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PREPARED BY

Ahmed

mohamed Abdullah Refaat Galal Abol Fotoh Nader Ali Fahim Hesham Ahmed Abo-zaid Yahia Ali Shawky

CONTENTS

Introduction Well

Modelling Fundamentals Setting up a well model PVT Modelling IPR modelling VLP modelling VLP / IPR matching and model validation Conclusions

**PETEX (PETROLEUM EXPERTS)
**

Started business @ 1990 in the UK

Developing a set of petroleum engineering software

tools.

model oil reservoirs, production and injection wells and surface pipeline networks as an integrated production system.

SOFTWARE PACKAGES .

The Reservoir.IPM PACKAGE The engineer is able to design complex field models. having been matched for production history. Wells and Complete Surface Systems model. . will accurately optimize the entire network and run predictions.

IPM PACKAGE GAP PVTP PROSPER IPM REVEAL MBAL .

wells and surface pipeline production and injection system. . MBAL package contains the classical reservoir engineering tool. that include the reservoirs.IPM PACKAGE GAP enables the engineer to build representative field models. using analytical techniques to analyze the fluid dynamics in the reservoir.

. The tuned EoS can then be used to simulate a range of reservoir and production processes.IPM PACKAGE PVTP allows tuning of Equations of State (EoS) to match laboratory data. Thermal and chemical effects are modeled rigorously. REVEAL is a specialized reservoir simulator modeling near well bore effects including mobility and infectivity issues. which impact equipment sizing and reservoir recovery.

PROSPER PROSPER is designed to allow the building of reliable and consistent well models Design and optimize well completion Tubing size Artificial lift method IPR model .

CONTENTS Introduction Well Modelling Fundamentals Setting up a well model IPR modelling VLP modelling VLP / IPR matching and model validation Conclusions .

WELL MODELLING FUNDAMENTALS Well modelling defines the pressure/rate relationship to facilitate: Well design Predicting well performance Identify well performance sensitivity to changes in operating parameters or design Involves: PVT Wellbore IPR Nodal Analysis .

completion design optimisation and productivity improvement opportunities. .Well Modelling Fundamentals Nodal Analysis It is the methodology used in well modelling to analyse the performance of a multi-component system Objectives are to: Quantify total pressure loss as a function of rate Quantify components within total pressure loss Identify bottlenecks to flow Optimise system design and operation given constraint Address specific well issues such as Artificial lift. Important: Nodal analysis assumes a steady state and does not allow transient flow behaviour. well load up.

Well Modelling Fundamentals Common Nodes used in Nodal Analysis .

system can be solved to determine solution node pressure at a given rate .Well Modelling Fundamentals Fundamental Concept INFLOW P? OUTFLOW Qout P Qin P Solution node • Pressure defined at start and end nodes • Solution node can be any intermediate position where pressure must be calculated • Components upstream of solution node determine INFLOW performance • Components downstream of solution node determine OUTFLOW performance • For system continuity Qin = Qout and pressures must be equal • From above.

Well Modelling Fundamentals Top Node Bottom Node Solution Node Comments Wellhead Wellhead Separator Separator Separator Reservoir Reservoir Reservoir Reservoir Wellhead Mid-perf Wellhead Wellhead Choke Manifold Separates IPR from VLP To match given test data Separates well-reservoir from surface Combines choke effect with well-reservoir Concentrating on Network modelling with known contribution from well(s) ESP. etc To establish artifical lift reqirements WH Choke Gauge Depth . GL.

CONTENTS Introduction Well Modelling Fundamentals Setting up a well model PVT modelling IPR modelling VLP modelling VLP / IPR matching and model validation Conclusions .

Reservoir and available near-wellbore data (reservoir pressure & temperature. etc). etc. phase ratios. together with any recent work-over info/data Fluid data (PVT reports or existing PVT model) Complete production test data (recent as well historical sets) comprising of rates.SETTING UP A WELL MODEL What information do you need? Completion diagram / tally and directional survey data. permeability and rel perm. PI. . skin. FBHP/downhole gage pressure. end pressures.

