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Measurement in Science and Technology
We all make use of measurements in our daily life. A milkman measures milk, a shopkeeper measures rice or pulses, a farmer measures his field, a tailor measures the cloth before tailoring and so on. Everybody measures something or the other with different types of devices. It is seen that if we know what to measure and how to measure it, we can do many things well in life. Measurement is one of the basic life skills necessary for everyday life. It is also useful and essential in the learning of science and technology. There is a constant need for measurement in our everyday life. Let us find out little more about the process of measurement. What does this process of measurement involve? Which tools are used for accurate and precise measurement? On which factors are measurement techniques based? This lesson will make you aware of several such aspects of measurement. In this lesson you will study about different measurement systems including the ancient system of measurement and the SI units. You will also learn about the methods of measurement of various physical quantities like length, mass, time, area and volume. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • cite examples of the uses of various parts of our body and senses to measure length; • state the limitations of the use of body parts and senses for measurement and justify the need for a standard to measure anything exactly; • describe the Indian and various other measurement systems used in the ancient times; • define a physical quantity with examples; • differentiate between fundamental and derived units; • write S.I. units of different fundamental physical quantities; • use multiples and submultiples of different units; • define the least count of a measuring instrument; • name the various devices and instruments used to measure length, mass and time stating the standard in each case; • measure area of regular and irregular figures; • measure volume of regular and irregular solids.

: 4 : Measurement in Science and Technology

1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF MEASUREMENT 1.1.1 Body parts and senses used for measurement Since ancient times, people used their senses and body parts to measure various things. They did this because it became necessary for them in their daily life to deal with other people. Let us find out how senses and body parts help us in measurement. (a) Use of our body parts and senses for measurement We have five senses, which help us to find out about the things around us. These senses are seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting and touching. For example, if we see a tall and a short building or a tall and short person we can feel the difference in their heights. Similarly, if we touch a body we can feel the hotness or coldness of the body. Thus, our senses do help us to guess or estimate the height, length and hotness or coldness of a body and other things around us. Here, estimation means a rough measurement made by our senses. (b) Use of body parts for measurement In ancient days, long before measuring instruments were invented, people actually used different parts of their body to measure length. Figure 1.1 shows various parts of our body, which were used and can still be used to carry out various measurements. But since these measurements are dependent on the size of the person, they may vary from person to person. The length of the cubit, for example, depends on the arm length of the measurer. Thus, cubits had different lengths. To have a better understanding, let us perform an activity.

Thumb

Han

d

First finger Hand span

Fig. 1.1 Use of body parts for measurement

ACTIVITY 1.1 Aim : To understand the accuracy in the use of body parts for measurement. What is required? A ruler, a measuring tape. What to do? ! With the help of a ruler, measure the length of various parts of your body like the arm or the palm, which are normally used for measurement. ! Repeat the measurements for your friend or for a younger brother and sister also. You can use a measuring tape also for this activity. ! Compare the measurements. What do you observe? You will find that there is a difference in the measurement of your body parts with those of your friends.

Measurement in Science and Technology : 5 :

(c) Limitations of our senses and body parts Though we use our senses and body parts for various measurements, we cannot trust them to measure exactly and accurately. Can you depend on your eyes to judge accurately the height or lengths of different objects? Look at figure 1.2a. Which circle is larger-A or B? Well, both are of the same size. Larger circles around the central one make it appear smaller. Small circles around the central circle make the other appear larger.

(b) Estimating the length of a line segment

A

B

(a) Estimating the size of the circle

Fig. 1.2 Limitations of our senses and body parts in measurement

There are many more such instances where objects can fool our eyes. Now look at figure 1.2b and tell which line segment is larger. Verify your estimation by measuring each line segment with the help of a scale. In the above mentioned cases we tried to guess the length or size by seeing i.e. tried to give an estimate, which may or may not be correct. Thus, the use of senses or body parts for measurement does not provide accuracy of measurement, ! reliability of measurement, ! uniformity of measurement, The limitations of the use of senses and body parts have made us to develop some devices and instruments for accurate measurements.
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1.1.2 Indian measurement system a) Indian measurement system in the ancient period Measurement plays an important role in our lives. We have been using measurement right from the pre-historic time. Let us have a brief look into the historical development of measurement system in India. In ancient periods, the lengths of the shadows of trees or other objects were used to know the approximate time of the day. Long time durations were expressed in terms of the lunar cycles, which even now is the basis of some calendars. In India, excellent examples of measurement practices in different historic periods are available. Our ancient literature reveals that in India different types of measurement practices were followed in different periods. For example, about 5000 years ago in the ‘Mohenjodaro era’, the size of bricks all over the region was same. The length, breadth and width of bricks were taken as a standard and were always in ratios of 4:2:1. Similarly around 2400 years ago during the Chandragupta Maurya period there was a well-defined system of weights and measures. The government at that time ensured that everybody used the same weights and measures. According to this system, the smallest unit of length was 1 Parmanu. Small lengths were measured in anguls. For long distances Yojana was used. One yojana is roughly equal to 10 kilometres.

Relation between various units of mass used during the British period 8 Ratti 12 Masha 5 Tola 16 Chhatank 40 Seer 1 Maund CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. It was widely used by goldsmiths and by practitioners of traditional medicine system in India. also had well-defined units for the measurement of the mass and volume. pounds. particularly in the rural areas. c) Indian measurement system during British period In order to bring about uniformity in the system of measurement and the weights used. and yard were used to measure length whereas grain. during the period of Moghul Emperor Akbar. Raatti is a red seed whose mass is approximately 120 mg. Ayurveda. The essential units of mass used in India included Ratti. Masha. Tola. Chhatank. foot. the gaz was used as the unit of measuring length. houses. the gaz was widely used as a unit of length till the metric system was introduced in 1956. Seer and Maund. Each gaz was divided into 24 equal parts and each part was called Tassuj. You should know that. ounce. The measurement system was strongly followed to ensure the proper quantity of medicine for particular disease. gaz is being used as a unit of length. Even today in many parts of our country. wells. Different units of measurements used in the period of Chandragupta Maurya 8 Parmanus = 1 Rajahkan (dust particle from the wheel of a chariot) 8 Rajahkans = 1 Liksha (egg of lice) 8 Likshas = 1 Yookamadhya 8 Yookamadhyas = 1 Yavamadhya 8 Yavamadhyas = 1 Angul 8 Anguls = 1 Dhanurmushti (Reference: Kautilaya’s Arthashastra) b) Indian measurement system in the medieval period In the medieval period also the measurement system was in practice. gardens and roads. The British rulers wanted to connect Indian weights and measures to those being used in Great Britain at that time.: 6 : Measurement in Science and Technology The Indian medicine system.1 = = = = = = 1 Masha 1 Tola 1 Chhatank 1 Seer 1 Maund 100 Pounds troy (exact) . This system was extensively used to measure land pieces. a number of efforts were made during the British period. etc. As described in Aini-Akbari by Abul Fazl-i-Allami. for construction of buildings. During this period the inch. These units and weights were used in India till the time of Independence in 1947. were used to measure mass.

If there were no common units accepted by all.C. for each measurement a standard is chosen. You will study the details of the modern system of measurement. if an engineer measures the length of a road that connects two cities. electric current. has its origin in the French Revolution. 2. Such units are much more essential in scientific measurements to facilitate communication of information at international level. If you are asked to measure the quantity of a given amount of milk. and to bring about a worldwide uniformity in the measurement system. luminous intensity and amount of substance. .Measurement in Science and Technology : 7 : 1. Every measuring instrument has to be compared with that standard. Name the smallest unit of length during the Chandragupta Maurya period. In the process of measurement the accepted reference standard which is used for comparison of a given quantity is called a unit.2 THE MODERN MEASUREMENT SYSTEM In order to overcome the limitations of senses and body parts. density etc. In fact. 1. Likewise. They realized that the length of the arm actually did not matter as long as people of Egypt were concerned. temperature. 3. The present measurement system. Any measurement of a quantity includes a reference standard or unit in which the quantity is measured and the number of times the quantity contains that unit. you will express the volume of milk in some accepted units of volume. However. The problem of measuring lengths exactly was first solved by the Egyptians in 3000B.1 Fundamental quantities and units You have read that measurements are concerned with quantities like length. Thus. when we say that the length of a rod is 4 metres. Then they made measuring sticks exactly of the same length as that of standard cubit.2. They did this by inventing the standard cubit. the need for exact measurement was felt. The units of the fundamental or basic quantities that are independent of each other are called fundamental units. For this. Out of the different physical quantities. life would be miserable. 1. These fundamental physical quantities are length. all measurements in any system are based on the units of the basic or fundamental physical quantities. the rod is four times the metre. mass. in the following sections.2. That is really how measurement is carried out today. time. Such a procedure makes life more comfortable. List out our body parts normally used for measurement. a standard of measurements had to be developed which everybody everywhere accepts. Such quantities are considered to be the basic or fundamental physical quantities.2 The SI units Scientists have developed and used several systems for expressing the units of physical quantities. Any quantity which can be measured is called a physical quantity. Metre is the standard length that is adopted as a standard for comparison while measuring length. In this way they made sure that the cubit was the same length all over Egypt. time. he should express the distance in an accepted unit of length. which is accepted world-over. In which period was ‘gaz’ used as a unit to measure length? 1. which is the unit of length. mass. there are seven physical quantities in terms of which other physical quantities can be measured.

1: SI units and their symbols Physical quantity Length Mass Time Temperature Amount of substance Electric current Luminous intensity Unit metre kilogram second kelvin mole ampere candela Symbol m kg s K mol A cd Perhaps you may be confused by mass and amount of substance and also with luminous intensity as given in Table 1. which are given in Table 1. Units of length still in use in USA 1 mile = 8 furlongs 1 furlong = 220 yards 1 yard = 3 feet 1 foot = 12 inches 1 yard = 0. while a mole is the amount of any substance equal to its molecular mass. This system has seven basic units for seven physical quantities. The mass of a body is the amount of matter contained in the body. 1 mole of HCl = 36.61 km The guiding principle in choosing a unit of measurement is to relate it to common man’s life as far as possible.: 8 : Measurement in Science and Technology Keeping in view the importance of the proper units for measurement. the General Conference added another basic unit to the SI units i. The international system of units. there have been attempts over centuries in several developed civilizations to suggest standard units of measurements at international level. Ampere) system of units and adopted a system based on six basic units.e.54 cm (exactly) 1 mile = 1. The yard and mile as units of length are still in use in USA.1. As an example. take the unit of mass as kilogram or the unit of .1. mole for the amount of substance. Table 1. Kilogram.46 x 2 = 72.. are commonly used for all scientific purposes. the XIII General Conference on Weights and Measures rationalised the MKSA (Metre.9144 m (exactly) 1 inch = 2.46 g 2 moles of HCl = 36. known as SI units. It was called the Systeme Internationale de unites known as SI units in all languages. In the year 1967. The fundamental units in different systems are different. Second.92 g Luminous intensity is the amount of light emitted by a point source per second in a particular direction. In 1971.

which is named as the atomic clock. e) Electric current: The SI unit of electric current is the ampere (A). The XIII General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1967 defined one second as the time required for Cesium–133 atom to undergo 9192631770 vibrations. One ampere is defined as the magnitude of current that when flowing through two long parallel wires.15 K at the triple point of water (0o C). f) Amount of substance: The SI unit of amount is mole (mol). New Delhi. 1. The national prototype of India is the Kilogram no 57. separated by 1 metre in free space. This is preserved at the National Physical Laboratory. In 1875. In 1983 the metre was redefined as the distance travelled by light in vacuum in a time interval of 1/ 299792458 seconds. and has its lower fixed point corresponding to 273. we would be unnecessarily using big numbers in our daily life. One unit of thermodynamic temperature (1 K) is equal to 1/273. b) Length: The SI unit of length is metre. Prototype kilograms have been made out of this alloy and distributed to member states. may be very slowly varying. This standard was abandoned for practical reasons. one second is equal to 1/86400th part of the solar day. It is for this reason that the basic units of measurements are very closely related to our daily life.2. This standard was established in 1887 and there has been no change because this is an unusually stable alloy.15 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water. the new metre was defined as the distance between two lines on a Platinum-Iridium bar stored under controlled conditions.3 Standard units of fundamental quantities Once we have chosen the fundamental units of the SI. But it is known that the rotation of the earth varies substantially with time and therefore. This time of rotation is divided in 24 parts. Such standards had to be kept under severe controlled conditions. a) Mass: The SI unit of mass is kilogram. The time interval second was originally defined in terms of the time of rotation of earth about its own axis. The thermodynamic scale on which temperature is measured has its zero at absolute zero. The definition has its roots in a device. We buy cloth in metres or tens of metres. Thus. d) Temperature: The SI unit of temperature is kelvin (K). Earlier the metre (also written as meter) was defined to be 1/107 times the distance from the Equator to the North Pole through Paris. This definition establishes that the speed of light in vacuum is 299792458 metres per second. In our day-to-day business we buy food articles in kg or tens of kg. kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in France. If gram had been chosen as the unit of mass or millimetre as unit of length. One kilogram is the mass of a particular cylinder made of Platinum–Iridium alloy. c) Time: The SI unit of time is second. and their accuracy is also limited for the present requirements of science and technology. each of length equal to 1 m. we must decide on the set of standards for the fundamental quantities. Even then their safety against natural disasters is not guaranteed. One mole is defined as . An hour is divided into 60 minutes and each minute is subdivided into 60 seconds. results in a force of 2 x 10-7 N between the two wires. each part is called an hour. the length of a day is a variable quantity.Measurement in Science and Technology : 9 : length as metre.

as there are atoms in exactly 0. volume is equal to length x breadth x height of the object.3: Some commonly used derived units . the unit of volume = unit of length x unit of breadth x unit of height = metre x metre x metre = (metre)3 Thus. of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 x 1012 hertz and that has a radiant intensity of 1/683 watt per steradian in that direction. the unit of area will be equal to the product of the unit of length and the unit of breadth (remember that breadth is also length). The derived units of other physical quantities are also found in the same way. 1. For example. g) Luminous intensity: The SI unit of luminous intensity (I) is candela (Cd). Table 1. are known as derived units. They are given in the Table 1. Such units are called derived units. Unit of area = metre x metre = (metre)2 Thus. Therefore. which are obtained by the combination of fundamental units. The candela is defined as the luminous intensity.2.: 10 : Measurement in Science and Technology the amount of any substance.2 : SI units and symbols of some derived units Physical quantity Area Volume Density Velocity Acceleration Force Work SI Unit square metre cubic metre kilogram per cubic metre metre per second metre per square second kilogram metre per square second (also called Newton) kilogram square metre per square second (also called Joule) Symbol m2 m3 kg/m3 m/s m/s2 kg m/s2 (called N) kg m2/s2 (called J) There are some other commonly used derived units with special names. the units. Table 1.2. Thus. the unit of area is m2. Some of the commonly used derived units are given in Table 1. area can be expressed in terms of the basic unit of length.012 kg of C-12.4 Derived units The basic units or the fundamental units are independent of each other. Similarly. The units of all other physical quantities can be expressed in terms of these basic units. as may elementary units. Therefore. which contains. as given below: You know the area of a surface is the product of length and breadth. in a given direction. the unit of volume is m3.3.

911 kg You will notice that it is not a convenient way to express the mass of earth or the mass of an electron. in powers of ten.5 Multiples and sub-multiples of units Sometimes the measurement of physical quantities can give very large or very small numbers.000.000001 = 10-6 .000. These are listed in Table 1. The abbreviations in common use are based upon the powers of ten as given in the Table 1.000.000 = 103 10.000. The smaller and larger units of the basic units are multiples of ten only. For example.000. It takes up space and time to read it. Solution: Given. Express it in powers of ten.000 = 105 1.4.4.2: Express the number 0.01 = 10–2 0.970.001 3 10 1000 Example 1. mass of ship = 900.000.00034 in terms of powers of ten.000. large numbers or very small decimals are expressed in an abbreviated form. Thus. 10 = Small quantities 1 = 100 0.000.000 = 104 100. These multiples or submultiples are given special names.Measurement in Science and Technology : 11 : Physical quantity Force Pressure Energy Power Special name Newton Pascal joule watt Symbol N Pa J W SI Unit kg m/s2 N/m2 Nm J/s 1.4 × 10 – 4 This concept has been used to express multiples and submultiples of basic units of −3 and.000. 103 = 10 ×10 × 10 = 1000 1 1 = = 0.001 = 10–3 0. Solution: 0.000.00034 = 3.0001 = 10-4 0. They strictly follow the decimal system.1 = 10–1 0. the mass of the earth and mass of the electron are found to be as follows: Mass of earth (M) Mass of an electron (me) = = 5.000 = 106 Thus.000. the mass of ship = 9 × 105 kg Example 1. Table 1.1: Suppose a large ship has a mass of nine hundred thousand kilograms.000 kg Thus.4: Representation of large and small quantities in powers of ten Large quantities 100 = 1 10 = 101 100 = 102 1. for convenience.000.000.000.000 kg 0.00001 = 10–5 0.2.

Represent 237 nm in metres. i.: 12 : Measurement in Science and Technology measurement – again for the purpose of convenience. prefix kilo always means 1000 whether it is kilometre (1000 m) or kilogram (1000 g). Let us consider a physical quantity. Measuring sticks with the same length as the standard metre have been made which we commonly call as the metre stick. 3. For example.2 1. But for accurate and precise measurement. the change from one unit to the another is very easy and it uses simple prefixes to denote multiples or submultiples of the basic units. What is the difference between mass and amount of a substance? 4. For example. 1.3 MEASUREMENT OF QUANTITIES We use measurements of different types in our daily life. metre. For example. kilowatt (1000 W) or whatever. Table 1. Let us study some of them. This one metre long stick is divided into 100 equal parts. say length. Thus.5: Prefixes for multiples and submultiples Name deca hecta kilo mega giga terra deci centi milli micro nano pico Symbol da h k M G T d c m µ n p Equivalent 101 102 103 106 109 1012 10–1 10–2 10–3 10–6 10–9 10–12 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. A list of prefixes for multiples and submultiples is given in Table 1. We know that its standard of measurement is metre. let us take the SI unit of length. the prefix centi always means 1/100 while the prefix milli always denotes 1/1000. we have to follow certain methods.5. Derive the unit of the following quantities: (i) Force = Mass × acceleration (ii) Pressure = Force/Area 5.e. What are the characteristics of a physical quantity? 2. This is the least count of the . into 100 centimetres. we measure its length and while buying milk or kerosene we measure its volume. Each centimetre is further divided into 10 millimetres. Differentiate between fundamental and derived units. Its multiples and submultiples would be: Multiple 1000 metres = 1 kilometre or 103 m = 1 km Sub-multiple 1/1000 metres = 1 millimetre or 10–3 m = 1 mm As the metric system uses the base 10. while buying cloth. the smallest division on a metre scale is 1 millimetre.e. Similarly. i.

If we have to measure a larger length. Different types of devices are used to measure lengths. Thus. such as length of a playground. Suppose we place the scale (ruler) in such a way that the two ends of the line segment coincides with 2. it lies beyond the 2 cm mark and is coincident with the second small division after it. you will use a ruler or measuring tape.2 cm A 1 2 B 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Fig. But to measure the diameter (thickness) of a wire. very important.2 cm – 2. We must always quote the result of a measurement only up to the least count of the measuring instrument used. a) Using a scale to measure length To measure the length of a given line segment AB (Fig 1. With repeated use. the length of the line segment is 4. we use a measuring . Then. A metre scale cannot measure lengths less than 1mm. it is not always possible to make the zero mark on the scale coincident with one end of the line to be measured. the method and the selection of proper measuring device for a particular measurement are also very important. 1. we must keep our eyes in front of and in line with the reading to be taken. A 1 2 3 4 B 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Fig. it is the difference between the readings on a scale at its two ends. the total length of the line segment is 2 cm + 2 mm = 2 cm + 0. In such cases.4. Besides.1 cm. you will require a screw gauge.2 cm = 2.2 cm That is. 1. 1. thus.0 cm and 4.4). For example. For example to measure the length of your table. In case of a metre scale. length is the distance between two points and it is measured in terms of metres. These devices had been made by comparing them with a standard length called standard metre. The metre scale must be so placed that its divisions are as close as possible to the line segment to be measured. Note the point where the other end of the line segment lies.Measurement in Science and Technology : 13 : metre scale. we keep the metre-scale with any of its divisions other than zero coincident with one end of the line. Suppose. the minimum or the least quantity that can be measured by a given instrument is called its least count.2 cm marks.1 Length and its measurement As we have studied in the last section.3 To measure the length of a line segment using a metre scale Remember that while looking at the reading on a scale. The standard metre is a fixed length decided by scientists and accepted by all. respectively (Fig 1. The least count of any measuring instrument is. the metre scale is kept along the line segment with its graduations parallel to it. the least count of a metre scale is 1 mm or 0.4 The length of a line segment is the difference between the readings on a scale at its two ends. the ends of measuring scale get somewhat worn-out and ill defined. Its zero end is made coincident with one end of the line segment.3).0 cm = 2. Since each of these marks is 1 mm.

15 m or 50 m long. and the time taken by it to cover that distance. The standard mass chosen by the scientists is called kilogram. This standard is used to compare the masses of unknown bodies. is an instrument used to measure the length or thickness of a solid body up to 0. 1. Vernier callipers. “How much stuff is there in it”? It means he is trying to find out the mass of the object. Sugar 1 Kg (a) ACTIVITY 1. we are required to measure very small lengths. we will measure the average speed of certain vehicle. A screw gauge as shown is Fig. if some body asks you to answer the question. For any object.7 (a) The shopkeeper’s balance (b) A modern balance (b) . say this book. As you have studied earlier in this lesson. N A A B B 0 D 5 E 20 15 10 9 G Q C D Fig. to measure the distance between two cities. We cannot use a metre scale for such measurements.2 Mass and its measurement Like length there are many other measurements. accurately However. etc.: 14 : Measurement in Science and Technology tape that may be 10 m. mass of a body is defined as the amount of matter contained in the body. What standard masses are used by shopkeepers to measure quantities? What do their balance look like? Have you seen a balance like the one in figure 1. say a car. the dimensions of fine machine parts.5.7(a) or 1. For example.5 Vernier callipers Fig. measuring instruments like the vernier callipers and the screw gauge are used.7(b). Sometimes.001 cm. say (less than 1 mm) like the diameter of a thin wire.1. For such distances. In order to measure the mass of different bodies different types of balances or scales are used.3.6.01 cm accurately. as shown in Fig 1. The most common is the one we see with the shopkeepers and vendors. To measure the thickness of a wire or a metallic sheet we require screw gauge.1. 1.6 Screw gauge To measure large distances like the distance of your school from your house. or distance between two cities or the distance between the earth and moon. is an instrument used to measure the length or thickness of a solid body up to 0. 1. each measuring instrument is limited to a certain accuracy of measurement which depends on its graduation. The product of the speed and time will give the required distance. which we make in our daily life by using different measuring standards and instruments. we use indirect methods of measurement.2 Fig.

to find the mass of a piece of gold or the . the pin. otherwise use little bits of atta or plasticine on the pans. Try and find out the amount of water loss when leaves dry up by weighing them when green and drying them on a hot plate and re-weighing. Pass lengths of sewing thread through the centre of the four sides. does not provide accurate measurement of masses that is needed.Measurement in Science and Technology : 15 : Aim : To make a sensitive balance to compare the masses of light objects. In some cases. What is required? A tall bottle like a squash bottle or an oil bottle. Fold the paper along the outline of the inner square. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Pin Stapil Straw PanFig. a few drinking straws. gum. Measure the drinking straw and find its mid-point. This balance can be used to compare the weights of small objects like paper clips and buttons.e. i. Balance the pin on a piece of small rubber (eraser) which is glued or fixed with cello tape to the bottle cap. however. Make a knot so that four stands are of the same length. sewing thread. Pan 1.8. two square pieces having each side about 15 cm in length cut from a sheet of a chart paper.1. pins. Pass a pin through this point. Draw a small square at a distance of 2 cm from the edges. Check to see if they are balanced. Tie the pans near the two ends of the straw in such a way that they are at equal distances from the mid-point. Fold again along dotted lines and fix the paper to outer side of the scale pan with gum. plasticine (or wet atta) What to do? ! ! ! ! Use the square papers to make pans as shown in Fig.8 Method to make a sensitive balance A shopkeeper’s balance. for example.

They did . 1. For example.: 16 : Measurement in Science and Technology composition of chemicals required to make aspirin.10 A sundial Time is measured in seconds (s). Figure 1. hours and days with stop watches and clocks. she is thinking of a measurement of the time interval between a first event (i. arriving Bombay). etc. It had an upright rod. Thus. “It took me 17 hours to travel by train from Delhi to Bombay”. 1. leaving Delhi) and a second event (i. 1. minutes (m).9 shows a physical balance.3. For accurate measurement of masses a physical balance is used.3 Time and its measurement Time is measured when you answer questions like. and were the shortest when the sun was directly overhead at noon.e. She may have measured this interval which is a time interval by looking at her watch when she departed and when she arrived.e. the world’s first timepiece – the sundial was made. Fig. Can you think of them? Fig. But the sundial had certain limitations. how long does it take to reach Delhi from Bombay? How long do the fruits last? When does the school start? All these questions relate to happenings of two events with a gap between them. Our early ancestors used the alternation of the day and night as a clock. people noticed that shadows were long in the morning and evening. Known masses from a standard box are used with this balance. if someone says. The sundial was a hemispherical opening in a block of stone or wood. The shadow of the gnamon travelled over the day.9 A physical balance 1. when we measure time we measure the interval of time between two events. Sundial Long long ago. telling the time of the day.10). Based on it. From these observations they learnt to tell the hour of the day. called gnamon fixed in the center of the opening (Fig.

e. As the time passes the spring uncoils moving the hour and minutes hands attached to it. Although. it tells us the time. Each swing is called one oscillation. The whole system was enclosed in a case and thus became the grandfather clock. from A to C and back to A. it was at A. With the advancement of science and technology and to meet the need of more accurate time measurement. and difficulty in movement from one place to the other. it moves form A to B.13 A pendulum clock oscillation. In this way it completes one full swing.12 A simple pendulum position is called the mean position. spring watches were discovered. The length of pendulum and the acceleration to gravity at a place determined the time taken in Fig. Pendulum clock The pendulum was used as a time controller in clocks.12). Galileo had invented the pendulum and noticed that the time taken by the weights hanging from a chain or rod to swing back and forth is exactly same amount of time. This Fig. quartz clocks and atomic clocks came into existence. but it had certain limitations like acquiring large space. I n the the due one Though with the discovery of pendulum clocks. which was regulated by a mechanism using a ‘natural’ period of oscillation. i. the time for one oscillation can be calculated. Thus. a Dutch scientist. This may be used as simple pendulum. (a) Stop Watch (b) Electronic Watch (c) Quartz Clock . 1656. you may count how long your pendulum takes to make 20 oscillations and then from it. 1. 1. For this. Once your pendulum has started swinging steadily you can use your stopwatch or a wristwatch with seconds hand to find out your pendulum’s time period. 1.: 18 : Measurement in Science and Technology Tie a small stone to one end of a long can be used as a string and hang it with the help of the other end to a firm support. Amplitude of a pendulum is the maximum distance the pendulum moves away from the mean position while it is oscillating. which is coiled tight by winding the spring. The time taken for one oscillation is called the time period of the pendulum. oscillates (Fig. When the pendulum was at rest. The distance from A to B or from A to C is called amplitude of the oscillation. Christian Huygens. made first pendulum clock. back to A. Therefore. Pull t h e stone gently to one side and let it go. Make sure that it Stone does not move in circles. Such watches have a flat steel-bound spring. The stone begins t o C B A move to and fro. time keeping became almost accurate. When it swings.

To measure areas. When a current is passed through the circuit. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. we often use the units cm2.3 1. 1 m2 = 10–6 km2 Now. Use these words to fill up blanks in the following paragraph. let us see. we have 104 cm2 = 1m2 and 1 km2 = 106 m2. This helps us to measure time. and it is abbreviated as 1 m2.e. or a circle.4 MEASUREMENT OF AREA The concept of area finds considerable use in our day to day life. the crystal vibrates at a regular frequency. Like every other physical quantity. the area of a figure can be defined as the surface enclosed by the figure or the extent of the surface of the figure.6: Formulae to calculate the areas of some geometrical figures Figure Area Rectangle length ×breadth . Similarly.Measurement in Science and Technology : 19 : Fig.6 Table 1. In one pan the _____________to be measured are placed. mm2. we need a unit of area also. a triangle. The quartz clocks lose one second in every 10 years. For example. “A balance has two_____________supported from a rigid_____________ At the center of the support there is a _____________which is free to move. which gives a general description of a balance. we have to consider the area of the top of the table while buying glass or mica for it. 1.14 Different types of clocks Quartz clocks Quartz clocks came into existence in 1929 when quarts crystal rings were used in the mechanical clock. The rings were connected to an electrode in a circuit. beam. 1. Why were the clocks of early times inconvenient to use? 1. how the areas of different types of figures are measured. Estimate the length of this page of your book in the following ways: (i) by just looking at it (i. Now. the farmer has to consider the area of his field while estimating about the crop yield and so on. Some of these are given in Table 1. km2. Also knowing that 100 cm = 1m.. The area of a square of side 1m is taken as SI unit of area. weights. 2. objects. the question arises what ‘area’ is? In fact. pointer. etc.4. You are given some words like pans. seeing) (ii) with the help of your fingers (iii) by using your ruler (in cm) 3.1 Areas of regular figures To measure the areas of regular geometrical figures like a rectangle. In the other pan _____________ are placed one by one to balance both the pans. But they became popular in 1970. we have well-known formulae. for its measurement. which is one square metre.

1. 1. While counting the incomplete squares. But the problem arises in the case of irregular figures. To Cube (side)3 measure smaller or larger volumes.15 Method to find the defined length. The total number of squares thus counted gives the approximate area of the given irregular surface in cm2.4. we count only those squares that lie half or more within the figure. an irregular figure does not have any Fig. How will you measure the area of the leaf of a plant? 4. By what factor will the area of a rectangle increase if all its sides are increased 3 times? 2.4 1. Then the area of each figure is calculated and added to find the total area. We cannot. In order to measure the areas of the irregular figures of very big size like field or playground. 1.6 MEASUREMENT OF VOLUME You would have seen that all the materials occupy certain space. you can easily calculate the area by finding the product of the two sides of the playground. what is its value in cm2? 1.: 20 : Measurement in Science and Technology Triangle Circle Parallelogram ½ ×base × height π× (radius)2 base × altitude Using these formulae. For example. we split them into regular-shaped figures. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. In such cases. The area of a figure is 60 m2. The SI unit used for volume Table 1. breadth. we draw the outline of the given figure of irregular shape on that graph paper. We call this unit as one Solids Volume cubic metre. Then we count the number of complete squares in it and the number of incomplete squares. . the other incomplete squares are neglected.15. we can calculate the required area. abbreviated as 1m3. Sphere (4π/3)× (radius)3 Now. Because.7: Volume of regular solids measurement is the volume of a cube of side 1m each.4 m. etc. if you are asked to find the area of a rectangular playground whose sides are given as 50 m and 60 m. use any area of an irregular figure formulae to calculate its area. let us study how to measure the Cylinder π(radius)2× height volume of different types of bodies. we use other appropriate units like cm3. therefore. First.2 Area of irregular figures You can easily find the areas of regular figures by using formulae. The total space occupied by any piece of matter is referred to as its volume. or km3. we make use of graph papers having squares of side 1 cm each as shown in Fig. Cuboid Length × breadth × height mm3. A circular tabletop has a radius of 1. What is the area of mica needed to cover it? 3.

we use vernier callipers or screw gauge.19. What is the shape of the meniscus of milk in a cylinder? 4. To measure small lengths. There are seven fundamental quantities amount of subsances namely length. There are seven SI units and a number of derived units. Why do we need a suitable oil while determining the volume of a piece of rock salt using a graduated cylinder? 2. such as rock salt. In such a case. mobile oil at petrol pumps. The unit of physical quantity is a standard value of it in terms of which other quantities of that kind are expressed.19 Measuring the volume of a solid till it starts overflowing as shown in Fig 1. TERMINAL EXERCISES . The total space occupied by any piece of matter is called its volume. mass. temperature. using an overflow can We wait till no more drops overflow. We then place a clean graduated cylinder below the nozzle of the overflow can and dip the given solid in it. we use graduated cylinder and an overflow can to measure the volume of large irregular bodies. How many cm3 will be there in one litre? 3. The unit ‘litre’ is also used to measure the volume of liquids. We fill the overflow can with water Fig. kerosene oil. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. This is equal to the volume of the given solid. The volume of water overflown is carefully noted. In the laboratory. What is the volume of a sphere of radius 7 cm? LET US REVISE ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Measurement is basically a process of comparison and involves two things: a number and a unit. We cannot use water if the given solid is a piece of water soluble material. we must use a liquid in which the given solid neither dissolves nor reacts chemically. then we use a large overflow can with a spout.: 22 : Measurement in Science and Technology volume of the solid. 1. Area is measured in square metre (m2) and graph papers are used for estimating the areas of irregular figures. etc. It is measured in cubic metres (m3). time.5 1. Some water overflows and collects in the graduated cylinder. Standard measuring vessels are used to measure volumes of liquids like milk. 80 70 60 50 40 b) Using an overflow can 30 If the given solid is so large that it cannot be dipped 20 10 in a graduated cylinder. amoung of substances light intensity and electric current. A metre scale is used to measure large lengths.

Why? 7. Give four examples of periodic systems? 5. In 100 metre race. The farmers were very happy because all of them got equal-sized plot of land. What are the limitations of using our senses and body parts for measurement? 2. It took 4h 30min to cover the distance. Goldsmith uses a balance to measure gold ornaments. The distance between the two cities is (a) 315km (b) 280km (c) 2100km (d) 17.3cm (b) 7. Define amplitude and time period of a pendulum. The average speed of the car was 70 km/ h. Describe the method for finding out the area of a leaf. time and temperature. Which of the following is not an SI unit? (a) Metre (b) Pound (c) Kilogram (d) Second 2.Measurement in Science and Technology : 23 : A. mass. 6. Multiple choice type questions. A line segment was measured using a scale.9cm 4. The other end coincided with 7. it is the same as (a) 10-6g (b) 10-12g (c) 10-9g (d) 10-3g 3. 11. Why does he use an instrument for this purpose? 9.2cm (c) 8. Measure the diameter of a glass marble by using a scale and two wooden blocks. Airplane pilot cannot use his senses to guide his plane through thick clouds. The length of the line segment is (a) 1. In a village 100 acres of land was distributed among ten farmers. If the mass of a solution is 10µg.5cm (d) 5. Rajesh travelled from city A to city B by car.5km B. What does this ‘time’ mean? 10. 4.2 cm mark. How did the Head of the Panchayat manage to do this? 8.3cm mark on the scale. Name the SI units used to measure length. One end of the line segment coincided with the 1. Which other instrument can be used for finding it more accurately? Why? 12. you must have seen that for each athlete the judge looks at a stop watch to measure the ‘time’ required by the athlete to complete 100 metres. Descriptive type questions. A thin wire is closely wound on a pencil with its successive turns in contact with each . 1. Define the following key concepts (i) Estimation (ii) Standard of measurement (iii)Standard metre (iv) Time interval (v) Pendulum 3. He must depend on the plane’s instruments. 1.

1. 1000 cm3 concave 1437.1 1.4 1. cubit. 3.4. Volume: The total space occupied by any piece of matter. 3.37 x 10-7m 1. Which other instrument can be used for more accurate result? 13. During the period of Moghul emperor Akbar. Fundamental units: The units of fundamental or basic quantities that are independent of each other.: 24 : Measurement in Science and Technology other.2 600000cm2 We cannot use water because rock salt will dissolve in water but not in oil. 4. b) Fundamental units are independent of each other but derived units are obtained from fundamental units.16 m2 refer section 1. Unit: The accepted reference standard which is used for comparison of a given quantity. 4. Unit of force = Unit of mass x Unit of acceleration = kg ms-2 5. Least count: The minimum or least quantity that can be measured by a given instrument. 1. Arm. angul. Why a standard reference is taken as a unit? ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 9 times 6. Derived units: Units that are obtained by the combination of fundamental units. what is the diameter of the wire. It can be measured and is a subject of study through our five senses.1 m? 14.33 cm3 GLOSSARY Area of a figure: the surface enclosed by a figure or the extent of the surface of a figure. 3. .5 1. How much volume of petrol is needed to fill a spherical tank of radius 2.2 1. Periodic system: A system that repeats itself at regular intervals of time. 1.1. Unit of pressure = Unit of force/Unit of area = kg ms-2 / m2 = kg m-1s-2 6. 2. Physical quantity: Any quantity that can be measured. 4. a) Fundamental units are only seven in number whereas derived units are very large in number. Do as in section 1. etc. Mass of a body is the amount of matter contained in a body while the amount of substance is equal to its molecular mass. 3.3. 3.3 1. 2. They were heavy and bulky and could not be taken from one place to another. pans – beam – pointer – objects – weight 2. If turns of the wire occupy a total distance 2 cm. 237nm = 237 x 10-9m = 2. Parmanu 2. 2.

atomic mass and molecular mass. there are two main ways of classifying the matter : i) Based on physical states: All matter. liquid and gas. etc. This classification was more of philosophical nature. computer.Air. Therefore. Matter embraces each and everything around us. classify the matter based on their composition as element. 2. clouds. compound and mixture. Please remember. In modern science. define Gay Lussac’s law of combining volume and Avogadro’s law. Matter appears in a huge variety of forms such as rocks. and distinguish one from the other based on their properties. the scientific meaning of substance is a little different from its every day meaning and we shall discuss it a little later in this lesson.1 CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER Earlier Indian and Greek philosophers and scientists attempted to classify the matter in the form of five elements . Fire. you will be able to: z z z z z z z z z z define various states of matter as solid. Sky and Water. in order to understand the world. express chemical reaction in form of a balanced chemical equation. however. solid. liquid and gas. Water we drink. air we breathe. apply mole concept to a chemical reaction and show a quantitative relationship between masses of reactants and products.Structure and Properties of Matter : 25 : 2 Structure and Properties of Matter All the objects around us whether living or non-living are matter. state Dalton’s atomic theory and explain various laws of chemical combinations. Here. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. Thus. pure we mean the same through out. people. food we eat. . it would be necessary to understand the matter. at least in principle. Each pure kind of matter is called substance. are all examples of matter. define isotopes. chair we sit on. differentiate between atoms and molecules. aluminium is one substance and water is another. solve numerical problems based on various concepts covered above. trees. define mole concept and molar quantities such as molar mass and molar volume. Earth. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. can exist in three states.

more and more of it will go into vapour form and at 100 oC will start boiling. liquid or gas with change of temperature. If we go on increasing temperature of water at constant pressure. Like liquids. Can you think why this variation in their melting point and boiling point occurs? You will study later on that intermolecular forces are different in different liquids.1 PHYSICAL STATE OF MATTER A given kind of matter may exist in different physical forms under different conditions.. Can you think of other differences between a gas and liquid? A gas can be compressed easily whereas a liquid cannot. natural gas is compressed and supplied as fuel for vehicles in the name of CNG (compressed natural gas). This is true with most of the liquids. However. i. These three different forms of matter differ from each other in their properties.1). In gaseous form. Water. Definitely melting and boiling points of different substances will be different. Liquids are less rigid than solids and are fluid. but unlike liquid. compounds and mixtures. gases are fluids.1. Similarly. a substance can exist in three forms depending upon temperature and pressure. This property of gases is responsible for their effusion/diffusion. It is still more difficult to compress a solid. intermolecular forces are very weak and unable to keep molecules together in aggregation. and therefore their boiling points and melting points are different. for example.1. 2. they can expand indefinitely. You might be aware.: 26 : Structure and Properties of Matter ii) Based on composition and properties: The classification of matter includes elements. in case of solids. Due to weak intermolecular forces in gases. Molecules in gases are far apart and therefore when pressure is applied they can be brought closer and gases can be compressed. they are able to flow and take the shape of their containers. All these three forms of matter (solid. which is normally a gas can exist as a yellow liquid or solid under appropriate conditions. we can write characteristic properties of solid. liquid and gas) are generally referred as states of matter. Liquids have properties intermediate to solid and gases as intermolecular forces between molecules in liquid are definitely more than gases and less than solids but strong enough to keep the molecules in aggregation (Fig. Liquid sodium changes to a bluish gas if the temperature is raised to 883 oC. liquid and gas in the Table 2.e. these forces are very strong and capable of keeping molecules in fixed positions. Table 2. Water at room temperature (25 oC) exists in liquid form and at 0 oC and 1 atmospheric pressure as solid. chlorine. molecules in gases can move freely and can occupy any space available to them. If we continue heating at this temperature (100 oC). Sodium metal is normally solid. This is the reason solids are rigid and hard and cannot be compressed. but it melts to a silvery liquid when heated to 98 oC.1: Characteristics of different states of matter States of matter Solid Liquid Gas Fluidity/rigidity Rigid Fluid Fluid Compressibility Negligible Very low High As mentioned. entire liquid water will be converted into vapour. 2. Solids are rigid with definite shapes. may exist as solid. . at one atmospheric pressure. It is not possible to compress a liquid. Taking fluidity/ rigidity and compressibility.

it creates another heterogeneous mixture because the liquid thus obtained does not have a uniform composition. carbon dioxide etc). magnesium. a French chemist was first to explain an element. Elements serve as the building blocks for various types of other substances. After separation we can see that the components have the same composition and properties as they did to start with. Suppose you add 5g of sugar to water kept in a glass tumbler.2 CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER BASED ON COMPOSITION . We can recover sugar from its water solution by heating and evaporating the solution to dryness. Such matter are called mixtures. these two substances which have uniform composition through out are elements. etc. What do you find? Balloon can be compressed easily. If you add oil to water. and cement. Gases. carbon dioxide. We can create homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures and if need arises we can separate them into pure components by physical means without changing the identities of the components. nitrogen. appearance. smell. we can separate iron filings using magnet. This mixture is homogeneous through out and is called solution. Mixtures are either homogeneous or heterogeneous. From a mixture of iron filings and sand. He defined an element as basic form of matter that cannot be broken down into simpler substances even by chemical means. gold all are example . the mixture obtained is uniform through out. This type of mixture in which the composition is not uniform. Air is solution of several gases (oxygen. soft drink. Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-94). nitrogen. Aluminium has uniform composition.Structure and Properties of Matter : 27 : Solid Liquid Gas Solid Liquid Vibrating particle Container (b) Gas (a) Fig.2. COMPOUNDS AND MIXTURES Another method of classification of matter is based on its composition.ELEMENTS. liquids and solids (a) Bulk appearance and (b) the molecular picture. milk. Now hold it with both hands and compress. Oxygen. water vapour. Suppose you mix sand with iron filings. Substances differ from one another in composition and can be identified by their properties like colour. Similarly water has uniform composition. A substance is matter that has a definite or constant composition and has distinct properties. starting from water up to extremely complex substances like protein. 2. nitrogen.1. oxygen etc. 2. sand grains and the iron filings remain visible and separate. Examples are aluminium sliver. 2. ACTIVITY 2. iron.1 Fill gas in a balloon and tightly tie its mouth. taste. water.1 Elements Oxygen and magnesium. No doubt there are also matter which do not have uniform composition. Some examples of mixtures are air. After stirring. is called a heterogeneous mixture.

