Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

22 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- building mathematical character 8practices posters
- Basic School Mathematics
- 23_years_CAT_Topic_wise_Solved_Papers.pdf
- Excel Dictionary
- Excel Formula
- Importance of All Excel Formula
- Excel Dictionery
- Learning Journey 2007-08
- Integers
- ALL ABOUT IMPORTS AND EXPORTS DETAILS
- All About Excel
- 23232323
- Functions of Excel2
- 38229540 Excel Formula
- AMM_May_2016
- Excel Functions Dictionary
- FPMAT001KB-2 (2)
- Numbers
- Undergraduate Competitions Putnam 2000 23
- Number System

You are on page 1of 52

1 Real Numbers

TEM

1.2

SYS

Indices, Surds and

Logarithms

B ER

NUM

1.3

Complex Numbers

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

LEARNING OUTCOMES

should be able to:

• Understand natural numbers,

whole numbers, integers, prime

numbers, rational numbers and

irrational numbers.

• Represent rational and irrational

numbers in decimal form.

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

numbers sets in a real number

system diagrammatically N showing

W Z Q

andQ Q N , W , Z , Q, Q

where

and

represent the set of natural,

whole, integer, rational, irrational

and real numbers respectively.

• State clearly the properties of

real numbers such as closure,

commutative, associative,

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

interval and representation of the intervals

on the number line.

• Understand that the end points of an

open interval on the number line are

usually represented an empty circles,

whereas the end points of a closed

interval are represented by dense

circles,

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

• Simplify union, and

intersection,

of two or more intervals with the

aid of number line.

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Types of symb Number set Description

real ol

number

1. N={ 1,2,3,….} Positive

Natural numbers that

Numbers ¥ are used for

counting.

e) Prime { 2,3,5,7,…..}

Natural

Numbers number that

are greater

than one

that can be

divided by

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

b) Non { Natural

Prime 1,4,6,8,..…..} numbers

number other than

prime

numbers

2. W={ Natural

Whole W 0,1,2,3,….} number

number including

s zero

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

3. Z = {..-2,- Whole

Integers ¢ 1,0,1,2,3,..} number

including

a.

¢ Z+ = {1,2,3,….} their

Positive negatives

Integers ¢

b. Z-

= {..-3,-2,-1}

Negative

Even numbers

Integers

{ 2k, k¢ } 2

Odd numbers { 2k + 1, k ¢ } 2

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Types of Real Number

4. -The digit(s) ends as

a

Rationa ¤ ,a,b Z

¤ b

fix answer or

accurate value:

l and b 0 Eg:1 3

number 2 = 0.5,4 =

s -The digit(s) after the

0.75

decimal points repeats

itself

Eg:

5

11 = 0.4545…= 0.45

7

= 2.333… = 2.3

3

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

5. For an irrational

number the decimal

Irration ¤ representation is

al

non-repeating.

number

-eg:

s

3 1.732050808...

e 2.71828182845...

3.14159...

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Types of Real

Number

6.

Real ¡ The combination of

numbe rational numbers and

rs irrational numbers

form the real

numbers system

¡ ¤ ¤

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

ℜ

Q

Z W N

−

Q

⊂

Q⊂ R ¡ ¤ ¤

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Real Number,

Integer, Z

Negative Integer, Z

Whole Number, W

Zero

Positive Integer, Z Natural Number, N

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Example 1

For the set of {-5, -3, -1, 0, 3, 8},

identify the Answer:

set of N = {3, 8}

(c)natural numbersW = {0, 3, 8}

(d)whole numbers = {3}

(c) prime numbers = {0, 8}

(d) even numbers Z- = {-5, -3, -1}

(e) negative integers = {-5, -3,

(f) odd numbers -1,3}

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Example 2

Given

2 1

S = { -9,

7 , π ,e, 0, 4, 0.16,

2

4 , ,

5 3

,5.1212…}

identify the set of

(a) ¥ (c) ¢ (e) ¤

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Solution:

2 1

{ -9, ,π7 ,e, 0, 4, 0.16, 4 , ,

2

,5.121

5 3

(a) ¥ = { 4, 4 }

(b) W = { 0, 4, 4 }

(c) ¢ = {-9, 0, 4, 4}

2

¤

(d) = { -9, 0, 4, 0.16, 4 ,

5

, 5.1212…}

1

(e) ¤= { π 2 , e , 7 , }

3

(f) ¡ =S

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Example 3

Determine whether each statement is

true

(a) ¥ W

Or false.

