Lesson Two: Introduce yourself

Lesson goals
§ 41. Lesson goals. In this aral you can expect to learn to: a. Introduce yourself, again b. Use word linkers c. Refer to persons and things as subject: ang-case d. Count to 10 e. Say palá, namán

Si Amado Si Nenè Siná Amado at Nenè

Pronunciation: word linkers
§ 42. Linkers. Use linkers to connect words in the following situations:

a. b. c. d. § 43.

Situation Adjective + noun Noun + adjective Pronoun + noun Pronoun + infinitive

Halimbawà Ma-ba-ít na batà Ba-tang ma-ba-it I-yóng a-nák Gus-tó kong ku-ma-in

Linkers. Linkers make spoken Filipino sound better. People may understand you, if you omit linkers; but they will understand you better if you use them. • • Add –ng to a word ending in a vowel Add –g to a word ending in n.


A word ends with a consonant Do Add -ng Add –g Use the separate word na Halimbawà Ta-yo: ta-yong la-hát A-kin: a-king la-ru-án Ma-bilís: ma-bi-lís na sasak-yán Mga halimbawà: a. You hear ka-ni-lá + ba-hay no-ón + ling-gó ma-hi-rap + ma-mà a-min + ba-yan ma-ta-ás + pu-nò mu-ra + sa-pa-tós ma-ba-ít + ba-tà ma-si-pag + na-nay ta-o + gu-tóm ba-tá + bu-sóg i-yóng da-mít a-king co-che ma-sa-ráp na u-lam You say ka-ni-láng ba-hay no-óng ling-gó ma-hi-rap na ma-mà a-ming ba-yan ma-ta-ás na pu-nò mu-rang sa-pa-tós ma-ba-ít na ba-tà ma-si-pag na na-nay ta-ong gu-tóm ba-táng bu-sóg Pronunciation: stress and accent . A word ends with n c. e. i. A word ends in a vowel b.14 LEARN FILIPINO If a. g. Wa-lâ a-kóng pu-pun-ta-hán. h. Ma-ra-mi ka-míng ga-ga-wín. c. f. as in the examples: Mga halimbawà: i-yó + da-mít a-kin + co-che ma-sa-ráp + u-lam a. Sa-áng pa-a-ra-lán pu-ma-pa-sok ang mga a-nák mo? § 44. j. c. d. Pagsásanay 2-1. Modify the following phrases by adding the correct linker. b. b.

d. Malumay. that is. the accents are part of the written language. the words in each class have the same word stress and accent as the class name. Mark the last vowel with a grave accent (`). you would know how to pronounce words from the context. Place the stress on the second to the last syllable. Stress and accent. That is a glottal stop. c. All Filipino words fall into one of these four classes: a. All words in the maragsâ class have the circumflex accent. all words in the malumay class have no accent.ARAL DALAWÁ (2) 15 § 45. There is no accent mark. Thus. d. If you grew up with the language. Name of stress ma-lu-may ma-lu-mì ma-bi-lís ma-rag-sâ Name of accent mark no accent grave accent acute accent circumflex accent Accent mark ` ´ ˆ § 46. Malumì As in malumay.” Note that accent marks are only placed on vowels. stop the vowel sound short in the throat. § 48. All words in the malumì class have the grave accent. In practice. however. Consonants never have accent marks. you would find the accents useful aids to pronunciation. Each class name is an example the stress and accent of the words in the class. b. Technically. gu-mi-sing bu-ma-ngon mag-a-ga-han mag-bi-his to to to to wake up get up eat breakfast change clothes § 47. § 49. a-wà b. All words in the mabilís class have the acute accent. b. emphasis in malumì words is on the semifinal syllable. ha-lim-ba-wà mercy example . The difference is the glottal stop. Practice by saying the following out loud: a." The first syllable is stopped short in the throat. If not. It's like saying "uh-oh. Malumì words are like that. called "pahiwà. Listen to the instructor or recording and practice saying the following: a. There are four classes of word stress and accent. c. many Filipino writers omit the accents.

