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Coal was one of man's earliest sources of heat and light. The Chinese were known to have dug it more than 3,000 years ago. The first recorded discovery of coal in this country was by French explorers on the Illinois River in 1679, and the earliest recorded commercial mining occurred near Richmond, Virginia, in 1750. In the 19th century, coal grew rapidly in importance, and from 1850 to 1950 it was our most important energy fuel.
• Coal is ― Black Diamond‖ in more sense than one! Coal is the main source of energy not only in our country but also for most of the countries of the world. • The energy requirement of India is increasing every year and to meet this demand the country has to depend to a large extent on coal. • At present more than 60% of the total commercial energy requirement is met from the coal.
• The word coal is a very common term. It was formerly written as ―Cole‖ and could be traced to the Sanskrit root ―Kala‖ which means black. • According to Stopes and Wheeler (1918), ―ordinary coal is a compact, stratified mass of mummified plants which have in part suffered arrested decay to varying degrees of completeness.‖ • Arber (1918) has defined coal, as a solid, stratified rock, composed mainly of hydrocarbons and capable of being used as a fuel to supply heat or light or both.
• Often associated with the Industrial Revolution. • It is composed primarily of carbon along with assorted other elements. including sulfur. coal remains an enormously important fuel and is the largest single source of electricity worldwide. • It is a readily combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock. .• Coal is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining).
Coal's Past. coal was used to provide heat in caveman times! . The Past Coal has been used for nearly as long as mankind has thrived. In fact. what the future of coal might be. A look at past and present uses of coal can tell. Although coal has always been an important and plentiful fuel source. many people may not realize just how long it has been used? or how much it is used today?.
when demands for energy sources increased.S. and heating. Soon after. but in the 18th century it was discovered that coal burned cleaner and hotter. Wood charcoal had long been used to provide fuel in England. .Coal's Past. the first U. coal use skyrocketed during the Industrial Revolution. In the 1300s in what is now the United States. making clay pots. By the mid-1700s. coal mining operations opened in Virginia. Native Americans used coal for cooking.
powering railroads and boats. and fueling factories. and coke (a coal residue) took charcoal's place as the primary fuel for making steel. generating electricity. About one hundred years ago in the United States. coal was being used in the production of weapons during the American Civil War. At the same time.Coal's Past. coal's abundance led to its widespread use for heating homes. providing cooking heat. which became a popular mode of transportation. In 19th-century. Coal was used to fuel the boilers on steam-powered trains. America. .
Nine out of every 10 tons of coal mined in the United States today is used to generate electricity.Coal's Present. it is even more prevalent as a source of fuel. If you use electricity. chances are that you are a coal consumer. Although coal may not be as visible today as it was around 1900. About 56 % of the electricity used in this country is coal-generated electricity. . Coal production has increased by more than 70 % since 1970.
In addition. medicines. . cement. fertilizers. Methanol and ethylene. paper. are used to make products such as plastics. to name a few. and metal products. ceramics. Electricity generation is just one use of coal in the United States. which can be made from coal gas. manufacturing plants and industries use coal to make chemicals. and tar.Coal's Present.
and the steel industry uses coke and coal by-products to make steel for bridges. Certain industries consume large amounts of coal. including Canada. Japan.Coal's Present.S. concrete and paper companies burn coal. For example. buildings.-mined coal is exported to some 40 countries. . and western European nations. About 9% of U. and automobiles.
computer networks. in addition to the many existing ways to use coal. This is promising because. . Products from coal may soon be part of communications and transportation systems. and even space expeditions. if it continues to use it at the same rate as today.Coal's Future The United States has a 300-year supply of coal. the future holds new methods and potential for growth.
Compare these energy costs per million British thermal units (Btus): •Coal—$1.30 Although coal is widely used for electricity generation in the United States and in countries throughout Europe. there will likely be a significant increase in the use of coal for electricity generation in countries such as China and India.Coal's Future Coal will likely continue to be an important source of electricity generation because it is more abundant and cost-effective than oil and natural gas. .45 •Natural gas—$4.20 •Oil—$4.
