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org). and features were discussed. a novel machine class—the dual-rotor. Permanent-Magnet Machines Ronghai Qu. The fixed parameters 0093-9994/04$20. IEEE Abstract—A novel machine family—the dual-rotor. configurations.1109/TIA. finite-element analysis (FEA) is employed to prove the effectiveness of the design equations. 40. NO. 1. 2004.825 for the IM. and approved for publication in the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS by the Electric Machines Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society. Madison. and stator. This paper will derive design equations and a design procedure for such slotted.827444 • high efficiency. Design guidelines will be given to achieve design objectives. torque density. the proposed design method is used to design an actual prototype. Finally. 3.001 94 N m/cm for a 5-hp interior PM (IPM) machine). The analysis of parameter effects on machine performance. II. • high torque density. slotted. IEEE. Radial-Flux. permanent magnets. will be included as well.2004. A.001 51 N m/cm for an induction motor (IM) and 0.edu). toroidally wound. MAY/JUNE 2004 771 Design and Parameter Effect Analysis of Dual-Rotor. VOL.ge. permanent-magnet (RFTPM) machine—has been proven in a previous paper to be able to improve the machine efficiency and boost the torque density. The cross section is depicted in Fig. October 12–16. In addition. Its principle of operation. Dual-rotor.004 32 N m/cm from the 3-hp RFTPM prototype versus 0. WI 53706 USA (e-mail: lipo@engr. DESIGN EQUATIONS This section will give the key design equations for a dual-rotor. surface-mounted. which closely match the design specifications. and 0. Digital Object Identifier 10. 2. Lipo. surface-mounted RFTPM machine shown in Fig. verify the effectiveness of the design equations. presented at the 2003 Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting. University of Wisconsin.00 © 2004 IEEE . R. Fixed Parameters Many unknown parameters are involved in the design of the RFTPM machines. 2003 and released for publication January 24. The features of the dual-rotor RFTPM machines are summarized as the following: • greatly shortened end windings. A. toroidally wound. Experimental measurements of a prototype. This paper will present the key design equations and design procedure of the RFTPM machines. and verify if the machine can survive under the short-circuit fault. Toroidally Wound. This work was supported by the Wisconsin Electrical Machines and Power Electronics Consortium (WEMPEC). 1. find the machine overload capability. permanent-magnet (RFTPM) machine. Lipo is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. permanent-magnet (RFTPM) machine—was proposed in [1]. Paper IPCSD 04–002. Fellow. • low-cost techniques available to reduce cogging torque. Manuscript submitted for review July 15. toroidally wound. slotted. the design equations are separated into two portions: one is for the internal portion of rotors.88 for the IPM). Since this topology has two air gaps. RFPM machine structure. UT. radial-flux. Qu is with the GE Global Research Center. NY 12309 USA (e-mail: qur@research. 1. analyze parameter effects on machine performance. radial-flux.IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. toroidally wound. and then determine the remaining as part of the design. and give design guidelines to achieve specific design objectives. permanent-magnet (PM) machine design.wisc. The experimental measurements. I. In order to provide a solution to this problem. • high ratio of diameter to length. radial-flux. it is necessary to assign some fixed values. while the efficiency is still kept high (0. Three low-cost techniques were proposed and proven to be valid to reduce the cogging torque. Member. The fixed parameters will be further explored in Sections V and VI based on a few different purposes. T.com. and material costs. The high torque density of the RFTPM prototype was reported (0. As a result. and Thomas A. 0. finite-element analysis is employed to prove the effectiveness of the design equations and find the machine overload capability. which match the design specifications well. Fig. Niskayuna. In addition. Index Terms—Parameter effect analysis. and the other is for the external portion.871 for the RFTPM. Salt Lake City. such as efficiency. verify the effectiveness of the design equations. • low material costs. RFTPM machines shown in Fig. Improvement of these features has been one of the main aspects of research on the electric machines in the last several decades. INTRODUCTION H IGH TORQUE density and high efficiency are two of the most desirable features for an electrical machine. ronghaiqu@ieee.