waló. dalawá. ku-sà § 50. So it is no longer a malumì word. pitó. instead it becomes a mabilís word. Maragsâ. stop the vowel sound short in the throat. Notice that all maragsâ words end in a vowel." The first syllable is stopped short in the throat. That is a glottal stop. c. we add –ng to the end of a malumì word. maragsâ words are like mabilís. called "pahilís. Mark the last vowel with a circumflex accent (^). So it is no longer a maragsâ. tatló. d. Maragsâ and word linkers. Following the rules for word linkers given above.16 LEARN FILIPINO c. Isá. d. Following the rules for word linkers given above. Maragsâ words are like that. But doing so would make the word end in –g. b. siyám. limá. bu-ma-bâ hi-yâ hu-mandâ hu-min-tô to go down shame. a-li-sín lu-ma-bás lu-ma-ngóy mag-da-sál to to to to remove go out swim pray § 51. Maragsâ words are like malumi." Practice by saying the following out loud: a. The difference is the glottal stop. apat. except they end in a glottal-stopped vowel. called pakupyâ. instead it becomes a malumay word. So. . Ki-kò d. Like mabilís. b. Notice that all malumì words end in a vowel. Mark the last vowel with an acute accent (´). except their emphasis is on the last syllable. It's like saying "uh-oh. Practice by saying the following out loud: a. a boy’s name willingly Malumì and word linkers. face to get ready to stop § 53. we add –ng to the end of a maragsâ word. sampû § 52. c. emphasis in maragsâ words is on the last syllable. anim. But doing so would make the word end in –g. Mabilís. Place the emphasis on the last syllable.

-. How are you. we da li rì. n. n. star .Ma-bu-ti namán. Count to 10. n.. d. *** Grammar: persons and things: ang-case § 57. Hello.Ku-mus-tá ka. I’m Charina. nose 9 ma tá.Ku-mus-tá. 7 8 Noun and pronoun cases. Listen and speak. b. 2 da-la-wá 7 pi-tó 3 tat-ló 8 wa-ló 4 a-pat 9 si-yám 5 li-má 10 sam-pû Pagsásanay 2-2. Charina. e. To help us learn the ways in which nouns and pronouns are used. n. c. How would you say the following in Filipino? Answer a.. ten fingers7 seven samurai one nose8 two eyes9 three stars10 § 56.. finger i long.ARAL DALAWÁ (2) 17 Useful phrases: count to ten § 54. akó si Charina. eye 10 bi tu win.. Here are our first numbers: 1 i-sá 6 a-nim § 55. then repeat out loud: -. Listen to the recording or the instructor. Charina? -.

Si-lá ay ma-tu-tu-lu-ngin. which tells how a noun or pronoun is used in a sentence. d. There are three cases of nouns and pronouns: a) ang-case. The sa-case is the case of place.” . Na-i-pag-bi-li i-tó nang san-da-ang-pi-so. the case of the subject of the sentence. In the following sentences. as: a) owner. It was sold for $100. § 61. si Charina siná Amado at Nenè. b) direct object and c) doer of the verb’s action § 58. c. I-ni-han-da ni-ná Kikò at Charina ang mesa. The first of three cases of nouns and pronouns is the ang-case. we use "si" or "siná" in front of the name(s). Marker si si-ná Examples si Amado. Kikò and Charina washed their hands.18 LEARN FILIPINO learn a language tool called case. the phrases in boldface are in the ang-case: a. Nag-hu-gas ng ka-may si-ná Kikò at Charina. b) sa-case and c) ng-case. When we refer to a person or persons by name as subject(s) of a sentence. Nouns and pronouns in the ng-case serve. § 59. The angcase is the case of the subject of the sentence. They are very helpful. ang-case. b.11" Marker Examples 11 Remember. Consider the boldfaced phrases in the sentences above. The table was set by Kikò and Charina. in various situations. you understand the ang-case. “mga” is pronounced “ma-nga. Do you agree that the boldfaced phrase is what is being talked about in each sentence? If so. siná Kikò at Charina § 60. Nouns that are not names of persons in the ang-case are marked by "ang" and "ang mga.

g. ang mga dela Cruz Figure 2-3: ang-case noun markers § 62. These pronouns serve as subjects of their respective sentences. 2) the other does not (the exclusive form). The kausap is the person to whom are speaking.) you (pl.) he.) they Tayo and kamí. f. ang case Personal pronouns. Following are the ang-case personal pronouns. a.ARAL DALAWÁ (2) 19 Marker ang ang mga Examples ang bahay. e. . the kausap is not included. she we (incl. d. § 63. When you use the exlusive form. b. Filipino has two forms for “we”: 1) one includes the person to whom you are speaking (the inclusive form). the kausap is included. c. ang Pilipinas ang mga bahay. When you use the inclusive form. Pronoun a-kó i-káw si-yá ta-yo ka-mí ka-yó si-lá I you (s.) we (excl.