. new technologies will continue to enhance our ability to identify the shape and composition of untapped coal reserves. Core samples and information about the layers of overburden (the topsoil.Coal's Future In addition to these new and increased uses of coal. and other layers of earth and rock covering the coal bed) can be analyzed before the expensive process of coal removal begins. New technologies will also continue to improve the effects of the production and use of coal on the environment. subsoil.
Since 1990. Environmental Protection Agency's Coalbed Methane Outreach Program seeks to work with coal companies to reduce methane gas emissions associated with coal mining.2 Billion cubic feet.• For example.S.8 Billion cubic feet to 37. . the U. methane recovered and used productively at coal mines has increased from 13.
1 billion tons. . The United States has about a 245-year supply of coal. Coal generates about half of the electricity used in the United States. of the world's coal supply—second only to China. or 1. if it continues using coal at the same rate at which it uses coal today. More than 2 million acres of mined land have been reclaimed over the past 25 years—that's an area larger than the state of Delaware.Fast Facts about Coal The United States produces about 20%.
But Wyoming is the top coal-producing state— it produced about 400 million tons in 2004. The average coal miner is 50 years old and has 20 years of experience. is used as filler for tennis rackets.Fast Facts about Coal Montana is the state with the most coal reserves (119 billion tons). Texas is the top coal-consuming state. . coal deposits contain more energy than that of all the world's oil reserves. Coal ash. a byproduct of coal combustion. U. golf balls.8 tons of coal each year.S. Each person in the United States uses 3. It uses about 100 million tons each year. and linoleum.
Origin of Coal .
Accumulation of plant debris 3. Transformation of vegetable matter into coal. . Accumulation of vegetable matter 2.Genetic aspects of coal 1.
Accumulation of vegetable matter • The presence of various plant structures as seen under the microscope has proved beyond doubt that coals are formed from plant remains. • The several kinds of coal represent different degree in the chemical decompostion and physical alteration of the original plant material. . • Coal is formed from the remains of plant that once flourished in some areas of the earth where climate was favourable for the luxuriant growth of flora.
3 9.2 5.7 1.0 84.0 35.5 1.400 .0 57.5 0.0 5.000 17.0 1.400 13.8 Oxygen % 43.000 29.8 Nitrogen % 1.000 35.0 93.2 2.9 Calorific value (Kilo Joule/kg) Range between 14.000 35.0 65.• The change in chemical composition during the various stages in the formation of coal from the parent organic debris are: (TABLE-1) Carbon % Wood Peat Lignite Bituminous coal Anthrocite 50.400 20.5 28.0 6.3 2.5 Hydrogen % 6.000 35.800 23.000 29.
Accumulation of Plant debris There are two existing theories on the accumulation of vegetable matters. • ―in situ’ theory • ―drift” theory .
.―in situ’ theory • Considered that old forests or marshes due to disturbances on the surface of the earth were buried at the place of their growth under a cover of sediments. • Upright fossil tree trunks or fossil roots found in coal seams suggest growth in the original position of the forest and support this theory. • In course of time due to overburden pressure and temperature it was transformed into coal.
sand or clay in coal. when it acted as soil. • The constituents (alkalies. • The occurrence of fireclay bed underlying a seam further supports the in situ theory providing evidence that the forest grew on it. . the ash % is also low. • Formed due to accumulation of plant materials in situ are fairly constant in composition over wide areas. • There is also a general absence of detrital material.• The coal seam frequently rests upon a bed of fireclay. lime and iron oxide) which act as flux in plants that grew on it.
conglomerate or shale. • Seat earths are often absent in the coal seams produced by drifting of plant material and seams lie directly on sandstone.―drift’ theory • Vegetable matters are shifted from the place of their origin by running water or glacier and accumulate in deep lake. upright tree trunks are absent. estuary. . river valleys and afterwards are covered with sediments like sands or clays.