the back-iron width rotor or the shaft radius and the inner radius of the inner can now be written as (5) and may vary depending on the design purpose. which will be adjusted later to meet the power or torque requirement when the overall torque or power output is available. 40. and (2) (3) . (6) where the outer radius of the inner rotor to the inner radius of the inner air gap thickness. 3. Inner Portion Design Assume initially that the inner radius of the inner air gap. Geometry of the inner rotor and magnets. 3. the only unknown is can be iterative methods. 2 is known. [4] (4) Then. The inner magnet thickness. VOL. in which the air-gap leakage flux is considered Fig. B. which where can be estimated using an analytical equation [2]. Cross section of a dual-rotor. TABLE I FIXED PARAMETERS (1) is the circumferential length between two inner magwhere is the inner magnet circumferential length. machine winding information. is the nets. can be found from (1) [2]. speed. . effective inner air gap. etc. electrical and magnetic loadings. 3. RFTPM machine. slotted. The inner stator tooth width is given by is directly related by the magnet (7) is the inner air-gap leakage flux coefficient. which can be solved by In (1). MAY/JUNE 2004 Fig. 2. NO.772 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. They include machine power or torque. [4] or from . The inner magnet working point calculated from the geometric parameters given above using (4) [2]. shown in Fig. Table I gives a list of the fixed parameters used in the proposed design approach. shown in Fig.

FEA results. the stator yoke flux density found the estimation of using (11) has to be compared with the desired value. 5. current. Equations (1)–(11) describe the machine geometric sizes and flux distribution. and Equation (11) gives the calculated stator core flux density. C. DESIGN PROCEDURE AND FLOWCHART The design procedure and flowchart is shown in Fig. efficiency. If they do not match each other well. is known. RFTPM MACHINES 773 Fig. the inner radius of the outer rotor is the sum of and . convenient to assume the outer radius of the outer air gap is depicted in Fig. Design flowchart. Equations (1)–(3) . 4. [5]. respectively. those equations are omitted in this paper. Outer Portion Design The outer portion shares some common parameters with internal portion: the slot number . is the slot number. this loop needs to run 2–4 times. by simply replacing the subscript 1 using 2. . and weights can be calculated. material volumes. back electromotive force (EMF). can be used to find the outside magnet thickness. current density . and weights are easily found using the PM machine theory [3]. the equations in Section II-B can be mating the radius evaluated. peated based on the refined According to the researcher’s experience. III. Then. The difference between the value of (11) and the desired one in . losses. for inner and outer air gaps. 5. the outer part design should be reuntil they match each other. respectively.QU AND LIPO: DESIGN AND PARAMETER EFFECT ANALYSIS OF DUAL-ROTOR. Fig. Therefore. Table I directs the designer to adjust the initial value of which forms the inner loop in the design flowchart shown in Fig. Once the outer part design is completed based on . and inductance of the phase can be obtained and the performance of losses. the outer radius of the outer rotor must be (10) The designed stator core flux density is now ready to be calculated as (11) where is the stator yoke thickness. not through the back iron. Based on these parameters and keeping in mind that the inner windings are in series with the outside one. Geometry of the outer rotor and magnets. and is the angular slot pitch in mechanical radians. After that. Another loop is to make sure the power output . efficiency. and the . as well. the outer rotor back-iron width is found to be (9) Then. Then. which stands for the outer rotor variables. the inner slot cross-sectional area available for conductors must be (8) where is the copper filling factor. the machine power output. Given the current density and electrical load are and . it is slot area . is the stator inner/outer pole pitch. Similar to (5). and are the factors of the leakage flux traveling from shoe to shoe. After esti. [6]. 4. resistance. The inner radius of the stator core is now easily found based the slot shape. To begin the outer design work. The first step in designing a machine is to specify the input data needed in the process as per the design objective. Both matches the desired one by adjusting the radius loops can be automatically finished by a computer program. the stator outer radius easily found from the given outside air gap . material volumes. 5.