Unlike mixtures compounds can be separated only by chemical means into their pure components. sulphur and oxygen (from air) combine to form sulphur dioxide. always contains definite or constant proportions of the elements by mass. whatever its source. 2.0g of oxygen. iron and calcium) comprise over 90 per cent of Earth’s crust.3% Iron Aluminum (b) Oxygen 65% All others 1. This regularity of composition by mass will be discussed later on as law of constant composition).2 Compounds Most elements can interact with one or more other elements to form compounds. A compound is a substance that consists of two or more different elements chemically united in a definite ratio. water is composed of two elements: hydrogen and oxygen.3 Classification of matter Compounds mixtures Chemical methods Elements . For example.5% Silicon 27. compounds and other categories of matter are summarised in Fig.2% All others Magnesium 2.7% 6. Out of these five.6% Nitrogen 3% Fig. Now we shall discuss how concept of an atom emerged and how far this forms the basis of our other studies in science.2. In conclusion. silicon. Fig.2. We have just read that elements are made of one kind of atoms only.8% Calcium 4. As you have read. Similarly when sulphur is ignited in air. as you must have read in your previous classes. oxygen is the most abundant element in our body.3% Oxygen 45. aluminium.2% Calcium 1. All sample of pure water contain these two elements combined in the ratio of one is to eight (1: 8) by mass. Today more than 112 of which you have elements are known and we know various details about them. Property of water is completely different from its constituent elements: hydrogen and oxygen which are gases.2% Carbon 18% Hydrogen 10% Phosphorus 1.3.2% 8. the relationship among elements.2 shows the most abundant element in earth crust and in the human body. only five elements (oxygen.0 g of hydrogen will combine with 8. 1. Matter Mixture Separation by Physical methods Pure substances Homogeneous mixtures Separation by Heterogeneous Fig. 2. An element consists of only one kind of atoms.2 (a) Elements in Earth’s crust (b) Elements in human body 2. (a) 5. This composition does not change whether we take water from river of India or of United States or the ice caps on Mars.: 28element : Structure and Properties of already Matter studied in your lower classes. As can be seen from the figure. These elements are represented by suitable symbols. 2. A pure compound.

etc). mass and chemical properties. today we know that atoms are not truly indivisible. it does not result in their creation or destruction. The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements. compound or mixture is composed of small particles called atoms. electrons. Which one of the following is solution? (i) Mercury (ii) Air (iii) Coal (iv) Milk 2. Dalton’s theory also predicted the law of multiple proportions.4Atoms of elementproportions Y Compound of element X and Y Law of constant . Most of the earlier findings and concepts related to law of conservation of mass and law of constant proportions (Fig. they are themselves made up of particles (protons. However. A chemical reaction involves only the separation. having the same size. English scientist and school teacher. Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element. Dalton’s theory can be summarized as follows: z z z z Elements are composed of extremely small indivisible particles called atoms.1 1. Indian philosopher Maharshi Kanad postulated that if one goes on dividing matter (Padarth). 2. John Dalton (17661844) provided the basic theory about the nature of matter: All matter whether element. Not much experimental work could be done until Lavoisier gave his law: Law of conservation of mass and law of constant proportions sometimes in 1789. neutrons. He (Kanad) named the particles Parmanu. More or less during the same period Greek philosophers.Structure and Properties of Matter : 29 : CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 2.4) could be explained to a great extent.3 DALTON’S ATOMIC THEORY In the fifth century B. 2. he would get smaller and smaller particles and a limit will come when he will come across smallest particles beyond which further division will not be possible. This idea was not accepted at that time but it remained alive. All atoms of a given element are identical. Atoms of element XFig. Which of the following matter fall(s) in the category of substance? (i) Ice (ii) Milk (iii) Iron (iv) Air (v) Water (vi) Hydrochloric acid 2. Leuappus and Democritus suggested similar ideas. In brief. or rearrangement of atoms. combination. In any compound the ratio of the numbers of atoms of any two of the elements present is either an integer or a simple fraction.C. an atom is the smallest particle of an element that maintains its chemical identity throughout all chemical and physical changes. which you will learn later on.

He then went on explaining how atoms could react together to form molecules. chlorine (Cl2).6). (CO2). for example. Fig. water (H2O) or carbon dioxide. C60 was discovered.2. a form of carbon called buckminsterfullerene having molecular formula. a molecule having atoms more than four will be called polyatomic. The details you will study in lesson 20.: 30 : Structure and Properties of Matter Modern technology has made it possible to take photograph of atoms. which show the individual atoms (Fig. A molecule is an aggregate of two or more than two atoms of the same or different elements in a definite arrangement held together by chemical forces or chemical bonds. will be tetratomic and pentatomic if there are four and five atoms respectively. which he called ‘compound atoms’. It can produce image of the surfaces of the elements. 2. 2.5 Image from a scanning tunneling microscope Now let us see how atoms and molecules are related with each other.2. In general. will be triatomic if there are three atoms. carbon monoxide. The scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) is a very sophisticated instrument.5). Only a few years back. H2O water NH3 Ammonia CH3CH2OH Ethyl alcohol P Cl Cl P P Cl2 P4 Chlorine Phosphorus P S S S S S S S S8 Sulphur S Fig. the first chemist to use the name ‘atom’ was John Dalton. 2. A molecule will be diatomic if there are two atoms.6 Atomic structure of some molecules . There are eight atoms in a molecule of sulphur and nine atoms in a molecule of ethyl alcohol and we write formulas as S8 and C2H5OH respectively (Fig.4 ATOMS AND MOLECULES We have just seen. We can also define a molecule as smallest particle of an element or of a compound which can exist alone or freely under ordinary conditions and shows all properties of that substance (element or compound). Dalton used the word ‘atom’ to mean the smallest particle of an element. Today we know what a molecule is. CO. for example.

Cl. This will depend upon the nature of the element. phosphorus pentaoxide (P2O5). carbon dioxide (CO2). potassium sulphate (K2SO4). This combining capacity of an element is called its valency. nitrogen forms several oxides: N2O.6.e. oxygen and sulphur. ammonia (NH3). you will find that atoms in a molecule are not only connected in definite ways but also exhibit definite spatial arrangements. NaCl. In NaCl. Sodium chloride (common salt) contains equal number of sodium and chlorine atoms and is represented by the formula. Covalent compounds are of the type H2O. In normal course. Sulphuric acid. Sometime an element shows more than on valency. Valency of oxygen is 2 and that of phosphorus is 5. ammonium choride (NH4Cl). A few examples of cation and anions along with their valency are provided in Table 2. . H2SO4 contains three elements : hydrogen. Here again we should know the charge (valency) of both types of ions for writing formula of an ionic compound. Br and I is normally taken as 1. 2. sometimes we face problem. For writing the formula of the compounds we should know the charge (valency) of positively and negatively charged constituents of the compounds in such cases. Since valencies are not always fixed (as P has different valencies in P2O5 and in PBr3 in the above example). Remember in an ionic compound. phosphorus tribromide (PBr3) etc. All alkali metals such as K. Thus. compound made of only two elements).2. Valency of an element depends upon how it combines with other elements.1 Valency and formulation Every element has a definite capacity to combine with other elements. sodium hydroxide (NaOH) etc.3. N2O4 and N2O5.e. we can write the formula of phosphorus pentaoxide as P2O5. CO2 and H2O both are triatomic molecules but they have entirely different properties. of polyatomic molecules). sum of the charges of cation and anion should be zero. potassium chloride (KCl). Cs. magnesium oxide (MgO). Rb have 1 valency. 2. a molecular formula of a substance tells us how many atoms of each kind are present in one molecule.5. We say element has variable valency. Writing formula of a compound is easy only in binary compounds (i.5 CHEMICAL FORMULAE OF SIMPLE COMPOUNDS A molecule is represented by using symbols of elements present in it. Very soon. You will learn later on that basically there are two types of compounds: covalent compounds and ionic compounds. If we take valency of oxygen 2 then valency of nitrogen in these oxides will be 1. An electrovalent or ionic compound is made of two charged constituents. we can write the formula of water (H2O). In Fig. One positively charged called ‘cation’ and other negatively charged called ‘anion’. are made of two or more than two elements. However. N2O3. hydrogen has 1. it is somewhat cumbersome task. hydrochloric acid gas (HCl). For example. nitrogen has 3 and carbon has 4 valency. oxygen has 2.2. CO2 is a linear molecule and is a gas but H2O is a bent molecule and a liquid. This representation is called molecular formula of the compound. if we know the elements constituting these compounds and their (elements) valencies. valency of Na is also 1. NH3 etc. Thus.4 and 5 respectively. N2O2. Properties of molecules depends upon the ways atoms are connected and on spatial configuration of the molecules. when we have to write formula of a compound which involves more than two elements (i. Valency of F. you will learn in lesson 3 that valency of an element depends on its electronic configuration.Structure and Properties of Matter : 31 : 2. Compounds like sodium nitrate (NaNO3).

Empirical and molecular formulae of a few compounds are given in Table 2. In contrast. NO-3 Carbonate ion. for one sodium ion. S for sulphur. The simplest formula of a compound is called its empirical formula. The empirical formula of a compound is the chemical formula that shows the relative number of atoms of each element in the simplest ratio. Ca2+ Aluminium ion. S8. P4 and Cl2 respectively. SO42Bicarbonate ion. Cu2+ Mercury.2 Valency of some common cations and anions which form ionic compounds Anions Chloride ion.2 Empirical and molecular formula Molecular formula of a substance is not always identical with the simplest formula that expresses the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in it. NH4+ + Valency +1 +1 +2 +2 +3 +2 +3 +2 +2 +2 +2 +1 Suppose you have to write the formula of potassium sulphate which is an electrovalent compound and made of potassium and sulphate ions. K Sodium ion. [Ca2+]3 [PO-34]2 = Ca3(PO4)2 Writing formula of a compound comes by practice therefore write formula of as many ionic compounds as possible based on the guidelines given above. S2- Valency -1 -1 -2 -2 -1 -1 -1 -3 -1 -1 -1 -2 Cations Potassium ion.: 32 : Structure and Properties of Matter Table 2. HCO-3 Hydroxide ion. Simplest formula of an element is expressed by using its symbol as O for oxygen. 2. Sulphate ion. therefore. P for phosphorus and Cl for chlorine.3. Hg2+ (mercuric) Ammonium ion. the molecular formula tells us the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule. Zn2+ Copper ion. I Sulphide ion. Br Iodide ion. .5. PO34_ Acetate ion CH3COOBromide ion. For writing formula of calcium phosphate we take charge of each ion into consideration and write the formula as discussed above as. Mg2+ Calcium ion. Na+ Magnesium ion. Pb2+ Iron ion. one nitrate ion will be required and we can write. it is clear that digit showing charge of cation goes to anion and digit showing charge of anion goes to cation. charge (valency) of sodium ion is +1 and that of nitrate ion is -1. charge on potassium ion is +1 and that on sulphate ion is –2. It may be the same as the empirical formula or some other integral multiple of the empirical formula. [Na+]1 [NO3–]1 = NaNO3 Now. Al3+ Lead ion. Fe3+(Ferric) Iron ion (Ferrous) Fe2+ Zinc ion. OH Nitrite ion. Therefore. We can write. Molecular formula of these substances are O2. [K+]2 [SO42-]1 = K2SO4 Similarly for writing formula of sodium nitrate. Cl Nitrate ion. NO 2 Phosphate ion. Here. for one sulphate ion two potassium ions will be required.

You will study later on that ionic substances do not exist in molecular form. Thus. This law states that any sample of a pure substance always consists of the same elements combined in the same proportions by mass. if 2 g of hydrogen are mixed with 16. In fact this observation helped him in formulation of his fundamental theory . Write empirical formulae of the following molecules: C2H4. this could be possible due to precise measurement of mass by Lavoisier. Also.0 g of oxygen are always obtained. 2. 4. HNO3 2.0 g of water are decomposed. nitrogen and hydrogen will always react in the ratio of 14:3 by mass. Write formula of the following compounds (i) Ferric phosphate (ii) Barium chloride (v) Magnesium sulphate (iii) Calcium carbonate (vi) Sodium phosphate (iv) Phosphorous tribromide (vii) Sulphur trioxide 3. In the water thus formed or decomposed. Similarly in ammonia (NH3). He observed that for a given mass of an element. Law of conservation of mass helped in establishing the law of definite composition or law of constant proportions. Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794) experimentally showed that matter can neither be created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction. the masses of the other element in two or more compounds are in the ratio of simple whole number or integers. 18.0 g of oxygen and mixture is ignited.3: Empirical and molecular formulae Substance water ammonia ethane hydrogen peroxide carbon dioxide hydrazine Empirical formula H2O NH3 CH3 HO CO2 NH2 Molecular formula H2O NH3 C2H6 H2O2 CO2 N2H4 Formula of an ionic substance is always an empirical formula. hydrogen to oxygen mass ratio is always 1:8. 2. Write differences between an atom and a molecule. In fact. For example. NaCl is empirical formula not a molecular formula of sodium chloride. This experimental finding was known as law of conservation of mass.6 LAWS OF CHEMICAL COMBINATIONS French chemist. Give one evidence of modern technology which supports Dalton’s atomic theory.Structure and Properties of Matter : 33 : Table 2. HCl.0 g of hydrogen and 16. in water. For instance. if 18. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 2.2 1. the ratio of the mass of hydrogen to the mass of oxygen is always 1:8 irrespective of the source of water.0 g of water are obtained after the reaction is over. John Dalton thought about the fact that an element may form more than one compound with another element.

1 Gay Lusaac’s law of combining volume and Avogadro’s hypothesis The French chemist Gay Lusaac experimented with several reactions of gases and came to the conclusion that the volume of reactants and products in large number of gaseous chemical reactions are related to each other by small integers provided the volumes are measured at the same temperature and pressure. (It is clear from the relationship that more volume will contain more number of molecules).0 g of hydrogen react with 28 g of nitrogen or 2.8 that 1 mole of a substance is 6. The Gay Lussac’s law was further explained by the work of Italian physicist and lawyer Amedeo Avogadro in 1811.0 g of nitrogen. 3. we require 3.0 g of hydrogen in NH3 and 2. in reaction of hydrogen gas with oxygen gas which produces water vapour. In ammonia. as discussed above.6. This is known as law of multiple proportions. Gay Lussac’s findings of integer ratio in volume relationship is actually the law of definite proportions by volume. 2. if 100 mL of H2 gas combines with exactly 50 mL of O2 gas we shall obtain 100 mL of H2O vapour provided all the gases are measured at the same temperature and pressure (say 100 oC and 1 atm pressure). states as follows: The volume of a gas (at fixed pressure and temperature) is proportional to the number of moles (or molecules of gas present).0 g of hydrogen react with 14 g of nitrogen. It can be seen that for 14 g of nitrogen. Mathematically we can express the statement as V∝n You will study in section 2.0 g of hydrogen in hydrazine (N2H4). Avogadro’s law can be stated in another simple way “Equal volumes of all gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules” For example. In hydrazine. the law of definite proportions is with respect to mass.3.: 34 : Structure and Properties of Matter popularly known as Dalton’s ‘Atomic theory’ which is discussed in Section 2. For example. As you know. equation does not change. 2H2(g) 2 volumes 2 mol of H2 + O2(g) 1 volume 1 mol of O2 → 2H2O(g) 2 volumes (Gay Lussac’s law) 2 mol of H2O (Avogadro’s law) Multiplying both sides of equation by the same number. 4. masses of hydrogen which combine with the fixed mass of nitrogen in ammonia and in hydrazine are in the simple ratio of 3:2. we get .022 × 1023 particles/ molecule of that substance. Where V is volume and n is the number of moles of the gas. it was found that two volumes of hydrogen and one volume of oxygen give two volumes of water vapour To be more specific.022 × 1023. This leads to the ratio That is. Now let us multiply by 6. Avogadro’s hypothesis which was experimentally established and given the status of a law later on.0 g of hydrogen reacts with 14. Let us take two compounds of nitrogen and hydrogen : (i) ammonia (NH3) and (ii) hydrazine (N2H4).

Also atomic number. 7 3 6 respectively. protons and neutrons. But the nuclei of all the atoms of a given element do not necessarily contain the same number of neutrons.022 × 1023 molecules of O2 + Cl 2 (g) 1 volume → 2 × 6. 42He. An electron is negatively charged and a proton is positively charged particle.7 litres. For example. Protons remain in the nucleus in the centre of the atom and nucleus is surrounded by negatively charged electrons. found in nature have the same number 8 Similarly. The total number of protons and neutrons is called mass number or the nucleons number denoted by A. Number of electrons and protons in an atom is equal.7 ISOTOPES AND ATOMIC MASS As you might have read in your earlier classes that an atom consists of several fundamental particles: electrons. lithium and carbon left corner. Since this volume is of 1 mol of a gas. it has been found that at standard temperature (0 oC) and standard pressure (1 bar) volume of 1 mol of most of the gases is 22. Since charge on an electron is equal and opposite to charge of a proton. therefore. Total mass of nucleus is equal to the sum of masses of protons and neutrons. By convention. Mass of a proton is nearly equal to the mass of neutron.022 × 1023 molecules of H2 1 mol of Cl2 6. 2 × 6.022 × 1023 molecules of HCl Experimentally. it is also called molar volume. Z differentiates the atom of one element from the atoms of another. we write. we can easily calculate its molar mass molar volume by the relationship. Thus. atomic number is written at the bottom left corner of the symbol of the atom and mass number is written at the top Li and 12 Cfor helium. atoms of oxygen.022 × 1023 molecules of Cl2 2 mol of HCl 2 × 6. For example. volume = _________________ density 2. If we know molar mass and density of a solid or of a liquid. 12 O has 8 protons and 8 electrons and there are 8 neutrons. and is denoted by Z. 16 . Also an element may be defined as a substance whose atoms have the same atomic number. Volume of liquids and solids does not change much with temperature and pressure and same is true with its molar volume. The number of protons in the nucleus is called atomic number. all atoms of an element have nuclei containing the same number of protons and having the same charge.022 × 1023 molecules of H2O 2 HCl (g) 2 volume 1 mol of H2 or 6. an atom is electrically neutral. There are also neutral particles in the nucleus and they are called neutrons. 6 of which are protons.022 × 1023 molecules of H2 H 2 ( g) 1 volume 1 × 6. Thus. there must be 12 – 6 = 6 neutrons.Structure and Properties of Matter : 35 : Similarly. The symbol 6 C indicates that there is a total of 12 particles (nucleons) in the nucleus of carbon atom.

7.01 u. For this. one type of oxygen atom contains 8 protons and 8 neutrons in the nucleus. experiment shows that an oxygen atom is. it has been found by experiment that hydrogen atom is only 0. Atomic mass of C-13 has been determined to be 13.00 u = 16. This is the reason that the masses of the atoms of the same elements are different. electrons. Therefore when we determine atomic mass of an element we generally measure or calculate average mass of the naturally occurring mixture of isotopes.10 per cent. .: 36 : Structure and Properties of Matter of protons which makes it different from other elements.00335 u. respectively . but their neutrons are different.1430 = 12. We represent them as 16 O. Then on carbon-12 scale. on the average. Therefore. ‘atomic mass’ of an element means average atomic mass of that element. 17 O and 18 O.3333×12. These days actual masses of atoms have been determined experimentally using mass spectrometer. Mass of one carbon-12 atom = 12 amu or 12 u massof one carbon atom or 1 amu = 12 Mass of every other element is determined relative to this mass. 2. it is necessary to assign a value to the mass of one atom of a given element so that it can be used as a standard. Atoms of an element that have same atomic number(Z) 8 8 8 but different mass number(A) are called isotopes. Further. atomic mass of carbon is not 12 u but 12. For example.008 u.4. Therefore.1. average atomic mass of carbon = (0.0840 times heavier than C-12 atoms. second type 8 protons and 9 neutrons and third type contains 8 proton and 10 neutrons. Let us take one example. atomic mass of hydrogen = 0. Atomic mass of oxygen = 1.00335 u) = 11. No doubt. For example.010) (13. You will learn about this in your higher classes. This is because most naturally occurring elements (including carbon) have more than one isotope. Carbon-12 has six protons and six neutrons and has been assigned a mass of exactly 12 atomic mass unit (amu now known as u).0 u Atomic mass of a few elements on C-12 scale is provided in Table 2. Atomic mass The mass of an atom is related to the number of protons. Similarly.90 per cent*. Thus one atomic mass unit is defined as a mass exactly equal to one twelfth of the mass of one carbon-12 atom. and neutrons it has. If you see Table 2. Carbon has two natural isotope C-12 and C-13 and their natural abundance is 98. it is possible to determine the mass of one atom relative to another experimentally. you will find that atomic mass is not a whole number.3333 times heavier than C-12 atom. Scientists agreed to chose an atom of carbon isotope (called carbon-12).0840×12.00 u = 1. Atom of an element is extremely small and therefore it is not easy to weigh it.868 + 0.01 u Thus. 1.000 u) + (0.4.9890) (12. 1.

4 Atomic masses* of some common elements Element Aluminium Argon Arsenic Barium Boron Bromine Caesium Calcium Carbon Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copper Fluorine Gold Helium Hydrogen Iodine Iron Lead Lithium Symbol Al Ar As Ba B Br Cs Ca C Cl Cr Co Cu F Au He H I Fe Pb Li Mass(u) 26.90 per cent becomes 0.97 4.00 30.98 39. *Atomic masses are average atomic masses.03 50.00 196.54 19.0 u Total = 44.00 1.9890.95 74.0 u CO2 We write molecular mass of CO2 = 44.06 118.94 131.37 * During calculation we convert per cent into fraction by dividing by 100.00 32.94 Element Magnesium Manganese Mercury Neon Nickel Nitrogen Oxygen Phosphorus Platinum Potassium Radon Silicon Silver Sodium Sulphur Tin Titanium Tungston Uranium Vanadium Xenon Zinc Symbol Mg Mn Hg Ne Ni N O P Pt K Rn Si Ag Na S Sn Ti W U V Xe Zn Mass(u) 24.008 126.69 47.0 u = 32.34 10.93 63.0 u = 12.85 207. we obtain molecular mass of ammonia. They are given correct up to second decimal places.19 6. we use round figures and for this rounding off is necessary. it is easy to calculate the molecular mass.0 u Similarly.24 u . Thus the molecular mass of CO2 is obtained as C 1 × 12.2 Molecular mass You have just read that a molecule can be represented in form of a formula popularly known as molecular formula.Structure and Properties of Matter : 37 : Table 2.01 16. NH3 as follows : N 1 × 14.97 195.88 183.85 238.92 137. CO2.09 39. Molecular mass is the sum of atomic masses of all the atoms present in that molecule.0 u 3. Molecular formula may be of an element or of a compound.31 54.45 52. **Radioactive 2.09 107. H2O or NH3).0 u 2O 2 × 16.24 u 17.18 58.71 14. If the substance is composed of molecules (for example.91 132.00 58.87 23.10 (222)** 28. In practice.08 12.30 65.91 40.94 200. 98. Molecular formula of a compound is normally used for determing the molecular mass of that substance.90 55.81 79.08 u = NH3 Total = 14. Thus.01 35.7.59 20.0 u = 3H 3 × 1.

We have seen that Atomic mass of C = 12 u Atomic mass of He = 4 u We can see that one atom of carbon is three times as heavy as one atom of helium. sodium chloride.5 u = 58. For example when we mix hydrogen and oxygen and ignite the mixture. we talk of formula mass. Now it is experimentally found that the number of atoms contained in exactly 12 grams of C-12 is 602. SO3 2. The word mole was apparently introduced in about 1896 by Wilhelm Ostwald who derived the term from the Latin word ‘moles’ meaning a ‘heap’ or ‘pile’.012 kg (12 grams) of C-12.200 000 000 000 000 000 000 or 6. we always like to know how many atoms/molecules of a particular substance would react with atoms/molecules of another substance in a chemical reaction. Similarly. scientists (particularly chemists) count atoms and molecules in a given substance. For substances which are not molecular in nature. we get one or more new substance(s). we get a new substance water. 15 and 16 neutrons respectively. . PCl5.: 38 : Structure and Properties of Matter Molecular mass of ammonia.012 kg of C-12 isotope’. In simple terms.8 MOLE CONCEPT When we mix two substances. mole is the number of atoms in exactly 0. we write formula mass which is calculated similar to molecular mass. It is defined as follows: ‘A mole is the amount of pure substance that contains as many particles (atoms.5 u. The solution to this problem is to have a convenient unit of matter that contains a known number of particles (atoms /molecules). For example.022×1023.3 1. On the same logic 100 atoms of carbon are three times as heavy as 100 atoms of helium. This number (6. 2H2 (g) + O2(g) → 2H2O (l) In above equation. formula mass = mass of 1 Na atom + mass of 1 Cl atom = 23 u + 35. You will learn about such compounds later on in your lesson 5.24 u. In case of NaCl. What is the mass number and symbol of these three isotopes? 2. or other fundamental units) as there are atoms in exactly 0. NA. Silicon has three isotopes with 14. Although mole is defined in terms of carbon atoms but the unit is applicable to any substance just as 1 dozen means 12 or one gross means 144 of any thing. NaCl is an ionic substance. No matter how small they are. Similarly 6.022×1023) is called Avogadro constant in honour of Amedeo Avogadro an Italian lawyer and physicist and is denoted by symbol. For this. Calculate molecular mass of the following compounds C3H8.02 × 023 atoms of helium. The mole whose symbol is ‘mole’ is the SI base unit for measuring amount of substance. NH3 = 17. molecules. Mole is scientist’s counting unit like dozen or gross. 2 molecules (4 atoms) of hydrogen react with 1 molecule (2 atoms) of oxygen and give two molecules of water.02×1023 atoms of carbon are three times as heavy as 6. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 2. By using mole. This can be represented in the form of an equation. The chemical counting unit that has come into use is the mole.

Molar mass of sulphur is 32.0 2.e.0 g mol–1. if we simply say one mole of oxygen.5 78. We can take a few more examples of elements and can calculate the mass of one mole atoms of the element. Numerically it is equal to its atomic mass expressed in gram.0 17. Now if we take mass of one mole molecule of oxygen it would be 32 g because there are two atoms in a molecule of oxygen (O2). Mass of one mole atoms of oxygen will be 16 g.0 64.0 Molar mass (g/mol) 32. If we take an example of a molecule of a compound.0 44. When we do not mention atom or molecule before mole.02×1023 atoms of helium will weigh 1/3× 12g = 4g.0 71. we find that same logic is applicable.50 mol sulphur ×   = 112.0 46. A modern interpretation of this observation is that atoms or molecules combine with one another in the ratio of 1:1. Therefore.5 mol of sulphur? Solution: For converting mass into mole and vice visa.0 17. number of grams of sulphur in 3.5 Molecular and molar mass of some common substances Formula O2 H2 Cl2 P4 CH4 CH3OH NH3 CO2 HCl C6H6 SO2 CO C2H5OH Molecular mass(u) 32.0 123. Mass of one mole of fluorine will be 19 g.0 g  3. For example. 1:2 or 1:3 or any other simple ratio i.0 123. therefore 6. Mass of one mole of a substance is called its molar mass.Structure and Properties of Matter : 39 : But 6.0 32.0 64. For example.0 71. Remember molar mass is always expressed as grams per mole or g /mol or g mol-1. we always need the molar mass. mass of one mole molecule of water will be 18 g as molecular mass of water is 18u. we always mean one mole of that substance in its natural form.50 mol of sulphur is  32.0 46. For example. Table 2.6 that atoms of two different elements combine with one another in the ratio of small whole number.0 36.9 16.0 28.02×1023 atoms of carbon weigh 12 g.9 16.5 78.0 28.0 Example 2.1: How many grams are there in 3. they combine 1 mol for 1 mol or 1 mol for 2 mol or 1 mol for 3 mol.0 2. Molar mass of oxygen (O2) = 32 g mol-1 Molar mass of lead (Pb) = 207 g mol-1 We have just seen in Section 1. Thus mole concept is the cornerstone of quantitative science for chemical reactions which you will study in your higher classes.0 32.0 g sulphur  1 mol  . and so on. it means that we are referring one mole molecule of oxygen as oxygen occurs in nature as molecular oxygen.0 44.0 36.

(2) In a chemical reaction reactants are written on the left and products are written on the right side of the arrow. number of moles of oxygen = -1  = 1.. How many atoms are present in 16. Since number of atoms of the involved elements is equal on both side of the arrow in the equation. Total number of atoms of each element must be the same in the products and in the reactants. A balanced chemical equation is quite meaningful in science (chemistry) as it gives a lots of information. In a chemical reaction atoms are neither created nor destroyed. Molar mass of silver is 107.9 CHEMICAL EQUATIONS A chemical equation is a shorthand description of a reaction carried out in a laboratory or elsewhere.3 g of S? 2.: 40 : Structure and Properties of Matter Example 2. carbon appears in methane on left and in carbon dioxide on .9 g. Here if we examine both sides. So we begin by balancing the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms.. This is known as law of conservation of mass. Let us consider burning of methane in oxygen to give carbon dioxide and water.1 Balancing of a chemical equation Balancing of a chemical equation is essential as we can derive meaningful information from this. Before balancing a chemical equation... Arrow (→) indicates conversion of reactant(s) into product(s).. (1) . First write reactants and products. equation (1) and (2) can be written as. As shown in equation (2) above two molecules (four atoms) of hydrogen react with one molecule (two atoms) of oxygen and give two water molecules in which there are four hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms. while oxygen appears three times. For example C + O2 → CO2 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O . should be consistent with this law.. Solution: Molar mass of oxygen = 32 g mol-1 Oxygen in natural form will be molecular oxygen. we say the equation is balanced. therefore. please ensure that correct formulas of reactants and products are known. A chemical equation.4 1.9.. In order to make an equation more informative... C (s) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g) 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2H2O (l) 2. Accordingly.2: Calculate number of moles present in 48 g of oxygen. Sulphur is a non-metallic element.5 mol  32 g mol  CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 2.. ‘l’ if the substance is liquid and ‘g’ if the substance is a gas. We write in parenthesis ‘s’ if the substance is solid. hydrogen and carbon appear in only two formulas each. we also indicate the physical states of the reactants and products. What is the mass of one atom of silver? 2. reactants CH4 + O2 → products CO2 + H2O (unbalanced equation) In this equation. It gives the formulas for all the reactants and products. O2  48 g  Therefore.

Example2.Structure and Properties of Matter : 41 : the right side. Therefore. contains four hydrogen atoms. CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g) → CO2 (g) + 2H2O(l) Balancing of equation comes only by practice and therefore let us take one example. Write a balanced chemical equation to describe the reaction. must be converted to carbon dioxide. we must place coefficient 2 in front of the formula for water to give CH4 + O2 → CO2 + 2H2O (unbalanced) Now we can balance oxygen. and since all the hydrogen atoms end up in water molecule. since there are four oxygen atoms on right hand side of equation (two in CO2 and two in two molecules of H2O). By doing this we get equal atoms of oxygen on both sides of equation. CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O (balanced) Now number of atoms of each element is equal on both sides of the chemical equation. Step II: Balance the number of C atoms. C4H10 as the major component. we must place 2 in front of the formula for oxygen. Therefore. all carbon in methane. In order to make the chemical equation more informative. C4H10 + O2 → 4CO2 + H2O (unbalanced) Step III: Balance the number of hydrogen atoms There are 10 hydrogen atoms in butane and each water molecule requires 2 hydrogen atoms. C4H10 + 13/2 O2 → 4CO2 + 5H2O .3: Bottled gas sold as cooking gas contains butane. Therefore. Solution: Work out the balanced equation in steps Step 1: Write an unbalanced equation showing correct formulas of reactants and products C4H10 + butane oxygen O2 → CO2 + Carbon water dioxide H2O (unbalanced equation) Now balance C and H as they appear only in two places. Since 4 carbon atoms are in the reactant. One molecule of CH4. 4CO2 must be formed. therefore. 5 water molecules will be formed. CH4 . therefore. 13 atoms or 13/2 molecules of oxygen will be required. Therefore. C4H10 + O2 → 4CO2 + 5H2O (unbalanced) Step IV: Balance the number of O atoms There are 8 oxygen atoms in the carbon dioxide and 5 oxygen atoms with H2O molecules. indicate states of each reactant and product. however. two water molecules must be produced for each methane molecules. O2. Butane when burns in sufficient oxygen (present in air) gives carbon dioxide and water.

Second it gives the number of moles taking part in the reaction.9. we get 2 × 6.022 × 1023 of water . we can consider the above reaction as follows: 2 molecules of hydrogen 2H2 + 1 molecule of oxygen O2 → 2 molecules of water 2H2O Suppose we multiply entire chemical equation by 100. Let us consider the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen once again 2H2 (g) 2 molecules of hydrogen 4. 2. 2C4H10 (g) + 13O2 (g) → 8CO2 (g) + 10H2O(l) Remember : (i) Use the simplest possible set of whole number coefficients to balance the equation.0 u 2 molecules of water 36 u 2H2O(l) But in normal course we deal with a large number of molecules. 2NO2 means two molecules of nitrogen dioxide but if we double the subscript we have N2O4 which is formula of dinitrogen tetroxide. we multiply both sides by 2 and get the final balanced equation 2C4H10 + 13O2 → 8CO2 + 10H2O (balanced) We can also write states of the substances involved. 6. Therefore. a completely different compound. First it gives the number of atoms and molecules taking part in the reaction and corresponding masses in atomic mass units (amu or u).0 u + O2 (g) → 1 molecule of oxygen 32.: 42 : Structure and Properties of Matter Normally we do not write fractional coefficient in equation as one may interpret that molecules can also be available in fraction. A chemical equation represents a chemical reaction which is real.022 × 1023 molecules + 1 × 6. For example. Thus real reactants and products only can be taken for balancing.022 × 1023 . therefore. (ii) Do not change subscript in formulas of reactants or products during balancing as that may change the identity of the substance. we can write 2 × 100 molecules + 1 × 100 molecules of → 2 × 100 of hydrogen oxygen molecules of water If we multiply entire equation by Avogadro constant. (iii) Do not try to balance an equation by arbitrarily selecting reactant(s) and product(s).022 × 1023 molecules of hydrogen molecules of oxygen → 2 × 6. with the corresponding masses in grams or in other convenient units.2 Uses of balanced equations A balanced chemical equation gives a lot of meaningful information.

for getting 80 g of CH4.0 g of hydrogen + 32.5 1. therefore. liquid or gas. (i) H3PO3 → H3PO4 + PH3 (ii) Ca + H2O → Ca(OH)2 + H2 (iii) C3H8 + O2 → CO2 + H2O 2.0 g of oxygen 36 g of water Thus a chemical equation can also be interpreted in terms of masses of reactants consumed and product(s) formed.Structure and Properties of Matter : 43 : Since 6. It can be classified on the basis of its (i) physical state as solid. compound or mixture.022 × 1023 molecules is 1 mole. A compound is a substance composed of two or more different types of elements chemically combined in a definite proportion by mass. Name the following compounds. equation can be written as 2H2 2 mol of hydrogen + O2 1 mol of oxygen 2H2O 2 mol of water Or 4.4: In the reaction CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g) → CO2 (g) + 2H2O(l) How much CO2 will be formed if 80 g of methane gas (CH4) is burnt? Solution: CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g) → CO2 (g) + 2H2O(l) 1 mol 2 mol 1 mol 2 mol or 16 g 64 g 44 g 36 g We can see in the above equation that 16 g of CH4 gives 44 g of CO2. Na2O. and (ii) chemical composition/constitution as element. An element is basic form of matter that cannot be broken down into simpler substances even by chemical reaction. BaO. Na2SO4 z LET US REVISE Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. the mass of CO2 required will be = 44 g × 80 g = 44 × 5 g = 220 g of CO 2 16 g CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 2. This relationship in chemical reaction is very important and provides a quantitative basis for taking definite masses of reactants to get a desired mass of a product. Balance the following equations. we can also write or 2 mol of hydrogen + 1 mol of oxygen → 2 mol of water → → Therefore. Example 2. Cu2Cl2. z . A mixture contains more than one substance (element or compound) mixed in any proportion. Therefore.

smoke. This is the law of Multiple proportions. In other words. An atom is the smallest particle of an element which can exist and retains all the chemical properties of that element. John Dalton introduced the idea of an atom as an indivisible particle of matter. There are many examples of homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures in the world around you. An empirical formula shows the simplest whole number ratio of the atoms of different elements present in a compound. A chemical equation is a shorthand description of a reaction.012 kg of 12C. a sample of a pure substance always consists of the same elements combined in the same proportions by mass. Mass of one mole atoms or one mole molecules of a substance is its molar mass and volume of one mole of the substance is its molar volume. then different masses of one element that combine with a fix mass of another element are in ratio of simple whole number or integer. For writing formula of a compound valence or valency of the elements is used.: 44 : Structure and Properties of Matter z A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more than two substances. Major component of the solution is called solvent. TERMINAL EXERCISES z z z z z z z z z z z z 1. tea. ions or molecules) as there are atoms in exactly 0. black coffee. According to law of constant proportions. Valency is combining capacity of an element and is related to its electronic configuration. composition of any compound can be represented by its formula. Avogadros constant is defined as the number of atoms in exactly 12 g of C-12 and is equal to 6. A molecule can be expressed in form of a chemical formula using symbols of constituent elements. A balance chemical equation obeys law of conservation of mass and law of constant proportions. A balance chemical equation provides quantitative information about reactants consumed and products formed in a chemical reaction. A molecular formula shows the actual number of atoms of different elements in a molecule of an element or of compound. When an element combines with another element and forms more than one compound. soil. Atoms of the isotope 12C are assigned a atomic mass unit of 12 and the relative masses of all other atoms are obtained by comparison with the mass of a carbon-12.022 × 1023 mol-1. A molecule is the smallest particle of an element or of a compound which can exist freely under ordinary conditions and shows all properties of that substance. How would you classify: sea-water. soda water and wood ash? . air (unpolluted). The mole is the amount of substance which contains the same number of particles (atoms.

CH4. or a solution.00 g of O2? If the O2 molecules were completely split into O (oxygen atom). Give the symbol for each of the following isotopes (i) (ii) (iii) Atomic number 19. 3. 40 Ca 9 8 20 7.6022 × 10-19 coulomb. Calculate the number of the molecules of water that are present in the body of a person who has mass of 65 kg. mass number 40 Atomic number 18. How will you define a solution based on its composition? 11. a heterogeneous mixture. What is the total charge on 1 mol of electron? If there is same amount of charge on one proton. (Ans. neutrons and electrons in each of the following: 19 F.Structure and Properties of Matter : 45 : 2. 1. Assume that a human body is 80% water. Label each of the following as a substance. fluidity and density. Number of molecules in 8 g of O2 =1. Boron has two isotopes with masses of 10.01294 and 11. liquid or gas) of each of the following: (i) Nitrogen (ii) Copper (iii) Bromine (iv) Oxygen (v) ethyl alcohol (vi) hydrogen peroxide 5. Characterize gases. Charge of one electron is 1. How does an element differ from a compound? How are elements and compounds different than mixture? 10. mass number 15 8. 12. NaCl. mass number 40 Atomic number 7. What is the average atomic mass of boron? (Ans. Using atomic masses given in the table of this lesson calculate the molar masses of each of the following compounds: CO. (i) bromine (iv) soil (in front of your home) (vii) river water (ii) petrol (v) stone (viii) Coal (iii) concrete (vi) beach sand (ix) Soda water 6. 4.0110 × 1023 atoms) 13.77% and 80.81 u) 9.10. calculate total charge on 1 mol of protons.5055 × 1023 molecules Number of atoms in 8 g of O2 = 3.7 × 1027 molecules of water) 14. how many moles of atoms of oxygen would be obtained? (Ans. How many molecules of O2 are in 8. 18 O. Write the number of protons.23%. Give normal state (solid.00931 u and abundance of 19. NH3 and HCl . What is atomic theory proposed by Dalton? Describe how it explains the great variety of different substances. liquids and solids in terms of compressibility.

