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1.

1 Real Numbers

TEM
1.2

SYS
Indices, Surds and
Logarithms

B ER
NUM
1.3
Complex Numbers
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LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of the lesson, students


should be able to:
• Understand natural numbers,
whole numbers, integers, prime
numbers, rational numbers and
irrational numbers.
• Represent rational and irrational
numbers in decimal form.
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• Represent the relationship of


numbers sets in a real number
system diagrammatically N showing
W Z Q
andQ  Q   N , W , Z , Q, Q
where 
and
represent the set of natural,
whole, integer, rational, irrational
and real numbers respectively.
• State clearly the properties of
real numbers such as closure,
commutative, associative,
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• Understand open, closed and half-open


interval and representation of the intervals
on the number line.
• Understand that the end points of an
open interval on the number line are
usually represented an empty circles,
whereas the end points of a closed
interval are represented by dense
circles,
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• Simplify union, and 
intersection,
of two or more intervals with the
aid of number line.
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Types of Real Number


Types of symb Number set Description
real ol
number
1. N={ 1,2,3,….} Positive
Natural numbers that
Numbers ¥ are used for
counting.

e) Prime { 2,3,5,7,…..}
Natural
Numbers number that
are greater
than one
that can be
divided by
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Types of Real Number

b) Non { Natural
Prime 1,4,6,8,..…..} numbers
number other than
prime
numbers
2. W={ Natural
Whole W 0,1,2,3,….} number
number including
s zero
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Types of Real Number


3. Z = {..-2,- Whole
Integers ¢ 1,0,1,2,3,..} number
 including
a.
¢ Z+ = {1,2,3,….} their
Positive negatives

Integers ¢
b. Z-
= {..-3,-2,-1}
Negative
Even numbers
Integers
{ 2k, k¢ } 2
Odd numbers { 2k + 1, k  ¢ } 2
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Types of Real Number
4. -The digit(s) ends as
 a 
Rationa ¤  ,a,b  Z 
¤  b 
fix answer or
accurate value:
l  and b  0  Eg:1 3
number 2 = 0.5,4 =
s -The digit(s) after the
0.75
decimal points repeats
itself
Eg:
5
11 = 0.4545…= 0.45
7
= 2.333… = 2.3
3
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Types of Real Number


5.  For an irrational
number the decimal
Irration ¤ representation is
al
non-repeating.
number
-eg:
s
3  1.732050808...
e  2.71828182845...
  3.14159...
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Types of Real
Number
6.
Real ¡ The combination of
numbe rational numbers and
rs irrational numbers
form the real
numbers system

¡  ¤ ¤
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Relationship of Number Sets


Q
Z W N


Q

This diagram show that N ⊂ W ⊂ Z




Q⊂ R ¡  ¤ ¤
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Real Number, 

Rational Number, Q Irrational Number, Q

Integer, Z


Negative Integer, Z
Whole Number, W
Zero

Positive Integer, Z Natural Number, N
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Example 1
For the set of {-5, -3, -1, 0, 3, 8},
identify the Answer:
set of N = {3, 8}
(c)natural numbersW = {0, 3, 8}
(d)whole numbers = {3}
(c) prime numbers = {0, 8}
(d) even numbers Z- = {-5, -3, -1}
(e) negative integers = {-5, -3,
(f) odd numbers -1,3}
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Example 2
Given
2 1
S = { -9,
7 , π ,e, 0, 4, 0.16,
2
4 , ,
5 3
,5.1212…}
identify the set of

(a) ¥ (c) ¢ (e) ¤

(b) W (d) ¤ (f) ¡


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Solution:
2 1
{ -9, ,π7 ,e, 0, 4, 0.16, 4 , ,
2
,5.121
5 3
(a) ¥ = { 4, 4 }
(b) W = { 0, 4, 4 }
(c) ¢ = {-9, 0, 4, 4}
2
¤
(d) = { -9, 0, 4, 0.16, 4 ,
5
, 5.1212…}
 1
(e) ¤= { π 2 , e , 7 , }
3
(f) ¡ =S
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Example 3
Determine whether each statement is
true 

