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Fire Hydrant Network Analysis using Software
J.Selvakumar www.cholarisk .com Introduction
The pipe distribution networks are the essential part of the fire water hydrant system. The optimal designing of the pipe network has a vital part in delivering water at required flow and pressure for fire fighting. However, there are some scenarios where outlet pressure is not sufficient for supplying the required demand. These cases may include unplanned system maintenance, fire pump failure, sudden leak or failure of any part of a large pipe distribution networks. The consequences can be severe if any fire accident happens during such failures. Hence, a robust and efficient fire water distribution network is a must to mitigate such failures. This can be accomplished by doing a pipeline network analysis using hydraulic network modeling software like KYPIPE 2008. Also, these failure scenarios can be simulated in the software model to assess the impact and suggest solutions to mitigate the same. This article deals with the importance of using software for doing fire hydrant network analysis.
Fire Water Network
A fire water network can be defined as a set of links interconnected through nodes. In a water distribution network system, the pipes are connected to form a complex loop configuration which is created by using nodes and pipe links. Pipes are links that convey water from one point in the network to another. The node is a junction where two or more pipes combine or a point where water consumption is allocated and defined as demand. Function of these elements (links and nodes) is to lead water from the network source, which is a water reservoir, to the extremes points of the network, called hydrants.
The NFPA, OISD and TAC standards requires that the hydraulic design of the pipe distribution network meet the required flow and pressure for a hydrant or a sprinkler system. The network analysis is done during the design stages of the system and before envisaging any alteration/ modifications of the pipe network. There are many accident case histories wherein the fire could not be put under control due to lack of the fire water supply because of failure of pipelines in the network. In addition, factors like pipeline corrosion and ageing of the water pipelines add to the cause of pressure loss and hence it is necessary to have robust and efficient fire water network.
The need for the fire water network analysis is to determine the water flow in each line and pressure in each node as per the standards.
Cholamandalam MS Risk Services Ltd
(An ISO9001:2000 Certified Company)
Flow in a water pipe network. for a steady state system.Fire Hydrant Network Analysis Analysis of Water Distribution Pipe Network Pipe network problems are usually solved by numerical methods using a computer since any analytical solution requires the use of many simultaneous equations. and the Newton Raphson method. The directions of flows Q1. conservation of mass at nodes and conservation of energy around the hydraulic loops. Cholamandalam MS Risk Services Ltd (An ISO9001:2000 Certified Company) 2 . Three simple methods used to solve pipe network problems are the Hardy Cross method. satisfies two basic principles. 1) Flow Continuity Equation Consider the junction J shown in figure where five pipes are interconnected and there is an outflow demand. The mass balance equation for each node can be represented as: Q1 + Q2 + Q5 = Q3 + Q4 + Q6 this means that at any junction or node “ The sum of the inflows entering the junction equals to the sum of the outflows leaving the junction ” and this is the Flow Continuity Equation : Σ Inflow = Σ outflow 2) Energy Equation The second governing equation is a form of conservation of energy that describes the relationship between the energy loss and pipe flow. while the directions of flows Q3. The Hardy Cross method that involves a series of successive approximations and corrections to flows in individual pipes is the most popular procedure of analysis. This relationship hold good for the entire network and for individual nodes. Conservation of mass states that. the linear theory method. Q2and Q5 are entering the junction J. the flow into and out of the system must be same. Q4 and Q6 are leaving the junction J.