PDSV) PUSV P7 = (Pwf .Pwf = Loss in porous medium = Loss across completion = Loss across restriction = Loss across safety valve = Loss across surface choke = Loss in flowline = Total loss in tubing = Total loss in flowline = Total loss in reservoir / completion Pwf P2 = (Pwfs .Psep) Gas Sales Line Separator PDSC Surface choke P5 = (Pwh .Psep P7 = Pwf .PDR) Bottom hole restriction PDR PUR P1 = Pr .Pwf) Pwfs P1 = (Pr .Pwf) Pr Pe .Psep) Pwh P6 = (PDSC .Pwfs P2 = Pwfs .Pwh P8 = Pwh .Pwf P3 = PUR .PDSV P6 = PDSC .Psep P9 = Pr .PDSC) PDSV Psep Liquid Stock Tank To Sales P4 = (PUSV .Well Modelling Fundamentals Sources of pressure loss in a production system P8 = (Pwh .Pwfs) P9 = (Pr .PDR P4 = PUSV .Pwh) P3 = (PUR .PDSV P5 = Pwh .

. Reservoir data dates consistent with the production test dates.SETTING UP A WELL MODEL Pre-processing data Completion data consistent with directional survey and other work-over info. Fluid data/PVT model consistent with other wells and formation info. Production test data complete and consistent with current well performance.

SETTING UP A WELL MODEL System Summary Screen Define fluid type and PVT method (i. annular or 3. black oil or equation of state model) Can model up to 5 stages for comp modelling Specify type of temperature modelling Select 1.e. tubing or 2. tubing AND annular Reservoir connection options ‟ influence later inflow options Information only Specify whether a single well or multilateral Useful repository for well test and model information .

1178 – 1.59 – 0.3 – 48.226 1.511 – 1.0 – 2199 90 – 2637 217 – 1406 200 – 1200 100 – 258 82 – 272 75 – 294 80 – 280 114 – 288 180 – 290 16.9 – 51.7 – 1.95 0.0 20 – 1425 3 – 2905 0.028 – 2.1 16.65 – 1.5 22.351 0.5 – 63.0 25 – 40 0.3 – 45.2 – 2.588 1.3 – 59.22 0.106 76 – 150 125 N/A N/A .0 265 – 465 15 – 605 60 – 565 415 N/A N/A 100 36 .15 N/A 1.276 0.Setting up a well model Black Oil Correlations can be selected based on the applicability of the test range of the data in question: PVT Property Standing Lasater VazquezBeggs 15 – 6055 GlasØ PetroskyFarshad 1574 – 6523 Macary (Pb) Bubble-point Pressure (psia) (Bo) Bubble-Point Oil FVF (rb/stb) (GOR or Rs) Gas/Oil Ratio (scf/stb) Reservoir Temperature (ºF) Stock Tank Oil Gravity (ºAPI) Gas Specific Gravity (air = 1) Separator Pressure (psia) Separator Temperature (ºF) 130 – 7000 48 – 5780 165 – 7142 1200 – 4600 1.85 0.1 15.622 1.8 17.574 – 1.024 – 2.087 – 2.5781 – 0.

CONTENTS Introduction PVT Fundamentals Well Modelling Fundamentals Setting up a well model PVT Modelling IPR modelling VLP modelling VLP / IPR matching and model validation Conclusions .

If PVT matching data absent or sparse use correlation which has proved appropriate in offset wells / fields Use corrected PVT data to tune the selected PVT correlations .SETTING UP A WELL MODEL PVT Model Tuning Select PVT correlations relevant to the given fluids.

SETTING UP A WELL MODEL PVT Summary • PVT modelling involves: – Gathering quality test data – Convert Diff Lib data to flash conditions if required (correction) – Selecting appropriate correlation/EoS. – Generating PVT properties at all pressure-temperature combinations encountered in flow stream. • • • There is no substitute for quality test data. – Tuning selected correlation/EoS. which is quite often incorrectly accounted for by adjusting flow correlations. inaccurate temperature modelling can have a profound effect on PVT – often neglected . Note that in gas condensate wells. Incorrect PVT model has detrimental effect on IAM modelling.

Setting up a well model STEP 1: BASIC PVT DATA INPUT Basic Data Input from PVT report. DST testing (may sometimes be all that is available) .

SETTING UP A WELL MODEL Step 2: PVT Match Data Input Match Data input from PVT report – use only flash corrected data. Normally enter as much data as possible to optimise correlation matching .