What is the mass of (i) 6. PCl3.02 × 1023 atoms of O (ii) 6. H2O2. Define the following (i) (ii) Law of constant proportions Law of multiple proportions . C2H2. A balanced chemical equation shows (i) the formulas of the products (ii) the molar proportions in which the products are formed (iii) that a reaction can occur (iv) the relative number of atoms and molecules which react (v) that a reaction is exothermic 20. Balance the following equations (i) H2O2 → H2O + O2 (ii) S + O2 → SO3 (iii) C2H2 + O2 → CO + H2O (iv) MnO2 + HCl → MnCl2 + Cl2 + H2O 17.02 × 1022 (c) 1.00 g of carbon and (b) 3.44 g of carbon dioxide.02 × 1023 molecules of P4 (iv) 6.01 u. SO2. Cl2O 18. P4.: 46 : Structure and Properties of Matter 15. di.02 × 1023 atoms of P (iii) 6. (a) 1. H2O (iv) 0. CH3OH.8 × 1022] 22. HCl. PCl5. (a) 16. CO2 [Ans.1 mol of sulphur (c) 124. 16. How many atoms are there in (i) (ii) two moles of iron 0. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’. penta and hexatomic molecules.204 × 1024 (b) 6. 19.02 × 1023 molecules of O2 [Ans.0 g (d) 32 g] (iii) 18 g of water. What mass of oxygen can be formed from 17 g of H2O2 if decomposition of H2O2 takes place. H2. Average atomic mass of carbon is 12. SF4. tri.0 g 21.8 × 1024 and (d) 1. Classify the following molecules as mono.00 × 1021 atoms of carbon.0 g (b) 31. Find the number of moles of carbon in (i) 2. What is meant by molecular formula? Hydrogen peroxide has the molecular formula H2O2. tetra.

3. (i).08 × 1023 S atom 2. (v) and (vi) 2. C3H8 = 44 u PCl5 = 207.1 2.3 1.50 mol) ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 2. HNO3 2. (iii). Diffusion: The gradual mixing of the molecules of two or more substances owing to random molecular motion. (i) FePO4 (ii) BaCl2 (iii) CaCO3 (iv) PBr3 (v) MgSO4 (vi) Na3PO4 (v) SO3 3. Sodium oxide.Structure and Properties of Matter : 47 : (iii) (iv) (v) Avogadro’s Law Gay Lussacis Law Dalton’s atomic theory 23. (i) 4H3PO3 → 3H3PO4 + PH3 (ii) Ca + 2H2O → Ca(OH)2 + H2 (iii) C3H8 + 5O2 → 3CO2 + 4H2O 2. Barium oxide. Sodium sulphate GLOSSARY Atomic mass: The average mass of an atom in a representative sample of atoms of an element. HCl. 30 14 S 2. (ii) 1. 14 29 14 Si. Chemical reaction: A process in which substances are changed into other substances through rearrangement/combination of atoms. 1. Cuperous chloride.5 1.11 mol (c) 0. 28 Si.77 × 10–22 g of Ag 1.2 1.5 u SO3 = 80 u 2.4 2. refer text 2. (a) 0.375 mol (b) 1. . Compound: Matter that is composed of two or more different kinds of elements chemically combined in definite proportions. CH2. refer text 4. Convert into mole (i) 12 g of oxygen gas (O2) (ii) 20 g of water (H2O) (iii) 22 g pf carbon dioxide (CO2) (Ans.

: 48 : Structure and Properties of Matter Element: Matter that is composed of one kind of atoms. Molecular mass: The sum of atomic masses (in u) of all the atoms of a molecule. Mass number: Number of protons plus number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom of an element. Mole: Mole is amount of substance that contains as many elementary particles as there are atoms in 0. A. Molar mass: The mass (in gram) of one mole of a substance. each atom of a given kind having the same properties (Mass is one such property). Z but different mass number. Heterogeneous mixture: A mixture which has no uniformity in composition. Homogeneous mixture: A mixture with the same composition throughout Isotopes: Isotopes are atoms having the same atomic number. Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies space.012 kg of C-12 isotope. . Molar volume: The volume of one mole of a substance.

At that time.3 Atomic Structure In the previous lesson. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. Based on these discoveries. These models tell us about the distribution of various sub-atomic particles in the atom. i. various developments such as the discoveries of sub-atomic particles such as electron. At that time. protons and neutrons.e. you should be able to: ! state the reasons of failure of Dalton’s atomic theory. ! recall the developments of various atomic models. We will start the study of this lesson by recapitulating the postulates of Dalton’s atomic theory . certain experiments showed that an atom is made up of even smaller particles which are called subatomic particles. 3. we would discuss how various models for the structure of atom were developed and what were their main features. But as you will study in this lesson. Later. The electronic configurations of some simple elements are discussed in this lesson These electronic configurations would be useful in explaining various properties of the elements. many Greek philosophers believed that the atoms cannot be further subdivided. the atom was considered to be indivisible. . led to the failure of this idea. Dalton’s theory explained various laws of chemical combination about which you have read earlier in lesson 2. In this lesson. The electronic configuration of an element governs the nature of chemical bonds formed by it. This aspect is dealt in lesson 5 on chemical bonding. ! list the shortcomings of Bohr’s atomic model. This arrangement is known as electronic configuration. proton etc. ! compute the electronic configuration of first 18 elements. You will now study about the discovery of these subatomic particles namely electrons. We would explain the success as well as the shortcomings of these models. But what is the structure of an atom? Why are atoms of different elements different? Let us try to find out the answers to some of these questions in this lesson. From the knowledge of structure of atom the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus can be obtained. they were structure less entities. you have studied that the atoms are the smallest constituents of matter.1 FAILURE OF DALTON’S ATOMIC THEORY You have read about Dalton’s atomic theory in lesson 2. ! name and list the fundamental particles present in the atom. various atomic models were proposed by the scientists.

the idea of indivisibility of atom as suggested by Dalton was proved incorrect.J.2 Discovery of proton In 1886. When high voltage was applied across the electrodes. mass = charge of the electron charge per unit mass of the electron = 1. A cathode ray tube is made of glass from which most of the air has been removed.1. You can see in the figure that there are two metal electrodes. what were are its constituents? You have read above that one such particle is an electron. Such a cathode ray tube has been shown in Fig.10 ×10-28 g e / m 1. Thomson studied electric discharge through a cathode ray tube. 3. If the atom was divisible.76 ×108 C g −1 Since the electrons were released from the cathode irrespective of the metal used for it or irrespective of the gas filled in the cathode ray tube. Hence.60 ×10−19 C e = = 9. what are the other particles present in an atom? Let us study the next section and find out the answer. the cathode emitted a stream of negatively charged particles. the negatively charged electrode is called cathode whereas the positively charged electrode is called anode. In 1898. Wilhelm . 3.: 52 : Atomic Structure 3.1 Cathode ray Metal electrode (anode) tube An English physicist J. Now. 3.1 Discovery of electron During 1890s’ many scientists performed experiments using cathode ray tubes. Thomson concluded that all atoms must contain electrons. High Volta g e (–) Metal electrode (Cathode) Evaluated glass vessel (+) Fig. Robert Millikan (1868-1953) received the Nobel prize in Physics in 1923 for determining the charge of the electron. called electrons. Eugen Goldstein observed that rays flowing in a direction opposite to that of the cathode rays were positively charged.1. In other words. The discovery of the electron led to the conclusion that the atom was no more indivisible as was believed by Dalton and others. Such rays were named as canal rays because they passed through the holes or the canals present in the perforated cathode. the atom was found to be divisible.1.

What is a cathode ray tube? 4. they are called the canal rays. we will discuss two such models namely Thomson model and Rutherford model. We have just seen that all atoms contain the electrons. It was found that the particles constituting the canal rays are much heavier than electrons. The canal rays are shown in Fig.then these positive ions can pass through these holes or canals. Name the extremely small particles which constitute matter. The canal rays had positive charges which were whole number multiples of the amount of charge present on the electron. Thomson concluded that there must be an equal amount of positive charge present in the atom. Rutherford showed that these particles were identical to the hydrogen ion (hydrogen atom from which one electron has been removed).3.2. .2 Canal rays When the cathode ray tube contained hydrogen gas. 3. What is an anode? 5.1 1. a German physicist. Based on these facts. This leaves behind positive ions which travel towards the cathode. measured e/m for canal rays. the nature and the type of these particles varied depending upon the gas present in the cathode ray tube. Anode + + + + Cathode + + + + Fig. He proposed that an atom could be considered as a sphere of uniform positive charge in which electrons are embedded. What do we call the negatively charged particles emitted from the cathode? 3. If the cathode has holes in it .2 EARLIER MODELS OF ATOM Based on the experimental observations. Why the canal rays obtained by using different gases have different e/m values? 3. This is shown below in Fig.1 Thomson model All matter is made of atoms and all the atoms are electrically neutral. 3. take a pause and solve the following questions: CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3.2. Hence. Now it is the time to check your understanding. the particles of the canal rays obtained were the lightest and their e/m ratio was the highest.Atomic Structure : 53 : Wien. 2. 3.3. For this. different models were proposed for the structure of the atom. In this section. Also unlike cathode rays. The positive nature of the canal rays was explained as follows: In a cathode ray tube. the electrons emitted from the cathode collide with the atoms of the gas present in the tube and knock out one or more electrons present in them. These particles were named as protons and were shown to be present in all matter.

3. Rutherford explained the above observation by proposing another model of the atom. 3.then most of the a particles should pass through the gold foil and their path should only be deflected by a small amount. some of them were deflected by a large angles and a few even bounced back. 3.00004 cm thick). Beam of a particles Scattered of a particles – – – – – – – – – + – – Circular fluorescent screen – – Thin gold foil (a) Most particles are undeflected Fig.3 Thomson model of atom radioactivity was also being studied by the scientists.4 (a) The experimental set-up for the α particle bombardment on thin gold foil.3.: 54 : Atomic Structure This model is similar to a water-melon according to which an atom can be thought of as a sphere of positive charge in which the electrons are embedded like seeds. They were surprised to find out that although the majority of the a particles passed through the gold foil undeflected (or were deflected with minor angles). Ernest Rutherford and his coworkers were also carrying out experiments which revealed that the radiation could be of three types: α(alpha). In 1911. You will study more about them in lesson 14. Special cloud of positive charge Electrons During this period only. This is shown below in Fig.4(b).J Thomson was studying the effect of alpha (a) particles on matter. Hans Geiger (Rutherford’s technician) and Ernest Marsden (Rutherford’s student) directed α particles from α radioactive source on a thin piece of gold foil (about 0. The alpha particles are helium nuclei. This phenomenon of spontaneous emission of rays from atoms of certain elements also proved that the atom was divisible and it contained sub –atomic particles. β(beta) and γ(gamma). This is shown in Fig. 3. the phenomenon of Fig. Ernest Rutherford. (1871-1937) who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908 for proposing the nuclear model of the atom. This model is also called plum pudding model or raisin pudding model because the electrons resembled the raisins dispersed in a pudding (an English dessert). In 1910. He suggested that : .2. They are obtained by the removal of two electrons from the helium atom.2 Rutherford’s model Rutherford who was a student of J.4. Let us now study about the contribution of Rutherford. Rutherford and his co-workers performed an experiment which led to the downfall of the Thomson model. (b)Scattering of α particles (b) If Thomson model was correct.

3 DISCOVERY OF NEUTRON Although Rutherford’s model of the atom could explain the electrical neutrality and the results of scattering experiment but a major problem regarding the atomic masses remained unsolved. 3. (ii) The electrons revolve around the nucleus in circular paths. What is a proton? 3. The neutron was found to have a mass slightly higher than that of a proton electrically neutral. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. called the nucleus. Thus. i. called as fundamental particles are given in Table 3.5 Rutherford’s nuclear nucleus was similar to the Sun and the electrons were similar model of atom to the planets. its mass ratio to hydrogen as 4:1 could be explained. We can imagine the size of the nucleus with the following similarity.2 1. 1.Atomic Structure : 55 : (i) Most of the mass of atom and all of its positive charge reside in a very small region of space at the centre of the atom. most of the space in the atom is empty through which the majority of the αparticles could pass. James Chadwick showed the existence of this third type of subatomic particle. Ruthurford was able to predict the size of the nucleus by carefully measuring the fraction of α particles deflected.. 3.particles come close to the nucleus. 3. Later in 1932. The mass of helium atom (which contains 2 protons) should be double than that of a hydrogen atom (which contains only one proton). Rutherford and others. Wherefrom this positive charge comes in the nucleus? The nucleus was supposed to contain positively charged particles. its contribution to the atomic mass can be ignored]. This quantity of charge. Define nucleus.602 x 10 –19 C is called the electronic charge and is expressed as a unit charge. If the size of the atom is that of a cricket stadium then the nucleus would have the size of a fly at the centre of the stadium. [The electron being very light weight particle as compared to that of a proton. Thus. the charge of an electron is –1 whereas that of a proton is +1. they are repelled by its positive charge and hence they show a large deflection. called protons. suggested that there must be one more type of subatomic particle present in the nucleus which may be neutral but must have mass.e. This was named as neutron. thus. He estimated that the radius of the nucleus was atleast 1/10000 times smaller than that of the radius of the atom.e. i. When the α. This model is also known as Rutherford’s nuclear model of the atom and is shown in Fig. The positive charge on a proton was equal but opposite in nature to that on an electron.1. Who proposed the nuclear model for the structure of atom? 2.5. if the helium atom contained 2 protons and 2 neutrons in the nucleus. . – Electron + Nucleus This model resembeled the solar system in which the Fig. The characteristics of these three particles. Actual ratio of helium and hydrogen masses is 4:1.

The atomic number and the mass number of an element (X) can be denoted as follows: A Z X Thus. hence. How many neutrons are present in the α-particle? 3.3 1.67493 x 10-27 –1. Table 3:1 Characteristics of the subatomic particles. 1 H 1 . 14 6 C CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. its atomic number is 1.10939 x 10-31 1. But some carbon atoms can have 7 or 8 neutrons also. the helium atom also has neutrons present in its nucleus. What is the mass number of an atom which has 7 protons and 8 neutrons? 3. The total number of protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom of an element is called its mass number.4 ATOMIC NUMBER.: 56 : Atomic Structure James Chadwick (1891-1972) was a British physicist. What about the number of electrons present in hydrogen and helium? Since the atom is electrically neutral.Such atoms which have the same atomic number but have different mass number are called isotopes. This number is called the atomic number and is denoted by Z . These isotopes can be represented as shown below: 12 6 C. 13 6 C.6022 x 10-19 0 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. He received the Nobel prize in 1935 for showing the existence of neutron in the nucleus of an atom. its mass number is 4. 1 H. MASS NUMBER AND ISOTOPES Why do the atoms of different elements differ from each other? The numbers of protons present in the atom of an element are different from those present in the atom of another element. the number of electrons present in these atoms is 1 and 2 respectively. The mass number of these carbon atoms would be 6+7=13 or 6+8=14.4 1. How will you distinguish between an electron and a proton? 3. Thus. 1 2 3 H.67262 x 10-27 1. carbon has three isotopes. It is denoted by A. Thus. Calculate the number of neutrons present in the following isotopes of hydrogen.Hydrogen has one proton in its nucleus and therefore. Similarly. How is atomic number related to the number of protons present in the atom? 2. 6C means that the carbon atom has 6 protons and hence 12–6 = 6 neutrons. What is a neutron? 2. Particle Symbol Mass(kg) Charge Coulomb (C) in multiple units -1 +1 0 Electron Proton Neutron e p n 9. Helium nucleus contains 2 protons and 2 neutrons.6022x10-19 +1. helium can be represented as 4 H 2 12 Similarly. the number of protons present in the atom of each element is fixed and is a characteristic property of that element as you have already learnt in lesson 2.In addition to the protons. two protons are present in the nucleus of helium atom and hence its atomic number is 2.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. Thus.5 1. The electron does not collapse into the nucleus. He was a Danish physicist He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. the electron would emit radiation and follow a spiral path as shown in Fig. He set down following two main postulates to explain the stability of atom particularly hydrogen atom (i) An electron can have only a definite circular path around the nucleus with specific energy values. In other words. .5 DRAWBACKS OF RUTHERFORD’S MODEL As you have studied in section 3. electron will emits out a definite amount of energy when it comes from a higher energy level to lower energy level.6 BOHR’S MODEL OF ATOM In 1913.6. a moving charged particle. This circular path he called orbit or energy level (ii) Electron may go to next higher energy level (orbit) when given a definite amount of energy. The existence of the neutron thus accounted for the mass of the atom. Bohr’s model now will be discussed in the next section. Niels Bohr proposed a model which was an improvement over Rutherford’s nuclear model. What were the two drawbacks of Rutherford’s model? 3.6 Spiral path of an electron The energy of the electron would keep on decreasing (as the electron would keep on emitting radiation) till the electron finally falls into the nucleus. an electron absorbs energy when it goes to higher energy level from a lower energy level. Another drawback which Rutherford’s model suffered was that it could not explain the stability of the atom. Thus. such as the electron which is constantly accelerating because of change in directions of motion. ∆E = E2 – E1 If the electron remians in the same orbit. Bohr proposed that an electron moves around the nucleus in a well defined circular path. The energy of the radiation would come from the motion of the electron. Contrary to this.3. it was found that an electron cannot remain in a fixed circular orbit as envisaged by Bohr. 3. therefore. If E2 is energy of an electron in higher energy level and E1 is energy of electron in lower energy level. then energy released ∆E will be expressed as. should emit radiation. the energy would neither be released nor absorbed.Atomic Structure : 57 : 3. Fig. were called stationary orbits or stationary states. These orbits will. Niels Bohr (1885-1962).3. Rutherford’s model could not solve the problem of atomic mass. According to the electromagnetic theory of radiation. Rutherford’s model needed the improvements which were later on suggested by Bohr. Although Bohr model could explain a number of aspects related to hydrogen atom but it could not explain stability of atoms having more than one electron. But actually it does not happen. Bohr model was rejected on this ground. After the nature of electron was studied in detail.

: 58 : Atomic Structure Based on the nature of electron. These shells are similar to circular path/energy levels given by Bohr. Thus. Since the first shell can accommodate two electrons. Keeping these points in mind. you are aware that shells of different energies exist in an atom. hence. The energies of these shells go on increasing as we move away from the nucleus. What will happen to the energy of electron when it goes from an orbit of higher energy to that of a lower energy? 3. These subshells are denoted by letters s. Each shell could be further sub-divided into various sublevels of energy called subshells. let us now study the filling of electrons in various shells of atoms of different elements. 2. The next element carbon (C) has 6 electrons. The electronic configuration of helium can be represented as 2. concept of circular orbit was modified and a three dimensional shell with definite energy came into existence. 3. 1. the electronic configurations of beryllium (Be) and boron (B) having four and five electrons respectively can be written as follows: Be 4 electrons Electronic configuration . d. How many electrons can be present in a L-shell? 3. M. The electrons occupy these shells according to the increasing order of their energy.2 and depicted in Fig. Hydrogen atom has only one electron. The electronic configuration of other elements can be given on the same lines. the first shell can have two electrons whereas the second shell can have 8 electrons. 5. What is a shell? 4. 3. . Similarly. Thus. 2. The third element. Each shell is associated with a definite energy. Lithium (Li) has three electrons.6 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. this second electron can also be placed in first shell. N etc. etc about which you would study in your higher classes. 4. The next element helium (He) has two electrons in its atom. 3…. p. Thus electronic configuration of hydrogen can be represented as 1. These shells are represented by letters K. Hence. the next element nitrogen having 7 electrons has the electronic configuration 2. What are stationary states? 2. second shell. Similarly. the electronic configuration of carbon can be represented as 2. You also know that the first shell can have two electrons whereas the second shell can accommodate eight electrons. respectively.2. L. The electronic configuration of first twenty elements is given in Table 3. The maximum number of electrons which can be accommodated in each shell is given by 2n2 where n can take values 1. Now the sixth electron also goes to the second shell which can accommodate eight electrons.e. Now the two electrons occupy the first shell whereas the third electron goes to the next shell of higher energy level.2. f.7 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION OF ELEMENTS From the above discussions. the electronic configuration of Li is 2.etc. i. B 5 electrons Electronic configuration . Similarly the maximum number of electrons present in third and fourth shells would be 18 and 32.7.

4 2.3 2. B Carbon.8.5 2 1 0 1 2 Hydrogen. N Oxygen. Na Magnesium.4 2. Ar Potassium. Al Silicon.8. Mg Aluminium.2 1 0 1 2 3 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 3.1 2. K Calcium.3 2.8. of electrons 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Arrangement of electrons in shells Electrons Common distribution valency in shells 1 in first shell 2 in first shell 2 in first shell + 1 in second shell 2 in first shell + 2 in second shell 2 in first shell + 3 in second shell 2 in first shell + 4 in second shell 2 in first shell + 5 in second shell 2 in first shell + 6 in second shell 2 in first shell + 7 in second shell 2 in first shell + 8 in second shell 2 in first shell + 8 in second shell + 1 in third shell 2 in first shell + 8 in second shell + 2 in third shell 2 in first shell + 8 in second shell + 3 in third shell 2 in first shell + 8 in second shell + 4 in third shell 2 in first shell + 8 in second shell + 5 in third shell 2 in first shell + 8 in second shell + 6 in third shell 2 in first shell + 8 in second shell + 7 in third shell 2 in first shell + 8 in second shell + 8 in third shell 2 in first shell + 8 in second shell + 8 in third shell + 1 in fourth shell 2 in first shell + 8 in second shell + 8 in third shell + 2 in fourth shell 1 2 2.8 2.8.8.2 2.6 2.8.8.7 2. O Fluorine.8.2 2. F Neon.8.5 2. Li Beryllium.7 2.1 2. C Nitrogen. Cl Argon.8.5 2.1 2. S Chlorine. Si Phosphorus. Ca . P Sulphur. H Helium.7 Electronic configuration of some elements Table 3. 3.Atomic Structure : 59 : Fig.8 2. Be Boron. Ne Sodium.8.8.6 2.2: Electronic distribution in shells of first twenty elements Element/symbol No. He Lithium.

An electron has ——————— charge. Mass number gives the number of protons and neutrons present in an atom Isotopes have same atomic number but different mass numbers. Thomson proposed the plum-pudding model of the structure of atom. Cathode is the negatively charged electrode. We can see from the table 3. In next lesson. The maximum number of electrons which can be accommodated in a shell is 2n2. The neutrons are neutral particles present in the nucleus. you would study how these electronic configurations are useful in understanding the periodic arrangement of elements.: 60 : Atomic Structure 3. 4. 3. The model which resembled the solar system was proposed by—— 3. The plum pudding model was proposed by Rutherford. The number of electrons present in a neutral atom is always equal to the number of protons. The electronic configuration of an element having atomic number11 is_____________ ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! LET US REVISE Electrons are present in all the atoms. . 1. These electrons are known as valence electrons. 2.1 Valence electron and valency We have just discussed the electronic configuration of first 20 elements. Bohr’s model gave the idea of definite orbits or stationary states. How many shells are present in the nitrogen atom? 2. Valency of 20 elements along with their electronic configuration is also provided in Table 3. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. The electrons in the last shell (popularly known as valence shell) govern the chemical properties of the atoms.7. Atomic number is the number of protons present in the nucleus of an atom. Fill in the blanks. 3.7 1. Anode rays travel towards—————————— 4.2. These electronic configurations are also helpful in studying the nature of bonding between various elements which will be dealt in lesson 5. The nucleus consists of ———————and ———————— 2. Rutherford’s model of the structure of atom suggested that most of the mass and all of positive charge of an atom is concentrated in its nucleus and the electrons revolve around it in. B. Name the element which has the completely filled first shell. Classify the following statements as true or false. Valency or combining capacity of an atom of an element depends on the number of these electrons as mentioned in lesson 2. 1. TERMINAL EXERCISES A. The electrons occupy various shells in an atom in the increasing order of their energy. Neutrons are constituents of atoms of all elements.2 that electrons are located in different shells around the nucleus.

2. atoms electrons A glass tube from which most of the air has been removed. 2 3. Calculate the number of neutrons present in 16 O and 19 F 8 9 4. 4 (c) 2. 3. 8. what is its atomic number? 5. The filling of second shell starts with (a) He (b) Li (c) C (d) N 5. J. Which of the following elements has completely filled shells? (a) H (b) O (c) Ne (d) Mg D. An α-particle has (a) 2 protons only. because the positive ions resulting from the different gases have different masses. If 30 neutrons present in its atom. (d) zero 4.2 1. 1. 3. (b) is greater than that of a proton. (c) is equal to that of a proton.Atomic Structure : 61 : C. (b) 2 neutrons only (c) 2 protons and 2 neutrons (d) 2 neutrons 2. 14 N 6 6 7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3. (i) An electron has negative charge whereas a proton has a positive charge. Thompson The small region of space at the centre of the atom where most of the mass and all of the positive charge is located. 3. A neutron is a neutral subatomic particle having mass slightly higher than proton. The mass of a neutron (a) is less than that of a proton. . The mass number of iron is 56. 1.J. An alpha particle is the helium nucleus which is obtained by the removal of two electrons from the helium atom. 4. 14 C. Define an orbit. How can you say that electrons are present in all types of matter? 2. The electronic configuration of Cl is (a) 2. 8. 2. 5. 8. It has two electrodes. Isotopes have (a) same mass number (b) same atomic number (c) different atomic number (d) same mass as well as atomic number 3. Multiple choice type questions. It is a positively charged electrode. Which of the following are isotopes? 12 C.3 1. Descriptive type questions.1 1. 3. 7 6. 3. 6 (d) 2. 8 (b) 2. 2.

3. Electronic configuration: The complete description of the orbitals occupied by all the electrons in an atom on ion.4 1. 15 0. 3. represened by three dimensional boundary surface diagram. 3. 3. d. 2. 8 electrons. 2. Isotopes: Forms of an element composed of atoms with same atomic number but different mass number owing to a difference in a number of neutrons.. Neutrons: An electrically neutral subatomic particle found in the nucleus. Mass number: The number of proton plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom of an element. 3. Orbital: Regions occupied by electrons in S.7 1. f.6 1. . 4. 8. Atomic number is equal to the number of protons present in the nucleus of the atom. When an electron is present in a stationary state. 3. It could not explain the correct atomic masses and the stability of atoms. Atom: The smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that elemen. Stationary states are energy levels of definite energy. 2 2. P.: 62 : Atomic Structure (ii) An electron is present outside the nucleus whereas a proton is present in the nucleus. (iii) The electron has very less mass as compared to a proton. Atomic number: The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element. its energy does not change.5 1. Its energy would decrease. Proton: A positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus. 1 GLOSSARY Alpha particles: Positively charged particles ejected at high speeds from certain radioactive substances. He 3. Atomic nucleus: The tiny central core of an atom that contains neutrons and protons. Electron shell: The collectio of orbitals with same principal quantum number. 1. Electron: A negatively charged subatomic particle found in the space about the nucleus. subshells. A shell is a group of energy levels having similar energy. 2. 2.

All the elements were grouped in to these two classes only. ! describe the features of the long form of periodic table. You have also studied that elements with similar electronic configurations show similar chemical properties. Electrons are filled in various shells and subshells in a fairly regular fashion. Finally we shall learn about some properties of elements and their variations in the periodic table. There are thousands of books in a large library. and about the long form of modern periodic table which is an improvement over Mendeleev’s work. properties of elements are repeated periodically. In the last two lessons you have studied about the structure of atoms and their electronic configurations. ! define various periodic properties. . 4. the library staff can locate it easily. Such trends in their physical and chemical properties were noticed by chemists in the nineteenth century and attempts were made to classify elements on their basis long before structure of atom was known.1 EARLIER ATTEMPTS OF CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS The first classification of elements was as metals and non-metals. ! discuss the trends in various periodic properties in the periodic table. In this lesson we shall study about the earlier attempts for classification. ! state main features of Mendeleev’s periodic table. How is it possible? In library the books are classified into various categories and sub-categories. This served only limited purpose mainly because of two reasons: 1. Moreover the group containing metals was very big.4 Periodic Classification of Elements You must have visited a library. They are arranged on shelves accordingly. the first successful classification which included all the known elements at that time namely Mendeleev’s periodic table. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. Therefore. In spite of this if you ask for a particular book. you will be able to: ! state different historical classifications of elements in brief. ! explain the defects of Mendeleev’s periodic table. ! state modern periodic law. Therefore location of books becomes easy.

0) Si (28.3 MENDELEEV’S PERIODIC LAW AND PERIODIC TABLE 4.1) B (10.1) N (14. Mendeleev believed that atomic mass of elements was the most fundamental property and arranged them in its increasing order in horizontal rows till he encountered an element which had properties similar to the first element. Because of this shortcoming his work was not received well by the scientific community.9) Na (23. he stated this observation in the following form which is known as Mendeleev’s Periodic Law. Now we shall learn about the arrangement of elements on the basis of the periodic law. The next break through in classification of elements came in the form of Mendeleev’s work.0) Mg (24. The chemical and physical properties of elements are a periodic function of their atomic masses*. Thus.Periodic Classification of Elements : 65 : Look carefully at the Newland’s arrangement of elements shown below: Li (6.3. A periodic function is the one which repeats itself after a certain interval. aluminnium is the eighth element from boron it shows properties similar to it.8) Al (27. 4.3) Ca (40.1. Newland could arrange elements in this manner only up to calcium out of a total of over sixty elements known at his time.0) C (12. A tabular arrangement of the elements based on the periodic law is called periodic table.0) O (16.1a Mendeleev’s periodic law Dmitry Mendeleev** a Russian chemist while trying to classify elements discovered that on arranging in the increasing order of atomic mass*. He placed this element below the first element and thus started the second row of elements.0) Cl (35.0) S (32. Similarly. Proceeding in this manner he could arrange all the known elements according to their properties and thus created the first periodic table.0) K (39. However.5) With the help of the arrangement given above. elements with similar chemical properties occurred periodically. ∗ Then known as atomic weight ** Also spelled as Mendeleef or Mendeleyev . according to the periodic law the chemical and physical properties of elements repeat themselves after certain intervals when they are arranged in the increasing order of their atomic mass.1) F (19. can you tell starting from lithium which is the eighth element? Sodium.1) Be (9. In1869. Properties of all three are similar. And starting from sodium? It is potassium.0) P (31.

99 Se 34 78.183 Ar 18 39.37 Sr 38 87.1.2 192. They show regular gradation in their physical properties and chemical reactivities. These vacant spaces were for elements that were yet to be discovered.25 158.97 Fr 87 (223) II RO RH2 A B A III R2O3 RH3 B A IV R2O5 RH4 B A V R2O5 RH3 B A VI RO3 RH2 B A VII R2O7 RH B VII Ro4 Transition Traids Zero Noble gases Be 4 9.93 58.50 164. elements are arranged in tabular form in rows and columns.91 106.85 58.1 Mendeleev’s periodic table 4.012 Mg 12 24.974 V 23 50.98 Ha 105 O8 15.939 Na 11 22.72 Y 39 88.3 (237) (244) (243) (245) (247) (249) (254) (253) (256) (253) (257) Fig.87 Cs 55 132. These are numbered from 1 to 7 (Arabic numerals).90 Au 79 196.19 Ku 104 N7 14.26 168. Prediction of new elements Mendeleev’s periodic table had some blank spaces in it.2 At 85 (210) He 2 4.90 Ge 32 72.008(At.59 Zr 40 91. All the elements in a particular group are chemically similar in nature.998 Cl 17 35.1.93 173.04 174.07 102.80 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 101.906 Sb 51 121.9014 Re 75 186.e.37 Actinide Elements 89-103 C6 12.948 Bi 83 208.82 *Rare Earths 57-71 Tl 81 204.94 As 33 74.981 Sc 21 44. 4.75 Ta 73 180.85 Po 84 (210) F9 18.04 (231) 238.69 Hf 72 178. 94 Te 52 127. 3. You can see that there are seven periods in the periodic table.: 66 : Periodic Classification of Elements PERIODIC TABLE (Modified form of Mendleeff’s Table) P E R I O D I C S Group : Oxide: Hydride: A 1 2 3 4 First series second series First series second series First series second series 7 * Lanthaandie Elements (Rare Earth Series) I R2O RH B H 1 (At.47 Ag 47 107.999 S 16 32.40 Ba 56 137.909 Tc 43 (99) I 53 124.453 Mn 25 54.91 140.2 195. For example.12 140.0026 Ne 10 20. Classification of all elements Mendeleev’s was the first classification which successfully included all the elements.) Li 3 6. You must have noticed that these are nine in number and are numbered from I to VIII and Zero (Roman numerals). 1. 2.102 Cu 29 63.3c Merits of Mendeleev’s periodic classification 1.91 144.35 151.92 Nb 41 92.312 Ca 20 40.54 Rb 37 85.2 carefully.71 Kr 36 83.4 Xe 54 131.06 Cr 24 51.24 (147) 150. 4.92 162.007 P 15 30.96 Mo 42 95. After learning about the main features we shall now learn about the main merits of Mendeleev’s periodic table. he proposed the existence of an .086 Ti 22 47.905 In 49 114. Now let us learn more about these rows and columns and the elements present in them.62 Cd 48 112.99 K 19 39.811 Al 13 26.96 157.96 Ga 31 69.939 Br 35 79. What do you observe? Here. 5.) 1.34 Hg 80 200. Properties of elements in a particular period show regular gradation (i. 4.3b Main features of Mendeleev’s periodic table Look at the Mendeleev’s periodic table shown in fig.59 Ra 88 (226) B5 10.22 Sn 50 118.948 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 55.93 167.97 Actinide Series ( Ac 89 Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 Am 95 Cm 96 Bk 97 Cf 98 Es 99 Fm 100 Md 101 No 102 Lr 103 ( (227) 232.30 O s 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 190.09 Rn 86 (222) 5 6 ( La 57 Ce 58 Pr 59 Nd 60 Pm 61 Sm 62 Eu 63 Gd 64 Tb 65 Dy 66 Ho 67 Er 68 Tm 69 Yb 70 Lu 71 ( 138.08 Zn 30 65. The vertical columns present in it are called groups. The horizontal rows present in the periodic table are called periods. increase or decrease) from left to right.4.49 Pb 82 207. Groups I to VII are subdivided into A and B subgroups.Wt.60 W 74 183. 2. Groups Zero and VIII don’t have any subgroups. No.011 Si 14 28.

Their outermost shells are incomplete. Similarly all the elements of group 17 have seven valence electrons however the number of shells is increasing from two in F to five in I.1 F Cl Br I Group 17 Element Electronic configuration 2.8. Na. Group 1 Element Li Na K Rb Electronic configuration 2.8.2a Groups There are 18 vertical columns in the periodic table.2. They are also called typical or main group elements .2 Modern periodic table The periodic table based on the modern periodic law is called the Modern Periodic Table.8.: 68 : Periodic Classification of Elements The Modern Periodic Law states “The chemical and physical properties of elements are a periodic function of their atomic numbers” After the change in the periodic law many changes were suggested in the periodic table. 4. Ar. Now we shall learn about the modern periodic table which finally emerged. It is shown in figure 4. 4.4.7 All elements of group 1 have only one valence electron. Rb.7 2.8.1 2.3. Group 1 on extreme left position contains alkali metals (Li. more and more shells are added. K in four while Rb has electrons in five shells.8. Ne.18.1 2. Li has electrons in two shells. You can see in case of group 1 (alkali metals) and group 17 elements (halogens) that as one moves down a group. Na in three. The groups have been numbered from 1 to 18 (in Arabic numerals) from left to right. Now let us learn the main features of this periodic table.8. Kr.8.1 2.7 2. K. Many versions of this periodic table are in use but the one which is most commonly used is the Long Form of Modern Periodic Table.3 Modern periodic table If you look at the modern periodic table shown in the fig.8. ● Elements present in groups 1 and 2 on left side and groups 13 to 17 on the right side of the periodic table are called normal elements or representative elements. All elements present in a group have similar electronic configurations and have same number of valence electrons.8. 1 2 H 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 He 10 Li 11 19 Be 12 20 38 56 88 21 39 57 89 58 90 59 91 60 92 61 93 62 94 63 95 64 96 65 97 66 98 67 99 68 100 69 101 70 102 71 103 22 23 24 42 74 106 25 43 75 26 44 76 27 45 77 28 46 78 29 47 79 30 48 80 B 13 31 49 81 C 14 32 50 82 N 15 O 16 F 17 Ne 18 Na Mg K 37 55 87 Al Si Ti 40 P 33 51 83 S 34 52 84 Cl 35 53 85 Ar 36 Ca Sc V 41 73 105 Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Ru Rh Pd Ag Pt Au Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Cd In Sn Sb Te I Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Kr 54 Rb Sr Y Cs Ba La Fr Ra Ac Ce Pr Zr 72 104 Nb Mo Tc Xe 86 Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta Ru Re Os Ir Rn Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Unq Unp Unh Fig.8. Each column is called a group.8.2.3 you will observe that it is not much different from Mendeleev’s periodic table.7 2. 4. Cs and Fr) and group 18 on extreme right side position contains noble gases (He. Xe and Rn).

Element Electronic configuration ! ! ! ! @ Na 2. In transitions elements.8.8.8. ** Including elements up to atomic number 118. Elements 114.2b Periods There are seven rows in the periodic table. However.7 Ar 2. Sixth and seventh periods are very long periods containing 32 elements* * each.1) has only one electron in its valence shell (third shell) while the last element of this period. the third shell (M shell) starts filling up as we move from left to right@ . They are shown also separately below the main periodic table along with lanthanides. The second and third periods are called short periods and contain 8 elements each.3 Si 2. The first element of this period sodium Na (2. In transitions elements.Periodic Classification of Elements : 69 : ● Elements present in groups 3 to 12 in the middle of the periodic table are called transition elements. Fourth and fifth periods are long periods and contain 18 elements each. atomic number 57 in the same position (group 3 in period 6) because of very close resemblance between them. argon Ar (2. atomic number 89 in the same position (group 3 in period 7) because of very close resemblance between them.6 Cl 2. the electrons are added to incomplete inner shells. However. However. in elements of 3rd period.8.8. # These elements have been named after the 1st elements lanthanum present in their position in the periodic table. 4.8.8) has eight electrons in its valence shell. strictly speaking. * These elements have been named after the 1st elements actinium present in their position in the periodic table. (Although groups 11 and 12 elements are.8. The gradual filing of the third shell can be seen below. for convenience sake they are shown separately below the main periodic table ● 14 elements with atomic numbers 90 to103 (Th to Lr) are called actinides* and they are placed along with the element actinium (Ac). 115 and 117 are not known but included at their expected positions. Their two outermost shells are incomplete.2 Al 2. Their outermost shells contain 8 electrons.8. Group 18 on extreme right side of the periodic table contains noble gases. Elements 113.2. it should be noted here that more and more electrons are added to valence shell only in case of normal elements. the electrons are added to incomplete inner shells.8. For example. .5 S 2. H and He. Each row is called a period. ● In each period a new shell starts filling up. it should be noted here that more and more electrons are added to valence shell only in case of normal elements.8. The period number is also the number of shell which starts filling up in it. not transition elements). ● Inner transition elements:14 elements with atomic numbers 58 to 71 (Ce to Lu) are called lanthanides# and they are placed along with the element lanthanum (La).1 Mg 2.8 The first period is the shortest period of all and contains only 2 elements.4 P 2. The periods have been numbered from 1 to 7 (Arabic numerals). 116 and 118 have been reported only recently.

2. Position of isotopes All isotopes of the same elements have different atomic masses but same atomic number. List any two defects of Mendeleev’s periodic table which have been corrected in the modern periodic table? 3. The long form of modern periodic table is therefore free of main defects of Mendeleev’s periodic table.: 70 : Periodic Classification of Elements 4. 4. atomic numbers of argon and potassium are 18 and 19 respectively. How many elements are present in 6th period of the periodic table? 4. Therefore. What is the name of the family of elements present in group 2 of the modern periodic table? 5. How many group and periods are present in the long form of periodic table? 4. This decreases the force of attraction between them and the nucleus of the atom.1 VALENCY (a) Valency in a period : You have already learnt in the previous section that the number of valence electrons increases in a period. We have also learnt that in a period the number of valence electrons and the nuclear charge increases from left to right. For example. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 4. argon with smaller atomic number comes before potassium although its atomic mass is greater and properties of both the elements match with other elements of their respective groups. Anomalous pairs of elements When elements are arranged in the periodic table according to their atomic numbers the anomaly regarding certain pairs of elements in Mendeleev’s periodic table disappears. Therefore. The elements that are present in the right hand portion of the periodic table are metals or non-metals? 6. According to the modern periodic law the properties of elements are periodic function of which property of theirs? 2.2. 1. Such properties are called periodic properties. It increases the force of attraction between them.3. In this section we shall learn about some periodic properties and their variation in the periodic table. These changes affect various properties of elements and they show gradual variation in a group and in a period and they repeat themselves after a certain interval of atomic number.2c Merits of modern periodic table over Mendeleev’s periodic table The modern periodic table is based on atomic number which is more fundamental property of an atom than atomic mass.3 PERIODIC PROPERTIES In the previous section we have learnt about the main features of the Modern Periodic Table. In a group the number of filled shells increases and valence electrons are present in higher shells. they occupy the same position in the modern periodic table which they should have because all of them are chemically similar.2 1. In normal elements it increases from 1 to 8 .