(a) ¥  W
Or false. 
(e) 0.125125...  ¤ 
(b) ¢W (f)  0.2388888...  ¤

(c) ¡ ¤ (g)  1.222222...  ¤

(d)  25   ¤ 7¡

(h)
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Example 4
Express each of this number as a
quotient
(b) 1.555…
(c) 5.45959…
(d) 4.123
0.00141414…
(e)
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Solution:
(a) Let x = 1.555555… (1)

(1) × 10 10x = 15.5555… (2)

therefore, (2) – (1), 9x = 14

14
x=
9
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(b)
Let x = 5.4595959…
(1)
(1) × 10, 10x = 54.595959…
(2)
(2) × 100, 1000x = 5459.5959…
(3)
therefore, 5405 1081

(3) – (2), 990x990
= 5405 198
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(c)
Let x = 0.00141414…
(1)
(1) × 100, 100x = 0.141414…
(2)
(2) × 100, 10000x = 14.1414…
(3)
therefore, 14 7

(3) – (2), 9900
9900x = 144950
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(d) 4.123= 4.123123123…

Let x = 4.123123…
(1)

(1) × 1000, 1000x =


4123.123123... (2)
therefore,
(2) – (1), 4119 1373
999x = 4119

999 333
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Algebraic operation on Real
Numbers
Properties of Real
Numbers
Propertie Additi Subtracti Multiplicati Division
s on on on
a
Closure a+b a-b = q a(b) = r =
b
propert =p¡ q ¡ r ¡ s
y p ¡
Eg: Eg: sb  0
Eg: 5-4=1 5(4) = 20
¡ 1 ¡
5+4= 20 ¡
5
Eg:
4
9 =¡
9 1.25
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Properties Additio Subt Multiplicati Div.


n r. on
Commutat a+b = a·b = b.a
ive b+a Eg:
property Eg: 5·4 = 4.5
5+4=4
+5
Associativ (a+b) + a·(b·c)=(a·
e c b) ·c
property =a+(b+
c) Eg:
Eg: 2·
(2+3) + (3·4)=(2·3)
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Properti Additio Subtracti Mult Division


es n on i. .
Distribut a(b+c) a(b-c)
ive = ab + = ab - ac
property ac
Eg:
Eg: 2(3-4)
2(3+4) =2·3 –
=2·3+2 2·4
·4
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Propertie Addition Subtr Multiplicat Div.


s . ion
Identity a+0 = a·1 = 1·a
0+a
a¡ a¡

Inverse a + (-a)
=0 1
a.  1
(-a) + a a
=0 a0
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Example 5
Write down the type of properties
for these
statements
a) 3 + 4x = 4x + 3
b) x (y + z) = xy + xz
c) 3ab + 0 = 3ab
• 2 (3n) = (2(3)n)
• 4x = 12
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Solution:
• 3 + 4x = 4x + 3
Commutative
(d)x (y + z) = xy + xz
Distributive
(c) 3ab + 0 = 3ab
Identity for Addition Operation
(d) 2 (3n) = (2(3)n)
Associative for multiplication
operation
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Example 6 Given a , b  ¡ , ab = 1.
Prove that a  b . -1

Solution:
Identity
Given ab = 1
 1  1  1
 ab     1   a .1   
 b  b  b
Inverse
 1  1  1
a  b.     a
 b  b b 

Identity
Associative 1
ab
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The Number Line

Real numbers such as –3.5, 2


3

and π can be represented on


a real number line

−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4

−3.5 2 π
3
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Representation of the intervals on a


number line.
Order Law :
 For any two real number, a, b  R, the
possibility are for a = b, a > b or a < b
 The order of real numbers is important
in presenting of the intervals on a number
line in increasing magnitude from the
left to the right.
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The Order of Real Number

Symbol Description Example


a=b a equal to b 3=3
a<b a less than b −4 < 4
a>b a greater than b 5>0

Note:

The symbols ‘<’ or ‘>’ are called inequality sign.


