World J of Engineering and Pure and Applied Sci. 2012;2 2(4):118 ):118 Agbachi et al al., 2012. Design and Analysis of Three Phase Induction Motor
Original Article Applied Sci.
Design and Analysis of Three Phase Induction Motor using Computer Program
Eugene O AGBACHI *, James G AMBAFI, Omokhafe J TOLA, Henry O OHIZE
ABSTRACT [ENGLISH/ANGLAIS [ENGLISH/ANGLAIS] ANGLAIS]
In the recent years it has been noticed that the induction motor has become the workhorse of the industrial sector of any economy. This is as a result of its easy means of construction and maintenance. Since the motor is being used for different purposes in the industries, the need to have an easy way of designing the machine arises. The basic design of an electrical machine, that is the dimensioning of the magnetic and electric circuits, is usually carried out by applying analytical equations. However, accurate performance of the machine is usually evaluated using computer aided design method. With this Computer aided design (CAD) method, the effect of a single parameter on the dynamical performance of the machine can be effectively studied by using a computer programming language. This paper presents a CAD approach (using java) in carrying out the design calculations which made the design of three phase induction easy. Keywords: CAD, java, design, parameters, accurate performance
Affiliations: Electrical & Electronics Department, Federal University of Technology Minna, NIGERIA Address for Correspondence/ Adresse pour la Correspondance: email@example.com g Accepted/Accepté: May, 2012 Citation: Agbachi EO, Ambafi JG, Tola OJ, Ohize HO. Design analysis of three phase induction motor using computer program.World Journal of Engineering and Pure and Applied Sciences 2012;2(4):11824.
RÉSUMÉ [FRANÇAIS/FRENCH] FRANÇAIS/FRENCH]
Dans les dernières années, il a été remarqué que le moteur à induction est devenue le cheval de bataille du secteur industriel de toute économie. C'est à la suite de ses moyens faciles de construction et d'entretien. Puisque le moteur est utilisé à des fins différentes dans les industries, la nécessité d'avoir un moyen facile de concevoir la machine se pose. La conception de base d'une machine électrique, qui est le dimensionnement des circuits magnétiques et électriques, est généralement effectuée en appliquant les équations d'analyse. Cependant, les performances exactes de la machine est généralement évaluée en utilisant la méthode de conception assistée par ordinateur. Avec cette conception assistée par ordinateur (CAO) la méthode, l'effet d'un seul paramètre sur la performance dynamique de la machine peut être efficacement étudiées en utilisant un langage de programmation informatique. Cet article présente une approche CAO (en utilisant java) dans la réalisation des calculs de conception qui ont fait la conception de trois phase d'induction facile. Mots-clés: CAD, java, la conception, les paramètres, les performances exactes
With the recent trend in Technology, most lengthy calculations and simulation of circuits are done with the use of computer programs designed to serve different purposes. Examples of such programs include Matlab, C++, java, etc. Computer aided design (CAD) is the use of computer to assist in design processes. Specialised software packages exist for various types of design: architectural, engineering, electronics, highways and woven fabrics to mention but a few. It is generally possible to generate engineering drawings that gives detailed information on the final design to be constructed. CAD is also the modelling of physical systems on Computer, allowing both interactive and automatic analysis of design
variants and the expression of design in a form suitable for manufacturing . All CAD systems have potentials that could lead to many important benefits for organizations. For example, CAD systems can reduce the length of the product development cycle and improve relationships with both vendors and customers. Many literatures provide many descriptions of CAD applications that have helped to reduce the product development time [2, 3]. A shorter design cycle makes companies to respond more quickly to competitive challenges, incorporate newer technology into products, and charge higher prices for special features . Three phase induction motor finds its application in almost all facets of life and thus its demand is high and it is thus advisable to design a program that aids in the
© Research | Reviews | Publications, 2011 http://www.rrpjournals.com/
Bav × π DL P ac × π D 3× 2
Output Equation We have to relate the output of the machine with its main dimensions. P = No.
= Pole pitch=(πD)/P. Frequency in Hz .5).44 × K w × f × φ × Tph × I ph × 10−3
by the relation:
If the rating is given in HP or KW.