I-káw ay ma-gan-da. There is an exception to the rule to distinguish between names of persons and all other names. Terms of kinship may be regarded as both personal and non-personal. Ma-gan-da ka. c. ang na nay or si na nay (mother) si a te or ang a te (older sister) ang ta tay or si ta tay (father) si lo lo or ang lo lo (grandpa) . You are eating. Ku-ma-ka-in ka. d.20 LEARN FILIPINO Figure 2-4: Kausap § 64. b. You are good-looking. § 65. I-káw ay ku-ma-ka-in. Thus. you may say: a. Ikáw becomes ka when the predicate comes before the subject. Ikáw and ka. Terms of kinship.

. I-káw pa-lá. -.ARAL DALAWÁ (2) 21 Figure 2-2: ang-case personal pronouns § 66. put in front of the name of a woman to whom you are not related. b. Saling. My slippers are here ( wasn’t expecting them to be here. Listen to the recording or the instructor.Ku-mus-tá pô kayó? -.Ah. Filipino a. Nan-di-to pa-lá ang a-king chine-las. Si Au-ring pa-lá ang na-na-lo. si-lá pa-lá si A-ling Sa-ling. § 68. I am pleased (to meet you). 12 Comment It’s you! It was Auring that won (I wasn’t expecting that). n. this is my mother. c. Ms. *** § 67. Listen. palá. Say palá to indicate somebody or something that you were not expecting.A-ling12 Sa-líng. Listen and speak. then repeat out loud: a ling..) Listen and speak. then repeat out loud: -. -.I-ki-ná-ga-ga-lák ko pô. title of respect for a woman. Ang chi-ne-las ko pa-lá ay nan-di-to. itó pô ang na-nay ko.

Ma-buti na-mán. .Ku-mus-tá ka. considering .Kikò. kumustá ka? § 70. *** Ikáw. Listen and speak. In Filipino we distinguish between names of persons (personal nouns) and all other nouns (non-personal nouns).” Personal and non-personal nouns. Manila. and it names an unspecified person. Namán has many meanings. -. Listen and speak. house. Jolibee and Limtuaco. then repeat out loud: -. Namán. . The following are common nouns: girl. A common noun does not begin with a capital letter. place or thing. . do you know Doris? -. a friend. place or thing.A-kó na-mán si Nenè. OK lang akó. ki-la-lá mo ba si Doris? Leila. Here it means “and. Doris? -.Leila. § 73.A-kó si Amado. table.22 LEARN FILIPINO § 69. -. ball. a-king ka-i-bi-gan. then repeat out loud: § 72.” Mabuti namán means “fine. A proper noun is the name of a specific person. And I am Nenè. this is Pepe. The non-personal nouns include all nouns (both common and proper) that are not names of persons. I am Amado. such as Juan. *** § 71.” Previously you learned that namán also means “considering. Proper and common nouns. Kikò. i-tó si Pepe. In English we distinguish between proper nouns and common nouns. Listen to the recording or the instructor. Listen to the recording or the instructor. -. A proper noun begins with a capital letter. .

: i-hi-na-han-dâ. numeral. n.OK lang. Vocabulary.. Susan? I’m fine. pron.. n. marker. and ba. finger i han dâ. i-hi-nan-dâ. b. j. house. How are you? (respectfully) Just fine. to prepare s. this is Kikò. v.. ng-case. Pepe. How would you say the following in Filipino? Answer a. Good morning (respectfully). Kikò is eating. d.Ku-mus-tá ka. before ang. o. my. a-king ka-pa-tid. Good evening (respectfully).. non-personal. conj.Pepe. question marker. Good afternoon.. Pepe. -.. ang-case. n. two da li rì. at. pron. I am Steve. ang-case.t. How are you. one i tó. home bi tu wín.f. marker. e. I-káw. i. s. i-ha-han-dâ i lóng.. s. c. presence in sentence makes sentence a question ba hay.. -. Joe. Pepe.. Pagsásanay 2-3. Vocabulary § 75. this. n. n.. my brother. slippers da la wá. numeral. ku-mus-tá ka? *** § 74.ARAL DALAWÁ (2) 23 -.. f. star chi ne las. i-tó si Kikò. This is my dad (respectfully). g. impers. In this aral you met the following words and phrases: a kin. nose i sá. . h.

