped with computer aided design system (CAD) to produce finest and latest designs and patterns that suite market trend. Imported and branded dyestuffs and chemicals are used to achieve excellent wash fastness. Checking of seed cotton is done by table sorting method to produce cotton lint that is free from polyprolene and other contaminatious. standardization of size mixing recipes has been achieved to give consistent performance and efficiency at the loom-shed in weaving department. after series of research work and trials.Perpirometer . 3. 21 . brightness that gives brighter shade and other wear properties in fabric processing.. The selective dyestuff from different suppliers/categories for a single design to achieve better effect with cost maximized.Tearing strength tester ACTIVITIES/ACHIEVEMENT IN THE QUALITY CONTROL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT AREAS 1. Use of grey cotton fabric for handling/transportation of the raw and process material in ginning and spinning.
7. about 27 textile companies in the whole federation of Nigeria but only three (3) are exiting presently. it is on record that there were before. Gum rosin recovery. Customer designs are delivered within 15 days of request.6. This high economic phenomenon was yet as a result of the aforementioned problems in the textile world. To crown it all. with the new designs creates in-house. With the help of the team of designers the company has customers are served in due course. CUSTOMER MANAGEMENT The pressure on the company’s business in the form of cheap prices and very liberal terms of scale to the customers form the Chinese and Asian suppliers. There is improved feel of the fabric and brightness of the colors by the in-house process development. which was former by in the range of 45-50% has now been increased to 70-75% after taking various studies and making changes reasonably in the recovery process. 22 . ATM Ltd and Angel Spinning are in Kano State and the third in Lagos. two (2) composite textiles.
primarily by spinning. Since 1960’s and 70’s some scholars argued that developing countries should embark on industrialization. In short. This is because of the believe that. all the scholars have common believe that industrialization brings about development. They also said that industrialization and economic development are one that is to say economic development and higher standard of living are brought about by industrialization is the best way of bringing about economic diversification and also stabilization on economic which is needed in the developing countries. which turns yarn into cloth. In order to make textiles. it is only industrialization that is capable of breaking the various cycle of under development in these countries. 23 . The yarn is processed by knitting or weaving. They argued that industrialization has the advantages of specialization and it is also easier to manipulate production. such creates the necessary pre-condition for economic take up. The oldest known textile date back to about 5000BC. the first requirement is a source of fiber from which a yarn can be made.S and Canada). It is argued that many people are employed in industries especially in Europe and North America (U.LITERATURE REVIEW INTRODUCTION Textile manufacturing is one of the oldest human industries.
creativity. the history of modern industries in Nigeria shows it is relativelty in its youthful state. He said at individual level it implies increase in skill and capacity.VIEWS ON INDUSTRIALIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT Walter Rondey (1974) sees development as many sized process. responsibility and mental well being. It would also include high capital income. in Nigeria all these things does not exist due to the wide disparities in economic growth especially between rural and urban areas. This will lead to general development. it is a symbol of richness to any nation. Omte (1985) says growth and structural changes brings about economic development. since industrialization and development are the same. increase in individual productivity. This is almost synonymous with the presence o British imperialist in Nigeria. This definition is the same with that of Meir (1976) where he says development encompasses growth plus changes. improved health condition. Unfortunately. it can therefore mean advancement and improvement in all aspect of human life. self discipline. how mortality within the reach of all. greater freedom. Furthermore. Mobogunje (1977) says development is essentially a human issues concerned with nobilizing community and the whole society to engage in the task of self improvement with the resources. In terms of indistrual development as we are concern today. Therefore. Prior to this period there 24 .
by one estimate. Textile is only one example.existed several small scale local craft industries. went into cotton ginning. Nortex.Logos. Kano Textile Industries. Bagauda Textiles. and several others spread across the 19 northern States have effectively shut down. when the Miller Brothers setup a saw mill at Koko in Benin – River. Danjuma (2008).3 million people directly and indirectly. SUpertex. In its hey day. And with them have gone hundreds of thousands of jobs directly and indirectly. Arewa Textile. Gaskiya Textiles. Kaduna Textiles. Agriculture contributes the largest share to our Gross Domestic Product (GDP). with the foreign partners. spinning and weaving. about 4. in 25 . Chellve. Before the Nigerian civil war. Dangotte Textile. Universal Spinners. The earlier modern industry was established in 1917. During the colonial era. It was in order to add value to our agricultural products that our founding fathers. manufacturing industries were in significant to the Nigerian economy. the textile manufacturing sub-sector alone employed about 1. Until the end of the second world war. today the UNTL. the industries setup by the conomial mastern in Nigeria were mainly elementary processing small scale industries. agricultures contribution to our GDP was more than 80%. Zamfara Textiles.0%. In 1925 Lever Borthers Company was established. It was then known as West African Soap Company Limited at Apapa. Holborn.