For an isolated atom it may be taken as the distance between the centre of atom and the outermost shell. therefore. 4. is 1 with respect to hydrogen and 7 with respect to oxygen. Atomic radius determines the size of an atom. or (group number-10) for groups 13 to 17. Group Element No. they all have the same valency. of valence electrons Valency with respect to hydrogen and chlorine Formula of hydride Formula of chloride 1 Li 1 1 LiH LiCl 2 Be 2 2 BeH2 BeCl2 13 B 3 3 BH3 BCl3 14 C 4 4 CH4 CCl4 15 N 5 3 NH3 NCl3 16 O 6 2 H2O Cl2O 17 F 7 1 HF ClF (b) Valency in a group : All the elements of a group have the same number of valence electrons. Practically. of valence electrons Valency with respect to oxygen Formula of oxide 1 Na 1 1 Na2O 2 Mg 2 2 MgO 13 Al 3 3 Al2O3 14 Si 4 4 SiO2 15 P 5 5 P4O10 16 S 6 6 SO3 17 Cl 7 7 Cl2O7 In the following table for elements of second period you will observe that valency of elements of with respect to hydrogen and chlorine increases from 1 to 4 and then decreases to 1 again. Carefully look at the table given below. Group Element No. 2nd Period 3rd Period Li 155 Na 190 Be 112 Mg 160 B 98 Al 143 C 91 Si 132 N 92 P 128 O 73 S 127 F 72 Cl 99 . What do you observe? In a period. alkali metals. halogens.3. atomic radius generally decreases from left to right. 4. It reaches 8 in group 18 elements (noble gases) which show practically no chemical activity under ordinary conditions and their valency is taken as zero.Periodic Classification of Elements : 71 : in a period from left to right.2 Atomic radii A number of physical properties like density and melting and boiling points are related to the sizes of atoms. measurement of size of an isolated atom is difficult. Therefore. This valency is equal to the number of valence electrons or group number for groups 1 and 2. Atomic size is difficult to define. It is defined as one-half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms when they are linked to each other by a single covalent bond. is 1.3. What do you observe? Valency of normal elements with respect oxygen increases from 1 to 7 as shown below for elements of third period.2a Variation of atomic radii in a period Atomic radii (in picometer) of 2nd and 3rd period elements are given in the table given below. it is measured when an atom is in company of another atom of same element. Thus valency of all group 1 elements. Similarly valency of all group 17 elements.

Now we shall study the variation of ionization energy in the periodic table. Group 1 Element Ionization Energy Li 520 Na K Rb 496 419 403 Group 17 Element Ionization Energy F 1680 Cl Br I1251 1143 1009 4.3. It is a measure of the force of attraction between the nucleus and the outermost electron. Stronger the force of attraction.5 Electron affinity Another important property that determines the chemical properties of an element is the tendency to gain an additional electron. This can be seen from ionization energy values (in kJ mol-1) of groups 1 and 17 elements given below. greater is the value of ionization energy.3. If second electron is removed the ionization energy is called the second ionization energy. It is measured in unit of kJ mol-1.3a Variation of ionization energy in a group We have already seen earlier. What should happen to their ionization energy values? Ionization energy decreases in a group from top to bottom. For removing an electron this attractive force must be overcome by spending some energy. It corresponds to the following process: If only one electron is removed. Also. the ionization energy increases in a period from left to right.3. This ability is measured by electron affinity. 4. This trend is can be seen in ionization energies (in kJ mol-1) of elements belonging to 2nd and 3rd periods. 2nd Period Elements Element Li Ionization Energy 520 Be 899 Mg 738 B 801 Al 578 C 1086 Si 786 N 1400 P 1021 O 1314 S 1000 F 1680 Cl 1251 Ne 2080 Ar 1521 3rd Period Elements Element Na Ionization Energy 496 4. As a consequence of this.3. The minimum amount of energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom in its ground state to form a gaseous ion is called ionization energy.Periodic Classification of Elements : 73 : In the data given above.4b Variation of ionization energy in a period We know that the force of attraction between valence electron and nucleus increases in a period from left to right. the positions of boron and carbon have been left vacant as they do not form ions. O2– and F–. the ionization energy is known as the first ionization energy. It is . 4. that the force of attraction between valence electrons and nucleus decreases in a group from top to bottom. the trend in radii of cations is seen in Li+ and Be2+and in radii of anions is seen in N3–.4 Ionization energy Negatively charged electrons in an atom are attracted by the positively charged nucleus.

5b Variation of electron affinity in a period In a period. the electron affinity decreases on moving from top to bottom. more energy is released during the process and greater is the tendency of the atom to gain electron. that is. less and less amount of energy is released. Greater the value of electron affinity.5a Variation of electron affinity in a group In a group. Electronegativity is relative tendency of a bonded atom to attract the bond-electrons towards itself. 2nd Period elements Element Electron affinity 3rd Period elements Element Electron affinity Li 58 Na 53 Be Mg B 23 Al 44 C 123 Si 120 N 0 P 74 O 142 S 200 F 333 Cl 348 4. electron affinity is assigned a positive value when energy is released during the process.: 74 : Periodic Classification of Elements the energy change when an electron is accepted by an atom in the gaseous state. This property is known as electronegativity. 4. . that is. more and more amount of energy is released. Group 1 Element Electron affinity Li 58 Na K Rb 53 48 45 Group 17 Element Electron affinity F 333 Cl Br I348 324 295 4. By convention. the electron affinity increases from left to right. You will learn in the next chapter how it helps to understand the nature of chemical bond formed between two atoms.3. Such trends in its values (in kJ mol-1) for group 1 and group 17 elements are given below.3. We normally do not deal with isolated atoms.6 Electronegativity You have learnt in the previous section that electron affinity of an element is a measure of an isolated atom to attract electrons towards it self. Electronegativity is a useful property. Let us now learn about its variation in the periodic table. It corresponds to the process X(g) + e– → X–(g) + E Here. You can see this increase in electron affinity values (in kJ mol-1) below for elements of 2nd and 3rd periods. The most widely used scale of electronegativity was devised by Linus Pauling. It just compares the tendency of various elements to attract the bond-electrons towards themselves. The energy change is measured in the unit kJ mol-1. Mostly we come across atoms which are bonded to other atoms.3. There is another property which deals with the power of bonded atoms to attract electrons. X is an atom of an element. Now let us learn about its variation in groups 1 and 17. Electronegativity is a dimensionless quantity and does not have any units.

8 N 3.0 P 2.0 2.5 F 4.0 Now what do you observe? Electronegativity increases in a period from left to right. Metallic character of an element largely depends upon its ionization energy. metallic luster. Its first element.9 0. Group 14 Element C Si Ge Sn Pb Nature Non-metal Metalloid Metalloid Metal Metal 4.3.0 3.2 B 2.5 C 2.9 Be 1.7a Variation of metallic character in a group You know the variation of ionization energy in a group.Periodic Classification of Elements : 75 : Group 1 Element Electronegativity Li 1.5 Mg 1.3.8 Group 17 Electronegativity 4. are typical metals as shown below.0 Na K Rb 0. more electropositive and hence more metallic the element would be.3. malleability and electrical conductance.0 Al 1.5 Si 1.0 Na 0. Now let us see its variation in 2nd and 3rd period elements. next two elements Si and Ge are metalloids and the remaining elements Sn and Pb.7b Variation of metallic character in a period How does metallic character change in a period? Metallic character of elements decreases in a period from left to right as shown below for 3rd period elements Element Character Na Metal Mg Metal Al Metal Si Metalloid P Non-metal S Non-metal Cl Non-metal . ductility.7 Metallic and non-metallic character You know what are characteristic properties of a metal? They are its electropositive character (the tendency to lose electrons). 4.8 2.5 S 2.0 Cl 3. Can you predict the variation of metallic character on its basis? Metallic character of elements increases from top to bottom.8 0. Smaller the value of ionization energy. 4. 2nd Period Elements Element Electronegativity 3rd Period Elements Element Electronegativity Li 1. carbon is a typical nonmetal. This can best be seen in elements of group 14.5 Element F Cl Br I- What do you observe? Electronegativity decreases in a group from top to bottom.1 O 3.

In the light of this the periodic law was modified to “ The chemical and physical properties of elements are a periodic function of their atomic numbers”. “When elements are arranged in the increasing order of their atomic weights every eighth element has properties similar to the first”. Moseley discovered that atomic number and not atomic mass is the most fundamental property of elements. It served only limited purpose. Newland tried to see the periodicity of properties and stated his law of octaves that. After atomic masses (old term. Sr and Ba (iii) Cl. Ionization energy of the 1st element in a period is _______________ in the entire period. atomic weight) of elements had been determined.3 Fill in the blanks with appropriate words. Dobereiner grouped elements into triads. Electronegativity _______________ in a period from left to right and _______________ in a group from top to bottom. Main defects of Mendeleev’s periodic table were (i) position of isotopes. Main achievements of Mendeleev’s periodic table were (i) inclusion of all the known elements and (ii) prediction of new elements. It has seven periods (1 to 7) and 18 groups (1 to 18). Metallic character of elements _______________ from top to bottom in a group. it was thought to be their most fundamental property and attempts were made to correlate it to their other properties. 1. (ii) anomalous pairs of elements like Ar and K and (iii) grouping of dissimilar elements and separation of similar elements. ! ! ! ! • • • • • • LET US REVISE The first classification of elements was s metals and non-metals. 3. The atomic mass and properties of the middle element were mean of the other two. It consists of seven horizontal rows called periods and numbered from 1 to 7. 2. Br and I. Mendeleev gave the first periodic table which is named after him which included all the known elements. He could arrange elements up to calcium only out of more than sixty elements known then. 5. This is the modern periodic table. Atomic radii of elements _______________ in a period from left to right. Its long form has been accepted by IUPAC. It has nine vertical columns called groups and numbered from zero to VIII. Radius of cation is _______________ than that of the neutral atom of the same element 4. For example (i) Li. The force of attraction between nucleus and valence electrons _______________ in a period. 6. “The chemical and physical properties of elements are a periodic function of their atomic weights”. Modern periodic table is based upon atomic number. Na and K (ii) Ca. Mendeleev observed correlation between atomic masses and other properties and stated his periodic law as. It is free of main . He could group only a few elements into triads.: 76 : Periodic Classification of Elements CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 4.

2. 1. Arrangement of elements in the periodic table shows periodicity. Ca (d) Se. Out of P3+. 4. 14. Ionization energy of an element increases with an increase in atomic number. . Atomic and ionic radii and metallic character increase while ionization energy . 16. 5. A. 16 and 17 Which of the following ions is the largest in size? (a) Al3+ (b) Ba2+ (c) Mg2+ (d) Na+ Mark the following statements as true or false. K. 1 2. TERMINAL EXERCISES Multiple choice type questions. Elements belonging to same group have same number of valence electrons and thus show same valency and similar chemical properties. 14. 7 and 8 (b) 1 and 2 (c) 1. 15. 3. electron affinity and electronegativity increase while metallic character and atomic and ionic radii decrease in a period from left to right. As Representative elements belong to groups (a) 1. 13. Number of valence electrons.4. S2. 2. ionization energy.and Cl.ion is the smallest one. 3.N (b) As. 13. 2. 2. 5. 6. Mg. The first attempt to classify elements was made by (a) Mendeleev (b) Moseley (c) Newland (d) Dobereiner Which group has maximum number of elements in the periodic table? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 The law of octaves applies to (a) B. Electron Affinity of fluorine is greater than that of chlorine. 3.C. Te.ions Cl. electron affinity and electronegativity decrease in a group from top to bottom. 17 and 18 (d) 1.Periodic Classification of Elements : 77 : • • defects of Mendeleev’s periodic table. Ca (c) Be. 15. B.

State the Modern Periodic Law. An element has atomic mass 32 and its nucleus has 16 neutrons. What do you understand by ‘periodicity’ of properties? Explain taking metallic character of elements as an example. Name the group and period of element having the atomic number 21. 6. Explain with the help of ionization energy. Look at it and answer the following questions. 19. What is ionization energy? How does it vary in a group? Give two reasons for it. 1 2 3-15 16 17 18 H He C D A E B (i) Out of A and B which one has lower ionization energy ? (ii) Which is bigger atom C or D? (iii) (iv) Which is the most electropositive element of all? Which is more metallic in nature D or E? . Ba and Cl 15. State Newland’s law of Octaves. The first member of lanthanide series of elements is lanthanum. 8. 10. 17. Potassium is more reactive than sodium. Define atomic radius. 4. The following is a portion of periodic table. 2. Descriptive type questions. 5. 7. How many groups were present in Mendeleev’s Periodic Table and give their numbers. 14. 9.: 78 : Periodic Classification of Elements 4. How does it vary in a period and in a group? 13. To which group of periodic table does it belong? Explain. Which element of the following has the highest ionization energy? Na. C. 1. which one is bigger in size and why? (i) Li and Ne (ii) O and S (iii) K and K+ (iv) Br and Br12. 18. Give an example of Dobereiner triad. Explain why does ionization energy increase from left to right in a period but decrease from top to bottom in a group? 16. 11. What are main defects of Mendeleev’s periodic table? How is modern periodic law different from the Mendeleev’s periodic law? Why argon (atomic mass 40) was placed before potassium (atomic mass 39)? In each of the following pairs of ions. 3. What are periods and groups in periodic table. List two main achievements of Mendeleev’s periodic table.

atomic number 89 in the some position in group 3 in the periodic table. 4. Alkaline earths 5. 5. 3. Seven periods and eighteen groups 4. 7. Gallium 4. 6. Non-metals 6.3 1.Periodic Classification of Elements : 79 : (v) Which is more non-metallic in nature C or D? (vi) Which is the least electronegative element of all? ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 4. 3. Position of isotopes ii. 32 4. Atomic number: It is the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom of an element. decreases increases minimum GLOSSARY Actinides: A group of 14 elements with atomic numbers 90-103 (Th–Lr) which are placed along with the element actinium (Ac). 4. Or Atomic mass of B = Atomic mass of A + Atomic mass of B 2 2. Separation of similar element. Any two of the following: i. . Atomic number 2. Atomic mass of the middle element B must be nearly equal to the average of the other two elements A and C. 16 Atomic weight 8 Group These were the positions of elements which were yet to be discovered. 5. 2.2 1. Anomalous pairs of elements iii. increases decreases smaller increases. Grouping of dissimilar elements iv. 3.1 1. 6.

Modern periodic law : The chemical and physical properties of elements are a periodic function of their atomic numbers. the distance between the centre of ion and its outermost shell. Periodic table: A tabular arrangement of the elements based on the periodic law. Ionic radius: It is the radius of an ion i. Electronegativity: It is a measure of the tendency of a bonded atom to attract the bond-electrons towards itself.: 80 : Periodic Classification of Elements Atomic radius: It is defined as one-half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms when they are linked to each other by a single covalent bond. Ionization energy: It is the minimum amount of energy required to remove an electron from an isolated gaseous atom in its ground state to form a gaseous ion. Periodic properties: These are the properties which repeat themselves after a certain interval of atomic number. Newland’s law of octaves: When elements are arranged in the increasing order of their atomic weights every eighth element has properties similar to the first. Periods: The horizontal rows present in the periodic table. Dobereiner’s triad: A group of three chemically similar elements in which the atomic mass and properties of the middle element are mean of the other two. Transition elements: These are the elements present in groups 3 to 12 in the middle of the periodic table whose two outermost shells are incomplete.e. . it is assigned a positive value when energy is released during the process. Lanthanides: A group of 14 elements with atomic numbers 58 to 71 (Ce to Lu) which are placed along with the element lanthanum (La). atomic number 57 in the some position in group 3 in the periodic table Mendeleev’s periodic law: The chemical and physical properties of elements are a periodic function of their atomic masses. Normal elements: These are the elements present in groups 1 and 2 on left side and groups 13 to 17 on the right side of the periodic table whose only outermost shells are incomplete. Electron affinity: It is the energy change when an electron is accepted by an atom in an isolated gaseous state. Their outermost shells contain 8 electrons. Groups: The vertical columns present in periodic table. By convention. Noble gases: The elements present in group 18 on extreme right side of the periodic table.

. . We see substances which can be either elements or compounds You know that the atoms of same or different kinds may combine. But we get compounds when atoms of different elements combine. bond energy and bond polarity.describe the formation of an ionic bond with suitable examples. . in the lesson you will learn sodium chloride. The properties of substances depend on the nature of bonds present between their atoms.explain the characteristic properties of covalent compounds. For example.explain the nature of bonding present in metals.list various types of chemical bonds present in different substances. But every thing present around us is not just the elements. . we get elements.explain the characteristic properties of ionic compounds. The discussion would also highlight how are these bonds form.state the differences between ionic and covalent compounds. .This is because the type of bonds present between them are different.describe the formation of a covalent bond with suitable examples. hydrogen bonding which is an important interaction present between molecules would be explained. . OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. When atoms of same elements combine.explain hydrogen bonding. We will also briefly cover the nature of bonding in metals and correlate it to various characteristic properties of metals. Finally.distinguish between polar and non–polar molecules. We will first explain what a chemical bond is and then discuss various types of chemical bonds which join the atoms together to give various types of substances. .Chemical Bonding INTRODUCTION: In lessons 3 and 4.give reason for the formation of chemical bonds. . . . Have you ever thought why do atoms combine at all? In this lesson. these two types of compounds differ in other properties about you will study in this lesson. you have read about the electronic configurations of atoms of various elements and variation in the periodic properties of elements. we will find an answer to this question.explain bond parameters such as bond length. . In addition to the difference in solubility. the common salt and glucose dissolve in water whereas methane gas or naphthalene does not . you should be able to : .

i. This is called the octet rule.WHY DO ATOMS COMBINE ? The answer to this question is hidden in the electronic configurations of the noble gases. Thus stability of the compound formed is an important factor in the formation of chemical bonds. chlorine etc. The octet rule explains the chemical bonding in many compounds.8.18.8 2. it was concluded that atoms having 8 electrons in their outermost shell are very stable and they did not form compounds. 8 electrons (or 2 electrons in case of helium) in their outermost shells. you will study about the nature of bonds present in various substances. they react violently and we obtain sodium chloride. krypton. Electronic Configuration of Noble gases Name Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon Symbol He Ne Ar Kr Xe Ra Atomic number 2 10 18 36 54 86 Electronic configuration 2 2. The formation of chemical bonds results in the lowering of energy. This reaction is shown below. In rest of the lesson. neon. i. Earlier they were also called as inert gases. atoms tend to attain a configuration in which they have 8 electrons in their outermost shells.1 below).8 No.18.e. which do not have 8 electrons in their outermost shell undergo chemical reactions. Ionic Bonding When sodium metal and chlorine gas are brought into contact. xenon and radon did not react with other elements to form compounds. We would explain ionic bonding and covalent bonding in detail while briefly touch upon the bonding in metals and hydrogen bonding.8 2. thought that these noble gases lacked reactivity because they had electronic arrangements which were quite stable.e. as compared to the individual atoms the resulting compound is lower in energy and hence is more stable.8. 2 Na (s) + Cl2 (g) ->2 NaCl (s) . When we write the electronic configurations of the noble gases (see table 5. It was also observed that other atoms such as hydrogen. they were nonreactive.8. of electrons in the outermost shell 2 8 8 8 8 8 Thus. It was.8. i. Before you start learning about ionic bonding in the next section. It was found that noble gases namely helium. They can stabilize by combining with each other and attaining the above configurations of noble gasses.32. Thus. we find that except helium all of them have 8 electrons in their outermost shell.18.e. you can answer the following questions to check your understanding.18.18. Atoms are held together in compounds by the forces of attraction which are called chemical bonds.8 2. argon. sodium. thus.8 2.

7. sodium atom has attained the noble gas configuration (that of Neon as shown in Table 5.e. Thus.The bonding in sodium chloride can be understood as follows: Sodium (Na) has the atomic number 11 and we can write its electronic configuration as 2.1 i. This is shown below in Fig. It has 8 electrons in the outermost (L) shell. A chlorine atom having the atomic number 17. has the electronic configuration 2.5. It can complete its octet by gaining one electron. Such a positively charged ion is called a cation. it is left with 10 electrons. according to octet rule. sodium atom can acquire stability by changing to sodium cation. it has one electron in its outermost (M) shell.8. Formation of Sodium Cation Note that the sodium cation has 11 protons but 10 electrons only. Such a negatively charged ion is . The ionization of sodium atom to give sodium ion requires an energy of 496 kJ mol1. Formation of chloride ion Note that in the above process. The cation in this case is called sodium cation Na+.8.1. The resulting species is positively charged ion.1) by losing an electron present in its outermost shell. If it loses this electron.2. This is shown below in Fig. Thus. 5. the chlorine atom has gained an additional electron and hence it has become negatively charged ion.

. The energy so released compensates the above deficiency of energy. an ion is a species having positive or negative electrical charge.. This anion is called chloride ion (Cl-). This electrostatic force of attraction which holds the cation and anion together is known as electrovalent bond or ionic bond. Both the cation and the anion are known by the general name ion. This is because the energy is released when the sodium ions and the chloride ions come together to form the crystalline structure. Since the cation (Na+) and the anion (Cl-) formed above are electrically charged species. But sodium chloride exists as a crystalline solid. then the formation of sodium chloride is not favorable energetically. The chloride ion has 8 electrons in its outermost shell and it is a stable electronic configuration according to the octet rule. The crystal structure of sodium chloride You can see that each sodium ion is surrounded by six chloride ions and each chloride ion is surrounded by six sodium ions. Na + . Thus. Na+ + Cl- Note that only outermost electrons are shown above. Hence. : Cl : -> . Thus.3. The crystal structure of sodium chloride thus obtained is shown below in Fig 5. we note that there is a net difference of 147 kJ mol-1 of energy. no particular sodium ion is bonded to a particular chloride ion. If we compare the energy required for the formation of sodium ion and that released in the formation of chloride ion. The force of attraction between the sodium and chloride ions is uniformly felt in all directions. The formation of chloride ion from the chlorine atom releases 349 kJ mol-1 of energy. This is represented as follows: . they are held together by electrostatic force of attraction. A cation is formed by the loss of an electron from the sodium atom whereas an anion is formed by the gain of an electron by chlorine atom.called an anion. Such structures are also called Lewis structures. there is no species such as NaCl in the crystal structure shown above. If only these two steps are involved.

8. 8.Similarly. If it loses these two electrons. The two electrons. Let us consider the formation of magnesium ion from magnesium atom. The two electrons lost by the magnesium are gained one each by two chlorine atoms to give two chloride ions.7) or MgCl2 -> Mg2+ (2. Its atomic number is 12. 8 (that of noble gas neon). The formation of chloride ion has already been explained above. Hence. We see that it has 2 electrons in its outermost shell. This is shown below in Fig 5. MgCl2.4 as follows: Formation of magnesium ion You can see that the resulting magnesium ion has only 10 electrons and hence it has 2+ charge. which are lost by the magnesium atom. the oxygen atom gets converted to the oxide anion. . The number of electrons present in it is also 12. the electronic configuration of Mg atom is 2. Thus.8.8) 2(Cl) 2(2.5. 2. 5. oxygen and sulphur atoms. it has 12 protons.2) + 2Cl 2(2. we can write Mg (2. we can explain the formation of cations resulting from lithium and potassium atoms and the formation of anions resulting from fluorine. We will first consider magnesium (Mg) atom. It can attain a stable electronic arrangement (2. We will proceed in the same way as we had done for sodium chloride. It is a dipositive ion and can be represented as Mg2+ion.8) Let us now see what would happen if instead of chloride ion. the magnesium ion combines with another anion say oxide anion.8. then it can achieve the stable configuration of 2. Its electronic configuration is 2. Hence. This can be represented in Fig.6. one magnesium ion and two chloride ion joins together to give magnesium chloride. Let us now study the formation of another ionic compound namely magnesium chloride. On gaining these two electrons.8) of the noble gas neon if it gains two more electrons. Thus. The oxygen atom having atomic number 8 has 8 electrons. are gained by the oxygen atom.

the ionic bonding present in many other ionic compounds can be explained. it has 2 negative charges on it. Hence.4 as follows: . then it can achieve the stable configuration of 2.8) + O2(2.8) Thus. We see that it has 2 electrons in its outermost shell. magnesium oxide is an ionic compound in which a dipositive cation (Mg2+) and a dinegative anion (O2-) are held together by electrostatic force. 8 (that of noble gas neon). This can be represented in Fig. it can be represented as O2.Formation of oxide ion The oxide has 2 more electrons as compared to the oxygen atom.ion. The ionic compounds show many characteristic properties which are discussed below: Let us consider the formation of magnesium ion from magnesium atom.8) -> Mg2+ (2. Mg2+ (2. If it loses these two electrons. The magnesium ion (Mg2+) and the oxide ion (O2-) are held together by electrostatic force of attraction. Similar to the case of sodium chloride the formation of magnesium oxide is also accompanied with a lowering of energy which leads to the stability of magnesium oxide as compared to individual magnesium and oxygen atoms. Similarly. This leads to the formation of magnesium oxide. 5. Therefore.8) + O2(2.

O2.8. The shared pair of electrons keeps the two chlorine atoms bonded together. Let us now see how are these molecules formed? We will begin with the formation of hydrogen molecule (H2). The covalent bond forms when the forces of attraction and repulsion balance each other and the potential energy is minimum. Each chlorine atom needs one more electron to complete its octet. If the two chlorine atoms share one of their electrons as shown below. then both of them can attain the stable noble gas configuration of argon as shown below. If the distance between the two atoms further decreases.COVALENT BONDING In this section. In lesson 2. you studied that molecules having similar atoms such as H2. the potential energy of the system decreases due to the force of attraction. Note that the shared pair of electrons is shown to be present between the two chlorine atoms. when the two hydrogen atoms approach each other. which is formed by sharing of electrons between the atoms is called a covalent bond. Each chlorine atom thus acquires 8 electrons. A molecule of chlorine contains two atoms of chlorine. It is this lowering of energy which leads to the formation of the covalent bond. we will study about another kind of bonding called covalent bonding.7. . When the two hydrogen atoms come closer. there is an attraction between the electrons of one atom and the proton of another and there are repulsions between the electrons as well as the protons of the two hydrogen atoms. CO2 etc. are constituents of compounds. are constituents of elements whereas those containing different atoms like HCl. The hydrogen atom has one electron. The value of potential energy reaches a minimum at some particular distance between the two atoms. In the beginning. N2 etc. the potential energy increases because of the forces of repulsion. Such a bond. Cl2. Potential energy diagram We will next consider the formation of chlorine molecule (Cl2). Thus. It can attain the electronic configuration of the noble gas helium by sharing one electron of another hydrogen atom. Covalent bonding is helpful in understanding the formation of molecules. Now how are these two chlorine atoms held together in a chlorine molecule? You know that the electronic configuration of Cl atom is 2.

The electronic configuration can be written as 2. To have 8 electrons in the outermost shell. we were discussing covalent bond formation between atoms of the same elements. So far. Sometimes the electrons shown above on the chlorine atoms are omitted and the chlorine-chlorine bond is shown as follows: Cl . we can understand the formation of oxygen molecule (O2) from the oxygen atoms.Cl Similarly. It has 8 protons and also 8 electrons. Thus. This bond is represented by drawing a line between the two chlorine atoms as follows: .we can say that a covalent bond is present between two chlorine atoms..5. The two oxygen atoms share two electrons and complete their octet as is shown below: The 4 electrons (or 2 pairs of electrons) which are shared between two atoms of oxygen are present between them. each nitrogen atom is able to complete its octet. Let us take the example of HCl to understand it. Hence. The atomic number of nitrogen is 7.. Hence. Thus. Cl : . Such a bond consisting of two covalent bonds is also known as a double bond.. . But covalent bond can be formed by sharing of electrons between atoms of different elements also. each nitrogen atom requires 3 more electrons. Thus. Since 6 electrons (or 3 pairs of electrons) are shared between the nitrogen atoms. : Cl . an oxygen molecule can be represented as follows: The two oxygen atoms are said to be bonded together by two covalent bonds. these two pairs of shared electrons can be represented by two bonds between the oxygen atoms. . . This is shown below: Each nitrogen atom provides 3 electrons for sharing... The oxygen atom has atomic number 8. we say that three covalent bonds are formed between them. These three bonds are represented by drawing three lines between the two nitrogen atoms as shown below: Such a bond which consists three covalent bonds is known as a triple bond. O . 6 electrons or 3 pairs of electrons are shared between two nitrogen atoms..6. Now each oxygen atom needs two electrons to complete its octet. Thus. a sharing of 3 electrons each between the two nitrogen atoms is required. The electronic configuration of oxygen atom is 2. O : : : = Let us next take the example of nitrogen molecule (N2) and understand how the two nitrogen atoms are bonded together. it has 7 protons and 7 electrons present in its atom.

Therefore. After knowing the nature of bonding present in covalent compounds. If they share one electron pair. let us know study what type of properties these covalent compounds have. Similarly. the covalent compounds exist as a gas or a liquid or a solid.Hydrogen atom has one electron in its outermost shell and chlorine atom has seven electrons in its outermost shell. c) Electrical conductivity The covalent compounds contain neutral molecules and do not have charged species such as ions or electrons which can carry charge. Each of these atoms has one electron less than the electronic configuration of the nearest noble gas. Hence. The characteristic properties of covalent compounds are given below: a) Physical state Because of the weak forces of attraction present between discrete molecules. CO2 are gases. we can explain bond formation in other covalent compounds. chloroform. b) Melting and boiling points As the forces of attraction between the molecules are weak in nature. For example. then hydrogen can acquire two electrons in its outer most shell whereas chlorine will have eight electrons in its outermost shell. The formation of HCl molecule by sharing of one electron pair is shown below: Similarly. melting point of naphthalene which is a covalent compound is 353K (80o C). ether etc. the melting points and boiling points of covalent compounds are lower than those of ionic compounds. d) Solubility Covalent compounds are generally not soluble in water but are soluble in organic solvents such as alcohol. benzene. water and CCl4 are liquids and iodine is a solid. a small amount of energy is sufficient to overcome them. Therefore. Properties of covalent compounds The covalent compounds consist of molecules which are electrically neutral in nature. these compounds do not conduct electricity and are called poor conductors of electricity. N2. called inter-molecular forces. . the properties of the covalent compounds are different from those of the ionic compounds. For example. the boiling point of carbon tetrachloride which is another covalent compound is 350 K (77o C). O2. The forces of attraction present between the molecules are less strong as compared to the forces present in ionic compounds.

. . We will now discuss them one by one.5o. The bond energy values for a particular bond can vary slightly from one compound to another. the bond length between them decreases. : Cl . in water molecule the bond angle is 104. c) Bond energy: The stability of a molecule can be related to the strength of the covalent bonds present in it.3. the more would be its stability.After understanding the nature of covalent bond and properties of covalent compounds.. The stronger the covalent bonds present in a molecule. a) Bond length: It is the distance between the nuclei when they combine to form covalent bond. bond polarity and bond angle.. bond angle. Bond parameters A covalent bond has characteristic values associated with it. For example. These are called bond parameters. let us now study about certain characteristic features associated with a covalent bond. 242 kJ of energy is required to break the Cl-Cl bond of Cl2 molecule present in one mole of chlorine gas. Bond lengths for some common bonds Bond C-C C=C CC C-O C=O C=O Bond length (pm) 154 134 120 143 123 113 Bond N-N N=N N=N O-O O=O Bond length (pm) 147 124 110 148 121 b) Bond angle: It is the angle between two bonds of a covalent molecule. . bond energy. The bond lengths for some common bonds are shown below in Table 5. Some of these parameters are bond length. .2. You can note that as the number of bonds between the two atoms increases. - Cl :(g) The energy required to break one mole of a bond in isolated molecules of a substance is known as bond energy. The average bond energies of some of the bonds are listed in Table 5. The strength of the covalent bond can be expressed in terms of the energy required to break the bond. Cl :(g) -> 2: .. For example. The bond energy values are therefore reported as average bond energies.

4..7. it indicates that the bonds become stronger and stronger as the number of bonds increases. These properties of metals can be explained with the help of electron sea model. such molecules are called polar molecules. The covalent molecules have definite shapes because the covalent bonds are formed along a particular direction. two poles – one negative (Cl atom) and the other positive (H atom). . For example. high melting point etc. ductility. The values so obtained give us an idea about the shapes of molecules. in H2. Note that this is in contrast to the ionic compounds in which the electrostatic forces of attraction are felt equally strongly in all the directions. For example. The high melting point indicates that bonding in metals is strong in nature. Thus. The dipole in HCl molecule can also be represented by H – Cl where the foot of the arrow represents the positive end of the dipole and the arrow head represents the negative end of the dipole. This leads to partial separation of charges which are represented by d+ and d– as shown below: Thus.You can see from Table 5. Name Oxygen(O2) Nitrogen(N2) Structure . In these molecules. in HCl molecule the shared pair of electrons is pulled more by the more electronegative chlorine atom. the resulting molecule is known as a heteronuclear molecule. :O=O: :N=N: Shape linear linear Bonding in metals You know that some of the characteristic properties of metals are malleability. In such molecules. the resulting molecule is called a homonuclear molecule. Hence. The bonds such as those present between the HCl molecules are called polar bonds. But when two atoms of different elements form a bond.. Some examples of common covalent molecules and their shapes are given below in Table 5. the shared pair of electrons is pulled more by the more electronegative atom towards itself. the bonded electrons are equally shared between the atoms of these molecules. Cl2.5. are formed in the HCl molecule. conduction of heat and electricity. Hence. d) Bond polarity: When a bond is formed between the atoms of the same element. . According to this model.3 that the bond energy increases as the number of bonds between two atoms increases. the cations of metal are present in a sea of electrons as shown below in Fig. Shapes of molecules The bond lengths and bond angles of various molecules can be determined experimentally. we can say that the covalent bond is directional in nature. O2 molecules. the electrons forming the bond are equally shared between the atoms.

nitrogen or fluorine. a special or unique type of attraction is present among the molecules of such compounds. Similarly. Hydrogen bonding is also responsible for the low density of ice as compared to water. The electrons are distributed throughout the metal and they are not confined to any particular metal cation. . Hydrogen Bonding When hydrogen is bonded to an electronegative atom such as oxygen. but weaker forces of attraction also play an important role towards the properties of many substances. it floats on water and provides an insulating layer over water which is very important for the survival of aquatic life. Since ice is lighter than water. This energy is much less than that required breaking one mole of an ionic or a covalent substance as you can see from Table 5. In ice.3. H_____F-----H_____F-----H_____F The existence of water in liquid state is because of hydrogen bonding. Let us now study about it in detail. The strength of hydrogen bonding varies from about 4 kJ mol-1 to 25 kJ mol-1 in various substances. the melting point of metals is high.5. Since both the electrons and the metal ions can freely move and their environment does not change by this movement. the metal ions can also move and no specific bonds are to be broken in this movement. The hydrogen of one molecule is attracted by the electronegative atom of the adjacent molecule. hydrogen bonding gives an ordered arrangement of water molecules which has a lot of free space in between them. the metals exhibit the malleability and ductility.8. Such type of bonding is shown by dotted lines for hydrogen fluoride and water in Fig. So far we have discussed chemical bonds resulting from strong forces of attraction. One such type of interaction present between the molecules is hydrogen bonding.Electron sea model The electrostatic forces of attraction hold the electrons and the cations together. These electrons are mobile and hence can conduct electricity when the metal is connected to a battery or two electrodes. Since these forces are strong in nature.

Mg2+.ion? 6. 7. Cl-. In proteins. Ca2+. Which of the following statements are true for covalent molecules? i ) They are poor conductors of electricity. -OH 3. Glucose which contains six-OH groups makes hydrogen bonds with water molecules and hence is very soluble in water. State octet rule 2. ii ) Their boiling points are high. How many electron pairs are shared between (i) Cl2 (ii) O2 and (iii) HCl molecules? 9. Why are noble gases non-reactive? 3. More than 80 g of glucose dissolves in 100 mL of water. Name the type of force of attraction present in ionic compounds. 2. ii) They are neutral in nature. hydrogen bonding is responsible for their helical structure In Text Questions 1. How many shells are present in Na+ ion? 5. Define the term ion. K+. In sodium chloride lattice. Name the two types of ions? 4. 4. State three characteristic properties of ionic compounds. iii) They have high melting points.Hydrogen bonding also explains the miscibility of alcohol in water in all proportions.ions surround each Na+ ion? 8. 6. . iii ) They have definite shape 1. Which of the following statements are correct for ionic compounds: i) They are insoluble in water. Define the terms: cation and anion. how many Cl. O2-. Explain the formation of Li+ ion from Li atom. What is the number of electrons present in Cl. Classify the following as cations or anions: Na+. N3-. How would you explain the bonding in MgCl2? 5.

7. Classify the following molecules as polar or non-polar: i) H2 (ii) HCl (iii) O2 (iv) H2O 12. Why is hydrogen bonding important? Give two examples. ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points. 10. Ionic compounds are good conductors of electricity . Explain electron sea model of bonding in metals What you have learnt - Atoms combine to attain a stable arrangement of eight electrons in their outer most shell. Covalent bonds are formed by sharing of electrons between atoms. Ions are held together by strong electrostatic forces. They are poor conductors of electricity. - - - . 13. ii) Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points. iv) Sodium chloride is a good conductor of electricity. Covalent compounds have low melting and boiling points. iii) Covalent compounds are good conductors of electricity. How does a covalent bond form? 8. Classify the following statements as true or false: i) Ionic compounds contain ions which are held together by weak electrostatic forces. They are soluble in water but insoluble in inorganic solvents. 14. What is the number of bonds present in the following molecules? i) Cl 2 ii) N2 iii) O2 9. Hence. Classify the following compounds as ionic or covalent: i) sodium chloride ii) calcium chloride iii) oxygen iv) hydrogen chloride v) magnesium oxide vi) nitrogen 11. Name the type of bonds present in H2O molecule.

- - - - . it is responsible for its liquid nature whereas. Bond length decreases with the number of bonds whereas the bond energy increases with the number of bonds. In water.- The covalent compounds are generally insoluble in water but are soluble in organic solvents. Electrons are mobile in metals and hence the metals and hence the metals are good conductors of electricity. Covalent bonds are directional in nature and hence covalent compounds have definite shapes. Hydrogen bonding is an important interaction and is responsible for variety of properties in various molecules. it is responsible for its liquid nature whereas in proteins it is responsible for their shape and in glucose it is responsible for its solubility in water.

• distinguish between various types of reactions. you have learnt how to write and balance chemical equations. These are: (i) Combination reactions (ii) Decomposition reactions (iii) Displacement reactions (iv) Double-displacement reactions (v) Oxidation-reduction reactions Let us now learn about these reactions. 6. In lesson 2. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. One classification is based on the nature of chemical change that occurs in the reaction. • define acids. You will also learn about the information that can be obtained from a balanced chemical equation and how we can use this information for making calculations. bases and salts in earlier classes. bases and salts and give their examples. you will be able to: • list various types of reactions. They are of numerous types. 6. In this lesson you will learn. .6 Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions Total number of reactions we study in chemistry is very large. • classify the reactions according to their rates and energy changes.1 TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Chemical reactions can be classified on the basis of some of their features. • define pH and solve simple problems based on pH.1 Combination reactions A reaction in which two or more substances react to form a new substance is called a combination reaction. • explain the acid-base equilibrium in aqueous systems.1. In this lesson you will learn more about them. • work out simple problems based on stoichiometry. You have learnt about acids. On this basis reactions can be classified into five types. how chemical equations can be classified into various categories on the basis of some of their features.

: 98 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions A special category of combination reactions is the one in which a compound is formed by combination of its constituent elements. Hydrogen burns in presence of oxygen (or air) to form water (synthesis reaction). Following are some examples of decomposition reactions: 1. Hydrogen peroxide decomposes into water and oxygen on heating. Following are some examples of combination reactions: 1. Such a reaction is known as synthesis reaction. NH3 (g) + HCl(g) NH4Cl(s) ammonia hydrogen chloride ammonium chloride 6. (ii) Electricity: Such decomposition reactions are called electro-decomposition reactions and the process is known as electrolysis. Water decomposes into hydrogen and oxygen on passing electricity through it (electrolysis). (iii) Light: Such decomposition reactions are called photo-decomposition reactions and the process is known as photolysis. coke) burns in presence of oxygen (or air) to form carbon dioxide (synthesis reaction). CO2(g) C(s) + O2(g) carbon oxygen carbon dioxide 2. 2KClO3 (s) 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g) potassium chlorate potassium chloride oxygen (i) 2. P4(s) + 10Cl2(g) 4PCl5 (s) phosphorus chlorine phosphorus pentachloride 4. . 2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(l) hydrogen oxygen water 3. Potassium chlorate decomposes on heating into potassium chloride and oxygen. When calcium carbonate (limestone) is heated strongly it decomposes into calcium oxide (quicklime) and carbon dioxide. CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g) calcium carbonate calcium oxide carbon dioxide 3.1. Ammonia combines with hydrogen chloride to form ammonium chloride. 2H2O2(l) 2H2O(l) + O2(g) hydrogen peroxide water oxygen 4. The energy may be supplied in any of the following forms: Heat: Such decomposition reactions are called thermal decomposition reactions. A decomposition reaction always involves breaking of one or more chemical bonds and therefore occurs only when the required amount of energy is supplied.2 Decomposition reactions A reaction in which one substance breaks down into two or more simpler substances is known as decomposition reaction. Phosphorus combines with chlorine to form phosphorus pentachloride (synthesis reaction). Carbon (charcoal.