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1. Open Interval
(a,b) represents an open interval. In
the open interval (a,b) there is no least
nor greatest number.
2. Closed Interval
[a,b] represents a closed interval. In
the closed interval [a,b] there are both
a least and a greatest number and
these are a and b, respectively.
3. Half-Open Interval
[a,b) and (a,b] represents on half-open
interval.
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• The set (a, b) is called an open interval,


closed intervals denoted by [a, b] and
half-open intervals denoted by [a, b)
and (a, b].

• The end points of an open interval on


the number line are usually
represented by an empty circles, o
,whereas the end points of a closed
interval are represented by dense
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All sets of real numbers between a and b


a
n
d
can be written in the form of intervals as
b

c
shown below
Representation on
a
n

b Type of Interval Inequalities


e

w
the number line
axb
r

[a,b]
i
t
t
e
a b
n

axb
i

(a,b)
n

t
h
e a b

axb
f
o
r
m
(a,b] a b

[a,b) axb a b
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Representation on
Type of Interval Inequalities
the number line
(, b) xb a b
b

(, b] xb a bb

(a, ) xa a b

[a, ) xa aa b
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Example 1

Express the type of this intervals


and represent in on real number line.
(a) [-1, 4] (b) (2, 5)
(c) [2, ∞) (d) {x : x ≤ 0, x ∈ R}
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Solution

(a) [-1, 4] is a closed interval

-1 4

(b) (2, 5) is an opened interval

2 5
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(c) [2, ∞) is a half-open interval

(d) { x : x ≤ 0, x ∈ R } = (−∞, 0] is a half-


open interval

0
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Intersection  and Union  Of Intervals


Intersection and Union operation can
be done on intervals. For example if
A = [1,6) and B = (-2,4) ; then
A ∩ B = [1, 4) is a half-open interval
A U B = (-2, 6) is an opened interval

All these can be shown on a number


line as shown next
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A = [1,6) and B = (-2,4)

B
A

-2 1 4 6

A ∩ B = [1, 4)

A U B = (-2, 6)
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Example 2

Simplify the following using the number line.


(a) [0,5) U (4,7)
(b) (-∞, 5) ∩ (-1,9)
(c) (-∞,0] U [0, ∞)
(d) (-∞,0] ∩ [0, ∞)
(e) (-∞,0) ∩ (0, ∞)
(f) ((-4,2) U (0,4]) ∩ [-2,2)
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Solution
(a) [0,5) U (4,7)

0 4 5 7

[0,5) U (4,7) = [0,7)


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(b) (-∞, 5) ∩ (-1,9)

-∞ -1 5 9

(-∞, 5) ∩ (-1,9) = (-1,5)


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(c) (-∞,0] U [0, ∞)

-∞ 0 ∞

(-∞,0] U [0, ∞) = (-∞,∞) = ¡


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(d) (-∞,0] ∩ [0, ∞) =  0

(e) (-∞,0) ∩ (0, ∞) =   0


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(f) ((-4,2)
(-4,2) UU(0,4]
(0,4]) ∩[-2,2)
[-2,2)

-4 -2 0 2 4

(-4,2) U (0,4] ∩ [-2,2) = [-2,2)


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Relationship of NumberProperties
Sets of Real Nu
ℜ Closure
property
Commutative
property
Associative proper
Q Z W N Distributive

property
Identity
Q Inverse

N ⊂ W ⊂ Z ⊂ Q ⊂ R
¡  ¤ ¤
and
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The Number Line


Real numbers can be represented on
a real number line

• (a, b) - an open interval


• [a, b] - closed interval
• [a, b) & (a, b] - half-open
intervals