(e) 0.125125... ¤

(b) ¢W (f) 0.2388888... ¤

(d) 25 ¤ 7¡

(h)

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Example 4

Express each of this number as a

quotient

(b) 1.555…

(c) 5.45959…

(d) 4.123

0.00141414…

(e)

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Solution:

(a) Let x = 1.555555… (1)

14

x=

9

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

(b)

Let x = 5.4595959…

(1)

(1) × 10, 10x = 54.595959…

(2)

(2) × 100, 1000x = 5459.5959…

(3)

therefore, 5405 1081

(3) – (2), 990x990

= 5405 198

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

(c)

Let x = 0.00141414…

(1)

(1) × 100, 100x = 0.141414…

(2)

(2) × 100, 10000x = 14.1414…

(3)

therefore, 14 7

(3) – (2), 9900

9900x = 144950

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Let x = 4.123123…

(1)

4123.123123... (2)

therefore,

(2) – (1), 4119 1373

999x = 4119

999 333

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Algebraic operation on Real

Numbers

Properties of Real

Numbers

Propertie Additi Subtracti Multiplicati Division

s on on on

a

Closure a+b a-b = q a(b) = r =

b

propert =p¡ q ¡ r ¡ s

y p ¡

Eg: Eg: sb 0

Eg: 5-4=1 5(4) = 20

¡ 1 ¡

5+4= 20 ¡

5

Eg:

4

9 =¡

9 1.25

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

n r. on

Commutat a+b = a·b = b.a

ive b+a Eg:

property Eg: 5·4 = 4.5

5+4=4

+5

Associativ (a+b) + a·(b·c)=(a·

e c b) ·c

property =a+(b+

c) Eg:

Eg: 2·

(2+3) + (3·4)=(2·3)

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

es n on i. .

Distribut a(b+c) a(b-c)

ive = ab + = ab - ac

property ac

Eg:

Eg: 2(3-4)

2(3+4) =2·3 –

=2·3+2 2·4

·4

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

s . ion

Identity a+0 = a·1 = 1·a

0+a

a¡ a¡

Inverse a + (-a)

=0 1

a. 1

(-a) + a a

=0 a0

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Example 5

Write down the type of properties

for these

statements

a) 3 + 4x = 4x + 3

b) x (y + z) = xy + xz

c) 3ab + 0 = 3ab

• 2 (3n) = (2(3)n)

• 4x = 12

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Solution:

• 3 + 4x = 4x + 3

Commutative

(d)x (y + z) = xy + xz

Distributive

(c) 3ab + 0 = 3ab

Identity for Addition Operation

(d) 2 (3n) = (2(3)n)

Associative for multiplication

operation

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Example 6 Given a , b ¡ , ab = 1.

Prove that a b . -1

Solution:

Identity

Given ab = 1

1 1 1

ab 1 a .1

b b b

Inverse

1 1 1

a b. a

b b b

Identity

Associative 1

ab

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

3

a real number line

−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4

−3.5 2 π

3

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

number line.

Order Law :

For any two real number, a, b R, the

possibility are for a = b, a > b or a < b

The order of real numbers is important

in presenting of the intervals on a number

line in increasing magnitude from the

left to the right.

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

a=b a equal to b 3=3

a<b a less than b −4 < 4

a>b a greater than b 5>0

Note:

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

1. Open Interval

(a,b) represents an open interval. In

the open interval (a,b) there is no least

nor greatest number.

2. Closed Interval

[a,b] represents a closed interval. In

the closed interval [a,b] there are both

a least and a greatest number and

these are a and b, respectively.

3. Half-Open Interval

[a,b) and (a,b] represents on half-open

interval.

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

closed intervals denoted by [a, b] and

half-open intervals denoted by [a, b)

and (a, b].

the number line are usually

represented by an empty circles, o

,whereas the end points of a closed

interval are represented by dense

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

a

n

d

can be written in the form of intervals as

b

c

shown below

Representation on

a

n

e

w

the number line

axb

r

[a,b]

i

t

t

e

a b

n

axb

i

(a,b)

n

t

h

e a b

axb

f

o

r

m

(a,b] a b

[a,b) axb a b

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Representation on

Type of Interval Inequalities

the number line

(, b) xb a b

b

(, b] xb a bb

(a, ) xa a b

[a, ) xa aa b

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Example 1

and represent in on real number line.