Zinc displaces copper from a solution of copper sulphate. a. Cl 2(g) + 2KBr(aq) 2KCl(aq) + Br2(aq) chlorine potassium bromide potassium chloride bromine 6. NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) AgCl(s) sodium chloride silver nitrate silver chloride + NaNO3(aq) sodium nitrate b. Displacement of hydrogen from solutions of acids by more reactive metals. HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + hydrochloric acid sodium hydroxide sodium chloride H 2O(l) water 6.3 Displacement reactions A reaction in which one element present in a compound is displaced by another element is known as displacement reaction.1. Following are examples of displacement reactions: 1. Lead nitrate decomposes on heating into lead monoxide. Displacement of a metal by a more reactive metal.1. Zinc displaces hydrogen from dilute sulphuric acid. Magnesium displaces hydrogen from dilute hydrochloric acid Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl 2(aq) + H2(g) magnesium dil hydrochloric acid magnesium chloride hydrogen 2.: 99 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions 2H 2O(l) water 2H2(g) hydrogen + O2(g) oxygen 5. Neutralization of hydrochloric acid by sodium hydroxide. sulphuric acid zinc sulphate hydrogen b. Chlorine displaces bromine from a solution of potassium bromide. Reaction between sodium chloride and silver nitrate. a) Oxidation: It is a process which involves loss of electrons. Mg(s) magnesium + CuSO4(aq) copper sulphate MgSO4(aq) magnesium sulphate + Cu (s) copper 2. Earlier it was defined as a process involving addition of oxygen or loss of hydrogen. Zn (s) + CuSO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + zinc copper sulphate zinc sulphate Cu(s) copper b. Magnesium displaces copper from a solution of copper sulphate. Zn(s) + H2SO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + H2(g) zinc dil. 2Pb(NO3)2(s) 2PbO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g) lead nitrate lead monoxide nitrogen dioxide oxygen 6. a. The following are the examples of double displacement reactions: a.4 Double-displacement reactions A reaction in which two ionic compounds exchange their ions is known as double displacement reaction. nitrogen dioxide and oxygen. .1.5 Oxidation–reduction or redox reactions These are the reaction in which oxidation and reduction processes occur. Let us first learn what these processes are. Displacement of a halogen by a more reactive halogen.

it displaces copper.: 100 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions b) Reduction: Reduction is a process which involves gain of electrons. Earlier it was defined as a process involving removal of oxygen or addition of hydrogen. This reaction can be considered to occur in the following steps: • Each sodium atom loses one electron and forms sodium ion. Thus. 2Na(s) + Cl2(g) 2NaCl(s) sodium chlorine sodium chloride Sodium chloride is an ionic compound. Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s) zinc copper sulphate zinc sulphate copper . Sodium is present in it as sodium ion (Na+) and chlorine as chloride ion (Cl-). During a reaction if one substance gets oxidized the other gets reduced. hydrogen sulphide is oxidized to sulphur due to loss of hydrogen while sulphur dioxide is reduced to sulphur due to loss of oxygen. sodium is oxidized due to loss of electron. (iii)When copper (II) oxide is treated with hydrogen. (ii) When hydrogen sulphide reacts with sulphur dioxide the products are sulphur and water. (iv)When sodium metal reacts with chlorine it forms sodium chloride. (i) Consider burning of coke (carbon) in presence of oxygen: C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g) carbon oxygen carbon dioxide In this reaction carbon is getting oxidized as oxygen is added to it and oxygen is reduced. you must have noticed above that oxidation and reduction processes are just opposite to each other. c) Redox reactions: From the above definitions. Now let us understand these processes with the help of some examples. the process is: 2Na 2Na+ + 2e– sodium sodium ion Thus. (v) When zinc is added to an aqueous solution of copper sulphate. copper and water are produced. chlorine is reduced due to gain of electrons. That is why the reactions in which oxidation and reduction processes occur are called redox reactions or oxidation-reduction reactions. Since one chlorine molecule has two atoms of chlorine the process is: Cl2 + 2e– 2Cl– chlorine chloride ion • Thus. CuO(s) + H2(g) Cu(s) + H 2O(l) cupric oxide hydrogen copper water Here cupric oxide is reduced to copper due to loss of oxygen while hydrogen is oxidized to water due to addition of oxygen. Each chlorine atom gains one electron and forms chloride ion. 2H2S(g) + SO2(g) 3S(s) + 2H 2O(l) hydrogen sulphide sulphur dioxide sulphur water Here. None of these processes can occur alone. Since two sodium atoms are involved in the reaction. both the processes occur simultaneously.

2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 6. Displacement A.1 Homogeneous–heterogeneous reactions Chemical reactions can be classified on the basis of physical states of reactants and products as homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. 2H2O2 2H2O + O2 reaction 6.2 NATURE OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS In the last section. Double B. Also. These features have been discussed below. Here. Such a substance which oxidizes another substance is called an oxidizing agent. A. 6. we have learnt how chemical reactions have been classified into various types on the basis of the nature of chemical change that occurs in them. Here. in this reaction cupric ions oxidize zinc to zinc ions. (i) H2(g) + Cl2(g) 2HCl(g) hydrogen chlorine (ii) 2SO2(g) sulphur dioxide + O2(g) oxygen H+ hydrogen chloride 2SO3(g) sulphur trioxide . I II 1. Such a substance which reduces another substance is called a reducing agent. 2H2S(g) + SO2(g) 3S(g) + 2H2O(1) reaction 2. zinc is the reducing agent. In this section we shall learn about some other features of chemical reactions. cupric ions are the oxidizing agent. NH3 + HCl NH4Cl displacement reaction 3. Combination C. 3CaCl2 + 2K3PO4 Ca3(PO4)2 + 6KCl reaction 4. (d) Oxidizing and reducing agents : Consider the reaction between zinc and copper sulphate: Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s) In this reaction zinc reduces cupric ions to copper. This reaction is displacement reaction as well as a redox reaction. Mg(s) + CuSO4(aq) MgSO4(aq) + Cu(s) 5. Such reactions can occur in gas phase or solution phase only. Redox reaction D.: 101 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions Here zinc is oxidized to zinc ions and copper ions are reduced to copper.1 Match the type of reaction given in column I with the reactions given in column II. Gas phase homogeneous reactions These are the reactions in which all reactants and products are gases. a) Homogeneous reactions The reactions in which all the reactants and products are present in the same phase are called homogeneous reactions. Decomposition E.

neutralization reaction (e. thermal decomposition of potassium chlorate. In such reactions heat is shown as one of the products.2 Slow and fast reactions Different reactions occur at different rates.: 102 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions (iii) N2(g) nitrogen + 3H2(g) hydrogen 2NH3(g) ammonia B.5 kJ . in a fire cracker bomb). If exact amount of heat evolved is known then this amount is written otherwise simply the word heat is written. On the other hand burning of cooking gas is a fast reaction. 6. burning of coal. explosion reactions (e. hydrolysis of esters at room temperature (e. the reactions are classified as exothermic and endothermic reactions. (i) HCl(aq) hydrochloric acid + NaOH(aq) sodium hydroxide NaCl(aq) sodium chloride + H2O(l) water (ii) CH3COOC2H5(l) + H2O(l) CH3COOH(l) + C2H5OH(l) b) Heterogeneous reactions The reactions in which reactants and products are present in more than one phase are called heterogeneous reactions. reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide). (i) 2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(l) + heat or 2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(l) + 571. and burning of cooking gas are some examples of fast reactions. are some examples of slow reactions.g. The following are the examples of heterogeneous reactions. On the other hand. Burning of candle.3 Exothermic and endothermic reactions All chemical reactions are accompanied by some energy changes.2. (i) (ii) (iii) CaCO3(s) calcium carbonate CaO(s) calcium oxide + CO2(g) carbon dioxide 2Mg(s) magnesium + + O2(g) oxygen 2MgO(s) magnesium oxide BaCl2(aq) barium chloride Na2SO4(aq) sodium sulphate BaSO4(s) barium sulphate + 2NaCl(aq) sodium chloride 6. On the basis of their rates chemical reactions can be classified as slow and fast reactions. solution or gaseous phase. Solution phase homogeneous reactions These are the reactions in which all reactants and products are present in a solution. They may be termed as moderate reactions. Following are the examples of exothermic reactions. Rusting of iron is a slow process and requires few days time. action of acids or bases on litmus. and reaction of zinc with dilute sulphuric acid are some examples of moderate reactions.g. a) Exothermic reactions The reactions in which heat is liberated or evolved are called exothermic reactions. Such reactions involve at least one solid substance along with one or more substances in solid. Depending upon this. reaction between ethyl acetate and water). fading of colours of clothes.2. Rusting of iron.g. curdling of milk. A large number of reactions are neither slow nor fast. Energy is either evolved or absorbed during the reaction usually in the form of heat. etc.

The following are some more examples of irreversible reactions: (i) 2Mg(s) + O2(g) 2MgO(s) magnesium magnesium oxide (ii) 2HgO(s) mercuric oxide 2Hg(l) mercury + O2(g) (iii) NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq) b) Reversible reactions On the other hand consider the reaction: H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g) In this reaction hydrogen and iodine are not completely converted into hydrogen iodide.2. For example.: 103 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions (ii) (iii) C(s) + O2(g) HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) CO2(g) + 393. a) Irreversible reactions Most of the reactions would occur till the reactants (or atleast one reactant) have been completely converted into products. .3 kJ b) Endothermic reactions The reactions in which heat is absorbed are called endothermic reactions.7 kJ 2KCl(s) potassium chloride 2NO(g) nitric oxide + 2NO(g) 3O2(g) + O2(g) potassium chlorate (iii) 2Pb(NO3)2(s) + 2PbO(s) + 4NO2(g) nitrogen dioxide 6.4 Reversible and irreversible reactions Chemical reactions can also be classified on the basis whether they can occur only in the forward direction or in forward as well as backward directions. The reactions which occur in forward direction only are called irreversible reactions. Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) H2(g) + ZnCl2(aq) Such reactions occur in forward direction only. In such reactions heat is shown as one of the reactants. it completely reacts with it. if a small piece of zinc metal is put in a test tube containing excess of dilute hydrochloric acid. Following are the examples of endothermic reactions (i) or (ii) N2(g) N2(g) 2KClO3(s) lead nitrate + + + 2O2(g) O2(g) heat heat + + heat 180. 2HI(g) H2(g) + I2(g) The reactions that can occur in forward and reverse directions. Reversible nature of a reaction is indicated by writing two arrows (or two-half arrows) in opposite directions between reactants and products as shown below.5 kJ NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + 57. If exact amount of heat absorbed is known then this amount is written otherwise simply the word heat is written. The reason for this is that the moment some HI is formed it starts decomposing back into H2 and I2. simultaneously under same set of conditions are called reversible reactions.

It has the unit of mol L-1.2. Consider the following reaction: 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) When the reaction is started by taking a mixture of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and oxygen (O2) it would initially occur only in the forward direction and formation of sulphur trioxide (SO3) would begin. This happens because as reactants are consumed their concentrations decrease. Initially its rate is very slow but as the reaction progresses the concentration of SO3 (which is reactant for the reverse reaction) increases and the rate of reverse reaction also increases. In other words.5 Equilibrium in reversible reactions In the last section we have learned that a reversible reaction can occur in forward as well as reverse directions simultaneously. it starts decomposing and the backward reaction also starts. In chemistry it is commonly measured in terms of molarity. Thus. A system is said to be in a state of equilibrium if none of its properties change with time.: 104 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g) or H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g) Some more examples of reversible reactions are : (i) Synthesis of ammonia N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) (ii) Oxidation of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide O2(g) 2SO3(g) 2SO2(g) + 6. Molarity is the number of moles of a substance present in one litre volume. And in case of solutions it is the number of moles of solute present in one litre volume of solution. Under these conditions. These changes are depicted in the (reverse) reactions in a reversible reaction.1). the rate of forward reaction decreases and that of the reverse reaction increases with Fig. 6. the rate of the forward reaction becomes equal to the rate of the reverse reaction and the reaction reaches equilibrium state (Fig.1.1 Changes in rates of forward and backward time. Concentration Concentration is a measure of the amount of a substance contained per unit volume. when a system is in a state of equilibrium. become equal. . In case of gases it is their number of moles present in one litre volume. Initially the rate of this reaction is fast. 6. all its properties remain constant. with the progress of reaction. When the two figure 6. As soon as SO3 is formed. there is no change in concentration of any reactant or product. After some time. As it progresses its rate decreases. the reaction attains equilibrium. The molar concentration of a substance X is denoted by writing its formula/symbol within a square bracket [X].

conventionally if any pure solid or liquid is taking part in the equilibrium. Therefore. Another similar situation in encountered when a person using an escalator for climbing starts moving down on it and matches his speed with that of the escalator. Such an equilibrium state is attained as a result of two equal but opposite changes occurring simultaneously so that no net change occurs in the system.: 105 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions At equilibrium the concentrations of reactants [SO2] and [O2] and product [SO3] are related by the following expression known as the law of equilibrium: Kc = 2 3 _______________ [SO ] [SO2][O2] How to write the expression of the law of equilibrium ? To understand how to write the expression of law of equilibrium for any reaction let us take a general reaction: aA + bB cC + dD For this reaction. Kc is the equilibrium constant for the reaction. its concentration is taken as 1. . Here C and D are the two products and c and d are their respective stoichiometric coefficients. The numerator is obtained by multiplying the concentration terms for all products after each term has been raised to the power which is equal to the stoichiometric coefficient of that product. Therefore. Such an equilibrium state is attained when no change occurs in it. This type of equilibrium is called static equilibrium. the denominator is obtained by multiplying the concentration terms of all reactants after each term has been raised to the power which is equal to the stoichiometric coefficient of that reactant. Similarly. all the properties of the system acquire constant values. The net result is that position of the person does not change and he stays there only. the law of equilibrium is given by the following expression : [C]c[D]d Kc = _______________ [A]a[B]b In this expression. Another type of equilibrium is attained when a system is acted upon by a set of forces that cancel out each other. A book lying on a table is in state of static equilibrium because the downward acting gravitational force is balanced and cancelled by the upward acting force of reaction from the table (Newton’s third law of motion). Another similar situation is encountered in the game tug of war when the efforts of the two opponent teams (forces by which they pull the rope) exactly match and they remain where they are. Static and dynamic equilibrium The type of equilibrium attained by reversible reactions is called dynamic equilibrium. His speed of walking is exactly matched by the speed of the treadmill which moves in the backward direction. Also. You can encounter a similar situation when a person is walking on a treadmill. numerator would be the obtained by multiplying [C]c and [D]d terms.

Bursting of crackers (slow / fast) 5. Its value changes only when temperature is changed. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 6.3 CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS AND STOICHIOMETRY In lesson 2 you have learnt how to write and balance chemical equations. In this section we shall learn how to use the stoichiometric information in a balanced chemical equation for making some calculations.: 106 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions Kc of a reaction is its characteristic property at a given temperature and it characterizes the equilibrium state. 2. Stoichiometry deals with the proportions in which elements or compounds react with one another. 2HgO(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g) (exothermic / endothermic) 2Hg(l) + O2(g) (reversible / irreversible) 4. 1.1 Significance of balanced chemical equation Balanced chemical equation carries the following information: a) Qualitative information carried by a balanced chemical equation • Reactants taking part in the reaction • Products formed in the reaction • Physical states of different reactants and products (if given) b) Quantitative information carried by a balanced chemical equation • • • • • • Number of molecules of different reactants and products taking part in the reaction Number of moles of different reactants and products taking part in the reaction Masses of different reactants and products taking part in the reaction Relationship between moles of different reactants and products taking part in the reaction Relationship between masses of different reactants and products taking part in the reaction Relationship between volumes of different gaseous reactants and products taking part in the reaction . Burning of petrol in a car (homogeneous / heterogeneous).3. The same equilibrium state (characterized by the value of Kc) is reached finally whether the reaction is started from the reactant side or from the product side or all reactants and products are mixed in arbitrary amounts. CaCO3(s) 3. A reversible reaction at a stage when concentration of reactants and products is changing (equilibrium state /non-equilibrium state) 6.2 Select the correct choice about the nature of each reaction out of the two options mentioned against it. 6.

slow or moderate • The extent up to which the reaction takes place before equilibrium state is reached in case of a reversible reaction 6. (iv) 2 moles or 46 g sodium produces 22. a) Mole-mole relationship Example 6. at 273 K temperature and 1 bar pressure.: 107 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions Let us understand how to get this information from a chemical equation with the help of an example. Information carried by a chemical equation Names Physical states Moles (Molar masses) 2Na(s) sodium solid 2 moles ( Na= 23 ) + 2H2O(l) water liquid 2 moles (H2O = 2 +16 = 18) 2NaOH(aq) + sodium hydroxide aqueous solution 2 moles (NaOH = 23 + 16 + 1 = 40) H2(g) hydrogen gas 1mole (H2 = 2) Masses 2 x 23 = 46g 1 x 2 = 2g 2 x 18 = 36g 2 x 40 = 80g 1 x 22.7 L at STP (standard temperature and pressure) i. (iii) 46 g sodium reacts with 36 g water and produces 80 g of NaOH and 2 g of hydrogen.2 Calculations based on chemical equations The information that can be obtained from a chemical equation can be used to make several types of calculations.1: In the reaction 2KClO3(s) 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g) calculate the following: (i) How many moles of oxygen will be produced if 10 moles of KClO3 are decomposed? (ii) How many moles of KCl would be produced with 0. (ii) 2 moles of sodium react with 2 moles of water and produce 2 moles of sodium hydroxide and 1 mole of hydrogen. .6 moles of O2? Solution: The given reaction is 2KClO3(s) 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g) 2 moles 2 moles 3 moles *Volume of a gaseous substance can be calculated by making use of the fact that one mole of a gas occupies a volume of 22. Thus the ratio of number of moles of these substances is 2:2:2:1.7 Volume* of L=22. c) Limitations or information not carried by a chemical equation • Conditions under which the reaction takes place • Rate of the reaction whether it is fast. (v) 2 moles or 36 g water produces 22.7 L of hydrogen gas when it reacts with sodium.7 L of hydrogen gas when it reacts with water.7L gaseous substance From the information listed above we can conclude that: (i) Sodium metal (solid) reacts with water (liquid) and produces sodium hydroxide (aqueous solution) and hydrogen (gas).3.e. Let us carry out few such calculations.

: 108 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions (i) 2 moles of KClO3 produce 3 moles of oxygen.7 L 22. 10 moles of KClO3 would produce 3 × 10 = _________ = 15 moles of oxygen. Therefore.4 moles 3 b) Mass-mass relationship Example 6. 2 (ii) With 3 moles of oxygen the number of moles of KCl produced = 2 moles With 0.7 L 2 x 22. . to produce 34 g ammonia the mass of hydrogen required = 6 g Therefore to produce 680 g ammonia the mass of hydrogen required 6 x 680 = _____________ = 120 g 34 c) Volume-volume relationship Example 6.6 moles of oxygen the number of moles of KCl produced 2 × 0.3 : The following reaction is used industrially for manufacture of sulphuric acid.7 L 2 volumes 1 volume 2 volumes To produce 2 volumes or 2 L of SO3 the oxygen required is 1 volume or 1 L.6 = ___________ = 0. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) How much volume of oxygen at STP (Standard Temperature and Pressure) would be required for producing 100 L of SO3 (at STP)? Solution: In the reaction 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) 2 mole 1 mole 2 mole 2 x 22.2: For the reaction N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) Calculate the masses of nitrogen and hydrogen required to produce 680 g of ammonia? Solution: The given reaction is: N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) 1mole 3 moles 2 moles 1 x 28 3x2 2 x (14+3) 28 g 6g 34 g Thus to produce 34 g ammonia the mass of nitrogen required = 28 g Therefore to produce 680 g ammonia the mass of nitrogen required 28 x 680 = _____________ = 560 g 34 Similarly.

4: Calculate the mass of hydrochloric acid required for neutralizing 1 kg of NaOH Solution: The neutralization reaction involved between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide is as follows : HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O (l) 1mole 1 mole 1 + 35. .5 x 1000 _________________ = 912.8 1.6 g sodium would produce _______________ = 8.7 L at STP 2H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g) 2 moles 2 moles 1 mole 2 x 18 = 36 g 2 x 40 = 80 g 1 x 2 (i) From the equation it can be seen that 2 moles of water react with 2 moles of sodium 4 moles of water can react with a maximum of 4 moles of sodium. (ii) 46 g sodium reacts to produce 80 g sodium hydroxide 80 x 4.5 L Therefore to produce 100 L of SO3 the volume of oxygen required is 0.6 g of sodium reacts with excess of water.5 g.7 L of hydrogen at STP 2 x 1.5 g 40 Example 6.: 109 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions To produce 1L of SO3 the oxygen required is 0.5 g = 40 g Thus. (iii) The mass and volume at STP of hydrogen gas that would be produced when 1.7 x 1.1 g of hydrogen and ______________ = 1.8 g of water reacts completely with sodium metal.0 g sodium hydroxide.135 L 36 36 of hydrogen at STP. For neutralizing 1 kg or 1000 g of NaOH the mass of HCl required is 36.5 x 100 = 50 L d) Mixed calculations Example 6. Solution: 2Na(s) + 2 moles 2 x 23 = 46 g =2g 22.6 4.8 g of water would produce ___________ = 0. 46 (iii) 6 g of water produces 2 g or 22.5 23 + 16 + 1 = 36. (ii) The mass of sodium hydroxide that would be produced when 4.8 22.5: In the reaction 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g) calculate the following: (i) The maximum number of moles of sodium that can react with 4 moles of water. for neutralizing 40 g of NaOH the mass of HCl required is 36.

and hydrochloric acid. the hydrogen ion. 5. to simplify equations by using the symbol for the hydrogen ion (H+). and the amino acids (in proteins). 200 g of O2 is sufficient to convert 1 mole of benzene completely into CO2 and H2O. A basic solution is also called an alkaline solution. 6. Bases have bitter taste and turn red litmus blue.8 g water would be produced by combustion of 15. The hydroxides of metals are the compounds that have the hydroxyl group.1 Acids An acid is defined as a substance that furnishes hydrogen ions (H+) in its solution. 3. however. Read them carefully and indicate against each statement whether it is true (T) or false (F).4 ACIDS. and caesium have the special name of alkalies. 10.1 mole of benzene would require 7. nitric acid. They react with metals (which are more reactive than hydrogen) to liberate hydrogen. potassium. 1 mole of benzene would produce 134. Acids have sour taste and turn blue litmus red. 6. rubidium.3 Consider the equation for combustion of benzene (C6H6): 2C6H6(l) + 15O2(g) 12CO2(g) + 6H2O(g) + heat Some statements about this reaction are given below.5 moles of oxygen for its combustion.: 110 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 6. it attaches itself to a water molecule to form the hydronium ion (H3O+). Taste of acids and bases Although you will find mention of taste of acids being sour and that of bases being bitter in books. citric acid (in lemons). These include sulphuric acid. More important to life are hundreds of weaker organic acids. 2. 6. 4. The strongest acids are the mineral or inorganic acids.4. It is customary.3 Salts A salt is a substance produced by the reaction of an acid with a base. lactic acid (in sour milk). BASES AND SALTS You have learnt in your earlier classes about three types of substances–acids. They are vital to many life processes and are valuable to industry. . never attempt to taste them yourself. Many of them can cause serious damage if swallowed or even on their contact with tongue.4. Actually. bases and salts. Let us do a quick revision about them. The reaction between an acid and a base is called a neutralization reaction. It is an exothermic reaction.4.2 Bases Bases are the substances which furnish hydroxyl ions OH– in their solutions. Hydroxides of alkali metals–lithium.6 g benzene. sodium.4 L of CO2 at STP. In solution or in the molten state. H+ does not exist in the aqueous solution as such. They are called bases. 0. Zn(s) + H2SO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + H 2(g) 6. 1. It consists of the cation (positive ion) of a base and the anion (negative ion) of an acid. These include acetic acid (in vinegar). Instead.

: 111 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions most salts are completely dissociated into cation and anion and are good conductors of electricity. and salts.5. X and Y would have sour taste? 6.2 Strong and weak electrolytes In the last section we learned that electrolytes dissociate into ions in their solutions.5. bases. Sodium chloride.5 ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA IN AQUEOUS SYSTEMS In the last section we discussed the nature of three important types of substances–acids.1 Electrolytes and non-electrolytes An electrolyte is a substance that conducts electric current through it in the molten state or through its solution. Acetic acid and ammonium hydroxide are weak electrolytes. Some electrolytes are completely dissociated into ions.5. NaCl) is dissolved in water. Sugar dissolved in water maintains its molecular integrity and does not dissociate and it is a non-electrolyte. They are called weak electrolytes. Which one out of AB. 6. What type of substance is AB? 2. 1.3 Dissociation of acids and bases in water In the last section we learned that some electrolytes are strong while others are weak. A non-electrolyte is a substance that does not conduct electric current through it in the molten state or through its solution. They are called strong electrolytes. 6. X and Y would turn red litmus blue? 3. dissociating into positive sodium ions (Na+) and negative chloride ions (Cl–). When common salt (sodium chloride. The most familiar electrolytes are acids. In this section we shall study more about dissociation processes that occur in aqueous solutions of acids and bases. In this section we shall learn about their behaviour in such solutions. . On the other hand some other electrolytes are dissociated only partially into ions.4 A substance AB is formed by reaction between an acid X and a base Y along with water. bases and salts. it forms an electrolytic solution. The cation and anion of the compound AB are monovalent. 6. 2NaOH(s) sodium hydroxide + H2SO4(l) sulphuric acid Na2SO4(aq) sodium sulphate + 2H2O(l) Another typical acid-base reaction is between calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid to produce calcium phosphate and water: 3Ca(OH)2(s) calcium hydroxide + 2H3PO4(l) phosphoric acid Ca3(PO4)2(aq) + calcium phosphate 6H2O(l) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 6. which dissociate in their molten state when dissolved in such solvents as water or alcohol. Which one out of AB. Non-electrolytes consist of molecules that bear no net electric charge and they do not dissociate in their molten state or in their solutions. potassium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid are strong electrolytes. They show their typical properties in aqueous solutions.

concentration (molarity) of H+ ions is same as that of HCl in the solution. (ii) Dissociation of weak acids Weak acids are only partially dissociated into ions in their aqueous solutions. One mole of NaOH forms one mole each of sodium ions and hydroxyl ions.3a Dissociation of acids (i) Dissociation of strong acids Strong acids are completely dissociated into ions in their aqueous solutions. 6. NaOH(aq) • • Na+(aq) + OH−(aq) From the above equation it can be seen that NaOH is completely converted into its ions and no amount of it remains in the undissociated form.: 112 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions 6. We can write expression of the law of equilibrium for the above equilibrium as [H+][CH3COO–] Ka = ________________________ [CH3COOH] • Here the symbol used for equilibrium constant is Ka in place of Kc. Here Ka is dissociation constant of acetic acid.5. One mole of HCl forms one mole each of hydrogen ions and chloride ions. Thus. CH3COOH(aq) • • • H+(aq) + CH3COO–(aq) From the process depicted above it can be seen that: CH3COOH is only partially dissociated into ions. The process of dissociation is reversible and an equilibrium is established between dissociated and undissociated CH3COOH.3b Dissociation of bases (i) Dissociation of strong bases Strong bases like sodium hydroxide are completely dissociated in their solutions. if one mole of acetic acid was dissolved in one litre of solution (concentration = 1 mol L-1) the concentration of hydrogen ions H+ formed in the solution would be less than 1 mol L-1. The amount of hydrogen ions and acetate ions formed is less than the total amount of acetic acid taken initially. In fact acetic acid is such a weak electrolyte that less than 1% of it would dissociate in this solution.5. Consider dissociation of acetic acid. Thus concentration (molarity) of OH– ions is same as that NaOH of in the solution. Consider dissociation of hydrochloric acid: HCl(aq) H+(aq) + Cl–(aq) From the above equation it can be seen that • • HCl is completely converted into its ions and no amount of it remains in the undissociated form. Thus. .

pH = .5. Kb is the dissociation constant of ammonium hydroxide.log [H+] Because of the negative sign in the expression. . it is customary to say that the pH of water is 7. We can write expression of the law of equilibrium as Ka = – + 4 __________________ NH4+(aq) + OH–(aq) NH4+(aq) + OH–(aq) From the process shown above it can be seen that [NH ][OH ] [NH4OH] Here the symbol used for equilibrium constant is Kb in place of Kc.4 Self-dissociation of water Pure water is neutral in nature. if [H+] increases pH would decrease and if it decreases the pH would increase.2. 6. It is written: l pH = log _________ [H+] Alternately.0 . The amount of OH– ions and NH4+ ions formed is less than the total amount of ammonium hydroxide taken initially. The pH is the logarithm (see box) of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration. The concentration of H+ and OH– ions in water has been measured and found to be 1 × 10–7 mol L-1 each at 25 0C. Instead of saying that the hydrogen ion concentration in pure water is 1 × 10–7 mol L-1.5). H2O(1) [H+] = [OH−] H+(aq) + OH–(aq) It can be seen from the above equation that in pure water Also. This is in fact the equilibrium constant for self dissociation process of water.e.: 113 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions (ii) Dssociation of weak bases Weak bases like ammonium hydroxide are only partially dissociated in their solutions. [OH–] where Kw is known as ionic product of water. for this equilibrium Kw = [H+]. The dissociation process is a reversible process and in the solution equilibrium is established between dissociated and undissociated NH4OH. NH4OH(aq) NH4OH(aq) • • • • NH4OH is only partially dissociated. the pH is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration i. The term in the denominator is [H2O] which by convention is taken as 1 for any pure solid or liquid (see section 6. It ionizes to a small extent and releases an equal number of hydrogen and hydroxide ions.

0 at 25 0C (iii) For calculation of pH of acidic solutions first the concentration of H+ ions i. 6.e. Therefore the following are the characteristics of acidic aqueous solutions: (i) [H+] > [OH-] (ii) Since hydrogen ion concentration in acidic solutions is more than in water their pH would be less than that of water i.5b Acidic aqueous solutions Acidic solutions would have more [H+] than in water.0 at 25 0C 6. From it the pH is calculated by the relation pH = –log [H+] Such calculations have been shown in the next section. the following are the characteristics of neutral aqueous solutions: (i) [H+] = [OH–] (ii) pH = 7. . acidic and basic aqueous solutions. (iv) The sum of pH and pOH of any aqueous solution is always 14 at 25 0C. we can now discuss the characteristics of neutral. Therefore. Similarly. 6.5.e. (iii) pH of water is 7. [H+] is calculated.5a Neutral aqueous solutions Neutral solutions would be similar to water. If.ions in equal amounts therefore: [H+] = [OH–] (ii) Water is a neutral liquid. [OH-] is 1 × 10–7 mol L–1 .5.0 at 25 0C temperature.: 114 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions LOGARITHM Logarithm is a mathematical function.5 Neutral. which is also neutral in nature. pH and pOH is pKw = pH + pOH = 7+7 = 14 The following points should be noted regarding self-dissociation of water: (i) Water produces H+ and OH. acidic and basic solutions and their pH In the light of discussion on self-dissociation of water in the last section. we may define pOH and pKw as: pOH = –log [OH–] and pKw = –log Kw Since the concentration of OH. pOH = 7 The relationship between pKw.ions. Then x = 10y y = log x You will study more about logarithm in your higher classes. pH < 7.5.

(iii) Solutions with pH less than 7 are acidic.ions using the relation (see next section).7 Calculations based on pH concept In the last section we learned the concept of pH and its relationship with hydrogen ion or hydroxyl ion concentration. (ii) Solutions with pH 7 are neutral. Therefore the concentration of H+ ion would also be 0. The concentration of H+ or OH– should not be less than 10–6molar. The following are the characteristics of basic aqueous solutions: (i) [H+] < [OH–] (ii) Since hydrogen ion concentration in basic solutions is less than in water their pH would be more than that of water i. which are extremely dilute. Example 6.001 molar solution of HCl. 6. Therefore they would have less [H+] than water. Thus [H+] = 1x 10– 3 mol L–1 pH = −log [H+] = − ( − 3) =3 Thus pH= 3 Example 6.0 at 25 0C The pH of such solutions can be calculated indirectly. pOH = − log [OH−] Then pH is calculated by the relation pH = 14 –pOH Thus in brief we may conclude that at 25 0C: (i) Water has a pH of 7 and is neutral.e. First pOH is calculated from the concentration of OH.5c Basic aqueous solutions Basic solutions would have more [OH–] than in water.7 : What would be the pH of an aqueous solution of sulphuric acid which is 5 x 10–5 molar in concentration? Solution : Sulphuric acid dissociates in water as: H2SO4(aq) 2H+(aq) + SO42−(aq) .001 molar or 1 x 10–3 mol L–1. (iv) Solutions with pH more than 7 are basic. It may be noted that the methods of calculation of pH used in this lesson are valid for solutions of strong acids and bases only. In this section we shall use these relations to perform some calculations. Solution: HCl is a strong acid and is fully dissociated in its solutions according to the process: H+(aq) + Cl−(aq) HCl(aq) From the above process it is clear that one mole of HCl will give one mole of H+ ions. pH > 7. The method is not valid for solutions.5.: 115 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions 6.5.6 : Calculate the pH of 0.

pH of a solution is 4. Therefore [OH−] = 1x10− 4 molar pOH = – log [OH−] = – (log 10−4) = − (− 4) pOH = 4 Since pH = 14 – pOH = 14 – 4 = 10 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 6. therefore [H+] = 10–4 mol L–1 Therefore. • • • • . acidic. In whose aqueous solution a dynamic equilibrium will be established? 4. (ii) decomposition reactions. The reactions that can occur in forward and reverse directions simultaneously under same set of conditions are called reversible reactions. which would give 2 x 5 x 10-5 = 10 x 10-5 = 10-4 mol of H+ .5 1. X is a strong acid while Y is a weak acid. The reactions in which all the reactants and products are present in the same phase are called homogeneous reactions and the reactions in which reactants and products are present in different phases are called heterogeneous reactions. In an aqueous solution [H+] = [OH–] What type of solution is it. The reactions in which heat is evolved are called exothermic reactions and the reactions in which heat is absorbed are called endothermic reactions. (iv) double-displacement reactions. A system is said to be in a state of equilibrium if none of its properties changes with time. A substance completely dissociates in to ions when dissolved in water. Solution: NaOH is a strong base and dissociates in its solutions as: NaOH(aq) Na+(aq) + OH– (aq) One mole of NaOH would give one mole of OH. (iii) displacement reactions. Aqueous solution of a substance does not conduct electricity through it. One litre of 5 x 10−5 molar solution contains 5 x 10−5 moles of H2SO4. and (v) oxidation-reduction reactions. What type of substance is it? 2. What type of substance is it? 3.8 : Calculate the pH of 1x10– 4 molar solution of NaOH. pH = –log [H+] = –log 10– 4 = – (–4) =4 Example 6. basic or neutral? 5.: 116 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions Thus each mole of sulphuric acid gives two moles of H+ ions in solutions.ions. What is the hydrogen ion concentration in it? • LET US REVISE Based on the nature of chemical changes. reactions can be classified into five types (i) combination reactions.

An acid is a substance that furnishes hydrogen ions. OH– in its solutions and a salt is produced when an acid and a base react with each other. 2. pH of a solution is equal to (a) log [H+] (b) .e.log [OH–] A. 4. pH of a neutral solution is 7. . In the reaction 2KClO3(s) 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g) (a) 1 mole of KClO3 produces 1. (c) It is established in any aqueous solution of a strong acid or a strong base. H+. The reaction given below is not a: CO2(g) C(s) + O2(g) (a) Heterogeneous reaction (b) Displacement reaction (c) Exothermic reaction (d) Redox reaction.log [H+] (c) log [OH–] (d) . that of an acidic solution is less than 7 and that of a basic solution is more than 7 at 250C TERMINAL EXERCISES Multiple choice type questions. at 273 K temperature and 1 bar pressure.: 117 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions • • • • One mole of a gas occupies a volume of 22. An electrolyte conducts electric current through itself in the molten state or through its solution. If it dissociates completely it is known as a strong electrolyte and if it dissociates only partially it is known as a weak electrolyte. (d) On changing the temperature the equilibrium constant’s value would also change. (b) It can be established by a reversible reaction only.5 mole of O2 (b) 1 mole of KClO3 produces 3 moles of O2 (c) 2 moles of KClO3 produce 1 mole of KCl (d) when 1 mole of KCl is produced 3 moles of O2 are produced Which of the following statements about chemical equilibrium is not correct ? (a) It is dynamic equilibrium.7 L at STP (standard temperature and pressure) i. The reaction given below is: Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s) (a) Combination reaction (b) Displacement reaction (c) Redox reaction (d) Displacement and redox reaction. 1. 3. 5. a base is a substance that furnishes hydroxyl ions.

6 grams of KOH. What is an acid? 5.0 g of Fe. Given the following reaction 2Al(s) + Fe2O3(s) 2Fe + Al2O3(s) calculate the mass of Fe2O3 in grams required to produce 20. In the reaction 3C3H6 + 2KMnO4 + 4H2O 3C3H8O2 + 2KOH + 2MnO2 Calculate. NH4OH is a weak base. (i) the number of moles of MnO2 produced by 12 moles of C3H6. (i) What is a homogeneous reaction? Give one example each of gas phase and solution phase homogeneous reactions. Identify the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent in it. (iii) the number of moles of KMnO4 needed to produce 0. Descriptive type questions. 2. 7. (iv) the mass of C3H6 required to produce 5. 16. 13. (ii) What is a reversible reaction? Give one example. What are oxidation and reduction? Give one example with equation of a redox reaction. 14. (Atomic mass of K = 39) . 1. 12. 18. What is the difference between dynamic and static equilibrium? Give example of each. Write electronic definitions of oxidation and reduction. 3. 15.15 moles of C3H8O2.: 118 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions 6. In the reaction: CuO(s) + H2(g) Cu(s) + H 2O(l) Identify the species that is getting (i) reduced (ii) oxidized. Differentiate between displacement reactions and double displacement reactions. 17. Give any two examples of quantitative information carried by a chemical equation. Write down the equilibrium established in its aqueous solution and the expression of its dissociation constant Kb.8. What is an exothermic reaction? Give one example. In which of the following reactions H2O2 acts as a reducing agent? (a) H2O2 +2KI 2KOH + I2 (b) H2O2 + SO2 H2SO4 (c) H2O2 + Ag2O 2Ag + H2O + O2 (d) 4H2O2 + PbS PbSO4 + 4H2O B. 9. 8.5 moles of Br2? 10. 4. O = 16).006 moles of C3H6. Give one example each of slow and fast reactions. What are weak electrolytes? Give one example. Calculate the pH of (i) 10–5 mol L–1 HCl and (ii) 10–4 mol L–1 NaOH. (ii) the number of moles of KMnO4 needed to react with 0. What is the pH of 5x10–4 molar solution of H2SO4? 11. In the reaction Cl2(g) + 2KBr(aq) 2KCl(aq) + Br2(aq) How much mass of Cl 2 is required to produce 1. What is pH? 6. (Relative atomic masses: Fe = 55.

6. 5.2 1. 3. 3. When he finished the titration.: 119 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions 19. 6. 4.012 kg of sodium reacts with excess of water. 3.5 1. 2. 4. What was the pH of the solution present in the titration flask? (i) In the beginning of the titration (ii) at the end point when NaOH had just neutralized the HCl and (iii) at the end of the titration. 5. What is a neutralization reaction? A titration was started by taking 20 mL of 10–2 molar HCl. 4. Then a solution of NaOH was gradually added from the burette. 6. 2. 4.1 1. D C B A E Heterogeneous Endothermic Irreversible Fast Non-equilibrium T F T T F Salt Y X Non-electrolyte Strong electrolyte In solution of Y Neutral 10–4 mol L-1 .4 1. 3. 5. 6. 5. the solution was 10−4 molar in NaOH. 2. Sodium metal reacts with excess of water according to the reaction: 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g) (i) Calculate the mass of sodium required to produce 1 kg of NaOH. 20. 2. (ii) Find out the volume of H2 evolved at STP when 1. 2. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 6.3 1. By mistake the student missed the end point and added excess of NaOH. 3.