The layout of the pipe network should be determined. the total friction and fitting head losses from (a) to (b) are hL. The characteristics of all the network components should be determined from the source to the area to be protected 3. the pressure and elevation head and the mean velocity at (b) are Pb. the energy equation is reduced to : In other words.e. “the difference in hydraulic head between any two junctions within any pipe system equals to the net head losses between the junctions”. the network systems are already designed and the system is to be analyze at different operating conditions ( i.Fire Hydrant Network Analysis Assume that the flow direction in the pipe is from junction (a) to (b) and its value is Q. at different demands ) in order to determine the capability of the networks to deliver the required pressures and flows. all heads in are in meter. the pressure and elevation head and the mean velocity at (a) are Pa . za and Va respectively. General procedures of the network analysis The distributing network is either designed new or recommend an improvement or rehabilitation to the existing network system. zb and Vb respectively. In this case. For this system: Since the flow and pipe diameter are the same at junctions (a) and (b) thus the kinetic head at (a) equals the kinetic head at (b). The general procedures of analyzing any pipe networks are: 1. The two basic hydraulic equations are applied: Flow Continuity Equation :- Cholamandalam MS Risk Services Ltd (An ISO9001:2000 Certified Company) 3 . the pump’s head is hp. 2.
When the Flow Continuity Equation and Energy Equation are applied. Cholamandalam MS Risk Services Ltd (An ISO9001:2000 Certified Company) 4 . accessing and running associated engineering analysis engines and presenting results in a variety of ways. end nodes and internal nodes. Over view of Software : Pipe2008 is a powerful graphical user interface for laying out comprehensive pipe system models. leakage. In more complex systems. the solution is quite complicated because it involves simultaneous consideration of continuity equation. pipes might be in combined interconnected loops in ways that makes it difficult to determine even the direction of flow in any given pipe. The Need for Software for Hydraulic Analysis Network: In a simple hydraulic system consisting of one pipe or combination of pipes in which flow directions are all known unambiguously. ageing etc) where it becomes difficult to do manually. pump failures. The conditions in such a system are usually solved with specialized computer program designed specifically to meet the purpose which makes the comparison of various scenarios are easy.Fire Hydrant Network Analysis Energy Equation:- 4. energy conservation and head-loss function. where the pipe network is complex. a system of non-linear equations that is solved by trail-and-error manual computations or by using computer software that solve such equations. Using this approach only a few simple steps are required to develop and modify pipe systems and define the associated data. In addition scaled grid lines may be used. The models are entirely made up of pipe links. the sheer number of equations that needed to be satisfied to determine the complete flow condition is daunting. Using a scaled background map or grid lines will allow pipe links to be precisely scaled (length calculated) as they are created. In such a system. the unknown parameters are more and manual calculations becomes cumbersome. Also. corrosion effects. Pipe2008 can input a background map and drawings in a variety of vector and raster formats. In addition. the software can simulate the real time scenarios (like pipe break.
Pipe System Components Data regarding the physical characteristics of the component in the pipe system are to be obtained prior to creating model for computer analysis. EPANET etc. check valves and regulating valves in a direct and very efficient manner. importing/ exporting data and drawings from/to AutoCAD. are available. deluge. any component of fittings which produces significant head loss (such as elbows.. Method of Analysis Modeling is a process of representing the piping system in a manner required for engineering calculations to be made. more user friendly features like graphic user interface. When compared to these softwares the KYPIPE has unique provision to model the hydrant system. Hence the KYPIPE software is considered for illustration. The KYPIPE engine for the piping system hydraulic calculations is designed to calculate the steady state flows in all pipes and pressures for all the nodes. Also. valves (including check valves. Parameter Calculation Cholamandalam MS Risk Services Ltd (An ISO9001:2000 Certified Company) 5 . regulating valves).) flow meters and storage tanks. Pipenet.Fire Hydrant Network Analysis The HydrauliCad. Pipe sections Pumps Check valves Regulating valves Variable pressure supply Minor loss components Storage tanks Pressure switch Flow meters Pressure and Flow specifications To describe the boundary pressure and flow specifications the data like flows entering or leaving the distribution system at the junction nodes (demands). sprinkler and water spray system in the same software. The KYPIPE software can be applied to any liquid and designed to accommodate any pipe configuration and a wide variety of hydraulic components such as pumps. excel. This approach accommodates elements such as closed lines. orifices etc. KYPIPE software is based on solving the set of mass continuity and energy equations utilizing efficient linearisation schemes to handle non linear terms. WaterCad are the other equivalent software for hydraulic network analysis.