Equation (11) is the output equation of an induction motor. Design and Analysis of Three Phase Induction Motor
the parameters required for the Cos Φ=Full load power factor
construction in order to save time and reduce the errors associated with the analytical method. Calculation of the Main Dimensions The armature diameter D (or stator core) and stator core length L. D = Armature diameter or stator bore diameter. L = Stator core length in meter.com/
. are known as the main dimensions.ISSN 2249-0582
World J of Engineering and Pure and Applied Sci. Java is a general purpose. 2011 http://www.746 η × Cosφ
KW η × Cosφ
Total flux in the airgap Area of flux path in the airgap pφ = π DL specific magnetic loading (Bav) =
Specific electric loading
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Design Specifications The main specifications for the design of a three phase induction motor are: rated output power in H. Full load Current.from (. It is intended to let application developers “Write once.
From equation (.p.
HP × 0.(induced
emf/phase = applied voltage/phase) = Current per phase. Speed in rpm. ns=Synchronous Speed in r. Power factor.
ф = Flux per pole in the air gap.11× π K w × Bav × ac × 10
D2 L =
KVA C0 ns
C0 1. The program shall be presented in a graphical user interface (GUI). Of poles.p or KW. Of turns per phase.rrpjournals. 8].4). Type: Squirrel cage rotor or wound rotor [7.2 2(4):119 ):119 Agbachi et al. object-oriented language that is specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible . Kw=Winding Factor Bav=Average value of flux density in the airgap ac =Ampere conductor per meter of the armature periphery. Efficiency.Let us use the following nomenclature: Also. In this work we basically are concerned with the computer aided design of three phase induction motor using Java programming language since the analytical process is time consuming and so laborious.we convert it to KVA
Tph × I ph =
E ph I ph Tph
Substitute (7) and (8) into (1) gives: = Induced emf per phase in volts. The reason for our choice of java as a programming language is because it is robust. it also allows the programmer to create controls and then write codes for each control so that it could be executed at the press of a command button . Voltage in volts. concurrent. Run anywhere” .
KVA rating of a three phase induction motor is given by:
KVA = 3 × E ph × I ph × 10−3
KVA = 3 × 4. The language used for the development of this software is Java.s η = Efficiency. class-based. secure and portable.. Design Equations The design -was derived as follows:
Total armature ampere conductor Armature at the airgap = 3×2×Iph ×Tph
f = PN s Pns = 120 2
Also. al 2012.
D2 L =
KVA C0 ns
in m3 which is also the volume
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Rotor Design (17) Rotor Slots The first and most important thing to do here is to select the number of rotor slots in relation to the number of stator slots already selected.cross-sectional area of each conductor is
(19) δs= Current density of stator conductor usually
Rotor Bar Current If rotor mmf = 0.
It is advisable to design the three phase induction motor for best operating power factor . To obtain the best power factor in an induction motor the following relationship can be assumed between D and L.85 stator mmf. Number of rotor bars ( (
assumed between 3-5 A/mm2.18/ Pole pitch Or Where The Slot pitch.4.44 K ws f φm
Ts is number of stator turns. 2011 http://www.135 P ( L)
Area of Conductor Approximate area per slot = Copper section per slot/Space factor
Peripheral Velocity The peripheral velocity construction. Stator Slot
Nb ) =
Number of rotor slots
). Design and Analysis of Three Phase Induction Motor
g= number of slots per pole per phases..OPEN ACCESS
World J of Engineering and Pure and Applied Sci. The number of rotor slot per pole is expressed as :
Z ss =
Number of conductors per slot
3 × 2 × Ts Ss
D = 0. AIRGAP LENGTH
φ = Bav × π DL P
Es = 4. al 2012. where Stator Calculation Turns per phase Flux per pole
v = π Dn
Z ss as Space factor
where n is in rps.rrpjournals.44 K ws f φmTs
Lg = 0. then:
= number of stator slot.2 2(4):120 ):120 Agbachi et al. 2012.
where Kws is the stator winding factor.18 L (π D P)
Hence internal diameter of stator. P = the number of poles.
Stator current per phase (18)
KVA × 1000 3 × Es
Rotor slot pitch =
Where S2 is the number of rotor slot.