Molarity: It is the number of moles of a substance present in one litre volume. Electrolyte: A substance that conducts electric current through it in the molten state or through its solution. Combination reaction: A reaction in which two or more substances react to form a new substance. OH– in its solutions. Reversible reactions: The reactions that can occur in forward and reverse directions simultaneously under same set of conditions. when temperature is 273 K temperature and pressure is 1 bar. Neutralization: The reaction between an acid and a base to produce salt and water. STP: Standard temperature and pressure i. Strong electrolytes: The electrolytes that dissociate completely in their solutions. Weak electrolytes: The electrolytes that dissociate only partially into ions in their aqueous solutions. Oxidation: A process which involves loss of electrons.: 120 : Chemical Arithmetic and Reactions GLOSSARY Acid: A substance containing hydrogen that furnishes hydrogen ions (H+) in its solutions. .e. Non-electrolyte: A substance that does not conduct electric current through it in the molten state or through its solution. Exothermic reactions: The reactions in which heat is evolved Heterogeneous reactions: Reactions in which reactants and products are present in more than one phase. Homogeneous reaction: Reactions in which all the reactants and products are present in the same phase. Endothermic reactions: The reactions in which heat is absorbed Equilibrium state: A state in which no property of system changes with time. Reduction: A process which involves gain of electrons. Displacement reaction: A reaction in which an ion present in a compound is displaced by another ion. Double displacement reactions: The reactions in which two ionic compounds exchange their ions. pH: The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration. Salt: A substance produced by the reaction of an acid with a base along with water. Base: A substance that furnishes hydroxyl ions. Synthesis reaction:The reaction in which a compound is formed by combination of its constituent elements. Decomposition reaction: A reaction in which one substance breaks down into two or more substances.

7

Motion and Its Description
In this world, we see many objects moving around us, for example, cars, buses, trucks, and bicycles moving on the road, aeroplanes flying in air and ships sailing on the sea, leaves falling from the trees and water flowing in the river. All these objects are changing their position with time. When an object changes its position with time, it is said to be in motion. In these examples, motion is easily visible to us. But in some cases, motion is not easily visible to us. For example, air moves in and out of our lungs and blood flows in our body. The moon moves around the earth, while the two together go around the sun. The sun itself with its planets travels through our own galaxy. An object that does not change its position with time is said to be at rest, for example a book lying on a table. In this lesson, you will learn how to describe motion. For this, we will develop the concepts of displacement, velocity and acceleration. You will also learn how these quantities are related to each other. For an object moving along a straight line with uniform acceleration, we will obtain simple equations (known as equations of motion) connecting these quantities with time. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
!

!

! !

! !

define the terms motion, scalar and vector quantities, displacement, speed, velocity and acceleration, distinguish between (a) rest and motion (b) scalar and vector quantities (c) speed and velocity; differentiate between uniform and non-uniform motion; plot and interpret the following graphs (a) displacement – time graph for uniform motion, (b) velocity – time graph for uniformly accelerated motion; establish three equations of motion; solve problems based on equations of motion.

: 122 : Motion and Its Description

7.1 SOME BASIC ASPECTS OF MOTION 7.1.1 Types of motion In our daily life we see many objects moving. Some objects move in a straight line. For example, a ball rolling on a horizontal surface, a stone falling from a building and a runner on a 100m race track. In all these examples, objects change their positions with time along a straight line. This type of motion is called rectilinear motion. Observe the motion of a second’s hand of a clock, or motion of a child sitting on a marry-go round, or the motion of the blades of an electric fan. In such a motion, an object follows a circular path during motion. This type of motion is called circular motion. If you take a stone, tie a thread to it and whirl it with your hand, you will find that the stone moves on a circular path. In all such cases, though an object changes its position with time, it remains at a fixed distance from a point. Some objects move to and fro, such as a swing, a pendulum, the branches of a tree in the wind and the needle of a sewing machine. Such type of motion is called oscillatory motion. In such a motion, an object oscillates about a point, often called equilibrium position. 7.1.2 Scalar and vector quantities Each of the physical quantities you encounter in this book can be categorized as either a scalar or a vector quantity. A scalar is a quantity that can be completely specified by its magnitude with appropriate units; i.e. a scalar has only magnitude and no direction. A vector is a physical quantity that requires the specification of both magnitude and direction. Mass is an example of a scalar quantity. If someone tells you that mass of an object is 2 kg, that information completely specifies the mass of the object; no direction is required. Other examples of scalar quantities are, temperature, time interval, the number of students in a class, the volume of water in a bucket and the number of pages in this book. An example of a vector quantity is force. If your friend tells you that he is going to exert a force of 5N on an object, this is not enough information to let you know what will happen to the object. The effect of a force of 5N exerted horizontally is different from the effect of a force of 5N exerted vertically upward or downward. In other words, you need to know the direction of the force as well as its magnitude. Velocity is a vector quantity. If you wish to describe the velocity of a moving vehicle, you must specify both its magnitude (say, 30 m/s) and the direction in which the vehicle is moving (say, northeast). Other examples of vector quantities include displacement and acceleration, which are defined in this lesson. We use different symbols to represent scalar and vector quantities. A scalar quantity is represented by an ordinary letter (such as a) or number (such as 5) with appropriate unit. 3 cm, 6 L, and 12 kg represent scalar quantities. A vector quantity is represented by a symbol printed in boldface, such as a or A. Since in handwriting, this representation is not practical, a common notation is to indicate a r r vector quantity by an arrow over its symbol, a or A . When we are interested only in the magnitude of a vector quantity, such as a, we write it as a scalar (that is, a) indicating that its direction is not being considered. Graphically, a vector is represented by an arrow. The

Motion and Its Description : 123 :

length of the arrow is proportional to the magnitude of the vector and the arrow points in the direction of the vector. Fig. 7.1 a shows vector A and vector –A, both has the same magnitude but are in opposite directions.
A

A

–A

B

Fig. 7.1 (a) Vectors in same direction

Fig. 7.1 (b) Vectors in different directions

Figure 7.1 (b) shows vector A and another vector B whose magnitude is same as that of A but direction is different. Scalars can be added and subtracted like ordinary numbers. Vectors follow different laws. However, vectors having same direction can be added easily. For example, sum of vector A and a vector C (Fig. 7.1c) is a vector D whose magnitude is the sum of the magnitudes of vector A and C and direction is the same as that of A.
A C
Fig. 7.1 c Addition of vector

D=A+C

Subtraction of vector C from vector A can be seen as addition of vector – C to vector A as shown in Fig. 7.1d. The resultant has a magnitude equal to the difference of the magnitude of A and the magnitude of B. It points in the direction of A (the bigger of the two vectors). A A

C –C

E

(–C)

E = A–C = A+(–C)
Fig. 7.1 (d) Subtraction of vectors

7.1.3 Distance and displacement Motion occurs when an object changes position. Therefore, in order to describe the motion of an object, one must be able to specify its position at all times. In this course, we shall consider motion of objects in which position changes along a straight line, known as rectilinear motion. Let us say that the object moves along x-axis as shown in Fig. 7.2
S – –100 –80 –60 R –40 –20 O 0 20 40 P 60 80 Q 100 +x (m)

Fig. 7.2 Movement of an object along x-axis

Then position of the object is specified with reference to a point, say O. This point is called origin of the axis. The position is taken to be positive if it is to the right of the origin and negative, if it is to the left. So, if a car is at P, its position is + 60m. If it is at R, its position is –40m.

: 124 : Motion and Its Description

Suppose a car starts from O, moves to Q and then comes back to P. During this motion, the actual path length covered by the car = OQ + QP = +100m + (40m) = 140m. This is known as distance. The total path length covered by an object irrespective of its direction of travel is called distance. It is a scalar quantity. In SI unit, it is measured in metres (m). In the above example, at the end of journey, the car is at P. So, its final position is P while its initial position was O. Therefore, change in position is OP +60m only. This is known as displacement. The displacement of an object is defined as the change in its position and is given by the difference between its final and initial position. Displacement of an object = final position – initial position. Displacement is a vector quantity. In SI units, it is measured in metres (m). In the above example, the displacement of the car is + 60m. The plus sign means that it is along + x-axis. The magnitude of this displacement is 60m and its direction is towards right or + x-axis. Consider another case. Suppose a truck moves from O to R and returns to O. What is the distance covered by the truck? What is its displacement? Though the truck is moving along – x-direction, the length of path covered is positive. (The minus or plus sign, as explained earlier, indicates the direction of travel). Distance covered by the truck Displacement of the truck = Path length of OR + Path length of RO = 40 m + 40 m = 80 m = Final position – initial position = O (since it returns to origin O, its initial position) Example7.1: What is the distance covered and displacement of a car, a) b) If the car moves from O to P If the car moves from O to P and then back to R (see Fig. 7.2). = Length of path OP = 60 m

Solution : a) Distance covered in moving from O to P Displacement

= Final position – Initial position = + 60 m – (0 m) = + 60 m 60 m is the magnitude of the displacement and + sign indicates that it is directed towards right or towards P. Note that in this case magnitude of displacement is equal to the distance. This is so because the object does not change its direction during the course of motion. b) Distance covered in this case = Length of path OP + Length of path PR

Motion and Its Description : 125 :

= 60 m + (60 m + 40 m) = 160 m Displacement = Final position – Initial position = (–40 m ) – (0 m ) = – 40 m The minus sign shows that the direction of displacement is towards left or towards – x direction. Note that in this case, the magnitude of displacement (i.e. 40 m) is not equal to the distance (160 m). 7.1.4 Speed and velocity An object in motion travels a given distance in a certain time interval. How fast is the object moving? This is indicated by a quantity called speed. The speed of an object is defined as the length of the path travelled per unit time.
Speed = Path length or distance covered Time taken

…(7.1)

Its unit is m/s. It is also expressed in kmh-1. For example, if a car covers a distance of 61 km in 2h, its speed is 61km / 2h = 30.5 kmh-1. The velocity of an object is defined as the displacement divided by the time interval during which the displacement occurred:
Displacement …(7.2) Time taken Since displacement is a vector quantity, velocity is also a vector quantity. Its unit is the same as that of speed, i.e. ms-1 or kmh-1. Velocity =

ACTIVITY 7.1 Aim : To calculate your average speed of walking. What is required ? A metre stick or a measuring tape; stop watch or a wrist watch with second’s hand. What to do? i) Take a stopwatch to a field. ii) Using the measuring tape mark two positions (in a straight line) on the field that are 50m apart. iii) Start the clock as you walk down the marked line and stop it as you reach the 50m mark. Find the time taken by you to cover this distance. iv) Calculate your average speed of walking. v) Measure the time it takes you to run the same distance. What is your average speed? To represent displacement and velocity, we must use vector notations. But in this class, we shall be considering motion along a straight line. As mentioned earlier, in such cases, direction can be represented by + or – signs. Therefore, we need not use vector notations.

1.: 126 : Motion and Its Description For example.2. For example. To draw graph of the motion of an object. Time (s) Table 7. also has a speed of 25 ms-1. A body moves in a straight line from O to P and then to Q. 4. velocity = = Velocity for this motion = 1800 m = 12 ms-1 150 s Displacement 0m = = 0 ms-1 Time taken 150 s (Displacement is zero because final position coincides with the initial position). If we connect different points representing corresponding position time data.1. respectively.1 Position of different objects at different times 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 10 Position (m) 0 90 100 In order to plot position – time graph for data given in Table 7. If the average velocity of an object is zero in some time-interval. Suppose the car travels back to origin O in 90 s. For example. Are their velocities equal? Explain.1 1.1). If B is added to A.3. in Fig. 7. 10. Car A travelling from Delhi to Ghaziabad. What is the value of (i) distance travelled by the body. Car B. Next.2 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF MOTION 7. we get a straight line as shown in .1 Position time graph It is easy to analyze and understand motion of an object if it is represented graphically. travelling from Delhi to Gurgaon. what can you say about the displacement of the object for that time interval? 2. we choose a suitable scale for this. Then. Give one example of circular motion and one example of motion in a straight line. we represent time on horizontal axis and position on vertical axis drawn on a graph paper. positions of an object at different times are given in Table 7. 1 cm on horizontal axis represent 2 s of time interval and 1 cm on vertical axis represent 20 m. 7. Then its displacement = + 900 m – (0 m ) = + 900 m. consider a car moving towards + x axis (Fig. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 7. speed for this motion = Distance covered/ time taken = (900 m + 900 m)/ (60 s + 90 s) Therefore. 5. and (ii) displacement of the body. under what conditions does the resultant vector have a magnitude equal to A+B? Under what conditions is the resultant vector equal to zero? 3. It moves from O to A position + 900 m in 1 minute. has a speed of 25 ms-1. its positions at different times are shown on y – axis and time on x – axis. + 900 m = +15 ms–1 60 s The magnitude of velocity is 15 m/s and it’s direction (as indicated by + sign) is towards right or towards + x axis.

position-time graph is a straight line. (ii) Using a meter stick.. 30m.3 Position-time graph for the motion of a particle on the basis of data given in table 7. (iv)As your friend starts walking. for uniform motion.Motion and Its Description : 127 : Fig. etc.... the displacement is 100 m. 7. What is required ? A metre stick.. 25m. 7.3..1 Fi 7 3 We note from the data that displacement of the object in 1st second.... 35m.. velocity is 100 m/10 s = 10 m/s for the whole course of motion.e.2 Aim : To plot and interpret the graph of the motion (walking) of your friend. 2nd second. 5m. 50m.e.. 10m. 10 m. stop watch. The motion of an object in which its velocity is constant. velocity is constant i. What do you observe? (i) Record your data in the following table: .. Thus.………. Velocity during 1st second = 10 m/ 1s = 10 ms-1 Velocity during 2nd second = 10 m/1s = 10 ms-1 and so on. 10th second is the same i. Therefore. (iii)Ask your friend to walk down the line starting from position marked 0m. 100 80 Distance (m) 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Time (s) Fig. and a marker (chalk. is called uniform motion. . ACTIVITY 7. In 10 second.. 20m. equal to 10 m/s throughout the motion. 15m. start the stop watch and record the reading of the stopwatch as he touches the marks 5m. 7.1. This line represents the position-time graph of the motion corresponding to data given in Table 7.) What to do? (i) Go out to your college field with your friend.. 45m.. 40m.3. 0. As you see in Fig... and 50m. mark positions.

7.1. Since displacement in each second is 10 m for data in Table 7.3) also represents the displacement-time graph if the vertical axis is labelled as displacement. Like position-time graph. 7. the same graph (Fig. 7.5. Displacement is represented on the vertical axis and time interval on the horizontal axis. it is at 40 m.2 gives us the graph as shown in Fig. How will the position-time graph look like for a stationary object or object at rest.2 Velocity – time graph Take time on the horizontal axis and velocity on the vertical axis on a graph paper. one can also plot displacement-time graph. Are they same? Explain your result. 7. .4 Position time graph of a particle at rest 7. 100 80 Distance (m) 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Time (s) Fig. Suppose an object is at rest at position x = 40 m. What do you infer? (i) Is the graph a straight line? If yes. Let 1 cm on horizontal axis represent 2 s and 1 cm on vertical axis represent 10 ms-1.: 128 : Motion and Its Description Displacement (m) 0 5m 10m 15m 20m 25m Time (s) 0 Displacement (m) 30m 35m 40m 45m 50m Time (s) (ii) Plot a graph of distance (vertical axis) and time (horizontal axis). Then. 40m and 50m.2. its position-time graph will be a straight line parallel to the time axis as shown in Fig. what does it mean? (ii) Did your friend travel this distance with uniform velocity? (iii)Calculate the average velocity of your friend for a dsiplacement of 20m. Plotting the data in Table 7.4 because at all times. what does it mean? If no.

Motion and Its Description : 129 : Table 7. objects usually do not move with constant velocity. moves some distance. Suppose the velocity of a car changes from + 10 m/s to + 30 m/s in a time interval of 2. slows down and finally comes to rest.3) In real life. Let x be displacement of an object in time t.1 and Table 7. we see that the velocity-time graph of motion represented in Table 7. Therefore. Though.0 s . Area = (10 ms-1) x 10 s = 100 m. This is equal to the displacement of the object in 10s. moving with uniform velocity v. Area under velocity-time graph = Displacement of the object during that time interval. velocity is not constant. it is a general result. 7. Note that both velocities are towards the right.3 Acceleration The acceleration of an object is defined as the change in velocity divided by the time interval during which this change occurs. This change in velocity with time is a physical quantity called acceleration which we shall define next. Acceleration = Change in velocity Time interval …(10. as indicated by + signs.0 s.5.4) Its unit is m/s2.2. Consider the area under the graph in Fig. The motion is uniform. we obtained this result for a simple case of uniform motion. This means that the velocity during different time intervals of motion is different. It is a vector quantity.2 Thus. Acceleration = 30 m / s − 10 m / s = + 10 ms-2 2 . This is so because the velocity is constant throughout the motion. In other words. picks up motion.2 is a straight line parallel to time axis. We see that usually an object starts from rest. 7.5 Velocity-time graph for the motion of a particle on the basis of data given in table 7. 7.2 Velocity-time data of an object Time (s) Position (m) 0 0 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 9 10 10 10 10 50 Velocity (ms–1) 40 30 20 10 2 4 6 8 10 Time (s) Fig. Such a motion is called non-uniform motion. then x = v t (Uniform motion ) …(10.

(i) What kind of motion does the graph represent? (ii) What does the area under the graph represent? Fig. the acceleration is zero and for non-uniform motion. 7. (i) What kind of motion does the graph represent? (ii) What does the slope of the graph represent? d (m) 0 t (s) Fig.6? It is zero since there is no change in velocity with time. If the acceleration of an object during its motion is constant.8 . Note: Please note that speed and velocity that we defined in the earlier section are. average speed and average velocity for the time-interval under consideration. The velocity-time graph of such a motion is a straight line inclined to the time axis as shown in Fig. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 7. Look at fig. 7. the acceleration will be negative.6. 7. we say that the object is moving with uniform acceleration. if the final velocity is less than the initial velocity. the acceleration will be positive.: 130 : Motion and Its Description The acceleration in the present case is +10 ms-2.6. Look at fig. in fact. What is the acceleration corresponding to motion represented in Fig. then according to Fig. This means that the car accelerates in the + x direction and its velocity increases at a rate of 10 ms-1 every second. terms ‘speed’ and ‘velocity’ wherever used refer to the ‘average speed’ and ‘average velocity’.7. for uniform motion. the acceleration is non-zero.6 Velocity-time graph of a particle moving with uniform acceleration For a given time interval. if the final velocity is more than the initial velocity. V (ms–1) 0 t (s) Fig.2 1. 7.7 2. 7. 7. Unless otherwise specified.8. 7. Thus. However. 7.

Motion and Its Description : 131 :

3. Look at fig. 7.9. (i) What kind of motion does the graph represent? (ii) What does the slope of the line represent? (iii) What does the area under the curve represent?

V (ms–1)

O

t(s)

10

Fig. 7.9

4. A car starts from rest accelerates uniformly and attains a maximum speed of 20 ms-1 in 5 seconds. In the next 10 s it slows down uniformly and comes to rest at the end of 10th s. Draw a velocity time graph for the motion. Calculate from the graph (i) acceleration, (ii) retardation, and (iii) distance travelled. 5. A body moving with a constant speed of 10 ms-1 suddenly reverses its direction of motion at the 5th second and come to rest in the next 5 seconds. Draw a position - time graph of the motion. 7.3 EQUATIONS OF MOTION Consider an object moving with uniform acceleration, a. Let u be its initial velocity (at time t = 0), v, its velocity after time t and s, its displacement during this time interval. Let us see how these quantities are related to each other. 7.3.1 Relation between, v, u, a and t According to the definition of acceleration, we have
Acceleration = a= Change in velocity Time interval v −u t

or or,

v= u+at

…(10.5)

With the help of this equation, we can find velocity of a uniformly accelerated object after a given time interval. Or, given any three of these quantities, fourth can be found using this equation. Example 7.2: A car has an initial velocity of 25 ms-1. The brakes are applied and the car stops in 2.0 s. What is the acceleration of the car? Solution: Using (10.5), v = 0, u = 25 ms-1, t = 2.0 s O = 25 ms-1 + a (2.0s) hence, a = - 12.5 ms-2 It is negative. Negative acceleration is also called deceleration. 7.3.2 Relation between s, u, a and t From equation (10.3), we have Displacement = (average velocity) × ( time interval )

: 132 : Motion and Its Description

or, But,

v+u  s= t  2  v = u + at
1 (u + u + at ) t = u t + 1 a t 2 2 2

Therefore, s =

1 s = ut + a t 2 2

… (10.6)

If an object starts from rest, u = 0 and equation (10.6) reduces to
s= 1 2 at 2

… (10.7)

Thus, we see that the displacement of an object undergoing a constant acceleration is proportional to t2, while the displacement of an object with a constant velocity (zero acceleration) is proportional to t (Equation 10.3). A body in free fall, falls with a uniform acceleration, called acceleration due to gravity (denoted by g) and having an average value 9.8 ms-2 near the surface of earth. For this motion the equations of motion become v = u + gt s = ut + ½ gt2 Use these concepts to do the following activity: ACTIVITY 7.3 Aim: To measure your reaction time. What is required? To do this activity, you need the help of your friend, a metre scale, and a stop watch. What to do? (i) Take a metre scale and ask your friend to hold it vertically between his index finger and thumb. (ii) Note the position of the metre scale with respect to his index finger. (iii)Ask your friend to release the ruler and you must catch it (without lowering your hand after catching it). (iv)Note the position of the metre scale, when you catch it and find the distance through which the ruler falls. Let it be d. (v) Repeat this activity 5 times and note the value of d each time.

Motion and Its Description : 133 :

What do you infer? (i) The ruler is a freely falling object with u = 0, a = g (acceleration due to gravity = 9.8 m/s2)
1 2 Using equation of motion, s = ut + a t 2

we have d = or t r =
2d g

1 2 g tr 2

(ii) Using the different experimentally values of d obtained, you can calculate tr find the mass of all these values. What you get is your reaction time. (iii)Similarly, you can measure the reaction time of your friend. It is usually about 0.2 s. Example 7.3: An object with an initial velocity of 4.0 m/s is accelerated at 6.0 m/s2 for 2.0 s. (a) How far does the object travel during this period? (b) How far would the object travel if it were initially at rest? Solution: a) Given u = 4.0 ms-1, t = 2.0 s, a = 6.0 ms-2 s = u t + ½ a t 2 = (4.0 ms-1) ( 2.0 s) + (1/2) (6.0 ms-2) (2.0 s)2 = 8.0 m + 12.0 m = 20 m. b) For u = 0, s = 0 + ½ (6.0 ms-2) (2.0 s) 2 = 12 m 7.3.3 Relation between u, v, and s We know that, u+v s= t  2  and,
v −u t On multiplying these two equations, we have a=

 v − u  v + u  v2 −u2 as =  t =   t  2  2 or, v2 = u2 + 2 a s

…(10.8)

Equations (10.5), (10.6) and (10.8) are the three equations of motion. Example 7.4: A bus starts from rest and moves with a uniform acceleration of 3ms-2. What will be its velocity after moving a distance of 37.5 m?

: 134 : Motion and Its Description

Solution : Given

u = 0, a = 3 ms-2, s = 37.5 m v = u2 + 2 a s = 0 + 2 (3 ms-2) (37.5 m) = 225 m2/s2 = (15 ms-1) 2 v = 15 ms-1

Example 7.5: A body is dropped from the top of a 3 story (h=15m) building. After how much time will it strike the ground? (g=10ms-2) 1 Solution: s = ut + _____ gt2 2 u = 0, g = 10 ms–2, s = 15m
∴ 15 = 1 × 10t 2 2

⇒ t=

15 = 3 = 1732 . s 5

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 7.3 1. A ball is thrown straight up with an initial velocity of + 19.6 ms-1. It was caught at the same distance above ground from which it was thrown: (i) How high does the ball rise. (ii) How long does the ball remain in air? (g=9.8 m/s2) 2. A ball is thrown vertically upwards. (i) What are its velocity and acceleration when it reaches the highest point? (ii) What is its acceleration just before it hits the ground? 3. A body accelerates from rest and attains a velocity of 10 ms-1 in 5s. What is its acceleration? 4. A body starts its motion with a speed of 10 ms-1 and accelerates for 10 s with 10 ms-2. What will be the distance covered by the body in 10s? 5. A body starts from rest and covers a distance of 50m in 10 s. What is the average speed of the body? LET US REVISE If a body stays at the same position with time, it is at rest. If the body changes its position with time, it is in motion. Motion is said to be rectilinear if the body moves in the same straight line all-the time, e.g, a car moving in a straight line on a level road. The motion is said to be circular if the body moves on a circular path: e.g, the motion of the tip of the hand of a watch. The total path length covered by a moving body is the distance travelled by it.

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Motion and Its Description : 135 :
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The difference between the final and initial position of a body is called its displacement. Physical quanities are of two types (i) scalar: which have magnitude only, no direction (ii) vector: which have magnitude as well as direction. Distance, speed, mass, time, temperature etc. are scalar quantities, whereas displacement, velocity, acceleration, momentum, force etc. are vector quantities. Distance travelled in unit time is called speed, whereas, displacement per unit time is called velocity. Position-time graph of a body moving in a straight line with constant speed is a straight line sloping with time axis. The slope of the line gives the velocity of the motion. Velocity-time graph of a body in a straight line with constant speed is a straight line parallel to time axis. Area under the graph gives distance travelled. Velocity-time graph of a body in a straight line with constant acceleration is a straight line sloping with the time axis. The slope of the line gives acceleration. For uniformly accelerated motion : v = u+at 1 s = ut + _____ at2 2 where u = initial velocity, v = final velocity, and s = distance travelled in t seconds. TERMINAL EXERCISES

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1. Explain whether or not the following particles have an acceleration: (i) a particle moving in a straight line with constant speed, and (ii) a particle moving on a curve with constant speed 2. Consider the following combination of signs and values, for velocity and acceleration of an object with respect to a one-dimensional motion along x-axis: Velocity a. Positive b. Positve c. Positive d. Negative Acceleration Positive Negative Zero Positive Velocity e. Negative f. Negative g. Zero h. Zero Acceleration Negative Zero. Positive Negative

Describe what an object is doing in each case, and give a real-life example for a car on an east-west one-dimensional axis, with east considered as the positive direction. 3. A car travelling initally at + 7.0 m/s accelerates at the rate of + 0.80 m/s2 for an interval of 2.0s. What is its velocity at the end of the acceleration? 4. A car travelling in a straight line has a velocity of + 5.0 m/s at some instant. After 4.0s, its velocity is + 8.0 m/s. What is its average acceleration in this time interval? 5. The velocity - time graph for an object moving along a straight line as shown in figure. 7.10.

Calculate the average velocity between t = 10s to t = 20s. What does this slope represent? (vi) Find the slope of the line between t = 5.0 Plot the velocity .0 2.0 20.0 8.time graph of motion. 7. The position-time data of a car is given in the table given below: Time(s) 0 5 10 15 20 (i) (ii) (iii) Position(m) 0 100 200 200 200 Time(s) 25 30 35 40 45 Position(m) 150 112.0s.0s and t = 7.0 Velocity (m/s) 20.0 4. The velocity of an automobile changes over a period of 8 s as shown in the table given below: Time(s) 0. What distance does the car travel during the first 4s? What distance does the car travel during the entire 8s? Find the slope of the line between t = 0s and t = 4. 6. Calculate the average velocity of the car during first 10 seonds.0 12.0s to 15.0 8.0 20. What does the slope indicate? 7. .0 Time (s) 5.0s.0 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Velocity (m/s) 0.0 3.0 6. Determine the distance the car travels during the first 2s.0 20.: 136 : Motion and Its Description 8 6 4 V (ms–1) 2 t (s) –2 –4 –6 –8 5 10 15 20 Fig.10 Find the average acceleration of this object during the time intervals 0 to 5.0 16.0 1.0 7.5 75 37.0 s. 5.5 0 Plot the position-time graph of the car.0 4.0s. and 0 to 20.0s.

(i) uniform motion (ii) velocity of the object 2. Distance is always (a) less than. Hence. 8. 3. (i) uniform motion (ii) displacement of the object 3.1 7. The average speed of the object during this time interval is (a) at/2. a = g 2ms-2 600m 5ms-1 (ii) 4s (ii) g . (d) greater than or equal to. (c) a circle. Zero 2. 2. (b) a straight line. B should be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to A 3. (d) a point. 16. (c) 2. 32m. 18. 32m. refer section 7. (ii) –5m 7. t plot for an object with a uniform velocity in the x-direction is (a) a curved line. their direction are different. Both A and B should be along the same direction. VA ≠ VB. 5. A ball rolling on a horizontal surface executes motion along a straight line. 32. 10. 64m. (a) 4. refer section 7. (c) 1/2 at2 (d) 1/2at. 16. 4. 8.Motion and Its Description : 137 : (iv) Calculate the average velocity between t = 20s and t = 25 s. the magnitude of displacement.2 1.6m (i) v = 0. (i) uniformly accelerated motion (ii) accleration (iii) displacement 4.3 1. (b) 2. 11. (d) 4. (i) 25m. Motion of a second’s hand of a clock is a circular motion. (i) 19. 4. Though the magnitudes of their velocites are the same (25 ms-1). (b) greater than. The graph of x vs. (b) 2 at. 9.2. 8.2. The distances travelled at the ends of each of the first 4 seconds are.2 5. 5. 16m. 4. A car starts from rest with a uniform acceleration of 4 m/s2. respectively.1 1. An object initially at rest moves for t seconds with a constant acceleration a. (c) less than or equal to. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 7. No. What can you say about the direction of the motion of car? 8.

: 138 : Motion and Its Description .

These laws are called Newton’s laws of motion. • state the three laws of motion and explain their significance. • establish a relationship between force. you will be able to: • explain the cause of motion. • explain how friction is increased or decreased in different situations. These will help you to find out more about moving bodies. duration of motion and the acceleration with which a body travels. In this lesson you will learn about these laws. mass and acceleration. • state the principle of Archimedes and apply it to solve problems. • define the terms inertia. force. the body stops after moving through some distance. You have learnt that there are three equations of motion. • distinguish between thrust and pressure with suitable examples. you have studied about the motion of bodies in a straight line. Why does it happen so? Why does a stone thrown upwards always come down to the earth? Why the edge of a knife is made sharp? Why do some bodies float on water whereas some other bodies sink in water? The answer to such questions will be discussed in the present lesson. .Force & Motion INTRODUCTION: In the previous lesson. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. • explain friction and the factors on which it depends. mass and momentum. These laws will tell you why a motion occurs. and express the relationship between them. with the help of which you can solve problems involving initial velocity. If you push a body on a floor or ground. • illustrate advantages and disadvantages of friction in day to day life. But what is the cause of change in motion or cause of acceleration which is responsible for producing an increase in the velocity of a moving body? Newton formulated three laws regarding the motion of bodies. • distinguish between mass and weight. • state and explain the Newton’s law of gravitation.

ACTIVITY 8. it moves faster. the books do not change their position (Fig. But to move a sheet of paper off your table requires a very little push. You can do another activity to understand the concept of inertia. What is required ? Two books and a smooth sheet of paper. So. You can also stop a moving ball by catching it or putting an obstacle in its path. In this case also something is done to change the direction of motion of the body. It does not move by itself. You will observe that in each hit the direction of the ball is changed. (ii) Remove the paper with a jerk and see the effect on books. The property of a body by virtue of which it is unable to change its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line is called inertia. If you kick it hard. You must note that force is a vector quantity. Consider another example in which the volleyball players are hitting the ball from both sides. we conclude that everybody continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line unless and until it is compelled by some unbalanced force to change that state. 8. or of uniform motion of a body? This something is called force. It means something has to be done to move a body from rest or to make it move slow or fast. because it is always applied along a particular direction and has magnitude. Each one is called an action. push. Kick.2. Newton's Laws of Motion 8.Force and Motion If you put a ball on the ground. it will stay there.1 Aim: To study Newton’s first law of motion and inertia. This is the statement of Newton’s First Law of Motion.3). What is this something that changes the state of rest. we can say that the force is something which when applied on a body changes or tends to change the state of rest or uniform motion of the body. It also defines another concept called inertia. To move a heavy stone across a room lot of pushing has to be done. Now stack two books on the paper. It means something is done to stop a moving body. Newton’s first law of motion may be used to define force. What do you observe? When the paper is removed with a jerk from below the books. What to do? (i) Place the sheet of paper on the table with some part of it coming out of the edge of the table. Can you think of a situation when a cart is moving without bullocks? No.1 Newton’s first law of motion Therefore. It will move only when you kick it. Thus. . pull and hit are some of the different ways of applying force on a body.

so coin travels much farther. Inertia is a property common to all bodies in nature. If we imagine a completely smooth floor which offers no resistive force.g. sprinkle talcom powder on the floor and again strike the coin from the same place with the same force and note the distance travelled by it again. Thus. What to do? (i) Strike the coin on a smooth floor and note the distance travelled by it..Fig 8.3 Paper being removed with a jerk from below the books What do you infer? We find that the books remain in their position unless something external is done. What do you infer? We find that coin travels through much longer distance along a straight line on the floor when powder is sprinkled. You must have experienced that it is difficult to move a heavy body than a lighter one e. What actually happens is that when a moving bus suddenly stops. The floor exerts a resistive force on the motion of the coin.2 Aim: To study the inertia of rest What is required? A coin. The distance travelled by the coin in straight line is different in the two situations. . So inertia of a body is characterized by the quantity called mass of the body. your feet in contact with the bus are suddenly brought to rest while the rest of your body. talcum powder. which has acquired the same velocity as the bus. Even removal of paper from below them with jerk does not change their position. a table with sunmica top or glass top. it can be said that the mass of a body is a measure of its inertia. due to inertia of motion tends to move forward even after the bus has stopped. ACTIVITY 8. pushing a loaded box is more difficult than to push an empty box because heavy box has more inertia. the coin will continue to move on it with constant velocity unless some net external force is applied to stop it. But this resistive force is much less when powder is sprinkled on the floor. Some illustrations of first law of motion (a) Why do you tend to fall while getting off a moving bus or why are you thrown forward when the moving bus stops suddenly and you are not cautious. (ii) Now.

Kicking harder means applying more force due to which football gains more acceleration and hence moves faster.. If you kick a football.. It is seen that acceleration of a body is directly proportional to the force applied on the body. 8.. Now think.. Fig..... 8.. it moves faster than before.1 Where. so the equation (8. Now..2 . So it can be said that the acceleration produced in a body depends on its mass and is inversely proportional to the mass.. But how does the motion of a body change when you apply some external force? To establish a relationship between the force and the acceleration produced in a body. it comes at rest immediately... Newton formulated his second law of motion.. This is due to the inertia of motion of the goods. you apply a force.. Hence they fall from it. When you throw a piece of stone in the air.4 Passenger falling forward as the bus stops suddenly The mass of the football is greater than that of the plastic ball. Hence. it moves...e. ‘a’ denotes the acceleration produced in a body of mass ‘m’ when a force ‘F’ is applied on it. 8.. why does the ink comes out of a fountain pen when it is given a jerk? Newton's second law of motion You have seen that force changes or tends to change the state of motion of a body... a = F/m .... When the trolley stops suddenly....1) may be expressed in the vector form as a = F/m . i. but if you kick it very hard... you know acceleration is a vector quantity and force is also a vector quantity.. the greater the force. For the same force the acceleration produced in the plastic ball is greater than the acceleration produced in the football....(b) You would have noticed that when a moving trolley is stopped suddenly. the goods placed in it try to remain in motion. sometimes the loaded goods fall from it... the farther it goes.. the greater is the change in motion of a particular body. we have.. Greater the force with which you throw the stone. But because of inertia of motion.

. Therefore..e.. 1N = 1 kg ms-2 You must note that equation (8.... Equation (8.1 Newton force is that force which on acting on a body of mass 1 kg produces in it an acceleration of 1 ms-2 i. mass m of a body can never be zero... you will get.e.. -2 Example 8.1) may be written as.. This is nothing but the first law of motion. F = (1 kg *1 m)/1s2 = 1kgm/s2 1kgm/s2 is called as 1 Newton whose symbol is N.5 Motion of (a) foot ball (b) plastic ball when the same force is applied on them This shows that acceleration produced in a body is in the same direction as the applied force. F = 50 kg x 4ms-2 = 200 kg ms-2 = 200N (since 1N = 1kg ms-2 ) Example 8. So first law can be derived from the second law.3) can be used to find out the acceleration or force applied or mass of a body provided any two of the three quantities namely force.. If you put F = 0 in equation (8.. Equation (8.. if m = 1 kg and a = 1 ms-2 then....... F = ma . Let us solve some problems using Newton’s Law of motion.2: If a force of 50 N acts on a body of mass 10 kg. the SI unit of force is Newton.2) represents Newton’s second law of motion which may be stated as the acceleration produced in a body is directly proportional to the unbalanced force acting on it and is inversely proportional to its mass. then what is the acceleration produced in the body? Solution: Newton’s second law gives . The direction of the acceleration is the same as that of the force.3)...1: What force accelerates a 50 kg mass at 4m/s ? Solution: Newton’s second law gives F = ma Here m = 50kg and a = 4ms-2 Therefore. or a = v – u = 0 or v = u i.Fig 8.1) to define the unit of force.. 8..3 In SI system of units. Hence... mass and acceleration are known. a moving body continues to move with the same velocity if no force acts on it.. Unit of force: You can use equation (8.... ma = 0 But.

In vector notation.5 Some illustrations of second law of motion According to the Newton’s second law of motion the force is defined as F = Rate of change of momentum Force is large when time is small and when time is large. v = Final velocity.2. for the same change of momentum. momentum is the product of mass and velocity. F = ma Substituting (8. and its direction is same as that of its velocity. i.e. velocity is a vector quantity. These two quantities help us to define a new quantity called momentum. Unit of momentum: By definition. In SI units. Momentum = Mass x Velocity p = m x v = mv You know. F = ( Final momentum – Initial momentum ) / Time (according to the definition of momentum) or F = ( Change in momentum ) / Time = Rate of change of momentum Hence the rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the force acting on the body and is in the same direction. So. p = mv Momentum plays an important role in the motion of bodies. u = Initial velocity and t = Time Newton’s second law of motion gives. the momentum of a moving body is defined as the product of its mass and velocity. F = 50 N = 50 kg ms-2 and m = 10 kg a= 50kgms-2 * 1/10 kg = 5ms-2 Momentum You know that a moving body always has a mass and a velocity. we can say that all moving bodies have momentum. We know that the acceleration of a body is defined as rate of change of its velocity.F = ma or a = F/m Here. the unit of momentum is kg m/s or kgms-1 or Ns 8. the unit of mass is kg and that of velocity is m/s. . Therefore. so momentum is also a vector quantity directed along the velocity. This is another way of stating Newton’s second law of motion. The following examples are based on this concept. force becomes smaller.4) in the above equation we have. Thus.

the string snaps. your foot exerts a backward force on the boat (Fig. equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. This force is called the action. the balloon moves opposite to the direction of the air coming out of it.6 A boy jumping out of a boat Also you must have noticed that when an air-filled balloon is released. which makes you move forward. if he falls on dry clay or husk or on a foam mattresses.(a) If a bundle tied with a string is lifted quickly by holding the string. In this case the air coming out of the balloon exerts a force of reaction on the balloon and this force pushes the balloon backwards. so his hands do not get hurt.6). This force is known as reaction. 8. Why does this happen? While jumping. If the air rushes out vertically downwards (action) the balloon moves vertically upwards (reaction). Why? This is because a large force must be exerted on the string to quickly increase the momentum of the bundle. (b) When a person falls on a cemented floor. he does not get hurt due to prolongation of time in making momentum zero and hence reduction of force. Fig 8. . You can try it yourself at your home.2. a force is exerted by the boat on your foot. smaller force comes into action to produce the desired change in momentum. 8. At the same time. Action and reaction forces are. (c) Why does a cricket player while catching a ball moves his hands backward? By doing so he increases the time duration in which the momentum of the ball becomes zero.6 Newton’s third law of motion You must have noticed that when you jump out of a boat suddenly. Since the mass comes to rest within a very short time. very large force comes into action in order to produce a definite change in momentum (from ‘mu’ to zero). the boat moves in the backward direction. why does he get hurt? The person has some initial momentum ‘mu’ which becomes zero when he comes to halt. thereby hurting the person. As time increases. On the other hand.