Also smuggling is another major cause of de-industrilization because it is much easier to smuglle goodds through the northern borders than its is through the Lagos borders. about 700 different factories have shutdown in the last decade. Even the developed countries of the West protect themselves these days form cheap dumps form China that kill local industries. It is his hope that. There was a time Kano competed with Lagos for having the larger number of industries. at one time. The Federal Government must act at once. With the aim of raining our dead industries in Nigeria. both the people and government of the North will be better informed about the collapse of manufacturing industry in the region so that they can design a regional agenda for actions within the contenxt of Nigeria. textile manufacturing industry and later suggest some possible solutions to the problems identified. This problem can only be solved whenever the government makes upt its mind to do so. We cannot afford to continue to pretend on this matter. For this research was intended to cover some problems/challenges facing this industry in particular. Today. Many of the big time smugglers are well known and are even known to be cronies of leaders in power.Kano alone. only the carcasses of those factories remind us of their existence once upon a time. it is the belief of LEADERSHIP 26 .
Not too bong ago. these mills would not have died. being the second largest employer of labour in the state. mainly youths out of job. Hadejia road in Kawaji and Dakata. the present administration of Kano State under the leadership of Malam Ibrahim Shekarau. especially the industrial sectors of the economy. organized an economic summit with the soul agendum of generating ideas from experts and all stakeholders towards resuscitating the apparently collapsed economy of Kano. According to experts in the economies.Newspapers that if our current governs and legislators had been in power in the recent past. The closure of these industries. Sharada. from the year 1999 to this year. Concrete economic suggestions were made by experts 27 . has thrown thousands of people. being its share from the national wealth. Hassan (2008). At present. 2008. all the sectors of the economy of the state are near total collapse. with most companies closed down and the remaining of them producing far below the installed capacity. Most unfortunately. the major industrial areas in the state namely: Challawa. these billions of Naira received by Kano State Government were enough to transform the economy of the state if they were properly and judiciously managed. several billions of naira came to the coffer of the Kano State Government from the Federal Government. are ghost towns. industrial sector in particular. courtesy of the continued increase of the crude oil price in the international market.
Brazil was entering the age of car. In contrast.and other participants on how to restore the lost economic glory of the state and also improve it to make it a vibrant economy. the main bases of previous industrialization in Brazil. This boom was bought at the price. the rapid industrial growth of the period had not resolved the inflation and balance of payments problems. In addition to this. grew by 46% and 29% respectively in the same period 9Singer 1976). More over. and towards the end of the 1950’s there were increasing economic and political problems surrounding the government. the food textile industries . The balance of payments was made worse by the need for imports of machinery and raw material to build and supply the raw industries. Firstly. growth was even more starting. the balance of payments also suffered from outflows of profits and royalties to foreign companies and from interest payments on debt. manufacturing out put rose by 60% in real term consumer durables. 28 . Inflation was stimulated by the state’s borrowing money to cover the budget deficit resulting from its expenditure on infrastructure. and the target plan was to give priority to road transport from 1959 to 1961.
there are strong hold views for and against idea that industrialization is a prerequisite for economic development. These processes are generally associated with growth in scale specialization and mechanization. the rapid industrialization strategy was not creating jobs in sufficient number to resolve the problems to employment and wages. The rapid industrialization progamme depends so heavily on foreign capital that foreign grip on the economy was reinforced. Two (2) composite textiles. More over. At the same time. This ugly economic phenomenon was yet as a result of the aforementioned problems in the textile world. The political left had seen industrialization as a chance to create a genuinely by national economy.The second major problem fro the government was the political conflict over industrialization strategy. as multinational companies extended in the heart of the manufacturing sector. ATM Ltd and Angel spinning are in Kano State and the third in Lagos. The target plan had received support from the labour movement. To crown it all. according to Hewitt et al (1992). it is on record that there were before. PROBLEMS FACING TEXTILE INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA 29 . about 28 textile companies in the whole federation Nigeria but only three (3) are existing presently.