7 demonstrates the torque variation with the armature current. The armature reaction can be observed comparing Fig. The magnet flux density must . Short-Circuit Protection It is well known that PMs must be protected against reverse fields exceeding some value .7-mm air gaps. and inner/outer electrical loading 200/159 A/cm. 120 Hz. The inner magnets were designed to have the “loaf” shape to reduce the magnet manufacture cost. the leakage flux factors may need to be updated to calculate the flux distribution more accurately. 40. In addition. this completes the design of a machine. and build confidence. It clearly shows the strong overload capability. 6. finite-element method (FEM) analysis may be necessary to verify the analytical result. This work will be done in Sections V and VI. but may not be the optimal one since the input data have the significant effect on the motor and they have not been analyzed. eight poles. IV. Flux density distribution. find the machine overload capability. Overload Capability Overload capability is another important machine parameter. MAY/JUNE 2004 TABLE II COMPARISON OF THE DESIGNED AND FEA RESULTS Fig.2 T at 100 C for currently available value of Nd–Fe–B materials [6]. FEAS The FEA method is employed in this section to verify the effectiveness of the design equations. One of the main reasons to cause the magnet demagnetizing is the short-circuited current. This is mainly caused by the leakage flux in the screw holes punched on the stator lamination to fix the stator. Overload capability. However. C. The motor designed by this procedure should be quite causational. which is lower than the designed value by about 15%. 6 shows the flux distributions at full load and no load for a 3-hp slotted dual-rotor RFTPM motor with 0. and verify if the machine can survive under the short-circuit fault. the third loop will be formed by backing to the beginning with the necessary adjustment of the input data. The effect of the stator field on the magnet is to increase its flux density on the leading edge and decreases it . 3. which has not been considered in the equations in Section II.82 the rated torque. When 3 the rated current is fed. if the designer is not satisfied with the performance. Usually. Flux Distribution Fig. A. although it is as weak as expected. which is 1.31 the rated torque will be produced. which is usually a few times the rated armature current. The input data to be analyzed include parameters such as the magnetic loading. current density 551 A/cm . 7. VOL. The torque almost linearly increases as the current increases before it reaches 2 the rated current. electrical loading. NO. the not be reduced below a certain value of is about 0. The design data are: 1800 r/min. Short-period overload capability is very desirable for some applications. refine the leakage flux factors. fine tune it.884. Fig. the flux density discrepancy. Based upon the FEM analysis. 6(a) and (b) or from Table II. The torque associated with 2 rated current is 23. The comparison shown in Table II demonstrates that all the design values well match the measurements except the stator core flux density.87 N m. 2. Typically. efficiency 0. B.774 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. and the main aspect ratio. The slot leakage flux. The surface-mounted PM machines have high overload capability achieved by taking more current due to the low armature reaction. also has a contribution to Fig.

the magnets still can Compared with the survive from the short circuit with a little range of safety. note that the values of the aspect ratio for the maximum torque density vary slightly with the pole number. Fig. Fig. A. Torque density versus the ratio of D to L . and Figs. 10. For the example shown in these plots. value 0. 1800 r/min. on the lagging edge. The main machine parameters are: three phases. Fig. and weight. Fig. an aspect ratio of 0. FEM analysis can simulate this situation by simply signing the short-circuited current to the windings. 9. A/cm . ANALYSES OF PARAMETER EFFECTS ON MACHINE PERFORMANCE This section will analyze the parameter effects on machine main performance based on the equations derived in Section II. Efficiency versus the ratio of D to L . V. material cost.05 T) than those in the outer magnets (0. . In addition. Machine weight versus the ratio of D to L . . Under an assumption that the leakage fluxes at both ends of the machine are negligible.5–1. If it is desired to increase the safety range. 9–12 illustrate that the aspect ratio is one of the main parameters to be optimized. some examples to show the parameter effects on machine performance will be demonstrated in this section.09 T) since the magnet thickness outside is a little smaller than the inside ones. 9–12 show the effect of the pole number and the main asof machine inner stator diameter to length pect ratio on machine efficiency. 8 shows the vector (the flux density) distribution in the motor cross-sectional area during a short circuit (6 the rated current). Also. Ferrite magnets are employed. It has also been found that the approach to increase the ratio of the leakage to magnetizing inductance is helpful [6]. B vector distribution in the motor cross-sectional area at the short-circuited current. Aspect Ratio and Pole Number Figs. and weight. material cost and weight are all strongly a function of the aspect ratio. material cost.QU AND LIPO: DESIGN AND PARAMETER EFFECT ANALYSIS OF DUAL-ROTOR. The amplitudes of the reversed fluxes are smaller in the inner magnets (0.5 can achieve the best torque density with reasonable efficiency. RFTPM MACHINES 775 Fig. torque density. Efficiency. 12. a longer air gap or a larger magnet can be a choice. 3-hp. respectively. torque density. T. 8. 11. Material cost per horsepower versus the ratio of D to L . Fig. A/cm.2 T. The four areas circled by black dashed lines are the areas where the fluxes are opposite to that driven by the magnets.