• As a result the ash contents are high in coals formed due to accumulation of drifted vegetable material. particularly a high amount of detritus material such as sand or clay in the coal seams.• Because of the drifted nature of accumulation of vegetable matter the resultant coal seam shows wider variation in composition. . • The growth of peat has been found to be highly variable which depends largely upon the climate of the region.
• It has been shown that the annual growth rate of swamp peat in the temperate zone is about 0.5 to 1 mm. In tropical areas it has been found to grow at a rate of 3-4 mm/year i.e. 1 m in 300-400 years (Stach et al, 1982). • The rate of composition from peat to lignite to bituminous coal has been suggested to be in the proportion of 6:3:1. • This point that 1 m of peat gives 20 cm of bituminous coal (Stach et al, 1982).
Transformation of vegetable matter into coal
It is a very complex process, which occurs in two distinct stages 1. Biochemical stage and 2. The geochemical (dynamochemical) stage, which is designated as coalification process.
Biochemical stage: • During the initial stage of biochemical phase the decomposition and degradation of plant material take place due to atmospheric oxidation by fungi and also by aerobic bacteria. • In nature, the accumulated plant material subsides under its own weight. At this stage anaerobic conditions prevail and anaerobic bacteria take part in decomposing and degrading the plant material at a slower rate. • The accumulated vegetable matters are covered by clay or sands brought mainly by the running water.
• In the near shore environment the sea may be flooded in and a marine band may eventually form. • The accumulated vegetable matters are subsequently transformed into coal by pressure (compression) and temperature. • Depending on the pressure and temperature, wood is transformed into coal in various stages in a series:
Wood peat lignite bituminous coal anthracite
. contribute significantly in the formation of coal. two substances-cellulose and lignin that predominate in plant structure and make up the entire composition of wood. hydrogen and oxygen.Coalification • The progressive change in the composition of organic material in the formation of coal (W-P-L-B-A) is called coalification. • Chemically. • Both cellulose and lignin are complex. high molecular weight compounds made essentially of carbon. As it occurs the coal is said to increase in maturity or rank.
• After peat is buried and compacted the % of oxygen is progressively decreased with coalification. but the % of hydrogen does not vary greatly until coal attains 92% C. • As oxygen content is decreased the % of carbon is increased. • The decrease in oxygen occurs due to loss of water and carbon dioxide. • After about 92% C the ultimate lowering of hydrogen % results due to loss of methane. .
• Over 92% carbon the coals are simply noncaking. • Between 75-85% C there is the maximum development of caking properties which characterizes coals as prime Coking (G5 to G11).• Generally. The leading theories are : . coal remains non-caking up to 75% carbon coal are medium caking (Gray-King Coke type varies from A to G). • There are various theories to explain the physical and chemical changes during coalification and thereby different properties of coals. • Between 90-92% coals are considered as weakly caking (A to G5).
Parr (1909) proposed further the mechanism of formation of bituminous coal from ligno-cellulose as follow: 3 C12H18O9 ® C22H20O3 + 5 CH4 + 8 CO2 + CO + 7 H2O Bituminous coal . Regnault (1905) based on analysis of mine gases postulated the following mechanism: (C6H10O5)4 ® C9H6O + 7 CH4 + 8 CO2 + 3 H2O Cellulose Bituminous coal Parr (1906).Mechanistic theories Workers have contributed to explain the chemical change during coalification. explained the mechanism of conversion to lignite and bituminous coal by the following equation (C6H10O5)5 ® C20H22O4 + 3 CH4 + 6 CO2 + CO + 8 H2O Cellulose (C6H10O5)5 ® C22H20O4 + 5 CH4 + 8 CO2 + CO + 10 H2O Cellulose Since bituminous coal is a further stage of the metamorphosis of lignocellulose.