Newton’s third law of motion very clearly states that to every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction.2.7 An illustration of third law of motion Working of jet plane and rockets: A jet plane takes in air.3. They are interchangeable. a force equal to the opposing force of friction must be applied. Zero acceleration means that the body maintains its velocity. So it may be concluded that force needed to overcome friction. Greater the roughness. Air resistance is one type of frictional force. these two forces are simultaneous. It is so because the heavy truck has greater normal reaction (reaction of road on the truck against the action or weight of the loaded truck) and hence greater frictional force. Thus. The resistive force before the body starts moving on a surface is called static friction. It is a common experience that it is difficult to walk on sand.. The direction of the frictional force is always in a direction opposite to the motion. forces always exist in pairs and they act on two different bodies. (iii) The force of reaction appears so long as the force of action acts. Therefore. the plane moves in the forward direction. . (ii) Action and reaction always act on two different bodies. the fuel burns and then releases the burnt gases from the tail. is necessary to maintain the uniform motion of a body. 8. But zero acceleration does not mean zero velocity. As the burnt gases come out. If the force with which the gases escape is the action. then the force enabling the plane to move forward is the reaction. it neither speeds up nor slows down. In that condition the two forces exactly cancel one another and the net force on the body is zero. if an object is to move at a constant velocity. and the action-reaction forces act on different bodies. These irregularities act as obstructions to motion.Therefore. More power is needed to develop same speed on the same road for a heavy truck than for a lighter truck. greater is the friction. elevations and depressions in the surfaces of sliding objects. but it is easier to walk on a metalled road. There are three significant features of this law: (i) We cannot say which force out of the two forces is the force of action and which one is the force of reaction. Friction in Motion You might have noticed that a moving car begins to slow down the instant its engine is switched off.e. Why does it happen? In fact the car is slowed down by a force called friction. 8. which exists between the surfaces of all materials which rub against each other. hence the acceleration produced in the body is zero.1 Factors affecting friction Friction is caused due to the irregularities i.

the wheels of the vehicle might spin but the vehicle would stay where they were. • Friction reduces efficiency of the machines as considerable amount of energy is wasted in overcoming friction. Here force of friction is much less. • Wheels of vehicles are usually mounted on ball or roller bearing to reduce friction. move smoothly.4 Control of friction • Oil reduces friction by helping the surfaces slide over each other.8. • It helps us to walk. Ball bearings do have rolling friction. a force of friction is developed between the soles of your feet or shoes and the ground. This type of friction is least of all other types.3. Thus. vehicle tyres are designed to give as much friction as possible in all conditions. The wheels are round and these roll over the road. (b) Disadvantages of friction • Friction produces heating of the rubbing surfaces. This is the reason why friction is often termed as a necessary evil. 8.3. • Some time friction is increased by making surface rough as in case of tyres of vehicles. If there were no friction between vehicle tyres and the ground. write on a page or black board due to friction.2 Sliding and Rolling Friction Once a body starts moving on a surface the friction between them is called sliding or kinetic friction. You may be using a bicycle or a scooter to go from one place to another. • Friction causes wear and tear of surfaces and machine parts. This force causes us to move. Can you now tell. 8. From what has been stated above one may conclude that the friction plays an important role in our daily life.3. why we find it difficult to walk on slippery ground or even on the sand? • We can easily walk. You might have used a slide in your school or a park in your childhood to play with. . When you are walking. Friction between wheels and road is rolling friction. stairs and ramps.3 Advantages and disadvantages of friction (a) Advantages of friction • It helps vehicles to move. This friction is less than the static friction discussed above.

4. Newton found that the force of gravitation is directly proportional to the product of masses of the two bodies and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies. called acceleration due to gravity (g). The gravitational force due to earth is also known as gravity. Ask another person (an observer) to observe falling of the stones. Thus. Why does it happen so? We are even today fascinated how planets move around the sun and how various stars are there in their orbits or positions? All this has been possible due to the force of attraction between any two masses. this acceleration. mass of a body is defined as the . At once we see that for appreciable value of force. Its value is maximum at the poles. However. F = G (m1*m2) / r2 Where G is called the universal gravitational constant. Newton called it force of gravitation and he formulated a law connecting the force and masses of the two bodies involved. units where m is measured in kilogram. Mathematically.Force of Gravitation It is every day experience that bodies like a ball thrown vertically upward comes back to the earth. 8. You will find that both the stones fall simultaneously.67 x 10-11 N m2/kg2. In S. is same for both pieces and is same for any mass.4. The ratio F/g is a characteristic of a body and is known as the mass of the body according to Newton’s second law of motion. 8. G has a value 6.e. Its value changes from place to place on the Earth and it is 9. The interesting aspect of this gravitational force is that it is always attractive whatever may be the size of bodies. 8. The earth’s gravity accelerates the bricks down. the ratio of the gravitational force to the free fall acceleration for a given body at any point on the Earth is a constant. That is ‘g’ is independent of the mass of the freely falling body. masses should be very large.1 Newton’s law of gravitation On the basis of some observations.4.I.81 ms -2 at the equator.3 Mass and weight We know that acceleration due to gravity varies with geographical latitude and the gravitational force is an inverse square of force i.2 Acceleration due to gravity Stand at the roof top of a three or more storeyed building with stones of different masses in your two hands and drop these together (Be careful don’t hurt anyone). F in newton and r in metre. Since both reach ground together. Fµ 1/r2 .

Weight: Weight is force. Weight is measured with a spring balance. Hence force of gravity is proportional to the mass of the body. Mass is a scalar quantity and is measured in kilogram (kg).82 ms-2. The unit of weight is Newton. It is the ratio of gravitational force on the body to the acceleration due to gravity. more weighty it will be. Mass of a body is a constant quantity. Unit of weight is N.8 ms-2. Using the equation of motion v2 = u2 + 2gh we have on substitution of values 2 2 -2 v = 0 +2 x 120 ms x 60 m .10 N Example 8. a = g = 120 ms-2 height through which body falls = h = 60m. Example 8. hence a vector quantity. Solution : Initial velocity of the. What will be its weight at the pole where g=9. Weight of the body changes from place to place. body. u = 0 acceleration.8 ms-2 = 49. Solution: w=mg weight at pole w = mg = 5 kg x 9. More massive a body is. the weight of the body W is W = mass x acceleration or W = mg Mass : Mass is the amount of matter contained in a body. Calculate the velocity of the body when it touches the planets surface.4: A 1kg body falls from a height of 60 m from rest on a planet where acceleration due to gravity is 120 ms-2. Thus. It is a scalar quantity. m = F/g. Unit of mass is kg. The weight of a body at a given place is the force with which the Earth attracts the body towards it.ratio of the force of gravity acting on the body to the free fall acceleration. It is gravitational force with which Earth attracts a body towards it.3: A body weighs 49 N at a place where g=9. At a given place the value of acceleration due to gravity is same for all masses-big or small. Mass is also defined as the matter contained in the body. Mass is measured with a beam balance.

pressure put by it on the body is quite high. acts on a falling body. the astronaughts and soldiers in places like Siachin wear pressure suits to avoid bleeding. both will reach Earth together irrespective of their masses. the weight of the person is not same. 2N and 6N are dropped from the roof of a 10 m high building together.e. Under sea water. it is called a free fall and body acquires acceleration under its weight.5: Two bodies A and B weighing. If the system. Thrust and pressure are properties of fluids (gases and liquids). The gas in turn react on the rocket or jet plane with force called thrust. top of a building) it does so due to a force called weight. Thrust is measured in newton (N). The SI unit of pressure is Nm-2.4. zero) and have same acceleration (g) i. There are many situations. Which A or B will reach the Earth first? Solution : Since the two bodies have same initial velocity (i.4. stationary with respect to Earth. When a body falls freely from some height (say. The normal atmospheric pressure is one atmospheric pressure and according to the definition -2 p = F/A. The air exerts pressure.400 m2 s-2 v = 120 ms-2 Example 8.4 Motion under gravity and free fall The force with which Earth attracts a body. Blood pressure becomes higher than atmospheric pressure at high attitudes. Pressure is measured in pascal (Pa) . When no other force like air resistance except gravity. This is known as the weightlessness.e. 8. somehow.014 x 105 Nm-2 Normal atmospheric pressure is also measured in terms of centimetre or milimetre of mercury. The thrust exerted by fluid at rest per unit area of the surface in contact with the fluid (liquid/gas) is called pressure. the person feels no weight. is called the weight of the body. 1 atm = 76 cm = 760 mm of mercury. hence.= 1. its value in Nm is 1 atmosphere = 1. Similarly water coming out of a plastic or rubber pipe exert thrust on it. The total force exerted by a fluid (liquid or gas) on any surface in contact with it. It has several implications for an astronaut. has acceleration a =g. is called thrust. like a person in a lift or satellite which has some acceleration with respect to the earth other than ‘g’. Thrust and Pressure Rockets and jet planes eject burnt gases with force. you fill air in cycle or scooter/motor cycle tyres upto a certain pressure. He exerts less or more force on his support than his actual weight. acceleration due to gravity acts on both A and B.

The tip of these is made very narrow so that these pierce the object with greater pressure. The weight of the ship acts downward and water pushes it upward.2 Applications of Archimedes principle (i) Flotation of bodies : Suppose the weight of a body is W and weight of liquid or fluid displaced is w then body will float immersed or partially immersed when W = w or W < w. Why does this happen? Greek scientist Archimedes gave the principle which could explain such things. Example 8. What will be its weight in the liquid -2 of specific gravity 1. According to Archimedes principle when a body is immersed.6: The mass of a body in air is 1 kg. . Similarly a diver in a swimming tank is also pushed up when he jumps from the board into the water. Buoyancy : How a ship floats on sea? If there is no water below or insufficient water. buoyancy of Earth’s atmosphere posed a big problem in the re-entry of space vehicles in Earth’s atmosphere and their safe landing on Earth. needle and nail. the ship will sink to the sea bottom. 8.5. 1 atmos = 1. it undergoes an apparent loss in its weight. is called the up-thrust or buoyant force or simply buoyancy.3 N m-2 1 atmos = 760 torr A practical application of pressure is the shape of a paper pin. The principle of buoyancy comes from Archimedes principle.2 if it displaces 100 ml of this liquid? (Take g = 10ms ). Solution : Weight of the body in air = 1 kg x 10ms-2 – 10N.2 N Loss in weight of the body =1. The force exerted by water or any liquid or gas on a body immersed in it.2 N Weight of body in the liquid = 10N – 1. In the early days of space flights.1 Archimedes principle When you put a piece of stone on the surface of water it sinks but boat can float on it. in the upward direction. Density of liquid = 1. wholly or partially in a liquid (or fluid).1 Pa = 1 Nm-2 The air or gas pressure is also measured in bar or torr.014 bar and 1 torr = 1 m m of mercury – 133.5. which is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body. 8. (ii) To determine the specific gravity of the body (iii) To find the volume of a body.8 N.2 x 103 kgm-3 Volume of the liquid displaced – 100 ml = 100 x 10-6 m3 Buoyant force = 100 x 10-6 m3 = 1.2N = 8.

If the liquid displaced by the body weighs 20g then what is the buoyant force acting on the body? 11. Why do the dust particles from the hanging blankets fall off by beating with a stick? . If a force of 10N produces an acceleration of 2 ms-2 in a body. Explain why is it dangerous to jump (or alight) from a fast moving bus or train? 4. Does any force act on a body in a free fall. Is it a vector quantity? What is its unit? 2. When a bus suddenly starts. why? Terminal Questions 1. A body is immersed in a liquid. the passengers feel a backward jerk. What is the property by virtue of which a body tends to remain stationary? 3. What is the acceleration of an aeroplane moving in a circle around the Earth. then what is the momentum of the body? 6. Why is straw used to drink a soft drink? 13. if the passenger in it feels weightlessness? 8. If a body of mass 5 kg moves with a velocity of 10 ms-1. 9. Why? 4.8 g cm-3 and density of water is 1 g cm-3. State Newton’s first law of motion. 3. If the weight of a body is 10 g and the buoyant force is 7g. Sailors generally say that a person is easily drowned in a river than in sea. Define force. will the body sink or float? 12. which of the bodies will have more acceleration? 5. If forces of same magnitude are applied on two bodies of masses 2 kg and 4 kg. Which one will exert greater buoyant force on a body? 10. Density of kerosene is 0. Is there any force applied when (i) you push the wall of a house? (ii) the speed of the cycle is increased? (iii) the player changes the direction of football by using his head? 2.In Text Questions 1. how much force would be required to produce an acceleration of 4 ms-1 in the same body? 7.

Find the velocity at the end of 6 seconds.The total path length covered by a moving body is the distance travelled by it.g. e. Which will have greater momentum—a truck moving with a speed of 60 km/ h or a train moving with the same speed? Justify your answer. a car moving in a straight line on a level road. temperature etc. are vector quantities. velocity. Explain the effect of friction on motion. Is it a vector quantity? What is the unit of momentum? 7. no direction (ii) vector: which have magnitude as well as direction. 10. . acceleration.Distance. are scalar quantities. 9. Give an example to show that friction is useful as well as harmful to us.The motion is said to be circular if the body moves on a circular path: e. . 12. . 14. speed. What is an inverse square law of gravitation? What you have learnt . How is the rate of change of momentum related to force? 8. . A force of 60N accelerates a mass of 15 kg from rest. .Motion is said to be rectilinear if the body moves in the same straight line all-the time. time. .If the body changes its position with time.If a body stays at the same position with time. . momentum. 13. mass. the motion of the tip of the hand of a watch.Physical quantities are of two types (i) scalar: which have magnitude only. whereas displacement. Which law helps you to find the magnitude of the force acting on a body of mass ‘m’moving with an acceleration ‘a’? State the law.g. it is in motion. What force accelerates a 50 kg mass at 6 m/s? 11. Find the acceleration produced in a body of 2 kg mass when a force of 10N acts on it. 6. . Define momentum. it is at rest.The difference between the final and initial position of a body is called its displacement.5. force etc.

- Distance travelled in unit time is called speed, whereas, displacement per unit time is called velocity. - Position-time graph of a body moving in a straight line with constant speed is a straight line sloping with time axis. The slope of the line gives the velocity of the motion. - Velocity-time graph of a body in a straight line with constant speed is a straight line parallel to time axis. Area under the graph gives distance travelled. - Velocity-time graph of a body in a straight line with constant acceleration is a straight line sloping with the time axis. The slope of the line gives acceleration. - For uniformly accelerated motion : v = u+at s = ut + 1/2 at2 where u = initial velocity, v = final velocity, and s = distance travelled in t seconds.

10

Thermal Energy
You are aware that energy is required for all types of activities. In the previous lesson you have learnt about mechanical form of energy. Heat is also a form of energy, called thermal energy. Fire has heat in it . When fuels like coal, petrol, wood, kerosene-oil are burnt, heat is produced. You would have noticed that in winter season, when it is cold, generally people rub their palms to warm up. Here, doing mechanical work against friction produces heat. You must have learnt that in ancient times man used to produce fire by rubbing two pieces of stone together. Even now a days we produce fire by the same method when we rub the tip of a matchstick on the special surface of the matchbox. Why do we need heat? We require heat to cook, to iron clothes, to have hot water for bathing in winter season, to melt solids, to vaporize the liquids, etc. Why do the wet clothes get dried when hanged in sunlight? Have you seen an iron smith heating an iron rod red hot and then beating it to give the required shape of a knife or a scissor? You must have got a chance to see a gold smith working with flames of a lamp in designing an ornament. What is the use of flame? In thermal power plants coal is burnt to generate electricity. In steel industry and glass industry, iron and glass are melted to give them definite shapes. Steam engine can pull a train due to the power of steam. In all these activities heat is used. Let us learn all about heat and its effects in this lesson. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson, you will be able to • differentiate between heat and temperature; • explain that heat is transferred from one body to another when there is a temperature difference between the two bodies; • describe construction, calibration and use of thermometers; • explain the effect of heat on matter resulting in thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases; • explain the constancy of temperature of a substance during change of phase even though heated continuously; • state the factors upon which the total transferable heat of a body depends; • calculate heat flow from a hotter body to a colder body in contact; • predict the variation in melting point and boiling point of materials due to the presence of impurities and with variation in pressure; • explain why the food gets cooked easily and quickly in a pressure cooker.

: 172 : Thermal Energy

10.1 WHAT IS HEAT? Heat is a form of energy. We call it thermal energy. It is measured in joule. Sunrays have heat in them. This heat is called radiant heat. It travels with the speed of light i.e. 3 x 10 8 m s -1. 10.1.1 How is heat produced? Rub your palms together. What happens? They become warmer, indicating generation of heat. Here friction is generating heat. When you burn coal, wood or kerosene oil, fire is produced. Fire has heat energy in it. Here, the chemical energy gets converted into heat by the process of burning.

Fig. 10.1 Rubbing the palms together makes them warmer

Fig. 10.2 Fire has heat energy

10.1.2 Heat is energy of molecular motion Every material is made up of molecules, which are in a state of continuous random motion. This is due to the heat in them. When we heat up this material, this molecular motion increases. This Fig. 10.3 Molecular motion increases suggests that heat is kinetic energy of molecular with absorption of heat motion. Kinetic energy of a body in motion can be utilized in doing work against frictional forces. This results in the heating up of the body. It is due to transfer of kinetic energy from the moving body to the molecules. Let us perform an activity to demonstrate conversion of mechanical energy into heat energy. ACTIVITY 10.1 Aim: Demonstration of conversion of mechanical energy into heat What to do? i) Keep bicycle on its stand and rotate the paddle with hand so that the rear wheel rotates very fast. ii) With the help of a pad of cloth on your finger tip, touch the rim of the wheel to stop the wheel.

Brake rubber

Fig. 10.4 Conversion of mechanical energy into heat energy

Thermal Energy : 173 :

What do you observe? At the finger tip you feel that cloth has become hot. What do you conclude? The kinetic energy of motion of the wheel has been transferred to the cloth due to friction and it appears in the form of heat. 10.1.3 Heat can lead to work You might have seen water boiling in a kettle. Due to steam formed in the kettle, its lid moves up and down. This shows that heat can do work. You must have seen a steam engine pulling a long array of coaches. Thus, heat can be utilized to do work. Thus, we can conclude that heat is a form of energy since it can do work. Also, heat and work are inter convertible. The device that converts thermal energy into mechanical work is called heat engine.

Fig. 10.5 Heat can do work

10.1.4 Temperature and need for its measurement How will you measure the hotness of a given body? You may suggest that this can be done simply by touching the body. It means feeling of hotness by our hand can be used to estimate how hot a body is. But sometimes it may be difficult (if the body is very hot and may cause burns) and sometimes the conclusion may be confusing. Can you have a wrong sensation of hotness by touch? ACTIVITY 10.2 Aim: Our sense of touch may be misleading What to do? i) Take three bowls A, B and C. Fill ice cold water in bowl A, ordinary tap water in bowl B and hot water in bowl C (Fig. 10.6). ii) Now dip your left hand in bowl C containing hot water and right hand in bowl A containing ice cold water and let them remain there for two minutes. iii) Now take your hands out of both bowls and put both of them in bowl B containing tap water.

R

R

L

L

(a)

(b)

Fig. 10.6 Sense of touch may be misleading

(c)

: 174 : Thermal Energy

What do you feel? You will be surprised to note that your left hand will give you the sensation that this water is cold, while the right hand will give you the sensation that it is warm. Thus, confusing sensations can be felt by skin. The difficulty in using the sensation as a measure of hotness arises because of the fact that the terms hot and cold are relative terms and cannot be used in the absolute measurement of hotness. Therefore, there is a need of some standard for the measurement of the hotness of a body. The degree of hotness of a body is called its temperature. It is measured by devices called thermometer. It is represented as a number on a thermometric scale. 10.1.5 Difference between heat and temperature Heat is energy in transit, which is transferred from one body to another due to temperature difference between them. While heat is a form of energy, the temperature is the degree of hotness of a body. Heat is measured in Joule while the temperature is measured in degree Fahrenheit (o F), degree Celsius (o C) or Kelvin (K). 10.1.6 Various types of scales for measurement of temperature The thermometers in common use have two different types of scales of measurements namely Fahrenheit and Celsius scales of temperature. For scientific work, Kelvin scale of temperature is more often used. However, the construction and working of these thermometers is same. It is obvious that a hotter body would show higher temperature and a colder body a lower temperature on the same scale. The thermometers cannot have confusing or wrong sensations. 10.1.7 Construction and use of a thermometer Mercury thermometers are the most common thermometers in use. Mercury is filled in a thin walled glass bulb joined at the end of a capillary tube by the process of repeated heating and cooling. The mercury is seen in the form of a thin dark thread in the capillary. The space above the mercury level in capillary is evacuated. The other end is now sealed. Mercury has the property of uniform thermal expansion over a wide range of temperatures. This means, the length of the mercury thread in the thermometer increases by same amount for each degree rise in its temperature. The tip of the mercury thread can be easily seen in the transparent glass tube as shown in Fig 10.7. Calibration of mercury thermometer To calibrate a scale on a thermometer, two fixed points are marked, the lower fixed point or ice point and upper fixed point or steam point. To mark the ice point, the bulb of thermometer is placed in a vessel containing mixture of water and crushed ice. When the level of the mercury becomes stable, a mark is put at the position of the tip of

Capillary tube

Constriction

Mercury in bulb

Fig. 10.7 Mercury thermometer

This now becomes a Fahrenheit thermometer. The length between these two marks is then divided into 180 equal parts. To measure the temperature of a hot body. each mark is calibrated with a value higher by 273 than on Celsius scale. Now to mark a Celsius scale on this thermometer.8 Method of calibration of a thermometer In a clinical thermometer. the marks are shown only in the range 95 0F to 110 0F. which is –273. is put in contact with Fig. This gives the value of temperature. zero is written at the ice point mark and 100 is written at the steam point mark. 10. [These are the two limits of human body temperature beyond which human beings cannot survive]. Kelvin scale can be marked on a Celsius scale F C by writing 273 at ice point and 373 at steam point. This temperature is also 32 95 Ice point 35 32 called absolute zero. As mercury does not stick to glass.15 0C. the receding tip of mercury thread does not leave any mercury in empty part of capillary. 32 is written on the ice-point mark and 212 is written on the steam point mark. When you measure temperature of a cooler body. The position of the tip of the mercury thread on the scale (calibrated on the capillary) is read. This is called ice-point. 212 212 Steam point 44 110 Thus. mercury contracts. . Mercury in the bulls expands. The length between these two marks is then divided into 100 equal parts. 10. which could cause error in the reading.9 Calibration of thermometers in that body. This now becomes a Celsius thermometer.6 37 begins with the lowest possible temperature as its zero. A mark is again made on the glass tube at this new position of the tip of the mercury thread. length of mercury thread decreases and it gives the value of temperature. This is called steam point. The Kelvin scale 98.Thermal Energy : 175 : mercury thread in the glass tube. the bulb of the thermometer. The position of the tip of mercury thread changes due to thermal expansion of mercury in the bulb. To mark a Fahrenheit scale. the same bulb is placed in steam just above boiling water in a vessel. resulting different scales in the increase of the length of the mercury thread in the glass capillary. Next. Steam point Ice point Fig.

the value on Kelvin scale is 80+273 = 353 K Kelvin scale is used in system international (SI) to report the temperature.e.8 0C Example 10.2: Which temperature has same numerical value on Fahrenheit scale and Celcius scale of temperature ? Solution: Here. 9 5 5C – 160 = 9C Thus –40 0C = –40 0F → C = – 400 Example 10. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 10.1 State whether the following statements are True or False. However.3: What would be the value of 80 0C on Kelvin scale? Solution: Since Kelvin scale readings are higher by 273 than on Celsius scale.Thermal Energy : 177 : i. we are given F = C Therefore. –30 0F is a lower temperature than – 30 0C. (T/F) 2.78 degree Celsius 9 9 ≈ 37. (T/F) . reading of Celsius thermometer will be = (100/180) (F – 32) = C or F − 32 C = 180 100 F − 32 C = 9 5 This becomes the required formula to convert any reading of F scale to C scale or vice versa. in the conversion formula put F = C. On Kelvin scale. Heat can be measured in Kelvin. 1. we get C − 32 C = 9 5 F − 32 C = . in laboratory we use only Celsius scale for measuring temperature. In the present case F = 100 340 5 C = (100 − 32) = = 37. The numerical value of temperature of any hot body measured on Kelvin scale is always higher than measured on Fahrenheit Scale. Thermal energy can be measured either in calories or Joules. the temperature is mentioned in Kelvin only and not degree Kelvin. (T/F) 4. (T/F) 3.

However.2. therefore. size. gets loosened.11 Method to open tightly closed and try to open the cap. cannot be easily slipped on to the rim of wooden wheel. 10. first heated to a higher temperature so that it expands in size and the hot ring is then easily slipped over to the rim of the wooden wheel.: 178 : Thermal Energy 5. It opens easily. Pure alcohol can also be used as thermometric liquid. therefore. (T/F) 10. 10. colour or sometimes in their state. it is too much tightly closed. Now take it out Fig.2 EFFECTS OF HEAT When objects are heated. When we touch a cold body. the magnitude of change depends upon the quantity of heat absorbed by the object. Why? metallic cap of an inkpot Metallic cap undergoes thermal expansion in its size (more than the mouth of inkpot which is made of glass) due to absorption of heat from the hot water and therefore.12 Some applications of thermal expansion . The phenomenon of expansion of solids is used for various purposes. 10. Cold water is now poured on the iron ring so that it contracts in size and holds the wooden wheel tightly (Fig. 10.1 Solids expand on heating Have you ever faced a problem of opening the jammed metallic cap of an inkpot? Sometimes. Place the inkpot in a wide vessel containing hot water for few minutes.12a) Iron ring expands on heating (a) Fitting of tyres on wheels Aluminium (b) Gaps in railway tracks at joints Aluminium expands more Brass (c) Thermostat in electrical appliance Fig. they may show a change in their shape. (i) Fitting of tyres on wheels: Do you know. heat flows from our hand to the cold body. (T/F) 6. It. The iron ring is. how is the iron ring mounted on the wooden wheel of a horse-cart? The radius of the iron ring is slightly less than that of the wooden wheel.

Due to this the contact breaks and the circuits gets disconnected. Please note that the result is rounded off to 2nd decimal place because 20. ∆L ∝ ∆t L or ∆L = α ∆t L α is a constant and depends on the nature of the material of the body. 10. 10. .000012 x 300 = 0. the increased length will be 20. It is called linear coefficient of thermal expansion of the material. Also it is seen that the same substance expands by a different amount when heated to a different temperature. It is defined as fractional increase in length for each degree rise in temperature.07 cm. due to unequal thermal expansion.Thermal Energy : 179 : (ii) Gaps in the railway track at joints: You must have noticed gaps at the joints in a railways track. Thus. it can be used to make contact as temperature rises and thus. As the temperature rises. i. Solution : Since . bimetallic strip is a technical application of differential expansion of metals.12c).2.12b). (iii) Thermostat in electrical appliances: Thermostat is a temperature control device. ∆L ∝ = α ∆t and t = 300 °C L ∆L = L α t = 200 x 0. What would be its length when its temperature is raised to 325 0C? [Given linear coefficient of thermal expansion of steel as 0. It is measured in per degree celsius.072 = 20.000012 0C-1 ].00 + 0.4: The length of a steel rod at room temperature of 25 0C is 20. the strip bends. 10. Similarly. as in case of a fire-alarm (Fig. the term with smallest decimal place in addition has 2 decimal places. It is a bi-metallic strip made up of two different metals having different expansivity. to switch on a circuit.00 cm.2 How to measure the expansivity of the material of a body? All substances do not expand by the same amount when heated through the same difference of temperature.072 cm or Therefore.e. larger is the expansion. Example 10. It is understood that the ratio of change in length (∆L) to the original length (L) is directly proportional to the rise in temperature (∆t) of solid bodies .00 cm. It is found that larger the rise in temperature. Why is it left like that? If this gap is not left then during summer the iron rail will expand due to hot weather and will get bent at the joints (Fig.

: 180 : Thermal Energy ACTIVITY 10. i. It is important to know that unlike solids and liquids all gases expend by same amount for the same rise in temperature. empty ball-pen refill.4 Aim: To study the expansion of water What to do? i) Take a small glass bottle (say a used medicine/ injection bottle). It is found that fractional increase in volume of liquids or gases is directly proportional to rise in their temperatures. It is seen that volume coefficient of thermal expansion is equal to three times the linear coefficient of thermal expansion. there is bursting of water pipes under extreme cold conditions at hill stations. Do you find droplets of water coming out of the bent tube? What do you conclude? Liquids expand on heating Fig. ii) Take the thin plastic tube of a used. It is defined as the fractional increase in volume for each degree rise in its temperature. . Different liquids expand by different extent for the same rise in temperature. iii) Now heat the bottle gradually. liquids and gases. which is different for different liquids. Table 10. water expands when it freezes into ice. ∆V ∝t V or ∆V =γt V Where. For gases this constant has the unique value 1/273 per Kelvin. Gases also expand on heating. 10.e. The property of thermal expansion of mercury has been used in the construction of a thermometer. Thus heating causes expansion of solids. bend it and pass through a cork into the mouth of the bottle. Also when water is heated from 0 0C to 4 0C. This is due to the fact that water expands on freezing into ice.1 shows the values of linear and volume coefficients of thermal expansion of some materials. Fill it with water up to the rim. But further heating beyond 4 0C results in volume expansion. Warm it.13 Expansion of liquids Mercury is a liquid. Similarly. It is also measured in per degree Celsius. in case of liquids and gases we measure their volume expansivity. they crack. It is interesting to note that unlike other liquids. its volume decreases. γ is a constant called volume coefficient of thermal expansion. However. You must have noticed that if water bottles or cold drink bottles are left in the freezer of a refrigerator for some days.

P.14 Determination of iii) Keep on heating till whole of the ice gets melting point of ice melted. Does it change? Fig. ii) Now heat it on a gas stove slowly. 10. Heat further. It is a characteristic temperature for the material.Thermal Energy : 181 : Table 10. The temperature remains constant till whole of the solid material gets melted.4 x 10 -6 8 x 10 -6 11 x 10 –6 18 x 10 –6 18 x 10 –6 25 x 10 –6 2. Repeat this activity for other solids to find their melting points. the solid starts melting.9 x 10 –6 Coefficient of volume expansion (oC-1) 1. You can perform a similar activity with boiling water to find its boiling point.3 Heating causes change of state of matter When a solid material is heated. Place a thermometer in it and note down its temperature (it should be 0 0C) (Fig.14). This temperature is called the melting point (M. Different materials have different melting points.7 x 10 -6 10. its temperature rises. You have to take care that . When the temperature reaches a certain value. What is the temperature? Is it constant at 0 0C. It does not depend upon the shape or size of the solid. 10. Do you find that the temperature of water is now increasing? What do you conclude? You will find that the ice melts at 0 0C and the temperature of ice-water mixture remains constant at 0 0C till whole of ice gets melted.2.1: Coefficients of linear expansion and volume expansion for some substances Material Quartz Steel Iron Silver Brass Aluminium Lead Coefficient of linear expansion (oC-1) 0.2 x 10 –6 24 x 10 -6 33 x 10 -6 54 x 10 -6 54 x 10 -6 75 x 10 -6 8.5 Aim: Determination of melting point of ice What to do? i) Take some crushed ice in a cooking utensil.) of the material. ACTIVITY 10. Do you see conversion of ice into water? Keep an eye on the level of mercury thread of the thermometer.

the temperature does not change even though the heat is either continuously absorbed (as in the process of melting or boiling) or continuously given out (as in the process of freezing and liquefaction) by the material under observation.7 335 322 67 Boiling point (oC) -268 -252 -191 357 100 1800 2500 Latent heat of evaporation (kJ/kg) 25.1 452 213 272 2260 – – Helium Hydrogen Air Mercury Pure water Aluminium Gold 10. Let us study this with the help of some activities.2: Melting points and boiling points of some materials Material Melting point (oC) -271 -259 -212 -39 0 658 1063 Latent heat of fusion (kj/kg) 58.: 182 : Thermal Energy thermometer measures the temperature of steam a little above water surface.0 11. ACTIVITY 10. In which container is temperature lower? iii) The temperature is lower in B. What do you conclude? Presence of impurities lowers the freezing point/melting point.6 Aim: To find out effect of impurities on melting point of ice What to do? i) Take two containers A and B. ice is mixed with about 1/3rd its weight of powdered salt.6 23. Observe that in B some ice melts and a saturated solution of salt is formed.2. Table 10. In container A. ii) Measure the temperature of liquid in both the containers. But on addition of impurities their values change. In container B. If it dips in boiling water the water must be quite pure. Whenever there is a change of state between solid and liquid or liquid and gaseous states.4 Effects of impurities on melting point and boiling point Pure substances have definite melting points and boiling points characteristics of the material. . temperature of ice in any container is same as that of its liquid. put some pure water and crushed pure ice. Obviously.

increase in pressure will obstruct the change of phase on boiling. This results in an increase in the boiling point of liquids with increase in pressure. It should be noted that in case of all solids other than ice. a wooden block and a wire. Thus. 10. having no exit to come out. exerts pressure . which increase in volume on melting.8 Aim: To study the effect of pressure on the melting point of a substance What to do? i) Take an ice block.6. 10. Hence. its temperature rises. when valve of the cooker is open. ii) Press the wire to first cut the ice block and then the wooden block.6 Cooking is easier in pressure cooker In a pressure cooker. the volume of liquid obtained on melting is generally larger than solid volume. Water is an exceptional case. ACTIVITY 10. (which is air tight from all sides). This steam so formed occupies larger volume than what it had in liquid state. the melting point of ice is lowered with increase in pressure. You cannot cut a wooden block by pressing a wire on it though wood is softer. Now the valve is closed. What do you conclude? Presence of impurities increases the boiling point. when water together with vegetables is heated. In such solids.Thermal Energy : 183 : Activity 10. Let us study the effect of pressure on melting point and boiling point with the help of some activities.2. Initially. heat both the containers until the water starts boiling. the melting point increases with increase of pressure. keeping the bulbs of the two thermometers inside the levels of respective boiling liquids.5 Effect of pressure on melting point and boiling point The melting and boiling points of a material also change with the change in atmospheric pressure. ii) Note the boiling point of water in the both containers.7 Aim: To find out effect of impurities on boiling point of water What to do? i) In the above activity 10. All liquids expand on evaporation. What do you observe? The boiling point of salted water is higher than that of pure water.2. The steam. water boils to form steam at 1000 C. Why does the wire pass through the ice block easily? What do you conclude? The pressure applied through the wire melts the ice in immediate vicinity allowing the wire to pass through it.

water drops leaking through the fine pores of clay pitcher absorb heat for evaporation from the water inside. If the force due to the pressure of the steam exceeds this weight. 10. it is called as latent heat of fusion and when the state changes from liquid to vapours it is latent heat of evaporation.2. Therefore.7 Latent heat We have already discussed in the previous parts of this section that the temperature does not change during the change state even though heat is continuously supplied to the material. inside a pressure cooker. water starts boiling at a lower temperature. Thus. 10.: 184 : Thermal Energy on the surface of water in the cooker. The atmospheric pressure in hilly areas is lower due to the high altitude. When material changes from solid to liquid. More heat is now supplied. Example 10. Therefore. Its value is constant and is different for different materials. The higher temperature and pressure quickly softens the vegetable and causes the quicker cooking of food.5: How much thermal energy is required for complete melting of 10 kg of ice at 0 0C to form water at 0 0C? Solution: Thermal energy for melting m kg ice at its melting point =mL = 10 x 335 kJ = 3350 kJ . therefore called latent heat (or hidden heat). It is generally denoted by capital letter L and is measured in Joules per kilogram (J/kg). it will take a long time. In such a situation if the ordinary utensil is used for cooking food (especially food like rice and pulses). This is. resulting in wastage of precious fuel. What happens to this heat supplied? It is used up wholly in changing the state of the substance. which stops boiling. Latent heat of a material is defined as the amount of heat required to completely change the state of unit mass of that substance either from solid to liquid or liquid to gaseous state.15 Cooking is easier There is always a certain weight put on the in a pressure cooker nozzle of the lid of the pressure cooker. Do you now understand why it is called pressure cooker? The importance of pressure cooker for persons living at hill stations is very great. Do you understand why does water filled in a clay pitcher become cold even when placed inside a room? In this case. the weight gets lifted and some of the steam leaks out and reduces pressure. it does not appear in the form of rise in temperature of the body. Fig. the inside water gets cooled. and thus. there is steam and water at higher temperature and at high pressure. This increases the temperature of water without allowing the remaining water to boil any more.

10. equal to) 10. J/kg) 5. same as) 4.3 THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM When two bodies at different temperatures are brought in contact heat energy will always flow from the body at higher temperature to the body at lower temperature.V.2. When solid ice is heated. ACTIVITY 10. lower than. T.2 Fill in the blanks with the correct choice. 10.) 2.16 Camphor sublimates on heating What do you conclude? This shows that camphor sublimates on heating. remains same) 3. its melting point will _____________ (be lowered. This process is called sublimation. (more than. the volume of the water formed on melting is _________ the initial volume of the solid ice. The water containing little salt dissolved in it boils at a temperature _______ 100 0C. (higher than. Naphthalene balls (used for preserving woolen clothes) and iodine are also sublime substances. till both the bodies acquire the same temperature. What to observe? Do you see fumes coming out and camphor gradually vanishing without melting? Fig. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 10. less than. .8 Sublimation Some solid substances when heated directly change to gaseous state without becoming liquid. If the mass of a substance is doubled. be raised. Latent heat of evaporation is measured in _______________ (J. camera.Thermal Energy : 185 : Heat required for a mass m kg of a substance for change in state at its melting point or boiling point is = mL joule. 1. J/k. The two bodies are then said to be in thermal equilibrium.9 Aim: To study the sublimation of camphor What to do? Take some camphor tablets in a spoon and heat the spoon slowly over a gas stove. A bimetallic strip is used as a thermostat in the electrical device named ___________ (geyser.

. ACTIVITY 10. the quantity of heat transferred not only depends on the temperature of the hot body but also depends upon its mass. heat energy lost by the hot body is proportional to the fall in temperature of the hot body. Thus. 10. Note its temperature. Is the temperature of spoon same as that of water? What do you conclude? The heat energy keeps on flowing from the hot body to the cold body till both acquire same temperature. Fill it 2/3rd with tap water.11 Aim: To study the factors on which the heat transferred from a hot body to a cold body depends What to do? i) Take two identical vessels A and B and put equal amount of tap water in both of them. Note the new temperatures of water in vessels A and B. ii) Now take a large heavy metallic spoon which can be inserted in the tumbler.1 Can we measure the amount of heat transferred? Heat gets transferred from a hotter body to a cooler body in contact. Therefore. What do you observe? Does the temperature of the water rise? Does the temperature stops rising after some time? Touch the spoon with the thermometer bulb and note the temperature of the spoon.10 Aim: To study the state of thermal equilibrium What to do? i) Take a steel tumbler. What do you observe? The temperature of water in vessel B is more than that of water in vessel A. iii)Now pour a small quantity of water from vessel C into vessel A and larger quantity of water into vessel B. The larger the quantity of heat transferred. in which larger quality of boiled water was added.3. Put a thermometer in it and measure its temperature. Similarly. This is called state of thermal equilibrium. the heat energy transferred is proportional to the rise in temperature of the cold body. has been given larger quantity of heat. What do you conclude? The vessel B.: 186 : Thermal Energy ACTIVITY 10. larger would be the rise in the temperature of the colder body before a state of thermal equilibrium is achieved. Heat it on a flame and put it in the tumbler and keep an eye on the temperature scale of the thermometer. ii) Now take another larger vessel C containing some water and heat it on a gas stove till it boils.

7 C CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 10.0 kg at 20 0C. respectively. It is a characteristic constant of the material of the body and does not depend upon the shape or size or mass of the body. The heat energy will (a) flow from A to B only (b) flow from B to A only (c) not flow form A to B or B to A (d) flow from B to A as well as A to B . An iron ball A of mass 2 kg at temperature 20 0C is kept in contact with another iron ball B of mass 1.. Using the concept of conservation of energy Heat given by hot body = Heat received by colder body Example 10. Solution: Heat required = m x s x t = 10 x 4200 x (100 –25) J = 315 0 kJ Example 10.0kg and specific heat 3000 J kg-1 0C-1 at temperature 60 0C is placed in water of mass 3. A and B. Two iron balls of radii r and 2r are heated to same temperature.Thermal Energy : 187 : The quantity of heat (H) transferred from a hot body is proportional to (i) mass (m) and also to (ii) fall in temperature (t). They are dropped into two different ice boxes. s is a constant of proportionality and is called specific heat of the material of the body. or H∝mxt H=sxmxt Where. heat given by the iron ball = ms t = 1 x 3000 (60.7: A hot iron ball of mass 1.3 Which of the following is the correct alternative? 1. it is measured in J/kg 0C or Jkg-1 0C -1.θ) = 3 x 4200 (θ – 25) or 180000 – 3000 θ = 12600 θ – 315000 or 15600 θ = 495000 0 This gives θ = 31.I.θ)J Heat taken by water = 3 x 4200 (θ – 25) J Since heat given = heat taken 1 x 3000 x (60. specific heat of a material can be defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of that substance through unit degree.0kg at a temperature 25 0C. Calculate the final temperature when thermal equilibrium is achieved. Since s = H/m x t. Solution: Let the final temperature of the mixture be θ 0C Then. Neglect the heat sharing by the vessel containing water. The mass of ice melted (a) will be same in the two boxes (b) in A will be twice than in B (c) in B will be twice that melted in A (d) in B will be 8 times that melted in A 2.6: How much thermal energy is required to raise the temperature of 10 kg of water form 25 0C to 100 oC? [Given specific heat of water s = 4200 J kg-1 C-1]. In S.