marker. ta tay.. me.... pers. marker. ang-case. to eat: ku-ma-ka-in.: na-i-pag-bi-bi-lí. numeral.. sibling ki la la nin. pron.. ng-case.. you.24 LEARN FILIPINO ka i bi gan. to win: na-na-na-lo. ma-na-na-lo ma tá.b. here nang. ka-ka-in mag hu gas.f.: ki-ni-ki-la-la. ng-case nan di to. s. marker. eye ma tu tu lu ngin. a. v. ku-mus-tá ka? *** -.. n. n.f. hand ka pa tid... to be acquainted with s. And invent your own! -. kiki-la-la-nin ko. Go ahead and practice these conversations out loud. ku-ma-in. n. table mga. n.Ma-bu-ti na-man. Philippines pi tó. ng-case ku ma in. a. adv. non-personal.f. adj. a. v. ni ná.. adj. they si ná. numeral. -.f. or conj. 100 pesos si lá.t. all cases mo. ng-case. mag-hu-hugas ma i pag bi lí.. n. ten san da ang .. helpful me sa. plural marker. numeral. marker of mild surprise Pi li pi nas.. three Kayó palá si Aling Salíng. n. ma-i-pag-bi-bi-lí ma na lo. 3rd person pl. pl. o. pa lá. n. friend ka may. n. pron. adv. nag-hu-gas. (various meanings.. By now you can expect to engage in conversations like the following. i-káw.. see text) ng. to be able to sell s.... na-i-pag-bilí. father tat ló. to wash: nag-hu-hu-gas.. na-na-lo.. o... Conversations.. seven sam pú.pi so. pron. v. s..f. na ri tó. ki-ni-la-la. . v.Ku-mus-tá. marker..Ma-gan-dáng u-ma-ga. § 76.. v. personal.

namán Answers to exercises § 78. Say palá. again Use word linkers Refer to persons and things as subject: ang-case Count to 10: isá. ka-ni-lá + ba-hay b. ki-la-lá mo ba si Mameng? -.OK lang pô.ARAL DALAWÁ (2) 25 -. Checklist.Ku-mus-tá ka. si Aling Nenè. sampú. waló. -.I-káw pa-lá si Pepe. Ku-mus-tá pô kayó? *** -. anim. Introduce yourself.Ma-gan-dáng u-ma-ga rin.Nenè. a-king ka-i-bi-gan.Pepe. i-tó ang a-king na-nay. Pepe. b. siyám. dalawá. -. Answers to Pagsásanay 2-1. tatló. -. c. no-ón + ling-gó You say kaniláng bahay noóng linggó . Nenè *** Review and checklist § 77. pitó.I-náy. e. apat. *** -. i-tó pô si Pepe. d. Mameng? -. as in the examples: You hear a. Ku-mus-tá ka. limá. In this aral you expected to learn to: a. Modify the following phrases by adding the correct linker.Ma-bu-ti na-mán.

. g. Pepe. (respectfully). How are you. Good morning (respectfully). n. Kikò is eating. nose ma tá. Magandang hapon. e. b.. 13 14 15 16 da li rì. Joe. Susan? I’m fine. Itó pô ang aking tatay. Good afternoon. n. Good evening (respectfully). finger i long. c. d. Pepe. I am Steve. n. b. c. Magandang gabí pô.. i. e. Answers to Pagsásanay 2-3. j. Joe. You hear ma-hi-rap + ma-mà a-min + ba-yan ma-ta-ás + pu-nò mu-ra + sa-pa-tós ma-ba-ít + ba-tà ma-si-pag + na-nay ta-o + gu-tóm ba-tà + bu-sóg You say mahirap na mamà aming bayan mataás na punò murang sapatós mabaít na batà masipag na nanay taong gutóm batang busóg Answers to Pagsásanay 2-2. e. Si Kikò ay kumakain. star . d. § 79. f. g. n. Magandang umaga pô. Answer Akó si Steve. h. eye bi tu win. How would you say the following in Filipino? a. Kumusta ka. Mabuti naman. ten fingers13 seven samurai one nose14 two eyes15 three stars16 sampúng dalirì pitóng samurai isáng ilóng dalawáng matá tatlóng bituwín § 80. How would you say the following in Filipino? Answer a. This is my dad. d. f. Susan.. h.26 LEARN FILIPINO c.

j. . Congratulations! See you in aral 3. Answer Kumusta pô kayó? OK lang. How are you? (respectfully) Just fine.ARAL DALAWÁ (2) 27 i. We’ve reached the end of aral 2.

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