According to him. 3 Texture 4 Chemical structure .Cellulose and lignin theory Bone (1918) explained the physical changes that occurred during heating of coals. (TABLE-2) Characteristic Properties of Cellulose and Lignin Property 1 Effect of Heating 2 Solubility in alkalies Cellulose Chars and then burns directly to CO2 and H2O Insoluble Fibrous (C6H10O5)n Six Carbon atom straight chain structure with four OH groups Lignin Softens and melts and finally decomposes Soluble Waxy and resinous (C6H10O5)n Six Carbon atom phenolic ring structure with methoxy group and glycerol side chain. coal contains about 7% cellulose and about 25% lignin.
• According to Bone plant materials underwent geochemical changes due to the weight of the overlying burden pressure and temperature due to depth. .• Bone (1918) utilized these differences in properties of cellulose and lignin to explain the variation in swelling and coking properties with rank of coal.
f). 3.Coalification concept of Mazumdar (1972) According to Mazumdar there are three broad but distinct phases in the coalification path marked off by two landmarks on transition points. e.5% d. The phases are: 1. The first phase: Evolution of low rank coals including lignites brown coals (C 62 – 83. one at about 83.f).5 – 92% d. The first phase: Evolution of semi-anthracites / anthracites (C 92 – 96% d.m.g.. . The first phase: Evolution of higher rank coals (C 83. This is evidence when atomic H/C ratios are plotted against the carbon content.m.f).m. 2.5% and the other at about 92% carbon rank levels.
Classification of Coal .
and international coal classification is used. • The objective of coal classification is to predict the behaviour of unknown coals. • But for international trade. • Also classification is used for the selection of coals for utilization in different inustries. . • The coal classification varies from country to country.• Coals are classified or graded for various purposes. • Mostly coals are bought and sold on the basis of coal classification or grading.
dry.fixed carbon and calorific value are the other parameters. .• Regnault Gruner-Brne classification (1874) – scientific classification – elementary composition and its oxygen content. • Seyler’s Classification (1900) – elementary composition – Carbon and Hydrogen. • International classification of coal (1956) – volatile matter (dry and mineral matter free basis) and caking properties. mineral matter free volatile matter and Gray-King Coke type. groups and subgroups. • The North American (ASTM) classification – volatile matter. The different varieties of coals have been divided into Classes. • British coal classification . • Fraser’s Classification (1877) – Fuel ratio into four groups.
COAL CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION • Direct and indirect utilization of coals for production of energy and chemicals as well as for smelting of base metals is the foundation upon which our interest in classifying this resource is built. classification is a difficult task that is both time-consuming and expensive. heterogeneous nature and the variety of coals used throughout the world. • However. . because of their complex.
. many of the systems in use today were derived specifically from a need to identify quality coals for coke making. • In fact. availability or some combination of these factors has always been one of the driving forces behind the development of classification systems. whether by quality.• Identification of the most advantageous raw material. and in that respect only classify a relatively narrow range of coals. cost.
coals are grouped according to particular properties as defined by their "rank" (degree of metamorphism). constitution and fundamental properties follow the approach that any sound classification will identify all coals for all potential industrial uses. rank is a fundamental concept that involves a qualitative expression of the coalification sequence and is universal to all classification schemes. "type" (constituent plant materials) and "grade" (degree of impurities and calorific value). • Of these. . • Generally.• Other systems that have been developed to address the scientific need to understand the origin.
• As demonstrated in Figure 1. a coal's type and grade influence many of the measured rank parameters.• Coalification is a term that describes the maturation of plant tissues from peat through different stages of lignite/brown coal. but unfortunately there is no single property that changes uniformly over the complete range. many chemical and physical properties change during this progression. • Furthermore. subbituminous and bituminous coals to anthracites and meta-anthracites. .
• The types of analytical procedures needed to characterize and classify coals can roughly be divided into those that describe chemical composition/properties. petrographic composition and those that describe mechanical/physical properties. like coke making. . • Some of these procedures are basic to the evaluation of all coal materials. whereas others are employed in the evaluation of their use in specific processes.