represent a dead end or a connection to a supply. pressure regulating valve settings. and active elements. A pipe link may be comprised of one or more pipe segments. although they do provide added modeling capabilities. and minor loss coefficient Network Elements: Pipe distribution systems are constructed using the following two elements: (1) Pipe Links. A pipe segment is a straight run of pipe with no internal nodes. Capabilities and Unique features of the Software: Cholamandalam MS Risk Services Ltd (An ISO9001:2000 Certified Company) 6 . metered connections. From the modeling viewpoint. The parameters include: Design parameters like: pipe diameter. (2) Nodes. pump power. reservoirs. For non-directional end nodes (junctions. in-line meter. and check valves) are devices or model elements located in a pipe link. Calibration parameters like: pipe roughness node demand. pump head. Internal nodes are located between two pipe segments. such as junctions and connections to supplies. Pipe links are uniform sections of pipes (same basic properties) following any route. storage level. and valve characteristics Operating parameters like: pump speed. End nodes are located at each end of all pipe links. Internal nodes are located between two pipe segments of identical properties. variable pressure supplies. tanks. The intermediate node is usually a point where a directional change occurs while the other internal nodes (valve. End nodes represent both passive connections. pipe links can be connected in any manner. control valve setting and flow or pressure specification. Nodes are located at the ends of pipe segments and include all distribution system devices that are modeled. End nodes are located at the ends of all pipe links and can connect other pipe links. One or more pipe links can connect to a common end node. internal nodes are essentially passive devices (they do not directly affect the calculation). such as pumps. hydrant. and sprinklers).Fire Hydrant Network Analysis The KYPIPE provides a fast and accurate calculation of a variety of design. operating and calibration parameters for pipe distribution network.
The refinery has an above ground fire water pipeline network for about 65 km in length of various pipe sizes. Various elements like pumps. The software provides the results in various forms like velocity. and sprinkler are included in the model as per the requirement. due to Cholamandalam MS Risk Services Ltd (An ISO9001:2000 Certified Company) 3 3 7 . Case Study: A case study of fire water network analysis study done in a refinery may be considered as an example. The system has 18 main pumps of 610 m /hr and 410 m /hr capacities with 10 KSC delivery head. Model is simulated and the results are obtained for the evaluation. directions of flow Can give results in terms of pressure . The refinery had expanded its capacity over a period of 20 years and augmented the fire protection system without predicting the implications to the existing fire water network. After representing the entire network element. There are four pump houses located at various locations in the refinery. volume and velocity and contours Can be used for other liquids also Extended Period Simulation for water reservoir level possible Selection of pumps can be made based on the system demand Provide flexible choices for displaying results Simulation of the Fire Hydrant Network Using KYPIPE 2008: The pipe network comprising of the nodes and pipe links are modeled with scaled background map/ drawings. Nearly 1000 number of double headed hydrant are installed is in the fire water distribution system. hydrants. demand for the nodes. Adding to this. flow. reservoirs. The model is checked for any errors and missing parameters. operation and calibration parameters (as defined in the pervious paragraph) are given as input to the model. head.Fire Hydrant Network Analysis Provides powerful graphical user interface for laying out comprehensive fire system models Can input a back ground map and drawings in a variety of vector and raster formats Using a scaled background map or grid lines will allow the pipelines to be precisely scaled Can calculate the actual simulations for pump and valve conditions/ positions Provides the necessary data for standard pipes Simulation of age based performance is possible Pump head and flow will develop the performance curve for the pump Operation of required number of water outlets and developing results possible Simulation of leaks/ pipe breaks in the network system and developing results Options for selection of friction loss equations Can take care of elevations. loss for pipes and pressure. the design.