Therefore Stator winding turns per phase is :
is in mm
Es 4.2 + 2( DL)
Stator voltage per phase.25 to 0. v should not exceed 30m/sec for normal
Where space factor varies from 0.
Yss = Yss
is between 15-25mm
Total number of stator winding conductors = 3×2× Ts (22)
(π D ) P = 0. = 2MgP (20)
Rotor mmf Stator mmf
Ib × Sr
= 3 × I s × Ts
Where M = The number of phases
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For a double lap winding. Pole pitch/ Core length = 0.com/
85(6 I sTs S r )
0. Gross core length L = 140mm. al 2012.26mm.000 A/m. some parameters were derived equations 139. Thickness of end ring te = 10. Specific electric loading ac = 23. CAD Method This method which involves the use of computer in design processes. (1.021+lb) m2 /Abmm2 (35) Supply Frequency f = 50Hz.3mm. Full load power factor = 0.
is the rotor bar current.
Where: δb= Current density. Rotor winding factor Kwr = 1.2 2(4):121 ):121 Agbachi et al.021× I me Ae I me
is in m and
in mm2. Specific magnetic loading Bav = 0.59mm. which aid in the design of three phase induction motor. provides a GUI platform in which the
=mean diameter of end ring between 4 – 6
cm less than rotor diameter.rrpjournals. Stator Winding factor Kws = 0.93 A/mm2. (36) Full load Efficiency η = 0. Number of stator slot Ss= 36. Number of rotor bars per slot Zsr = 1. This involves carrying out an analytical calculation or test using some given specifications. Current density of rotor δb = 4.. Number of poles P = 4.
I b = 0. Type of connection Δ = Delta. 2012.
(34) Previously.11. The specifications are presented as follows: The Specifications Rated Output = 10HP. Resistance of end Ring
© Research | Reviews | Publications.ISSN 2249-0582
World J of Engineering and Pure and Applied Sci. Number of rotor slots Sr = 44 Type of rotor winding = Cage. its value ranges between 4 to
Hence.11 is form factor
Area of End Rings This is given by
Where end rings current density A/mm2 Copper Losses in End Rings Mean length of the current path Where
I me = π Dme
Analytical Method The results of the analytical method using the given specifications are as shown in Table 1. (37) Stator slot per pole per phase g = 3. we calculate Length of rotor bar lb = L + Allowance for skewing.
Therefore.5mm. Stator current density δs = 3.com/
. Number of Phases m = 3. = (0. Total copper losses in the end rings is
Le = 2 × I e 2 × re
Rotor Bar Area The rotor bar area is given by:
Ab = I b δ b
7A/mm2 Copper Losses in the Rotor Bars To do this. for sine wave)
/1. Resistance per bar. Allowance for skewing = 5 to 8cm Therefore.87.45wb/m2. Winding type = Single layer mush.99A/mm2. is between 5 to 8 Length of each bar Lb = 180mm. Design and Analysis of Three Phase Induction Motor 2 = 0. total copper losses in the rotor bars =(
× number of rotor bar
End Ring Current
I e (max)
Number of rotor bars =1 ( ) I b ( av ) 2 Number of poles
I b ( av )
But for sine wave.955. Depth of end ring de = 12. Pole pitch τp = 129. Rotor diameter Dr = 164.85(3 × I s × Ts )
Ib × Sr
Therefore.87. Voltage V = 415V. 2011 http://www.
This is because these parameters are either assumed or chosen from a table of approximate values or calculated.
The CAD method when compared with the analytical method offers many advantages.. As can be seen in table 1. The CAD method is easy and avoids all sources of computational errors.2 2(4):122 ):122 Agbachi et al.
© Research | Reviews | Publications. 2011 http://www. time consuming. The variance may occur due to the fact that the analytical calculations are full of approximations. there is a slight variation in the result by the two approaches which even made the CAD method superior to the analytical method. the obtained CAD output values are
shown in Table 1.rrpjournals. Figure 1 shows the graphical user interface (GUI) of the CAD method. Using the same specifications as in the analytical method.com/
. The machine designed using the CAD method will definitely be more efficient than the one designed using analytical method. al 2012.