The sector used to have over 100 factories now have about 50 in the country with less than give really operating at a reasonable capacity and still struggling to survive the harsh production environment as capacity utilization has now fallen below 20 percent. The job loss peaked when the United Nigerian Textile Mill in Lagos followed suit with about 2. It was also a major consumer of local raw materials such as cotton and polyester. Hunsu said that since the pronouncement of N80 billion by former President Olusegun Obanssanjo’s administration to revive the textile industry. disbursing the fund had remained a problem as. most of the factories cut down their workforce from 500 to 250 while some reduced from about 800 to 400 and when these are put together.000 people to the labour market last year.Hunsu (2008). the sector sent about 10. the first national vice president of the National Union of Textile. Garment and Tailoring Workers of Nigeria (NUTGTWN) in Lagos mentioned that due to persistent problems facing the Nigerian textile industry. According to him.000 people sent out job while others existing factories cut down jobs due to their inability to cope with high cost of production and competition in the market. when the 30 .000 people were sent out of job last year. The sector in the past was the largest employer of labour after government as it employed over one million Nigerians and secured growers. about 10. according to him.
Loans from banks are not also profitable due to high interest. This rampant mistrust among entrepreneurs discourages entrepreneurs to come together to partnership or joint businesses.” The initial cases of decline of industries in Kano state still persist today. The problem of mistrust among entrepreneurs has made very difficult for an entrepreneurs to obtain loan or counter funding from collegues or friends. there are a number of problems that bedeviled industries in Kano state textile industries. in Kano state textile industries also inclusive. There is also the problem of out dated equipment which are not suitable for modern companies. Every one prefers to go on his own.basic infrastructure such as regular power supply are not there to boost production. People prefer to run a sole proprietorship business due to fear ob being cheated by their collegues and avoidance of conflict of interests. coupled with the global economic down turn which make difficult to obtain loans. which eventually leads to the down fill of the single entrepreneurs. This is as a result of lack of technological development 31 . the money may still be invested in the sector and be spent on infrastructure which should have been provided by government. This usually sets a limit to the expansion and survivial of their companies. Another major problem is lack of adequate capital to run businesses. These problems include the following: Lack of trust among entrepreneurs. In addition.
cotton became so scare. However. textile problems will increase. bed sheet. In the textile industry different technologies are used. cotton. it goes to various types of industries. which is the backbone of textile is a poverty – fighting commodity. and very expensive due to high exchange on old machinery and equipments. Adhama (2008). textiles business is a business that was so profitable and relevant to the development of the economy. These machinery and equipments often break down and it is difficult to obtain replacements or spare parts. curtain.of the country which made compulsory for companies to acquire these equipment form outside whish is a very expense equipment. Coupled with the high degree of smuggling of textiles material into the country. which was number one employer of labour. towel-making. says textiles could be analyse to be one of the poverty 0 fighting businesses. seat cover carpet and so on. the textiles. He further say. We have a different technology for wool. It is useful in 32 . certainly. This often halts production and make products very expensive to produce. The collapse of the textiles sector contributes to the high rate of unemployment in Nigeria. while cotton. has suffered a lot. at a point cost of production became so high. They are all textile but different processes when cotton leaves the farm. The down fall of textiles contributes greatly to the unemployment and poverty.
furniture. but it is the most neglected sector. Others include blacks smitting. when we talk of textiles.hospitals. KANO IN PARTICULAR Kano as a centre of commerce as it is popularly known as centre of commercial activities since from the trans-saharan trade to date. metal. All over Nigeria. modern manufacturing industries have been set up especially in the following sectors. textile. weaving and handcraft industries. schools and in prisons. confectioneries and plastic industries. it is a sector that cannot be discard. In a nutshell. because cotton is needed to provide blanket for prisoners. The observed success in the 33 . Cotton and the entire agricultural sector is given less deserved attention. it is a sector that develops the country/economy. The state is also known for its traditional industries such as dyeing and leather work. There are over 300 large and medium and even small scale enterprises in Kano State. oil milling. Right from the on set of colonialism and its such for raw materials for colonial industries. the agricultural sector is the most neglected. GOVERNMENT EFFORTS TO SUPPORT INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA.