Setting up a well model STEP 3: MATCHING PVT CORRELATIONS TO REAL PVT DATA PVT correlations are empirically derived mathematical fits of real experimental data Correlations approximate real fluid behaviour – some more suitable than other for certain fluid systems Matching is a regression process which reduces the error between correlation and PVT data User can specify which gas properties it is critical to match (to reflect possible uncertainty in input data accuracy Parameter 1 and 2 statistics provide match quality and correlation predictive reliability – Parameter 1 is the “multiplier” which has to be applied to correlation (should be within 10% of unity) Parameter 2 is the shift .

and overall Heat Transfer coefficient (“U” value) Enter specific heats for oil. Input formation temperatures versus depth. restrictions etc down to the reservoir. Mid-perf depth is bottom depth entered. water and gas – use default Values In this example .SETTING UP A WELL MODEL Entering a physical description of the well and its subsurface environment Enter up to 18 depth pairs (measured & TVD) Include effect of any pipework from wellhead to manifold (incl choke) ID / OD and roughness of all tubing and casing.

SETTING UP A WELL MODEL Entering Deviation Survey Data Only enter minimum number of points required to describe basic shape of wellpath Tip: normally use survey points giving >5% change in inclination .

e. nearest the tree for producers) • Use “Plot” to visualise pipework layout and check for errors • Can use an “X-Y” coordinate system if required to enter more detailed pipework desciption (applicable to subsea) Manifold (or other constant pressure node in system) Surface equipment .SETTING UP A WELL MODEL Entering the Surface Equipment Description NB: • Enter UPSTREAM end TVDs for each section of pipe (i.

associated ID and roughness • Enter SSSV’s and restrictions • Casing depth where you wish pressure loss calculations to begin (typically mid perf).e.g.e.0006 in . relative to rotary table . in a subsea well Xmas tree depth may be +400 ft • Enter bottom depth of each section of same diameter tubing.SETTING UP A WELL MODEL Downhole Equipment Description Roughness Guidelines Plastic Cr Steel SS C Steel New to Old .0006 in .0060 in Notes: • Typically use drilling depth references i. • In a long perforated interval may be better to use more complex inflow model .0002 in .0018 in .

7 BTU/h/ft2/F Notes: • Enter a temperatures survey obtained from STATIC logging. based upon an Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient or U value. . or best offset data • Ensure a survey point for the bottom node in the equipment data is included.SETTING UP A WELL MODEL Geothermal Gradient Geothermal Gradient calculations enable Prosper to predict flowing wellbore temperatures from reservoir to wellhead under various scenarios. Typical Values are: Oil wells Gas wells Gas Cond wells 8 BTU/h/ft2/F 3 BTU/h/ft2/F 3.

CONTENTS Introduction PVT Fundamentals Well Modelling Fundamentals Setting up a well model IPR modelling VLP modelling VLP / IPR matching and model validation Conclusions .

deviation & drainage area Gravel Pack properties & dimensions .IPR MODELLING Fundamental Input information: Reservoir Pressure & temperature At least one stable flowing BHP and rate (ensure reservoir pressure consistent in time with FBHP if varying) GOR (oil well) / CGR (gas well) Watercut (oil well) / WGR (gas well) Theoretical vs empirical IPR models Reservoir / Completion parameters: Rock permeability & anisotropy Producing interval. perforations.

Uses pseudopressure. • C and N ~ use various “backpressure” equations to describe the Darcy and non-Darcy inflow behaviour • Petroleum Experts ~ uses a multi-phase pseudo pressure function to allow for changing gas and condensate saturations with pressure – applicable to gas condensate modelling or dry gas .IPR MODELLING IPR Fundamentals The Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) defines the pressure drawdown in a well as a function of production rate Drawdown is a complex function of PVT. permeability (absolute & relative). effective overburder etc Several IPR model available – optimum choice depends on data available and calculations required including:Gas Well PI Models • Jones ~ includes a linear (Darcy) pressure drop and a rate-squared (non-Darcy) term. better for high reservoir pressures (>2000 psi) • Backpressure. • Forcheimer.

and where the PI is already known • Vogel ~ uses an empirical correlation to account for deviation from straight line PI below bubble point • Composite ~ interpolates a Vogel IPR for oil and straight line IPR for oil as a function of watercut – useful for sensitivities on increasing watercut • Darcy ~ classic radial flow equation useful for estimating productivity from petrophysical data • Fetkovich ~ adapted from isochronal theory – gives similar results to Vogel . useful where no where no reservoir perm or skin data available.IPR MODELLING Oil Well PI Models • PI entry ~ simplest.