Figure 1: This figure shows
the GUI platform for CAD computation. laborious and hence very prone to errors when compared to the computer aided design method.OPEN ACCESS
World J of Engineering and Pure and Applied Sci. This can be seen in the losses and resistances offered by both machine conductors. Design and Analysis of Three Phase Induction Motor
design specifications can be provided to generate the desired output. These slight differences are however negligible and most times they do not have significant effect on the design. 2012. These advantages include: i. ii.
The computer aided design of three phase induction motor slightly varies in the values obtained for some parameters when compared to the analytical calculations.
2007 p. Dietel HM. The slight differences in the output result are very negligible.ISSN 2249-0582
World J of Engineering and Pure and Applied Sci. Prentice Hall 2007.1379m 7.730mm 226.375w 11.86 108.25mm2 0.0000640ohms 81. Massachusetts.1379m 7. 1999.00008315ohms 0.cadazz. Concept to Protocol of Using Computing Techniques. Computers in Mechanical Engineering 1984. 7th Edition.  Calkins DE. 2008.47w  1500 25 9.31 0. How to Program.com/
. Liang D.
It is concluded that in this research work it is seen from the analytical calculations carried out and the computer aided design method used that there are a slight differences in the results obtained when compared.36A 128.00008300ohms 0.22 7.25mm2 0.2 86. Introduction to Java Programming.06w 11. Upper Saddle River. 2011 http://www.108ohms 396.1625m 0..9209mwb 247. 1987. Proceedings of the Institute for Mechanical Engineers Conference on Effective CADCAM ‘87/Towards Integration.
  CAD software history.3497m 0.2 2(4):123 ):123 Agbachi et al. Ishimaru J.85A 45.918mwb 247. It can be concluded that both methods gave almost the same
Table 1: This table shows both analytical results and CAD results Induction Motor Parameter Analytical results Computer aided design results Stator Output Output
The revolution per minute The revolution per seconds The power in KVA is The Coefficient Co is The value of D2L is The value of D is The value of L is The flux per pole is Turns per phase Stator current Area of each conductor Stator slots Conductors per slots Area per slot Air gap length Slot pitch Stator Resistance Stator copper loss Rotor Rotor Slot pitch Rotor bar current Rotor bar area End ring current End ring area Resistance per bar Resistance in the end ring End ring losses Copper losses in the rotor bar Total losses in the rotor bar 1500 25 9. Finally. the product final performance is better in the computer aided design than the analytical method and the computer aided design is less time consuming and highly recommended. al 2012. the analytical method past through some long and tedious process of arriving at the final design parameters which were error prone hence resulted in slight differences. Computer Graphics and Animation Come to Ship Designing.40w Robertson DC.11ohms 397.916A 2.31 0.
© Research | Reviews | Publications.
The time spent in computation is much less than the time spent using analytical method. Java.2-7.
result.014180m 2.014182m 2.60w 188. Allen TJ.46mm2 794. Pearson Prentice Hall.46mm2 794. Retrieved from www. Comprehensive Version.3497m 0.19A 128. but.86A 45. USA.01mm2 36 41.com/cad-software-history.125 7. 2012.htm . Bull RJ.01mm2 36 41.92A 2.733mm 226. Massachusetts  Institute of Technology. Design and Analysis of Three Phase Induction Motor
iii.19 0.91 0.27w 269. 6th Edition. Evaluating the Use of CAD Systems in Mechanical Design Engineering.0036414m3 0. p.3:33-42.rrpjournals.86 108.13w 188.491–521.003640m3 0.00006431ohms 81.1625m 0.  Dietel PJ.31w 269.
2007. New Delhi.rrpjournals.553–660.rrpjournals. Research | Reviews | Publications and its journals have so many unique features such as rapid and quality publication of excellent articles. New Jersey 08854. Design of Electrical Machines.com/ .2005. S.K Kataria and Sons. al 2012.com/InstructionsForAuthors.rrpjournals. 2011 http://www. except in the rear cases where we are unable to find the appropriate reviewer on time Manuscripts are hardly rejected without first sending them for review.OPEN ACCESS
World J of Engineering and Pure and Applied Sci.Pp.. Fourth Edition.html . Design and Analysis of Three Phase Induction Motor
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT / SOURCE OF SUPPORT
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