the power supply frequency increases as the pole number increases. 19 shows that the highest torque of 0. On the contrary. or material cost for a given torque density. not by density is achieved by the curve with .3 were used based on Figs. have the efficiency . 10 shows that the torque density is enhanced by doubling the pole number. 17. 3. Efficiency versus the electric load and current density. 13. They are obtained using a ceramic magnet. It can be foreseen that the torque density will decrease when the pole number is so high that the leakage flux effect is dominant. Magnetic Loading The magnetic loading again plays a major role in PM machine designs. VOL. E. 13 decreases as the penalty of electrical loading and current density increases. D. as shown in Fig. When the pole number is small.322 from the magnet residual flux density original 0. the iron losses increase as well and the efficiency decreases. Fig. Point E can achieve the lowest material cost shown in Fig. one of the ferrites. the efficiency depicted in Fig. 14. therefore. Although the efficiency shown in Fig. both stator and rotor cores are large and decrease quickly as the pole number increases. Thus. The air-gap flux density and the angular width of each magnet may vary from motor to motor. the goal may be to optimize the efficiency. The curves of the material cost and overall machine weight to are shown in Figs. C. and material cost also differ. eight poles and an aspect ratio of 1. Electrical Loading and Current Density The electrical loading and current densities are important elements to be optimized in machine design. Fig. weight. However. 40. on the five different curves of 297. Points A. 9. C. Thus. Which point to be selected is dependent upon the design purpose. B. It is common knowledge that the torque density will increase as either electrical loading or current density increases. However. so that the machine torque density increases. The highest torque density can be obtained by selecting different points that have the same efficiency but on the different curves of electrical loading. B. 363. 16.4 T to represent the temperature effect. 15. plots cited in this section will demonstrate this influence. 18 monotonously increses as the more magnet material is used. 17. Torque density versus the electric load and current density. and electrical loading. 13–17. and 396 A/cm. point B has the highest torque density of all shown in Fig. 11 and 12. shown in Fig. In addition. etc. This is the combined effects of the stator and rotor core thicknesses and the air-gap leakage flux. This implies that more cooling capability is required due to the higher power losses per unit air gap shown in Fig. the material cost and the overall weight decrease as well.25 T. the design goal may become to achieve the highest torque density for a given efficiency . NO. For the constant speed (1800 r/min for this case). The selection of the magnetic loading still remains a task. 13. Material cost versus the electric load and current density.776 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. 14. which is shown in Fig. or a pound number of the weight. 9–12. MAY/JUNE 2004 the curves may have different shapes for different speeds. efficiency. while point A possesses the lightest weight shown in Fig. the leakage flux increases faster and faster. respectively. In the curves in Figs. magnetic loading. The is reduced to 0. versus the aspect ratio of The ripples in these curves and in those in the following plots are caused by the discontinuity of the conductor number per slot. and 264. the increase of the torque density becomes slower as the pole number increases. however. and the resultant torque density. 15 and the lowest power losses per unit air gap shown in Fig. 14 for a constant-power machine. while the difference between two adjacent curves decreases as the pole number increases. Fig. Several Fig. 330. the torque density is not in the same situation. Fig. When the pole number is large. For example.