number and capacity of hydrants/ sprinklers are given as input and modeled in the software. Impact of the pipe leak and pipe rupture Impact of pump failures Impact of closure of a isolation valve Impact of ageing/ corrosion Implications of changing the existing MS pipes to cement lined pipes For instance. pressures at each node (hydrants). Here there are hydrants. The assessment of whether the fire protection system is meeting the OISD standards is analyzed by using KYPIPE 2008. pipe sizing (diameter & length). There are two parallel pipes running for providing fire water supply which is as the result of addition of the LPG spheres in the area. water monitors and deluge system are provided. the LPG sphere storage area (see figure below) can be taken for this study. number and capacity of reservoir. number and capacity of fire pumps. Cholamandalam MS Risk Services Ltd (An ISO9001:2000 Certified Company) 8 . pipe roughness. The pipeline layout. velocity and direction in each pipe segment. The typical output shows the flow.Fire Hydrant Network Analysis ageing and the nature of fire water used the pipe got corroded causing pipe rupture and major leaks at many locations. pipe fittings. The network analysis was done to address the problems like. Whether the required pressure and flow are met at the remotest hydrant/ deluge system when there are two simultaneous fire scenarios as per OISD requirement.
The fire hydrant system was redesigned by increasing the pipe size. [UNIT: pipe flow is given in (l/s). node pressure is given in (Kpa)] From the analysis we can infer that delivery pressure at all hydrant outlets is not meeting the OISD requirement of 7 KSC (686 Kpa). removing the parallel pipes with all the leaks arrested. Cholamandalam MS Risk Services Ltd (An ISO9001:2000 Certified Company) 9 .Fire Hydrant Network Analysis Figure shows a typical fire hydrant system for a LPG sphere. The simulation was done again.
reports etc providing flexibility and through understanding of the pipe network. The internal cement lining of the pipelines to prevent the corrosion of pipelines The software modeling has provided a robust and efficient method of simulating a complex fire water network where the various real time scenarios can be effectively predicted. Conclusion: From the above case study the following recommendations are suggested: Even though additional hydrant pipelines were laid to meet the augmented LPG storage. Hence the new pipeline layout is modeled to the get the adequate pressure. The analysis clearly shows that the all the hydrants are having the delivery pressure of greater that 686 Kpa or 7 Kg/ cm2 and required discharge. contours. Cholamandalam MS Risk Services Ltd (An ISO9001:2000 Certified Company) 10 . Minimum number of pumps required to be operated for meeting this fire scenario .Fire Hydrant Network Analysis Figure shows the typical output with pressure contours for the LPG sphere area after pipe layout modification. the existing fire water network is not meeting the required pressure and flow as per OISD standards. The software provides various options for input to the model and allows checking proper functioning of the system whether required pressure & flow are achieved. The results can be obtained in the form of graphs.
125. Larry W Mays.. M. “Water Distribution Network Design Optimization: Simulated Annealing Approach”. 115. and Sousa. Walters An Evolution Program For Pressure Regulation In Water Distribution Networks”. J. Vol. pp. Cunha. “Optimization Model for Water Distribution 5. 4. Godfrey.E. System Design”. Vol. Mckinnon. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. Lansey.. 6. Dragan A.W. (1999). Hydraulics for Fire Protection. No.Fire Hydrant Network Analysis Reference: 1. “A. Keith Tower. Fire Prevention Handbook. www. 10. Centre for Systems and Control Engineering. “Water Distribution System Handbook”. Mc Graw Hill Handbooks. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management. L. K.com Cholamandalam MS Risk Services Ltd (An ISO9001:2000 Certified Company) 11 . National Fire Protection Association 3.. 4. and Mays. Hickey. pp.kypipe. Savic. Gordan P. Harry E. 8. National Fire Protection Association 2. UK 7. 215-221.C. No. 1401-1418. (1989)..
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