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Parts of Speech

In the English Language, there are five main parts of speech that are used. The five parts of speech, their definitions and examples are outlined in this lesson. Noun Definition: A noun is a person, place, or thing. Nouns can be proper or common. Proper Nouns Common Nouns Words that name specific people, places, or titles. John, Kim, Toronto, Ajax, The Hobbit Proper nouns always start with a capital letter. Pronoun Definition: Adjective Definition: An adjective is a word that describes a noun or pronoun. It gives more information about what something looks like, tastes like, sounds like, or feels like. small, large, tall, short, hairy, bald, yellow, blue, ugly, beautiful A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun. I, me, she, he, them, they, us, we, his, her, their Words that name general items. desk, computer, car, map, city Common nouns do not start with a capital letter.

Nouns, Pronouns, and Adjectives


Lets practice locating and labelling the parts of speech you have learned! Instructions: A) Copy the following sentences into your notebook. B) Underline all the nouns in each sentence. C) Label each noun as either common or proper. Place the letters CN above the noun to label it as common noun. Place the letters PN above the noun to label it as proper noun. D) Place a double underline under all the pronouns used in the sentence. E) Use a wavy underline to label the adjectives.

PN CN PN CN Example: Jon and his best friend go to Canadas Wonderland each summer. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Michaels favourite toy is a stuffed, brown teddy bear his grandmother gave him. As a young child, Megan liked to draw her mother pictures of beautiful, yellow flowers. My sister and her husband own a large, hairy dog named Cassie. I love to drink floats made with vanilla ice cream and rootbear. Ashams birthday party was the best party I have ever been to.

If you have correctly identified the parts of speech, you should have the following totals: Proper Nouns common nouns pronouns adjectives 4 15 6 12

* Remember to check your answers with the answers at the end of the unit.

Verbs
Definition: A verb is an action. It describes something you can do. run, walk, jump, sing, swim, drive, cook, draw Verbs can occur in three tenses: past, present, future. Past Tense The action of the verb happened in the past. These verbs usually end in ed. I played yesterday. Julie walked to the park. Present Tense The action is happening right now. These verbs usually end in ing. I am playing basketball. Eleanor is walking away. Future Tense The action will happen in the future. These verbs have the helping word will before them. I will play tomorrow. Tim will walk on Friday.

Irregular Verbs: Some verbs change more than just their ending when we change
their tense. Sometimes we have to write the word in an entirely different way. I made a mistake, I am making a mistake, I will make a mistake. I ran to the store, I am running to the store, I will run to the store.

I was hungry, I am hungry, I will be hungry.

Verb Tenses
Lets practice using verb tenses: past, present and future. Instructions: Copy the sentences in your notebook, filling in the blank with the correct form of the verb. The verb to use is in (brackets) beside the blank. The verb tense you must use is written at the end of the sentence in bold. Example: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The opposing team _________(score) twice to win the game. Past The opposing team scored twice to win the game.

Sarahs mother is _____________(teach) her how to skate. Present He ___________ (play) soccer after school. Future Craig ___________(sing) in the school choir. Past He is __________ (phone) his friend to come out and play. Present The book __________(read) for Mondays class. Future Nobody _________(see) the lost cat in the park. Past

Adverbs
Definition: An adverb is a word that describes how an action is done. Adverbs often end with the letters ly. quickly, slowly, carefully, neatly, quietly

Using Adverbs
Instructions: Copy the sentences into your notebook by adding an adverb to each sentence by filling in the blank. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. They ran __________ and won the race. The swimmer moved __________ in the pool. The light shone ______________ and the insects flew ______________ towards it. They will _____________ reach their destination. Ian did not work hard and he scored _____________ on the exam.

Using The Parts Of Speech


In this lesson, you learned the parts of speech and practiced identifying and writing them. Its now your turn to use the new skills you have learned. Instructions: In your notebook, write three sentences. The sentences should include all the parts of speech studied and each sentence must use a different verb tense. Each sentence must include: one Proper Noun one common noun one pronoun one adjective one adverb. One sentence must be written using the past tense. One sentence must be written using the present tense. One sentence must be written using the future tense. TOTAL MARKS: 3X 3X 3X 3X 3X 1X 1X 1X 1 MARK 1 MARK 1 MARK 1 MARK 1 MARK 1 MARK 1 MARK 1 MARK 18 MARKS

Key Question #2
Who Was I Then?
Think back to your childhood. What is your earliest memory? What was your favourite toy? You certainly have changed a lot since then! Instructions: Copy the chart below into your notebook and complete the chart below with information that you can remember from your childhood. You need to organize your memories into the parts of speech nouns, verbs, or adjectives. You should have at least six words in each column of the table. NOUNS People or places that were important to me as a Child * Capitalize proper nouns VERBS Things I liked to do as a child ADJECTIVES Words that describe me as child

3X TOTAL MARKS:

6 MARKS 18 MARKS

Lets get creative!