.• Classification of coals requires some methodology for measuring their chemical. a variety of standard analytical procedures are available world wide from reputable standards organizations. physical and industrial properties. • For this purpose.
the Association Francaise de Normalisation (AFNOR). etc. • Because these organizations may support different standards for the same test.• Some of the more familiar ones include the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). the standard practice used always should be identified. the British Standards Institution (BS). but more importantly the procedures described in these standards should be followed to the letter. the Standards Association of Australia (AS). . the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
heat value. Gt. VM is used as a main parameter. Britain) classification. VM and Gray-King Coke Type have been used. . calorific value and moisture have been taken into consideration.The parameter or criteria used for classification varies in different countries. For example: In German and American Standard Testing Materials (ASTM) classification. In India Coal Classification. In the NCB (National Coal Board.
mineral-matter-free basis and volatile matter and fixed carbon on a dry. yield of ash and total sulfur must be measured to obtain the correct basis of comparison. • This approach uses standard methods of measuring and reporting the calorific value on a moist. . mineralmatter-free basis to classify coal rank.a) Rank • The classification system used in North America and that is fairly universal is maintained by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and designated D388. • Implicit in this characterization is the fact that the amount of moisture.
Some of the Parameters Used by ASTM for the Classification of Coals by Rank .Table 3 .
• Table 3 defines the rank classes and groups with regard to the appropriate ranges of calorific value. . such as moisture and maximum vitrinite reflectance. whereas Figure 1 demonstrates how these values change with increasing metamorphism and compares them to other rank measuring parameters. volatile matter and fixed carbon.
Volatile matter content on the other hand is quite variable until medium volatile rank and then changes sufficiently to become a good measure of the degree of coalification through anthracite coals. . calorific value varies linearly with increasing rank from sub-bituminous to medium volatile bituminous rank and then becomes unreliable.Figure 1 also helps to explain why the ASTM method employs different parameters to classify coals. For example.
Vitrinite is that component of coal principally derived from woody tissues and.• Another very important rank parameter that is useful in the characterization of coking coals is the measurement of the mean maximum vitrinite reflectance. i. • The technique measures the amount of incident light reflected from a polished surface of the main component of coal..e. persistently changing throughout coalification and is particularly important for accurately measuring minor differences in those coals used for coke making. at least in coals from North America. . high volatile A bituminous through low volatile bituminous. represents the dominant component. this analytical technique is sensitive. • As shown in Figure 1.
• However. because volatile matter is dependent on both rank and composition. . • Volatile matter and maximum vitrinite reflectance are important values used to determine the worth of coking coals.• Rank is the most fundamental concept relating both coalification history and utilization potential of a coal. coals of different composition may be assigned to the same rank value even though their levels of maturity may differ.
coal is composed of the sum of all the organic vegetable matter preserved and buried as peat. • Changes in the chemical and physical properties of whole coal are the summation of changes to the coal constituents.b) Type • As discussed previously. . • There are three main groups of materials that constitute coals and that are used to define coal type.
• These material groups identified under an optical microscope in reflected white light are referred to as vitrinite. . • The three maceral groups are characterized by materials that belong together because of their similar origin or mode of preservation as well as by their gross chemical composition. liptinite and inertinite and are composed of individual constituents called macerals.
Typically. They are characterized as having higher hydrogen content than the other macerals. spores. • Liptinite group macerals are derived from plant resins. . cuticles and algal remains that are fairly resistant to bacterial and fungal decay. this material contains relatively more oxygen than the other macerals at any given rank level. particularly at lower rank. • The vitrinite group macerals are usually the most abundant maceral group occurring in higher rank coals. vitrinite group macerals are derived from the humification of woody tissues and can possess remnant cell structures or may appear structureless.• In general.
