# CSC23 Electronic Circuits – DC Circuits

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**1.7 Delta-Star Transformation
**

Fig. 1.11(a) shows three resistors R1, R2 and R3 connected in a closed delta to three terminals A, B and C, their numerical subscripts 1, 2, and 3, being opposite to the terminals A, B, and C respectively. It is possible to replace these delta-connected resistors by three star-connected resistors Ra, Rb, and Rc in Fig. 1.11(b) If the star-connected network is said to be equivalent to the delta-connected network, the resistance between any two terminals in Fig. 1.11(b) must be the same as that between the same two terminals in Fig. 1.11(a).

B R1 R3 R2 Ra A A C B Rb Rc C

Fig. 1.11(a)

Fig. 1.11(b)

Consider terminals A and B in Fig. 1.11(a), we have a circuit having a resistance R3 in parallel with a circuit having resistances R1 and R2 in series; hence R AB = For Fig. 1.11(b), we have R AB = Ra + Rb Equating (1.7.1) and (1.7.2) Ra + Rb = R1 R3 + R2 R3 R1 + R2 + R3 (1.7.2) (1.7.3) R3 ( R1 + R2 ) R1 + R2 + R3 (1.7.1)

7. dividing (1.7.3).7.7.CSC23 Electronic Circuits – DC Circuits
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Similarly.6) by (1.8).6).7.4) and (1.5)
Rearrange (1.7. R3 = R1 Ra Rc Substituting for R2 and R3 into (1.8 Star-Delta Transformation
Conversely.7.12) (1.6) by (1.7. Rb + Rc = Ra + Rc = R1 R2 + R1 R3 R1 + R2 + R3 R1 R2 + R2 R3 R1 + R2 + R3 (1.7.7.4)
(1.7. the star-connected network can be replaced with an equivalent delta-connected network. Dividing (1.8)
1.7.7).13) (1.7)
(1.7.7.7.5) to give Ra = Rb = Rc = R2 R3 R1 + R2 + R3 R1 R3 R1 + R2 + R3 R1 R2 R1 + R2 + R3 (1.11) (1. R1 = Rb + Rc + Rb Rc Ra Similarly.6)
(1.9)
R2 = Ra + Rc + Ra Rc Rb
R3 = Ra + Rb + Ra Rb Rc
. (1.7.7.10) (1.7. (1. R2 = R1 Ra Rb Similarly.

a voltage source E with an internal resistance r is connected in series with an external resistance RL. setting the numerator of (1.12.8.CSC23 Electronic Circuits – DC Circuits
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1. differentiating (1. the load resistance is chosen to be equal to the internal resistance of the source.8.8.8.12 The load current I= E r + RL E2 RL ( r + RL ) 2 (1.9 Maximum Power Transfer
Considering Fig.8.8.2)
To achieve maximum power transfer.1)
The power delivered to the load is PL = I 2 RL = (1.3)
To find the value of RL to satisfy (1. 1.3) equal to zero to obtain
RL = r
(1.
Energy source I r E RL
Fig.2) with respect to RL and setting the result equal to zero. 1.8. dPL (r + RL ) 2 − 2 RL (r + RL ) 2 = E =0 dRL ( r + RL ) 4 (1.
.3).4)
For maximum power transfer.

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Additional examples
(1) Find the magnitude and direction of the current flowing through 7Ω resistor in the following network.
A I1 3Ω B I2 12Ω I1-I2 8V 4Ω 7Ω C I3 I2-I3 4V 3Ω D
E
F
G
H
. the currents are assigned as in the following diagram.
A 3Ω B 12Ω C 3Ω D
8V
4Ω
7Ω
4V
E
F
G
H
Approach 1 Kirchhoff’s Law Approach Using KCL.

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Approach 2 Mesh Current Analysis
A 3Ω B 12Ω C 3Ω D
8V
I1
4Ω
I2
7Ω
I3
4V
E
F
G
H
Approach 3 Superposition Theorem
.

A B 3Ω 3Ω 6Ω a
20V D C
10V b
By KVL. VBC is equal to
The Thevenin equivalent resistance RT is RT = 3 + 3× 6 = 5Ω 3+6
The Thevenin’s equivalent circuit is obtained as
5Ω 10V b a
. the current flowing through the 6Ω resistor is I 6Ω = 20 + 10 10 = A (circulate in clockwise direction) 3+6 3 VBC = −10 + 10 × 6 = 10V 3
So.CSC23 Electronic Circuits – DC Circuits
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(2) Obtain the Thevenin’s equivalent circuit for the following active network.

simplify the networks across A-B and A-C.CSC23 Electronic Circuits – DC Circuits
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(3) Using Thevenin’s Theorem.
A I1 6Ω 3Ω I1 6V I1 B B 2V 2Ω 12V I2 4Ω I2 C C A I2 I2 4Ω 2Ω A
6V
The equivalent circuit is shown as follows.
A A 12V 4Ω 6V 4Ω
6Ω 3Ω
B
10Ω
6V
C
Applying Thevenin’s Theorem. find the current in the 10Ω resistor of the following network.
A
2Ω
6V
2V B 10Ω 6V
2Ω
C
.

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(4) A network is arranged as shown in the following figure. Calculate the equivalent resistance between (a) A and C. and (b) A and N. (a) By using Star-delta transformation.
15Ω B 15Ω C B R1 4Ω 6Ω N 3Ω 2Ω 10Ω 6Ω R2 R3 10Ω C
A
A
.

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(b) By using Delta-star transformation.

A 6Ω 2Ω 2Ω 10V B 6Ω 2Ω 5Ω
(a) Network is rearranged as follows.CSC23 Electronic Circuits – DC Circuits
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(5) Calculate the voltage across A-B in the network by using delta-star transformation.
.
A 6Ω 2Ω I1 5Ω I2 Req 2Ω B 2Ω 10V 2Ω 6Ω 2Ω B 10V I 2Ω 10V Rb B Rc 6Ω A Ra Rc
(1) Transform the 2Ω-5Ω-6Ω delta connection into Ra-Rb-Rc star connection.

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(2) Calculate the equivalent resistance Req and compute the current I. Compute the voltage difference between A and B.
. compute the currents I1 and I2.
(3) Using current division principle.
(4) Calculate the voltage drop across the 2Ω and 6Ω resistors which on the LHS in the middle figure.