You have spent a lot of time so far answering questions and considering your motivation for taking this course. Now, were going to shift our focus and try something a little more creative. The following poem Yesterday, by Jean Little, is written as a memory. As you read through the poem, consider what things used to be important to the speaker and decide what things are important to her now. Notice how the poem is structured. For example, look at how the poet writes about something that used to be important in the top section and then, in the bottom section, how she writes about the thing that has replaced it in importance.

YESTERDAY by Jean Little Yesterday I knew all the answers Or I knew my parents did. Yesterday I had my Best Friend And my Second Best Friend And I knew whose Best Friend I was And who disliked me. Yesterday I hated asparagus and coconuts and parsnips And mustard pickles and olives And anything Id never tasted. Yesterday I knew what was Right and what was Wrong And I never had any trouble deciding which was which. It always seemed so obvious. But today everythings changing. I suddenly have a million unanswered questions. Everybody I meet might become a friend. I tried eating snails with garlic sauce and I liked them!

And I know the delicate shadings that lie between Good and evil and I face their dilemma*. Life is harder now and yet easier And more and more exciting!
*Dilemma: state of uncertainty or confusion, especially when a choice is required
(Jean Little, Yesterday, Sense and Feeling, Toronto, Ontario: Copp Clark Pitman Ltd., 1991) 2

You will use a graphic organizer called a T-Chart to organize your observations about this poem.

Key Question (10 marks)


1. Remember to number the key question. 2. Draw a large capital T on your full page. (This makes two columns) 3. At the top of the left hand column, write the word PAST. At the top of the right hand column, write the word PRESENT. PAST PRESENT

4. From your observations: List the things and values that were important, in the past, in the left hand column. List the things and values that are important, in the present, in the right hand column. Evaluation: Completion 10 marks Now, its your turn to write your own Yesterday poem.

Key Question # 5 (50 marks)


1. Remember to put the key question number at the top of the assignment. 2. Before you begin to write, you need to brainstorm for your poem. This means that you write down all of the things that you can think of that used to be important to you and all the things that are important to you now. Dont worry about organizing your thoughts at this stage. The important thing is to get down as many ideas as you can. 3. Organize your thoughts in a T-chart by choosing things from the past to put on the left hand side and putting the things which have replaced them right across from them on the right hand side.

4. Try to follow the structure of Jean Littles poem as you write the first draft of your own poem. This means that you should start with a yesterday section (Length: 1016 lines) and end with a today (Length: 812 lines) section. 5. Edit your poem. This means to make sure that your ideas are stated the way you want to say them and you try to fix as many spelling mistakes as you can. 6. Write a polished draft of your poem on a clean page. 7. Illustrate your poem with sketches or stickers or artistic marks to make it something that is as pleasant to look at as it is to read. Evaluation: Your process work will be marked out of 10 for completion. Your polished poem will be evaluated according to the following rubric and will be worth 40 marks.

Category
Knowledge/ Understanding Key Features (e.g., ideas and themes; form and structure;) (10 marks)

Level 1 50 59%
Provides limited ideas and themes; follows required form and structure some of the time; little attention has been paid to beginning and ending words Values and perspectives show limited insight; reader is not drawn into the poem; writer is not enthusiastic and does not speak to you. Thoughts and feelings are communicated with limited clarity; writer's words do not paint a picture; words do not flow and are not easy to read.

Rubric: Poetry Writing Level 2 Level 3 60 69% 70 79%


Provides some logical ideas and themes; follows required form and structure many times, but not always effectively; few lines begin and/or end on strong words. Values and perspectives show some insight; the reader is somewhat drawn into the poem; writer shows limited enthusiasm and speaks to you. Thoughts and feelings are communicated with some clarity; writer's words give you somewhat of a picture; some of the words flow and are somewhat easy to read. Uses 3-4 examples effectively to reinforce rhythm & atmosphere; there are 3 spelling errors Provides logical ideas and themes; follows required form and structure effectively most of the time; some lines begin and/or end on strong words.

Level 4 80 100%
Provides a thorough and insightful description of ideas and themes; follows the required form; structure reinforces the rhythm & meaning of the poem; most lines begin and/or end on strong words. Values and perspectives are highly insightful; writer clearly draws the reader into the poem; writer shows enthusiasm and speaks to you.

Thinking/ Inquiry Values and perspectives Personal Connections

Values and perspectives show considerable insight; the reader is drawn into the poem; writer shows some enthusiasm and speaks to you in part.

(10 marks) Communication (10 marks)

Thoughts and feelings are communicated with considerable clarity; writer's words provide a clear picture; words generally flow and are easy to read.

Thoughts and feelings are communicated with a high degree of clarity; writer's words paint a vivid picture; words flow together very well and are easy to read.

Application

(10 marks)

Uses less than 3 examples of clearly or effectively; there are more than 3 spelling errors

Uses 5-6 examples effectively, but additional instances of it would further reinforce rhythm & atmosphere; there are 2 spelling errors

Uses 7 or more examples effectively to reinforce rhythm & atmosphere; there are 0-1 spelling errors