• The inertinite group macerals are derived mostly from woody tissues.• However. • By medium volatile rank a further decrease in hydrogen and volatile content occurs which makes them nearly indistinguishable from vitrinite. plant degradation products or fungal remains. and are characterized by a high carbon content resulting from thermal or biological oxidation. • Inertinite group macerals are found in variable abundance in coals. but are characteristically higher in those from the Southern Hemisphere. . at the boundary between subbituminous and bituminous coal there is a marked decrease in their volatile content and increase in carbon.
during heating in a reducing atmosphere. as they do not possess or have only limited thermoplastic properties and volatile contents. devolatilize and then solidify to form the porous. • Inertinite macerals are basically inert during the carbonization process. vitrinite macerals constitute the principal reactive components of a coking coal. • That is. carbonaceous matrix of a metallurgical coke. • Liptinite macerals are also highly reactive during coke making. but owing to their higher volatile content they contribute more to the by-products than to the coke product.• With regard to coke making. vitrinite will become plastic. .
. an understanding of the composition or type of coal can be very important to evaluating the quality and value of a coking coal. • Small-size inertinite particles thicken the walls between vacuoles in coke thus improving the overall strength of the coke.• However. they do serve a very important function as a filler phase for the other reactive macerals of coal. • Consequently.
c) Grade • Coal grade is a term used to indicate the value of coal material as determined by the amount and nature of ash yield and the sulfur content following the complete oxidation of the organic fraction. • Calorific value is one of the principal measures of a coal's value as a fuel and is directly influenced by mineral impurities. .
• Alkalis-containing compounds derived from coal minerals can contribute to excessive gasification of coke in the blast furnace and attack of blast furnace refractories. thus reducing its quality for steelmaking.• Coal mineralogy is not only important to combustion characteristics. whereas phosphorus and sulfur from coal minerals can be passed on to the hot metal. . but also as materials that can be passed on to secondary products such as metallurgical coke.
• Mineral matter may occur finely dispersed or in discrete partings in coal and is generally grouped according to origin. . • However. • A certain amount of inorganic matter and trace elements are derived from the original plants. after consolidation of the coal by movement of solutions in cracks. the majority is implaced either during the initial stage of coalification (being introduced by wind or water to the peat swamp) or during the second stage of coalification. fissures and cavities.
• Mineral components of plant origin are not easily recognized in coals because they tend to be disseminated on a submicron level. • The primary mineral components incorporated during plant deposition tend to be layered with and intimately intergrown with the organic fraction. fractures and cavities. • Therefore. secondary minerals may be more readily separated (cleaned or washed) from the organic matrix to improve the value of the material. . • whereas the secondary mineral matter tends to be coarsely intergrown and associated with cleat.
. the unique property that sets coking coals apart from other coals. is caking ability.d) Industrial Properties • Most of the ancillary mechanical and physical tests used to characterize coals and often included in classification schemes. were developed in support of efforts to identify coals for coke making. • As stated earlier.
Audibert-Arnu Dilatometer and Gieseler Plastometer. • Laboratory tests such as the crucible or free swelling index. Gray-King coke type. .• There has been much effort to characterize the swelling. Roga Index. provide some means of evaluating the relative strength of swelling. contracting and thermoplastic properties of coals using techniques that allow for the comparison of different coals and how these properties influence coke production and quality. degree of contraction and how fluid a coal will become under heating conditions similar to those encountered during coke making.
(HGI). coals of very low and very high rank are more difficult to grind than middle-rank coking coals. Grindability changes with coal rank. • Ease of grinding is an important economic consideration for all industrial processes.e. i..• Another important mechanical test designed to provide a measure of the ease of pulverization of a coal in comparison with other standard reference coals is the Hardgrove grindability index. .
• Of these factors. changes in inherent moisture content cause the most variation in the HGI index. particularly for lower rank coals.• Other factors that influence HGI include the presence of different maceral components. . the presence of even small proportions of hard minerals (like quartz) and variations in moisture content.
