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Guide at-Grade Intersections(1)

Guide at-Grade Intersections(1)

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Published by Zairi bin Zaini

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Published by: Zairi bin Zaini on Jun 17, 2009
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05/11/2014

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The fundamental factor which decides the type of intersection is traffic volume. Table 2-2A
shows the general scheme to select the intersection type according to the traffic volume. Other
factors such as class of road, lane configuration should also be taken into account, especially
when the traffic volume falls near the boundary of the applicable range of an intersection type.

Factors other than traffic volume, such as heavy pedestrian volume, frequent accident occurence
may demand signalisation. Coordinated traffic control along an arterial may also govern the
selection of the intersection type in accordance with the type of neighbouring intersections.

Table 2-2Bshows the general scheme to select the intersection type according to the category of
roads crossing.

AREA

CATEGORY of ROAD

DESIGN VEHICLES

EXPRESSWAY

HIGHWAY

PRIMARY

WB-50

SECONDARY

SU

RURAL

MINOR

SU / P

EXPRESSWAY

ARTERIAL

WB-50

COLLECTOR

SU

URBAN

LOCAL STREET

SU / P

Page 17

Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

FOR INTERNALUSE ONLY

2.5.1Roundabouts

Roundabouts may be applicable for total traffic volume (sum of all directions) of up to 6000
vehicles/hour and may if the layout can be freely chosen, be designed to cater for any
distribution of turning traffic.

The major disadvantage of roundabouts is that the speed through the roundabout are reduced
because of the obstruction caused by the central island. Moreover, they require larger land space
and capacity according t o the demand of each approach cannot be realiably assigned. When the
capacity is exceeded they also tend to "lock up traffic".As such, roundabouts cater well only
for situation where the approacheshave similar level of traffic flow.

Roundabouts are not encouraged and should only be provided where there is problem in power
supply to traffic signals, or where the number and layout of approach legs are not suitable for
signal control.

2.5.2Signal Controlled Intersections

Signalcontrolled intersect ions are applicable to very high traffic volume of 8,000 veh/hour or
more provided that the necessary number of approach lanes are present and that there is no
interference from other nearby intersections.

1) ROUNDABOUTS ARE USUALLYRANGED IN SIZE AS FOLLOWS.
a) MINI -LESS THAN 20m IN DIAMETER OF INSCRIBED CIRCLE, LESS THAN 4m. IN DIAMETER OF
CENTER CIRCLE
b) SMALL- 20 TO 50 m , 4 TO 15 m

C) CONVENTIONAL-MORE THAN 50 m, MORE THAN 25m.

TABLE: 2-2A. SELECTION OF INTERSECTION TYPE

Page 18

Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

FOR INTERNALUSE ONLY

EXPRESSWAY HIGHWAY PRIMARY SECONDARY LOCAL

1C.

IC.

1C.

-

-

EXPRESSWAY

IC.

IC / S.I

S.I./S.C.

S.C.

HIGHWAY

S.I./S.C.

S. C.

PRIMARY

S.C.

S. C.

SECONDARY

S. C.

LOCAL

ACCORDING TO CATEGORYOF ROADS CROSSING

RURALAREA

URBAN AREA

EXPRESSWAY ARTERIAL COLLECTOR LOCAL
STREET

IC.

IC.

-

-

EXPRESSWAY

I.C / S.I

S.I

S.I / S.C

ARTERIAL

S.I

S.C.

COLLECTOR

S. C.

STREET

IC.

:

INTERCHANGE

S.I.

:

SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION

S.C

:

STOPCONTROL

TABLE: 2-2B SELECTION OF INTERSECTION TYPE

Page 19

Arahan Teknik(Jalan) 5/85

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Appendix Agives the general warrants that are to be met before traffic control signals are
installed.

Traffic signals require reliable electricity supply for their operation, hence limiting their use only
to developedareas.The most economic solution may often be the selecttion of a priority
controlled intersection initially, which is prepared for traffic control and to add in the traffic
signals at a later stage.

Signalised intersections can handle heavy traffic with adequate number of approach lanes. This,
however, requires longer clearance time for vehicles to cross the wide road, leading to less
effectiveness in the handling of traffic.

2.5.3Grade Separated Intersections (Intercharges)

Grade separated intersections serve very high traffic volumes with very little interference to the
through traffic. They must:. be provided for all full access controlled roads and should be
considered for road with design speeds exceeding 90 km/hr. Grade separation is also
recommended if each of the road crossing has four through lanes or more.The design of
interchanges is covered in a separate Arahan Teknik.

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