(a) [-1, 4] (b) (2, 5)

(c) [2, ∞) (d) {x : x ≤ 0, x ∈ R}

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Solution

-1 4

2 5

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

open interval

0

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Intersection and Union operation can

be done on intervals. For example if

A = [1,6) and B = (-2,4) ; then

A ∩ B = [1, 4) is a half-open interval

A U B = (-2, 6) is an opened interval

line as shown next

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

B

A

-2 1 4 6

A ∩ B = [1, 4)

A U B = (-2, 6)

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Example 2

(a) [0,5) U (4,7)

(b) (-∞, 5) ∩ (-1,9)

(c) (-∞,0] U [0, ∞)

(d) (-∞,0] ∩ [0, ∞)

(e) (-∞,0) ∩ (0, ∞)

(f) ((-4,2) U (0,4]) ∩ [-2,2)

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Solution

(a) [0,5) U (4,7)

0 4 5 7

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

-∞ -1 5 9

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

-∞ 0 ∞

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

(f) ((-4,2)

(-4,2) UU(0,4]

(0,4]) ∩[-2,2)

[-2,2)

-4 -2 0 2 4

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Relationship of NumberProperties

Sets of Real Nu

ℜ Closure

property

Commutative

property

Associative proper

Q Z W N Distributive

−

property

Identity

Q Inverse

N ⊂ W ⊂ Z ⊂ Q ⊂ R

¡ ¤ ¤

and

E-LEARNING PORTAL PENANG MATRICULATION COLLAGE

© Copyright

Real numbers can be represented on

a real number line

• [a, b] - closed interval

• [a, b) & (a, b] - half-open

intervals

- building mathematical character 8practices postersUploaded byapi-231983516
- Basic School MathematicsUploaded byskmrrl
- 23_years_CAT_Topic_wise_Solved_Papers.pdfUploaded byAjeet gared
- Excel DictionaryUploaded bydhiraj
- Excel FormulaUploaded byyogbal_anima
- Importance of All Excel FormulaUploaded bypritikagulati
- Excel DictioneryUploaded byCA Vaibhav Maheshwari
- Learning Journey 2007-08Uploaded bylpatterson
- IntegersUploaded byShrirang Korde
- ALL ABOUT IMPORTS AND EXPORTS DETAILSUploaded byAyan Chakraborty
- All About ExcelUploaded bySayed Abdul Rahman
- 23232323Uploaded byArijit Panigrahy
- Functions of Excel2Uploaded byakkipeddi
- 38229540 Excel FormulaUploaded bypizzaboy4u
- AMM_May_2016Uploaded byDaniel Dan
- Excel Functions DictionaryUploaded bycarina6022
- FPMAT001KB-2 (2)Uploaded byarupsmartlearnwebtv
- NumbersUploaded byAkash Kumar
- Undergraduate Competitions Putnam 2000 23Uploaded byC.W. Wang
- Number SystemUploaded byOmkar Pranav
- wajo11qaUploaded byRajiv Kabad
- 9Maths 1 Number Systems.docUploaded byVishweshPatel
- 1011Mini SolutionsUploaded byसंदीप तारा
- Homework Template MTH 307Uploaded bySmake Jith
- algone2008week1Uploaded byRuben Serna C
- Quants Question Bank 1Uploaded byvishnu_mcj
- L1 CCP Algebra and Advance AlgebraUploaded bylynser chua
- SampleUploaded byzorgelectronica
- integer unit notesUploaded byapi-238442866
- 10.1.1.92Uploaded byamy_buffy1990

- AbacusUploaded bySudip799
- Lecture05b-Introduction to Floating Point ArithmeticUploaded byJms008
- 2018 ICAS Math Assess FrameworkUploaded byStefanie Tanusetiawan
- pert practice sites 2016Uploaded byapi-325595302
- 17388_mcq 2Uploaded byVinay Prakash
- Tutorial 1Uploaded byRatnam Krishnasamy
- Oracle DatatypesUploaded byKeshab Nayak
- Casio Remote Watch Qw1174Uploaded byKurai4
- Celestial ArithmeticUploaded bycatchdgreen
- Chapter4 FractionsUploaded byismael63322
- Number List_ Decimal, Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal, Ternary, Quaternary and DozenalUploaded byAshok Kumar
- McbUploaded byRajat Kalia
- factors and prime factorization.docUploaded bySha Mercs
- 4 Bit MultiplierUploaded byİrem Sedef
- Professor Weissman's Algebra Classroom 05 IntegersUploaded byTheMathProf
- DcsUploaded bykartik
- SR260N_manual (1) (1).pdfUploaded byCesar
- Ch 6 Math NotesUploaded byJ
- Maths Quest 10 3ED Classpad EditionUploaded byJames Glare
- divisabilityrulesUploaded byapi-181690547
- 2-floatsUploaded byPraveen
- Digital ElectronicsUploaded bytheguru2929
- Com Bi National Logic CircuitUploaded byAsadul Hoque
- mms9 endmatterUploaded byapi-265180883
- DPSDUploaded bycsathya_uma4208
- mathematics-glossary-k-12Uploaded byapi-256383094
- Unit3-VKHUploaded byVijay Singh
- STLD Text BookUploaded bySiva Raman
- Civil Service ReviewUploaded byJohnMichaelM.Manalo
- 8051 Instruction Se1Uploaded byDinesh Kumar