It is helpful to note that the different design processes may be needed to achieve the different design purposes. Torque density versus B and . Fig. 17. 20. the magnet-tothe magnet angle . 1. density.95. Meanwhile. It also Fig. Fig. 21. Material cost per horsepower versus B and . Fig. 22. and 1. 18. When magnet leakage flux increases quickly so that the increasing T. the lowest material torque density slows.QU AND LIPO: DESIGN AND PARAMETER EFFECT ANALYSIS OF DUAL-ROTOR.9. Fig. Machine weight versus B and . those with the flux densities having a scaling factor of 0. Machine weight versus the electric load and current density. 19. Power losses per unit air gap versus the electric load and current Fig. a design guideline is proposed and shown in Fig. Design Guideline To consider the six variables discussed in this section in the design process. . the magnet working point (flux density) are slightly different for the inner and outer magnets. 20 and the lighest weight in is approximately 70 –75 . 16. RFTPM MACHINES 777 Fig. D. 0.1. 21 are achieved when has been noted that to obtain the maximum torque density. Efficiency versus B and .05. the torque density increases with is close to 90 . For cost per horsepower shown in Fig.

trapezoidal phase current 9. torque 11. output torque 11. single-layer. VII. In order to lower the labor cost. full-pitch. some design guidelines to achieve the design objectives were given.78 N m. In each design step shown in Fig. 23(a). PROTOTYPE DESIGN AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS An RFTPM prototype motor was designed using the derived equations and the design guidelines with the following ratings. Design flowchart including the effects of the aspect ratio. speed 1800 r/min. output power 2. VI. Concentrated. rms. dc-bus voltage 380 V.15 A. Dual-rotor RFTPM prototype.8% when the machine is cold and 11. phase current 7. Given the tradeoff study in Section V-A. electric. VOL.1% at the steady state. toroidal windings distributing in 24 slots were employed. In addition. The FEA . These results prove the validity of the derived design equations and the proposed design procedure. 22. in which the dc-bus voltage and phase current were selected to be suitable for 600-V 25-A insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs): power 3 hp. The main design objective is to achieve the maximum torque density while keeping 87% efficiency. NO. efficiency 87%. TABLE III MAIN PHYSICAL SIZES OF THE PROTOTYPE (UNIT: CENTIMETERS) parallel sides rather than strict arc segments. 5 has to be run several times to reach the optimal point. Both the steady-state values well match the design ones. Thus.4 T and the temperature coefficient of is 0.98 hp.1 A.778 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS.20 %/ C.87 N m. Analyses of parameter effects on machine performance have been made. this design process has to be repeated with the updated initials until all the optimal results from each step well match the initial conditions of the others. the electric and magnetic parameters were set to Fig. The results from the previous step should be used as the next step initial conditions. MAY/JUNE 2004 Fig. efficiency 87. ceramic magnets (also known as ferrite) are used. the magnets are designed with A cm A cm A cm T T T T The main machine physical sizes are summarized in Table III. peak. Following the design procedure and guidelines shown in Figs. The results of the last step usually do not match the initially assumed conditions used in the first step. respectively. as shown in Fig. and magnetic loadings. To keep the material cost low. eight poles and an aspect ratio of 1. 23. 22. mechanical loss 66 W.1%. More experimental results for the steady state are summarized as follows [1]. 5 and 22. while the inner magnets have a “loaf” shape.3 were selected for the prototype. pole number. The residual flux density is 0. CONCLUSION The key design equations and procedure of the RFTPM machines have been presented. copper loss 238 W.65 N m and 89. [4]: speed 1800 r/min. 40.78 N m and 87. the design flowchart in Fig. other losses 24 W. The measured prototype output torque and efficiency are 12. 3.

