Lecture Third Year: Geotechnical Engineering

Stratification 1. The formation, accumulation, or deposition of material in layers;
specif. the arrangement or disposition of sedimentary rocks in strata.

2. Stratified Rocks are those Derivative or stratified rocks may be fragmental or
crystalline; those that have been mechanically formed are all fragmental; those that have been chemically precipitated are generally crystalline; and those composed of organic remains are sometimes partially crystalline.

3. Rocks arranged in layers are called Stratified Rocks We conduct Stratometric Surveys to study the in situ orientation of a core
sample can be reproduced on the surface.
Stratigraphy is a branch of geology which studies rock layers and layering (stratification). It is primarily used in the study of sedimentary and layered volcanic rocks. Stratigraphy includes two related subfields: lithologic stratigraphy or lithostratigraphy, and biologic stratigraphy or biostratigraphy. >>William Smith, known as the "father of English geology," created the first geologic map of England and first recognized the significance of strata or rock layering and the importance of fossil markers for correlating strata. Lithostratigraphy, or lithologic stratigraphy, provides the most obvious visible layering. It deals with the physical contrasts in lithology, or rock type. Key elements of stratigraphy involve understanding how certain geometric relationships between rock layers arise and what these geometries mean in terms of the depositional environment. Biostratigraphy is based on fossil evidence in the rock layers. Strata from widespread locations containing the same fossil fauna and flora are correlatable in time.

Rocks are very slowly. Earthquakes are the agents of brittle rock failure. rocks are colder and brittle and respond to large stresses by fracturing.Dip: As true dip is the steepest path down a planar surface. In the cooler parts of Earth. rocks can bend and flow. Under high temperature and pressure conditions common deep within Earth. but continuously moving and changing shape. .

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