IPR MODELLING Defining IPR model to be used: Skin model definition Options will depend on fluid type selected in System Summary Select the “Jones” model (modified form of Darcy Equation) .

IPR MODELLING Entering IPR data Enter data in all sheets with highlighted tabs (working left to right) .

click on “Calculate” button to generate IPR plot .IPR MODELLING Entering IPR data When data entry complete.

IPR MODELLING IPR curve – gas well Static reservoir pressure Flowing bottom hole pressure (FBHP) AOF: Absolute Open Hole Flow Potential (theoretical flow potential assuming zero Backpressure) .

CONTENTS Introduction PVT Fundamentals Well Modelling Fundamentals Setting up a well model IPR modelling VLP modelling VLP / IPR matching and model validation Conclusions .

VLP MODELLING Flow Patterns/Regimes in Vertical Upward Flow BUBBLY FLOW SLUG FLOW CHURN FLOW ANNULAR FLOW COMMON FLOW REGIME IN GAS / GAS CONDENSATE WELLS .

allowing for the gravity. slip. flow regime accounted for / not accounted for „ Correlations using flow maps may give discontinuous results ‟ modern mechanistic correlations overcome this.VLP Modelling ROLE OF MULTI-PHASE FLOW CORRELATIONS „ VLP correlations predict the pressure loss in pipe.g. holdup and multiphase flow pattern in different ways e. friction and acceleration effects „ Correlations handle Slip. „ No single correlation is “best”. and comparison of the correlations is recommended to select the the optimum one for a given application .

30 & 110cp a wider range particularly for slug flows Generally obsolete Year 1961 Data Source 185' high experimental loop+field data Nominal ID 1. Fluids & Rates Air. 584 measure tests with flow pattern observations. tend to overpredict VLP in oil wells Hagedorn & Brown Petroleum Experts 1965 ? Petroleum Experts 2 Petroleum Experts 3 ? ? Petroleum Experts 4 ? 475 test data sets from 1500' deep vertical experimental well Uses the Gould et al flow map. Mukherjee & Brill attempted to improve it in 1985 Orkiszewiski 1967 Beggs & Brill 1973 GRE Gray 1978 90' long acrylic pipe with ±90 inclination changes. water & crude oils Most widely used VLP correlation . foamy heavy oils Good all round correlation.VLP MODELLING Multiphase Flow Correlations available in Prosper Author Duns & Ros Original Duns & Ros Modified Francher & Brown 1963 Field data from plastic coated tubing 1. more so for mist flows.6" with 2 annulus config. BP Mechanistic Correlation 108 well test data with 88 producing free liquids 1" to 1.5" Developed to model slug flow in pipelines but also found to be applicable to tubing Condensate up to Excellent for gas and gas-condensate wells 50b/MM & water up to but should be used with caution for higher 5b/MM with velocities WGR/CGR up to 50ft/s Correlations suitable for gas wells . better for preditcing low rate VLP Include PE2 featues with additional features for viscous.995 ID Gas and water at < Being no-slip always predicts lowest pressure 400stb/d & GOR drops therefore good for data QC >5000 Air. Hence found discontinuous! Use not encouraged! Better for all angles.good over of 10. Hagedorn & Brown for slug. volatile and foamy oils Advanced mechanistic model suitable for any fluid (including condensates) Huge set of field data 1" to 2. runs slower than empirical various! various! 'Hybrid' model of different 'best' correlations.5" Air & water 3. avoids discontinuities which apply to empirical correlations.5" Preferred for gassy. Duns and Ros for mist Improved version of PE1.26" to 5. water & liquid hydrocarbon Comment Good over a wide range.

CONTENTS Introduction PVT Fundamentals Well Modelling Fundamentals Setting up a well model IPR modelling VLP modelling VLP / IPR matching and model validation Conclusions .

THANK YOU .

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