Indian Coal Grading .
4 Showing Grading of Indian Coking Coals .• Different grading systems for coking and non-coking coals of India have been adopted. Coking coals are: Nomenclature Steel Grade I Steel Grade II Washery Grade I Washery Grade II Washery Grade III Washery Grade IV Ash Ranges Not exceeding 15% Above 15% but not exceeding 18% Above 18% but not exceeding 21% Above 21% but not exceeding 24% Above 24% but not exceeding 28% Above 28% but not exceeding 38% Table.
• Non-coking coals are graded according to moisture. • The grading of non-coking coals as per Government of India notification No. ash and useful heat value (UHV).5 . 1993 and subsequent revision with effect from 17th June 1993 is given in Table . dated 16th February. UHV can be calculated from moisture and ash percentage as follows:UHV = 8900-138 (ash and moisture %) Kcal/kg. 280112/9/92 CA.
Exceeding 1300 but not exceeding 2400.) Exceeding 6200. Arunachala Pradesh. Exceeding 4200 but not exceeding 4940. Nagaland D E F G C D E F G Exceeding 4940 but not exceeding 5600. Exceeding 5600 but not exceeding 6200. Meghalaya. Exceeding 4940 but not exceeding 5600. Meghalaya. Arunachala Pradesh. Exceeding 3360 but not exceeding 4200./kg. Exceeding 3360 but not exceeding 4200. Exceeding 2400 but not exceeding 3360. .Cal. Exceeding 5600 but not exceeding 6200. Coal ( other than long flame) produced in all states except in the state of Assam. Exceeding 1300 but not exceeding 2400. Exceeding 4200 but not exceeding 4940. Exceeding 2400 but not exceeding 3360. Exceeding 4940 but not exceeding 5600.Table – 5: Grading of Non-coking coal Type Grade A B C D Useful Heat Value (K. Nagaland and Singareni collieries in the state of Andhra Pradesh A B C Exceeding 6200. Exceeding 4200 but not exceeding 4940. Long flame coal produced in collieries in all the states except in Assam.
TYPES OF COAL .
Depending on the origin. coals have been grouped in to (a) Sapropelic coal. and (b) Humic coals. (c) Unusual coal types: .
waxes or fats and therefore richer in hydrogen than the humic coals. local in extent and occur at the top of a coal bed. • These coals are essentially non-banded in character and are rich in resins. • Two types of Sapropelic coals have been recognized: (i) Boghead (Torbanite) (ii) Cannel. .(a) Sapropelic Coal: • Sapropelic coals are formed by putrefaction process. • They are usually lenticular in shape.
geological processes apply pressure to peat . which is transformed successively into the following ranks: .(b) Humic Coal: • Unlike Sapropelic coals the humic coals are banded in character and the constituent bands are distinct in their physical appearance. • In humic coals. • Over the time. the remains of wood and bark predominate. • Humic coals have a series of rank starting from wood-peat-lignite-bituminous coal to anthracite.
.also referred to as brown coal. is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for steam-electric power generation. • Sub-bituminous coal .• Lignite .whose properties range from those of lignite to those of bituminous coal and are used primarily as fuel for steam-electric power generation. Jet is a compact form of lignite that is sometimes polished and has been used as an ornamental stone since the Iron Age .
• Bituminous coal . used primarily for residential and commercial space heating. used primarily as fuel in steamelectric power generation.a dense coal.the highest rank. • Anthracite . usually black. often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material. sometimes dark brown. with substantial quantities also used for heat and power applications in manufacturing and to make coke . .
a mixture of blue. • These coals consist almost entirely of cuticles (outerskins of plants). • The coals being carboniferous in age are of lignite rank. . • Humic coals may show bright variegated colors like peacock. Miners call this as Peacock coal. green yellow or red. Paper coal look like accumulated sheets of soiled light brown semitransparent papers.(c) Unusual coal types: • These coal types include paper coal and colored coal.
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