To. Encourage the emergence of new indigenous entrepreneurs. Concentrate on local resource based industries especially those on agro-allied industries and solid materials. Then lastly. To review the industrial of the state to emphasize industrialization. Increase access tosmies shceme for small scale industries. Support and encourage export. Sharada and Challawa. 2.000. And to establish (3) pilot projects in the local government councils and one project. 3. to facilitate the reviral of 50% of the down industries by 2007. the implementation strategies of these guidelines are as follows: 1. 4. To improve the small scale industries loan ceiline from N50.000 to N250. rural 34 . To achieve these lofty objects. 5. To increase capacity utilization in industries by 25% by the year 2007. and strengthen the existing export.industrialization process led to the establishment of various industrial estates at Bompai. Kano star government has rearffirmed its commitment to the restoration of Kano State as a commercial and industrial giant by the following measures.
6. tools. my own result will therefore as a matter responsibility. The state government should adequately educate the public on whatever economic plans it has for the state. And then workers attitude should reflect global demand for quality. And also some of the possible ways forward for the industry was for the government to consolidate its policy of ban by setting up a ensuring effective implementation of the ban. with view to winning the confidence and support of the public in that respect. Identifying materials. Special attention to be given to the provision of infrastructure for industrial and commercial development such as the provision of independent electrical power supply and immediate steps to halt the rise I diesel prices. Conclusively. HISTORY OF CLOTHING AND TEXTILES The history of clothing and textiles attempts an objective. 35 . Kano state government should engage experts to review all the existing economic plans it has for the state and come up with alternative ones where that is required. with the above search of the literature review. It should carry all stakeholders along in both planning and implementing the economic resuscitation and development. productivity and competitiveness. Survey of clothing and textiles throughout human history.
and trade of fabrics. lopped.000 years: women. defined as felt. and the cultural significance of these items to the people who use them. as well as women’s work: The first 20. Sources available for the study of the history of clothing and textiles include materials remains discovered via archaeology: representation of textiles and their manufacture in art: and documents concerning the manufacture. knit or woven to make fibres. PREHISTORIC DEVELOPMENT: Interest in prehistoric developments of textile and clothing manufacture has resulted in a number of scholarly studies since the late twentieth century including prehistoric textiles: The development of cloth in the Neocolitic and Bronze Ages with special reference to the Aegean. acquisition. especially its earlier stages. From ancient times to the present day. is part of material culture studies. Scholarship of textile history. tools. appeared in the Eiddle East during the late stone age. methods of textile production have continually evolved. Textiles. and finished garments. knit or woven or spun fibres made into yarn and subsequently netted. use. and decorated their surroundings. clothed themselves. and choices of textiles available have infleuced how people carried their possessions. and society in 36 .techniques and influences. cloth.
which existed in France 19. Eastern European figurines were belts. spindle needles and weaving sticks. evidence that humans began wearing clothing at around this time.early times. Evidence suggests that human beings may have begun wearing clothing as far back as 100. The earliest definite examples of needles originate from the solutrean culture. 37 .000 years) the Venus Figurines were depicted with clothing. These sources have helped to provide a coherent history of these prehistoric development. Possible sewing needles have been dated to around 40.000 years ago.000 years ago. At a slightly later date (25.000 BCE to 15. Genetic analysis suggests that the human body louse. dating from 27.000 BCE. Net gauges. which lives in clothing. belts warn at the waist. may have diverged from the head-louse some 107.000 years ago. The earliest evidence of wearing comes from impressions of textiles and basketry and bets on little preces of hard clay. Those from Western Europe were adorned with basket hats or caps.000 to 500. Archaeologists have discovered artificats from the same period that appear to have been used in the textile arts. hung how on the lips and sometimes string skirts.000 years ago and found in the Czech Republic. and a strap of cloth that wrapped around the body right above the breast.
Our knowledge of ancient textiles and clothing has expanded in the recent past thanks to modern technological developments. date form 6500 BCE. dense broad cloth with a velvety nap: high value broad cloth was a backbone of the English economy and was exported though out Europe. RENAISSANCE AND EARLY MODERN PERIOD Wool remained the most popular fabric for all classes. or pinned in place. Wool fabrics were dyned in rich colours. followed by linen and hemp. green.ANCIENT TEXTILES AND CLOTHING The first actual textiles. 38 . notably reds. the Middle East and the arid fringese of China have provided many very early samples in good condition. In northern Eurasia Peat bogs can also preserve textiles very well. but the early development of textiles in the Indian subcontinent. Early woven clothing was often made of full loom widths draped. Our knowledge of cultures varies greatly with the climatic conditions to which archeological desposits are exposed. from rought undyend cloth to fine. and blues . Surviving examples of Nalebinding. Wool fabrics were available in a wide range of qualities. gold. tied. as opposed to skins sewn together. another early textile method. Sub-Saharan Africa and other most parts of the world remains unclear. was probably felt.