IEEE-IAS Annu. and the Ph. West Lafayette.S. He became a Senior Electrical Engineer at Northland. R. Madison. toroidally-wound. 2. Qu. 2507–2513. dissertation. “Analysis and modeling of airgap & zigzag leakage fluxes in a surface-mounted-PM machine.K. Univ. Madison. degrees from Tsinghua University. pp. 2002. From 1996 to 1998. He has authored 13 published technical papers and has two U. He received the B. 1998.. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Wisconsin. A. of Wisconsin.E. and in 2003. Hendershot Jr and T. radial-flux. Schenectady. Qu and T. 2002. He is a Member of Sigma Xi. [3] D. Lipo has received the 1986 Outstanding Achievement Award from the IEEE Industry Applications Society (IAS). in 1979. [4] R. [2] . + . and 1999. 2.D.” in Conf. He has received 21 IEEE Prize Paper Awards from three different IEEE Societies including Best Paper Awards for publication in the IEEE TRANSACTIONS in the years 1984. he was an Electrical Engineer in the Power Electronics Laboratory of Cooperate Research and Development of the General Electric Company. he was a faculty member of the Electrical Engineering Department. RFTPM MACHINES 779 results and the prototype measurements verify the effectiveness of the design equations and procedure. 1994. WI: Wisconsin Power Electronics Research Center. Rec. 1994.QU AND LIPO: DESIGN AND PARAMETER EFFECT ANALYSIS OF DUAL-ROTOR. in 1993 and 1996. Tsinghua University. Elect. and in 1981.” Ph. and M. NY. Lipo (M’64-SM’71-F’87) was born in Milwaukee. He became a Professor of Electrical Engineering at Purdue University. Oxford. and in 1998. Ronghai Qu (S’01–M’02) is a native of China. Qu received the President Jiang Nanxiang Award from Tsinghua University in 1992. patents. IEEE-IAS Annu. and the Ph. NY. Eng. 1994. PA. Dr. degrees from Marquette University. 2002.S. where he is presently an Electrical Engineer in the Electric Machines and Drives Laboratory. Dr. vol. WI. U. Niskayuna. respectively. Madison. Lipo. Introduction to AC Machine Design. “Dual-rotor. He has authored 400 published technical papers and is the holder of 32 U. A. he joined the Wisconsin Electric Machines and Power Electronics Consortium (WEMPEC) as a Research Assistant. Univ. toroidally-wound. surface-mounted-PM machines. in 2002. Meeting. Wisconsin. J. and the Royal Academy of Engineering (Great Britain). the 1990 William E. in 1962 and 1964. pp. and a Member of the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. including President of the IAS. Miller. patents pending and several disclosures. Brushless Permanent-Magnet Motor Design.E. vol.K. he joined the University of Wisconsin. WI. He received the Third Prize Paper Award from the Electric Machines Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society (IAS) for presentations at the 2002 IAS Annual Meeting.E. Design of Brushless PermanentMagnet Motor. a Scott Fetzer Company. radial-flux. Madison. Milwaukee.E..E. New York: McGraw-Hill. C. he joined the GE Global Research Center. 4. Newell Award of the IEEE Power Electronics Society. E.D. He is a Fellow of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. in 1968. [6] T. U. W. Co-Director of the Wisconsin Electric Machines and Power Electronics Consortium. and M. Oct. [5] J. Comput. Lipo. WI. in 2002.” in Conf. and the 1995 Nicola Tesla IEEE Field Award from the IEEE Power Engineering Society for his work. Pittsburgh. Grainger Professor for Power Electronics and Electrical Machines. permanent-magnet machines.: Magna Physics/Clarendon. PA. 1281–1288. Pittsburgh. IN.S. REFERENCES [1] R.E. vol. where he is presently the W. Madison.E. He has served the IEEE in various capacities for three IEEE Societies.S. Rec. Meeting. in the same capacity. Thomas A. and Director of the Wisconsin Power Electronics Research Center. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Wisconsin.D. Beijing. respectively. He received the B. Hanselman.E. Oct. “Design and analysis of dual-rotor. From 1969 to 1979. China. Dept.

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