at a distance. Later in the 39 . Valencia and Seville in this period. Clothing and textile manufacture expanded as an industry so that such unions as the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America and textile workers union of America formed early in the twentieth century. As prosperity grew in the 15th century.Silk – weaving was well established around the Mediterranenan by the beginning of the 15th century. often silk velvets with silvergilt welfts are increasingly seen in Italian dress and in the dress of the wealthy throughout Europe. the urban middle classes. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND MODERN TIMES During the industrial revolution. the fashions set by elites national variations in clothing increased over the century. production was machanised with machines powered by water wheels and stream-engines.sewing machines ermerged in the nineteenth century. Stately floral designs featuring a promegrante or curtichole motif had reached Europe from China in the previous century and becamea dominant design in the ottoman silk-producing cities of Istanbul and Bursa and spread to silk weavers in Florence Genoa. began to wear more complex clothes that followed. Venica. and figured silks. including skilled workers. Synethtic fibres such as nylon were invented during the twentieth century.
the industry had expanded to such degree that such educational institutions as UC Davis established a Division of Textiles and clothing. Alongside these developments were changes in the types of clothing worn by human. clothing and design that offers a masters of arts in textiles History. During the 1960’s had a major influence on subsequent developments in the industry. 40 . The University of Nebraska – Lincoln also created a department of textiles.twentieth century.
employment opportunities etc. The production capacity of ATM is precisely determined by agrosocioeconomic factors such as the agricultural factors. these are fuel scarcity. electric instability. This explains in the promotion of growth and development through revenue generation. which includes the cotton farm possessed by ATM at Manufashi. transportation cost. 41 . lack of constant water supply and effect of smuggling which all inturn increases the level of production. In addition to the aforementioned provlems. fuel reservoirs contingencies to unrealizable fuel and WRECCA supply. and lastly the economic factors. Kastina State the social factors has to do with the ceremonies and festivals in a year which includes transition. Also there are some major problems confronting the company ATM. Funtua.CHAPTER THREE SUMMARY. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION It is observed in this research that industrialization is the in ingredient for measuring development. high bank interests. some measures wee taken to solve the problems which includes the installation were dug as contingency due to the lack of water supply. high tax charges. motorable tarred road to the factory was provided etc.
Will have met all the textile demand in Nigeria. I am optimistic that since its inception in 1998 given all the necessary inputs and processes the African Textile Manufacturing Ltd. 42 . African at large.Conclusively.
it is recommended that: 1. 2. 4. They should make efforts to improve available water supply system. Qualified personnel should man the activities of the textiles industries in Nigeria so as to hence effective management. It is recommended that government ensures an uninterrupted power supply to the industrial areas by providing modern equipment through installation of high tensions and transformers. 3. 43 . The price of fuel should be reduced to a certain level for easy movement of goods and services. therefore. within the country so as to attract or increase the demand and supply of the textile goods. to will also reduced the cost of supply.RECOMMENDATION In order to boost development on industries in Nigeria in general and in Kano particular.
http://en/wikipedia.html 9. Y. Industrialization and Development. Certificate Physical and Human Geography University Press Plc. (2009). 10.000 Textile Workers Lose jobs in 2007. Hewitt T.org/wiki/textile industry 11. Retrieve from: http//www. Retrieve from http//:allafrica. London 8. (2008). Hassan Bashir I. African Textile Manufacturing. Raising the Dead Industries in the North: Retrieve from danjuma.com/analysis/comments/6086.com/marchfeatures- 5. Record (2008). Aread O etal (1992). Retrieve from: http://www. Retrieve from: http:www. http//:economicconfiential.businessdayonline. Kano Industrial Economy. Growing the Private Sector Document of Kano State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy.REFERENCES 1. Adhama Saidu Dattijo (2008) How to Halt Smuggling of Textiles in Nigeria.businessdayonline.html 2. (71-80). Danjuma T. Ibadan 4.html?print 7.com/stories/20080311047. Oxford University Press.org/wiki/textile manufacturing 10.com/national/1815. 3. http://en/wikipedia. Hunsu Oladele (2008). http://en/wikipedia.net 6.org/wiki/history of textiles 46 .kanostae. etal (1992). Pg.html.
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