They do not depend upon their shape or size. Linear coefficient of thermal expansion of a solid material is defined as the increase in length per unit length per degree Celsius rise in temperature.0 kg at temperature 50 0C. 5. A Fahrenheit scale of temperature is related to Celsius scale of temperature by the relation • • • • F − 32 C = 9 5 • • • • • • • • • The Kelvin scale is related to Celsius scale by the relation K = 273 + °C All substances expand on heating i.: 188 : Thermal Energy 3. It is also measured in 0C-1 . It is measured in 0C-1. When solid ice at 0 0C is heated. because it is opaque and does not stick to the walls of the glass capillary. Volume coefficient of thermal expansion of a solid material is equal to three times its linear coefficient of thermal expansion. Melting point and boiling point of a material are characteristic temperatures for that material. Heat energy is measured in joule while the temperature is measured either in degree Fahrenheit (0F) or degree Celsius (0C) or in Kelvin (K).e. (b) falls (c) does not change until whole (d) first rises then falls back to 0oC of it melts 4. . Melting point of a substance decreases while its boiling point increases with mixing of impurities. a rise in temperature. Different substances expand to different extents when heated for same rise in temperature. When steam at 100 0C is heated its temperature a) does not change b) increases c) decreases LET US REVISE Heat is a form of energy while the temperature is the degree of hotness of the body. It can be used as an on/off switch in electrical circuits in response to a rise in temperature. Mercury is used as a thermometric substance. Volume coefficient of thermal expansion of a solid material or a liquid or gaseous material is defined as the change in volume per unit volume per unit rise in temperature. Which of the following bodies when gently dropped in a vessel containing water at 200C will cause highest rise in the temperature of water? a) An iron ball of mass 1. Also it has uniform coefficient of thermal expansion over a wide range of temperature. Bi-metallic strip is a technical application of differential expansion of solid metals.1 kg at temp –10 0C.0 kg at temperature 40 0C with specific heat half that of iron. its temperature (a) rises immediately. b) A brass ball of mass 2. c) A block of ice of mass 0.

A solid substance expands on melting. How much was it cooled. 160 0C or 320 0F) A 50 cm silver bar becomes shorter by 1. just like at a hill station? At what temperature the numerical value of Fahrenheit scale will be just double of that on Celsius scale? (Ans.0 mm when it is cooled. If you have a mercury thermometer without any calibration. What is the difference between the temperature of a hot body and its thermal energy? What happens to the temperature of a body when it changes its state from liquid to solid? On what factors does the thermal expansion in a wire depend? What is the difference in the units of specific heat and latent heat of substances. 2. heat given by hot body is equal to heat taken by cold body. Given coefficient of linear expansion for silver = 18 x 10-6 C –1. The boiling point of all liquids increases with rise in pressure. 6. 11. 12. TERMINAL EXERCISES Descriptive type questions. 3.000 m when the temperature is 150 0C. Heat transferred is equal to mass × specific heat × change in temperature. It keeps on flowing till both the bodies acquire a common final temperature and a state of thermal equilibrium is achieved. 13. 15. 14. Name any two uses of a bimetallic strip. Heat always flows from a body at higher temperature to another body in contact at lower temperature. 4. What will happen to its freezing point when the pressure is reduced. The solids (like ice) which contract in volume on melting show a fall in their melting point with rise in pressure. The iron rim of a wagon wheel has an internal diameter of 1. 8. 9. . This is used in changing their phases and is called latent heat. 10. The temperature of substances remains constant when heat energy is supplied at their Melting point and boiling point. how will you make a (i) Celsius scale (ii) Fahrenheit scale for it? Why is the mercury used as a thermometric substance? Why does a bimetallic strip bend on heating? Heats of fusion and vaporization of substances are often referred to as latent heats. 5. 16. it always takes a much lesser time for the water to start boiling than for all the water to vaporize? Why is it so? Why is the steam-burn far more serious than the one obtained from a spilling hot water. What would be its diameter when it cools off to 25 0C? (Coefficient of linear expansion for iron = 12 x 10-6 0C -1) How much heat energy is required to change 200 g of ice at –20 0C to water at 70 0C? [Given latent heat of fusion of ice = 335 kJ/kg and specific heat of ice = 2100 j/kg 0C] 1. It is measured in joule per kg. Why? When some water in a tea kettle is heated on a gas stove. 7.Thermal Energy : 189 : • • • • • Melting point and boiling point change with rise in pressure. In all heat transfer cases.

75 kg of water contained in a 0. Sublimation: The process in which a solid changes into its gaseous state directly without passing through liquid state. specific heat of copper = 93 cal kg–10C-1 (use 1. . Latent heat of vaporization of a liquid: The amount of heat required to convert 1 kg of the liquid into its corresponding gaseous state at a constant temperature.0 cal = 4.25J) 18. (c) 3. specific heat of water = 1000 cal kg–10C-1. F 2. A heavy box of mass 200 kg is pulled along the floor for 15 m. T 3.2 1. Given specific heat of iron = 105 cal kg -1 °C-1. Thermal expansion: Implies the increase in the size of an object on heating. (a) 5. If the coefficient of sliding friction is 0. Specific heat of a substance: Defined as the amount of heat required (in joule) to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a substance by 1 0C (or 1 K). Thermostat: A temperature control device usually made of a bimetallic strip. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 10. when these are brought into contact.3 1. how much heat energy is developed? 19. the heat lost by hot body is equal to the heat gained by the cold body.Principle of Calorimetry: In case no heat is lost to the surroundings and no change of state is taking place. when these are brought into contact. Assume that entire heat generated by impact goes to the bullet and not to target.325 kg copper Calorimeter. Temperature: A numerical measure of hotness of a body which determines the direction of flow of heat. F 4. F 6.4. Thermal equilibrium: Implies that the two bodies are at the same temperature and hence no net heat transfer is taking place between them. Thermometer: A device used for measuring temperature. (d) 2. If the initial temperature of water and Calorimeter was 12 0C. Principle of Calorimetry: In case no heat is lost to the surroundings and no change of state is taking place. Latent heat of fusion of a solid: The amount of heat required (in joules) to convert 1 kg mass of the solid into its corresponding liquid state at its melting point. hot water geyser 2. what will be the final temperature. What temperature would it attain when it stops after the impact? [Given specific heat of lead = 130 J/kg 0C]. less than 10.: 190 : Thermal Energy 17. Heat always flows from a body at higher temperature to a body at lower temperature. T 5.1 1. A 2. remains same 10. (c) 4.0 kg block of iron at 100 0C is dropped into a 0. the heat lost by hot body is equal to the heat gained by the cold body. (b) GLOSSARY Heat: A form of energy which gives us sensation of warmth. A 50 g bullet of lead at 27 0C fired form a rifle moves with a velocity of 200 m s-1. T 3.

you will be able to: • recognise the importance of light in day to day life. • explain the refraction of light through prism and rectangular glass slab. Do you know how the image is formed? You would also have noticed that when a rod is placed in a tumbler of water. like simple microscope. • define refraction of light and state the laws of refraction. You may have seen in torches that there is a curved sheet of metal around the bulb. • use mirror formula and define magnification. Can you think why is it so? We are very fond of looking at the image of our face in a looking glass. life is not sustainable without light. Have you ever tried to find out the reason for such natural events? In the present lesson you will find the answers to all such questions. • give some examples from nature showing refraction of light. that on a clear day the sky appears blue. • use lens formula and define magnification. You see the objects when the light after reflection from them falls on your eyes and thus makes their image at the retina of your eye. What has caused the rod to bend ? We see that the stars twinkle on a clear night. Light is very important part of our daily life. . how much we are dependent on light. We require light for a number of activities. compound microscope and astronomical telescope. Without light we feel helpless. In fact. at the time of sunset or sunrise the sky near horizon appears orange red. light is a form of energy and hence it is invisible. It is an experience from our early childhood that objects become visible in presence of light. need light for their food production. You will also study about some man-made otpical instruments like microscope and telescope in this lesson. • describe the image formation by plane and curved mirrors with suitable ray diagrams. • describe briefly the construction and working of the instruments. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. • explain the power of lens and define dioptre. although the presence of light gives us the ability to see the things around us. • describe the types of lenses and explain the image formation by convex and concave lenses with the help of ray diagrams. then you will realize.11 Light Energy Can you read a book in the dark? If you try to do so. • define the reflection of light and state the laws of reflection. Even the plants on which we depend. Truly speaking. it appears bent.

1 Reflection of light from a plane mirror While studying the reflection of light. ∠i = ∠r 11. When we see an object.1.e. then it is called regular reflection. you will come across different terms related to it. all lie in the same plane.1 REFLECTION OF LIGHT Can you think how does an object become visible to you. Angle of incidence is the angle between the normal and the incident ray. we do so because light from the object enters our eyes. Some objects such as sun. Some objects having smooth and shiny surfaces reflect light better than others. candle. which reflects most of the light incident on it is mirror. They are given below : • • • • • Ray can be defined as the direction of propagation of light. The reflection of light from the surface takes place according to the following two laws: (i) First law of reflection: The incident ray. a ray of light (IO) falls on a reflecting surface AB at O. may emit their own light. Some other objects may bounce back a part of the light falling on them from other luminous objects. the reflected ray and the normal at the point of incidence. when a beam of light travelling through a medium comes in contact with an object. called luminous objects. The reflection of light from a plane mirror is shown in Fig 11. a part of it is absorbed and some part of it is able to penetrate through the object).2 Regular reflection Re fle cti cid ent ray on ray O . 11.1 Laws of reflection of light Suppose.2. f le o Ang ction refle Thus. Beam of light consists of a number of rays..1 Angle of incidence N Normal R I In r l Fig. (ii) Second law of reflection: The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection i. This bouncing back of the light after falling on any surface is called reflection of light. after reflection it goes along OR. 11. 11.: 192 : Light Energy 11. as shown in Fig 11. Incident rays Reflected rays Smooth plane surface Fig. as shown in Fig. lamp etc. Incident ray is the ray of light that falls on the reflecting surface. A smooth shining surface.1.2 Types of reflection Depending on the nature of the surface the reflection of light can be of two types: (i) Regular reflection: When the reflecting surface is very smooth and the rays of light falling on it are reflected straight off it. This phenomenon is called reflection of light. a part of it gets bounced back (however. Normal is the name given to a line drawn at 900 to the surface at the point where the incident ray strikes the surface. The light bounced back from the surface is called reflected light. 11.1. stars.

In case of spherical mirrors real images are formed on the same side of the mirror as the object.1. 11. 11. It depends on the angle of the incidence on the part of the surface it hits. let us do an activity. They cannot be cast on a screen.3. are called virtual images. Daily at least once a day. are called real images. the light is reflected off in all directions. What do you actually see in the mirror? You see your image. This is called diffused reflection. and thus we are able to see the objects. The real images can be cast on a screen. an image of that object is formed in the eye. (i) Real image: The images which are obtained by the actual intersection of reflected rays.3 Formation of images due to reflection You know that a mirror is a good reflector of light rays. Incident rays Normal Reflected rays Normal Rough surface Fig. That is why no image is formed by the paper. How do we see non-luminous objects? Sunlight or light from a lamp incident over non-luminous objects undergo regular as well as diffuse reflection.Light Energy : 193 : (ii) Diffused reflection : When the reflection of light takes place from rough surfaces. When these reflected rays strike the retina of our eyes. What to do? (i) Spread the sheet of paper over a soft. Instead. (ii) Virtual image: The image obtained when the rays appear to meet each other but actually do not intersect each other. You might have seen people putting frosted window glass pane? Have you ever thought why are frosted glass used? The frosted glass has a rough surface which does not allow the light to form clear images.1 Aim : Image formation by a plane mirror What is required? A plane mirror. 11. ACTIVITY 11.3 Diffused reflection Do you know ? The rough surface diffuse or scatter the light falling on it and prevent the formation of image. . as shown in Fig. a few pins and a sheet of paper. Light is reflected from the paper of this book also but the surface of paper is much rougher than mirrors. Virtual images are formed behind the mirror. The images are of two types – real and virutal. the rough surface of glass diffuses the light and no clear image can be seen through it . To understand the formation of image by a plane mirror. you must be using a mirror to see your face. smooth wooden plank or a piece of card board.

at A´ we get the image of object A.: 194 : Light Energy Put the mirror M1 M2 in a vertical position over the sheet as shown in figure 11. one at ‘A’ little far from the mirror and the other one very near to the mirror at ‘B’ so that. the image of the hand appears as right hand as shown in Fig. 11. 2 (ii) What do you observe? Besides the formation of image of the pins by the mirror. the line AB makes an angle with the line M1 M2 showing the position of the mirror. they appear to be coming (emerging) out from the point A´. To understand the formation of image. Thus. (e) and (f). (iv) Look at the images A and B of the two pins through the mirror. • The object distance and the image distance from the mirror are found to be equal i. Hence. C and D are in the same straight line.. What do you see? You will find that on reflection. . you may consider the light rays emerging out of the object A. and is as far behind the mirror as the object is in front. B B O C O M appear to be moving together you can say your a b c observation is free-from parallax error.e. It is clear that these reflected rays never meet with each other in reality.4 (iii) Put two pins. respectively. erect and same in size as the object. A (v) Now. This way take a few more readings. These rays after striking the mirror M1 M2 get reflected in the directions (d). (b) and (c). 11.5 (b). From the above activity we find that the image formed by a plane mirror has the following characteristics: This image is virtual (i.4) obeying the laws of reflection. look at the images of all these pins closing one of your eyes and moving your face in side ways. you are able to trace the directions of various incident and reflected rays. inside the mirror i.. put two other pins at C and D so that all four pins A. a A (vii) Keeping the first pin as it is. if the reflected rays (d). Similarly.5 (a). the number 2 will appear in an inverted fashion on reflection as shown in Fig.4 Image formation by a three pins and repeat the experiment described plane mirror above by putting the pins in new positions.1.e. the image of a point in a plane mirror lies behind the mirror along the normal from the object. It is an erect and virtual image of equal size. (e) and (f) are extended in the backward direction. If the image of the two earlier pins and the two pins you have put just now. they will all meet with each other at A´.e.. OA = OA´. We have drawn only three rays namely (a). However. 11. not real). (as shown in the figure 11. take out other Fig. 11. b c (vi) Join the positions of pins by straight lines. B.4 Few important facts about reflection Put your left hand near a plane mirror.

Give two differences between diffused and regular reflection. 11. Name four luminous objects. See the ray diagram in Fig. .5 Lateral inversion in image formed by a plane mirror Do you know ? (i) If you are approaching towards a plane mirror. Although the light is reflected from the book you read. 11.6 and try to understand why this happens.1 1. 3. 11. due to reflection in a plane mirror left handedness is changed into right handedness and vice-versa.Light Energy : 195 : Hence. Name the phenomenon of bouncing back of light from a rigid surface. mirror (a) mirror (b) mirror (c) Fig. even your image will also appear to be approaching towards you. why is your image not visible in it? 5. Thus. (ii) A woman can see her full image in a plane mirror whose height is half of her height. This is known as lateral inversion. 11. there are mainly two types of spherical mirrors-convex mirror and concave mirror. 2.6 Size of plane mirror to see full image CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 11. For example a left handed screw will appear to be right handed screw on reflection as shown in Fig. What is the relationship between the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection? 4. 11.2 REFLECTION AT CURVED MIRRORS A curved mirror is a section of a hollow sphere whose inner or outer surface has been polished.5(c). H G E A h C B F f Fig.

1 Rules of image formation by spherical mirrors The ray diagram for image formation by mirrors can be drawn by taking any two of the following rays : (i) Central ray: The ray of light striking the pole of the mirror is reflected back at the same angle on the other side of the principal axis (Ray no. In mathematical terms it can be written as. They are as shown i incidence Curved r f o e l mirror in Fig 11. 11. either pass through a point (in concave mirror) or appear to be coming from a point (in convex mirror) on the principal axis. (v) Principal focus (F): The rays of light parallel and close to the principal axis of the mirror after reflection. 11. (vi) Focal Length (f): It is the distance between the pole and the principal focus of the mirror.8 Some mirror terms in image formation by Relationship between focal length and radius of curavture Focal length (F) of a spherical mirror is equal to half of the radius of curvature (R) of that mirror. f= R 2 11.e. 1 in Fig. (ii) Concave mirror: It is a mirror in which the reflection takes place from the hollow side (i.7 (b). ..: 196 : Light Energy (i) Convex mirror: It is a mirror in which the reflection takes place from the outer or the bulging side (i. cted Refl e (ii) Centre of curvature (C): It is the centre of the hollow sphere of which the spherical mirror is a part. Fig.8 and defined below.2. ray For understanding the reflection at spherical mirrors. (iv) Principal axis: It is the imaginary line joining the pole with the centre of curvature. 11.9). Concave 11. this point is called principal focus of the mirror. Hollow glass sphere Hollow glass sphere x Principle axis R y x Principle axis R y Radius of curvature Radius of curvature Convex mirror spherical mirrors Fig.7 Reflection of light by curved mirrors (iii) Radius of curvature (R): It is the distance between the pole and the centre of curvature of a spherical mirror.7 (a). g n n A ctio refle ray (i) Pole (P): It is the mid-point of the spherical mirror. Angle of certain important terms are very useful.e. the polishing Inci dent is on the outer-side) as shown in Fig. the polishing is on the inner side) as shown in Fig 11.

inverted highly image of the same size as object at C (d) Object between then c and f (e) Object at f (f) Object between f and p A' A B' C B D P (e) C A B F D P C F B D P B ' Real. inverted. (iii) Ray through centre of curvature: A ray passing through the centre of curvature hits the mirror along the direction of the normal to the mirror at that point and retraces its path after reflection (Ray no. (a) Formation of image by concave mirror Using the above said rules of image formation.Light Energy : 197 : (ii) Parallel ray: For a concave mirror the ray parallel to the principle axis is reflected in such a way that after reflection it passes through the principal focus. inverted.3 in Fig 11. But for a convex mirror the parallel ray is so reflected that it appears to come from principal focus (Ray no. the ray diagram for the image formed for different positions of object are given below: (a) When the object is situated at a D P C F A (b) B C A B F A (c) B B ’ A ' F (b) Object beyond c (c) Object at c Real. highly enlarged image at infinity Virtual. enlarged image behind the mirror . inverted highly diminished between C and F Real. erect. inverted. let us see how images are formed by concave and convex mirrors when the object is placed in different positions. 11. highly diminished image at focus Real.2 in Fig 11.9). enlarged image beyond C Fig. 11.9). 1 1 2 3 C 2 3 1 1 (a) (b) F P P 2 2 Fig.9 Image formation by spherical mirrors (a) Concave mirror (b) Convex mirror Now.10 Formation of image by a concave mirror Real.

• for seeing round corners. • in reflecting telescopes large concave mirrors are used. The image is formed where these rays intersect after reflection. • in flood lights to obtain a divergent beam of light to illuminate buildings. • for converging solar radiation in solar cookers. sextent.2. • as a reflector in search light. buses and scooters. following convention is followed: (i) All distances are measured from the pole of the mirror. A A' These two reflected rays appear to be coming from N the common point A´. Fig.11.: 198 : Light Energy In all these diagrams we have considered two rays starting from a point at the top of the object. (iv) The distances above the principal axis are taken positive. below it are taken negative.2. diminished. (ii) The distances measured in the same direction as incident light. whereas. which is the image of point A. and periscope etc.2 Uses of mirrors The different types of mirrors have different uses in our daily life. telescope. are taken as negative. (i) Plane mirror is used • in looking glasses. . The incident ray AQ parallel to principal axis is reflected such that it appears to come from focus F. and erect. diminished. (ii) Concave mirror is used • as shaving and makeup mirrors.11 Formation of image by convex mirror In convex mirror. the relationship between object distance (u). • in construction of kaleidoscope. image distance (v) and the focal length for a curved mirror is given by.e. (i. 11. head light of motor cars and projectors etc. The incident ray AN towards the centre of curvature being normal to the mirror is reflected back along the same path. the formation of the image is shown in Fig 11. (b) Formation of image by convex mirror In case of convex mirror.. smaller than the pize of the object) and is situated between the pole and the focus. the image formed is always virtual. • as deflector of light. etc. • as safety viewers at dangerous corners and on upper deck buses 11. 11. (iii) Convex mirror is used • as a rear view mirror in motor cars. are taken as positive. whatever may be the position of the object infront of the mirror. C P B F B ' The image formed by convex mirror is between pole P and focus F. (iii) The distances measured against the direction of incident light. Let us study them one by one. erect.3 Sign convention and mirror formula To measure distances with respect to a curved mirror. virtual. • as mirror for the dentists. Using the sign convention.

linear magnification (M) = size of image (I) v =− size of object (O) u Where.. and a scale. drawing sheet. is called refraction of light.4 Magnification in spherical mirrors Often we find that a spherical mirror can produce an enlarged or magnified image of any object. protector. What is the focal length of a plane mirror? 2. 11. from glass to air) it bends away from the normal (Fig. This phenomenon of deviation of light rays from their original path.Light Energy : 199 : 1 1 1 = + f u v You can use this formula to find out any of the quantities.g. drawing board. it r 2 bends towards the normal (Fig. What type of mirror is used to view the rear objects by an autodriver? 5. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 11..2 1. alpins. i.12 Refraction of light (e.3 REFRACTION OF LIGHT i When a light ray passes from a less dense medium r to a more dense medium (e. What to do? (i) Place glass slab on a drawing sheet fixed on a wooden drawing board. 11.. Write the position and nature of image formed by a concave mirror when the object is placed between the focus and centre of curvature.e. ACTIVITY 11. provided the other two are given. The ratio of the size of the image to the size of the object is called linear magnification. List any two differences between real and virtual images.12). 11. v = image distance from mirror.2 Aim : To study the refraction through a glass slab What is required ? A glass slab.12) and when it 2 passes from a denser medium to a less dense medium (a) (b) Fig. and u = object distance from mirror Positive value of M tells that image formed is erect while negative value of M indicates that an inverted image is formed. If an object of 5cm size is placed infront of a concave mirror. 3. when they pass from one medium to another. from air to glass). 11. the size of the image formed by it is 7.g.5 cm. pencil.2. sketch a . what is the linear 3 magnification of the mirror? 1 3 1 i Air 11. 4.

The refractive index (µ) of a material is defined as the ratio of the speed of light in vacuume to that in the material medium.13 Refraction through a glass slab What do we observe? As shown in Fig. (iii) Take a pin and fix it on the sheet such that A.2. B and E. the line ABC gives the direction of incident ray on the glass slab while the line DEF gives the direction of emergent ray. 11.A ray of light from a rarer medium to a denser medium slows down and bends towards the normal. Now check the indication of these rays. (iv)Now fix another pin F such that it is in a straight line with pins A. depends not only on the refractive index of medium. it bends towards the normal. Do you find that the refracted ray D has slightly bent towards the normal to the boundary at C? What do you conclude? The ray of light when goes from a rarer (air) to a denser (glass) medium. Therefore.13) . 11. Now look for these pins through the other side of the glass slab. Therefore. We call this bending ability of a material as the index of refraction or refractive index of that material. (vi)Join point C to D by a dotted line. refractive index of a medium (µ) = 11. It shows that the speed of light in different substances varies.3. the speed of light changes.(see fig. The laws of refraction are : (i) First law of refraction: The incident ray. is speeded up and bends away from the normal. Remove the slab and the pins. (ii) Fix the pins A and B on that line. but also on the angle of incidence. On the other hand the ray of light going from a denser medium to a rarer medium. Also. 11.3.: 200 : Light Energy O pencil boundary. The line CD gives the direction of refracted ray. the ray of light when goes from denser (glass) to rarer (air) mediums it bends away from the normal. the refracted ray and the normal at the point of incidence all lie in the same plane. speed of light in vacuum speed of light in medium The refractive index of a rarer medium is less as compare to that of a denser medium. B and E are in a straight line.1 Refractive index of the medium When the light travels from one medium to another medium. Laws of refraction The extent to which a ray bends. A B C D E F Fig. Draw a line OC meeting the boundary line obliquely. Draw normals N1CN2 at C and N3DN4 at D to the boundaries.13. 11. (v) Draw a line joining the points F to E to meet the boundary at D. different substances have different abilities to bend or refract light.

You know that an object is visible C´ only when the rays of light from the object reach your eyes.3 Application of refraction of light Actual Apparent depth depth (i) If you look at a coin placed at the bottom of a container full of water. The rays now appear to be coming from C1 instead of C. Refractive index (µ) = sine of angle of incidence sin i = sine of angle of reflection sin r Air 11.3 1. 11. 11. This is also due to the bending of Fig.Light Energy : 201 : (ii) Second law of refraction: The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is constant and it is equal to the refractive index of the medium. the coin becomes visible to your eyes. Thus. Try to explain these events and discuss your answer with your teacher or fellow students. when Water there is no water in the container. 11.14. reach your eyes. the rays of light from the coin change their direction as they travel from water (denser medium) into air (rarer medium) and thus. In this way. What happens when a ray of light passes from one medium to another of different density? . the coin C will not be visible to you from the side of Fig. the coin appears to be raised. Visibility of the sun before actual sunrise or after actual sunset can also be explained on the basis of refraction of light.14 Actual position bending here of the pencil (b).14(a). CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 11. This law is also called as the Snell’s law of refraction.14 (b) The pencil inside water appears light rays when they pass from water to bent air. it appears to Water be broken or bent with respect to the part Ray of light suffers outside the water as shown in Fig 11. you will notice that it appears to be raised as shown in Fig.14 (a) Apparent depth of a coin in the container as shown in Fig. In the first case. The ratio of the actual depth of the coin to the apperent depth of the coin is equal to the refractive index of the liquid of the container.3. But on pouring the water into the container. 11. water because the rays of light traveling in a straight line do not reach your eyes. When the part of a pencil is kept inside the water in a glass. 1 Rupee 1 Rupee Refractive index (µ) = actual depth apparent depth (ii) Another example of refraction observed in our daily life is the twinkling of stars. Position of the pencil (ii) You would have observed that a pencil as it appears when seen half kept in water in a glass appears to fom above Air be bent.

Hence it is also called a diverging lens.16). Why do the stars twinkle at night? 3. the position and nature of the image formed for different positions of object is shown by the following ray diagrams: (see Fig. (ii) A ray towards the optical center falls on the lens symmetrically and after refraction passes through it undeviated. The conveging property of a convex lens is shown in Fig. Hence. we will confine ourselves to the refraction of light through lenses only. It makes the parallel rays of light to converge and come to a point. 11. the image is formed on the same side of lens and it is virtual. if it enters a glass block along its normal? 11. 11. (i) If the object is placed between the optical centre O and first focus F1.: 202 : Light Energy 2. 11. is called as its principal focus (F).4 REFRACTION THROUGH CURVED SURFACE In the present discussion under this section. These two rays are: (i) A ray parallel to the principal axis of the lens after refraction. The diverging property of concave lens is shown in Fig.4. Let us now see the image formation in cases of convex and concave lens in different situations of the objects.15(a). converges upon (appears to diverge off) the principal focus of a convex (concave) lens. it is also called a converging lens . inverted and very much magnified. Do you know what is a lens? A lens is a portion of a transparent refracting medium bounded by two spherical surfaces.15 Types of lenses a point. What happens to a ray of light. they are called as spherical lenses. Because the lenses are made from spheres. (ii) If the object is at first focus F1 . . Where as in a concave lens the point from where incident rays parallel to the principal axis of the lens appear to be coming. 11. The point at which the incident rays parallel to principal axis will converge upon after refraction in a convex lens is called its principal focus. 11.15(b). upright and magnified. It makes (a) Convex lens (b) Concave lens the parallel rays of light to spread from Fig. (a) Image formation by convex lens According to the above said rules of image formation. They are mainly of two types : • Convex lens • Concave lens (i) Convex lens: A convex lens is thick in middle and thin at the rim.the image is at infinity and it is real. (ii) Concave lens : A concave lens is thin in the middle and thick at rim.1 Rules of image formation by lenses In order to draw the image formed by any lens only two rays are required.

O O 2F 2F F F 2F 2F F O F I Image is formed at 2F Fig.16 (c) Object is between F1 and 2F1 Fig. 11. 11. So . inverted and very much diminished.17. inverted and diminished. 11. inverted and larger in size.Light Energy : 203 : Rays coming from the object at Infinity F F (Object at F) O F I (Image formed at F) (Refracted parallel rays meet at infinity.16 (e) Object is beyond 2F1 Fig. 11. (ii) distances measured in the direction of incident ray are taken to be positive. 11. Fig.2 Sign convention and lens formula In case of the spherical lenses. the image is at 2F2 on the other side of the lens and it is real. 11. erect and virtual and is formed between focus and optical centre on the same side as the object whatever be the position of object as shown in Fig. P P' O Q Q' Fig. (iii) distances opposite to the direction of incident ray are taken to be negative. the image is at F2 on the other side of the lens and is real.4. (iv) If the object is at 2F1. image is formed at infinity. inverted and is of same size as object. the image is beyond 2F2 on the other side of the lens and it is real. 11. .16 (d) Object is at 2F1 (v) If the Object is beyond 2F1. 11. O O 2F 2F (Object beyond 2F) F O F F (Object is O between F and O) F Image between F and 2F Eye of the observer Fig.16 (a) Object placed between optical centre and first focus Fig. 11.16 (f) Object is at infinity (b) Image formation by concave lens The image formed by a concave lens is always smaller than the object.17 Image by concave lens (i) all distances in a lens are to be measured from optical centre of the lens. (vi) If the object is at infinity. the image is inbetween F2 and 2F2 on the other side of the lens and is real.16 (b) Object at the first focus (iii) If the object is between F1 and 2F1.

distance of iamge P´Q´ u v from the optical center O = OQ´ = (+V). Q' O Using the above mentioned sign convention. Different coloured light have different wavelengths.1 Dispersion of light through glass prism When the white light passes through a glass prism.e. and focal length – P' Fig 11. C F C Q F 11.5 DISPERSION OF WHITE LIGHT We are sure. the white light is supposed to be made up of seven colours.5. 11.4 1. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 11. are taken negative. what will be the position and nature of the image? 2. In fact. magnification (m) = also. The violet part of incident white light get refracted of the surface PQ at angle <r0 which is different than angles of refraction for other colour-rays. you must have observed seven brillient colours of light in your surrounding.v and f for a lens is as shown below: 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 − = v u f This is called lens formula.18 Sign convention in lenses of lens = OF´2 = (+f). m = size of image I = size of object O I v = O u A positive value of m tells that the image is erect and negative value of m tells that the image is inverted. 11. Focal length for convex lens is positive. The separation of white light into its constituent seven colours is called dispersion of light. The refractive media like glass have different values of refractive indices for different colours. The relationship between u. it gets splitted into seven different colour rays. 11. in Fig.3 Magnification You would have noticed that in case of some lenses. whereas. for concave lens it is taken negative. This ratio of the size of the image to that of the object is called as the magnification of the lens. the size of the image of an object is enlarged whereas in some other cases it is diminished. You should know that as we go from violet to red wavelength of light increases .4. . If we take the ratio of the size of the image to the size of the object for a particular lens it remains constant for that lens.: 204 : Light Energy + P (iv) the height of the object or image measured above – the principal axis are taken positive whereas below + it..18 let us assume. If an object is placed at the focus of a convex lens. i. Draw the ray diagram to show the image formed by a concave lens. distance of object PQ from the f optical center O = OQ = (-u).

What to do ? (i) Take an empty shoe box.19. 11. What is required ? A shoe box. Yellow. Do you know why? Because.6 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS You are advised to wash your hands before taking any food. on emergence through the face PS. Indigo. Do you know or have you ever seen it? A microscope is an optical instrument used to see very-very small objects by forming their magnified image at the least distance of distinct vision from the eye.5 1. g Glass prism (v) Do you see coloured strips on the Fig. least b (iii) Place the prism on a block inside the lendin Spectrum t g White ligh box as shown in the figure 11. does not get separated. Orange and Red which can be written as VIBGYOR. Make a rectangular opening on its cover with a knife and close it with a transparent white paper to see the spectrum. (ii) Make a thin slit with knife on the opposite side cardboard of the shoe box. Thus. ACTIVITY 11. knife. What is the sequence of colour in a spectrum of white light formed by prism? 2. bacteria or other things. they get further separated resulting in the dispersion and forming a spectrum.3 Aim : To produce a spectrum using a prism and sunlight. a transparent white paper. there may be harmful germs on your hands.Light Energy : 205 : As a result of which different coloured light rays are seperated from each other. For which colour the value of refrative index is more – orange or blue? 4. The emergent beam in a prism producing spectrum is convergent or divergent? 5. (Sun light) mo (iv) Turn the slit-side face of the box st b en din towards sunlight. 3. Which colour has minimum wavelength? Violet. Then how do we see such minute germs. For this purpose we use microscope. you will find that a glass prism shows dispersion of white light but a glass slab does not? Can you think of Why? The emergent beam refracted through the other face of glass slab is a parallel beam and therefore. . which are not visible to you with your naked eyes. the emergent beam should be divergent. Blue. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 11. Why does a glass slab not produce a spectrum of white light? 11.19 Formation of transparent paper? spectrum by a prism What do we conclude ? We can see that a brilliant pattern of the colours is formed in the sequence of Violet. Red Orang e Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet If you repeat the same activity with a glass slab. To produce dispersion. Green. yellow or green.

Here. even if the focal length of a convex lens is very small.5 cm.5 . substituting value of f. v is the image distance and is the focal length of the lens. For example. (a) Simple Microscope A simple microscope consists of just a convex lens of small focal length.1: Find the magnifying power of a simple microscope having the focal length equal to 2. f = 2.1 Microscope There are two types of microscopes-simple microscope and compound microscope. i.5 cm Therefore. we see that the magnification increases with the decrease in the focal length of the lens. pin hole camera. To get higher magnification a compound microscope. Now. 11. has to be used.: 206 : Light Energy There are a number of instruments and devices that make use of the light. telescope and projector etc. −25 25 = 1+ f f Thus.20 Image formation by simple microscope Where. we get m=1+ m = 1 + 25 = 1 + 10 = 11 2. a simple microscope is nothing but a magnifying glass. the least distance of distinct vision. The magnification in the case of convex lens Fig.20 is given by m = 1− v f A B' F1 B O F2 Fig. But the magnifying power of a simple microscope cannot exceed beyond a certain limit. microscope. lens camera. This property is made use of in a simple microscope. 11. Let us study about them one by one. say 1 cm.6. we will study about the microscope and telescope only. m = 1− Solution : We know that for a simple microscope. Least distance of distinct vision The minimum distance of an object from a normal eye up to which it is clearly visible. the magnification m turns to be. We know that a convex lens produces an erect and magnified image when the object is placed at a distance less than its focal length. is called least distance of distinct vision. Example 11. In other words. are the optical instruments.e. therefore. 11. taking the image distance to be equal to 25 cm. 25 f Given.

Now.21 Image formation by a compound microscope (ii) Working Consider figure 11. the other lens towards eye of the viewers is called eyepiece. so its magnifying power is. fe m = me 1 + 25 fe Hence. A real inverted and magnified image is formed by the lens on its other side. In a compound microscope. me is the magnification of eye piece and mo is the magnification of the objective. The image acts like an object for the eyepiece which produces a virtual. m = v1 25 1+ u1 fe Thus. the magnification takes place in two stages. Let the object is placed at a distance slightly greater than the focal length of the objective.Light Energy : 207 : (b) Compound microscope In order to see very minute objects. Both the eyepiece and objective are of short focal lengths. But the focal length of the objective is shorter as compared to that of the eyepiece as shown in Fig 11. The lens towards the object is known as objective. The eyepiece is so adjusted that this image is within its focal length. .21. it is clear that the magnifying power of the compound microscope is greater than that of a simple microscope. (iii) Magnifying power of the microscope Let u1 = distance of the object AB. the magnifying power (m) of the compound microscope is given as: m = mo x me Where. fe = focal length of the eye piece. with the eye placed very close to the eyepiece. Objective L' B A'' f2 A fo' fo B' B fe' A' O' fe Eye piece Fig. me = 1 + 25 where. whereas. v2 or D = the distance of its image A2B2 from L2. we use compound microscope. erect and enlarged final image. It is inverted image of the object. From this equation it is clear that the magnifying power of the compound microscope can be increased if. v1 = distance of the image from the objective lens L1 : u2 = distance of A1 B1 from the eyepiece L2. Since the eyepiece acts like a simple microscope. (i) Construction It consists of two convex lenses.21. unlike the simple microscope. 11.

fe. therefore.: 208 : Light Energy • • • u is small.2 Telescope A telescope is an optical instrument used to view the distant objects. that is the object AB is placed very near to the objective. the brightness of the image is not affected. Eye piece Real Inverted and Diminished Q b a P Toa a From a o Eye Fig. 11. M1M2 inclined at 45o with the axis of the objective mirror. Again the object has to be placed near the focus of the objective. the Fig. Fig. Before Eye piece being focused at the focus. The lens towards the object is called objective and it is of larger focal length. it is known as astronomical telescope also. 11. the rays are intercepted by a small convex mirror. the distance between the image and the objective is large. 11. ii) The reflecting telescope Objective The objective of this type of telescope is a spherical concave mirror of large focal length. the focal length of the eyepiece is very small. There are mainly two types of telescopes: • Refracting telescope • Reflecting telescope (i) The refracting telescope The refracting telescope is normally used to observe the astronomical or heavenly bodies. since the object is to be placed beyond the focus to give real. The eyepiece magnifies the image as usual.23 Reflecting telescope image is shifted towards the eyepiece. 11.22. The other lens towards the eye is called the eye lens or eye piece and it has a short Objective focal length. The mirror M1M2 can be replaced by a totally reflecting right angled isoscles prism. inverted and magnified image. The eye lens acts like a magnifying glass taking the image formed by the objective as its object. that is.22 Astronomical telescope The objective forms an inverted upside down and real image of a distant object. The mirror M1M2 is so small that it does not obstruct much of the incident light. Thus. 11. Hence.6. It is possible only when the focal length of the objective is very small. .23 Complex shows a reflecting telescope. So the length of the microscope should be large. v1 is greater. It consists of two convex lenses arranged in a tube. The parallel rays from mirror a distant object fall on the concave mirror. Fig.

When a ray of light passes from one medium to another medium of different density. A microscope is an instrument used to see very small objects by forming their enlarged images. virtual and of equal size. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 11. There are two categories of spherical lenses convex lens and concave lens. The image formed by a plane mirror lies along the normal from the object. it causes lateral inversion. It is defined as the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to that in the medium. What is the difference between reflecting and refracting telescopes? 4. A telescope is an instrument used for observing distant objects like the stars. Magnification is the ratio of the size of the image to the size of the object. 2. and the phenomenon is said to be reflection of light. When the light ray (called incident ray) strikes a polished surface. The reflected light forms images. Convex lens makes a parallel beam of light rays to converge and come to a point. The reflection of light always takes place according to the two laws of reflection. State and explain the laws of reflection. TERMINAL EXERCISES What is reflection of light? Explain it with the help of a ray diagram. A lens is bounded by two surfaces which may be spherical. 3. . i. 4. What is an optical image and how is it formed? Name two types of images and distinguish between them.e. • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1. is as far behind as the object is in front and it is erect. Where as concave lens makes the light rays to diverge. 5. it is bounced back in the same medium (forming reflecting ray). 2. for an object lying between focus and center of curvature. it bends and this phenomenon is called refraction of light. The image formed by a concave or convex mirror depends on the position of the object in front of the mirror. What type of lens is used in a simple microscope? 3. Refraction of light is caused by the change in the speed of light as it passes from one medium to another of different density. Plane mirror gives an image in which left handedness turns into right handedness and vice-versa. The ability of any medium to bend light ray is called the refractive index of the medium. Images are of two kinds real image and virtual image.Light Energy : 209 : Most of the telescopes used for serious astronomical observations are reflecting telescopes. Explain the formation of images with the help of ray diagrams for the following cases: (i) a plane mirror (ii) a convex mirror (iii) a concave mirror. Write down the uses of a microscope and a telescope. What do you mean by an objective and an eyelens? • • LET US REVISE Light is a form of energy which itself is not visible but makes other things visible.6 1.

Define refractive index of a medium. Explain why do the start twinkle? 10. 7. What is a telescope? Explain briefly the principle of refracting telescope. 14.6. Diffused reflection : i) It takes place at rough surfaces. real. Find the nature and position of the image formed. fire. Reflection of light 3. ii) Reflected rays are in different directions. The sun.2 1. With the help of ray diagram show the image formed by a convex lens when the object is placed between F and C. candle flame. 9. image is beyond C. Magnification (m) = I 7. Define the focus of convex and concave mirrors. lighted electric bulb 2. Convex mirror 5. ii) Cannot be casted on screen 4. Give relationship between focal length and radius of curvature. 15. 11. What is the difference between objective lens and eye lens in a telescope? ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 11. = = 15 O 5 . ii) Reflected rays are in a particular direction. 8. Angle of incidence = angle of reflection 4. Because of diffuse reflection 5. 13. Real image i) They are formed by actual intersection of reflected rays ii) They can be casted on the screen Virtual image i) They are formed by the reflected rays which appears to be coming from a point they do not intersect actually. Regular reflection: i) It takes place at smooth and shiny surfaces. What is a microscope? Explain briefly the principle of simple microscope with a suitable diagram. inverted and magnified 3. infinity 2. What is refraction of light? State laws of refraction of light. Why is a convex lens is also called converging lens? 11.1 1. 12.5 . An object is placed at a distance of 30 cm from a convex lens of focal length 20 cm.

Convex lens 3. orange. blue. 4. red 2. Because the emergent beam is parallel 11. Microscope is used to see very small objects by making an enlarged image. indigo. Violet. 2.11. It is refracted without deviation 11. Because of multiple refraction of the light coming from the stars 3. Blue 4. 2. Ray diagram 11.5 1.4 1. . real. It deviates from its original path 2. The lens towards the object is objective lens and the lens towards the eye is eye-lens. green.3 1. yellow. Violet 3.The image will be at infinity.6 1. Reflecting telescope consists of a concave mirror as objective whereas refracting telescope consists of a convex lens on objective. invested and magnified. Divergent 5. Telescope is used to see for distant objects by making their image nearer to the eye.

about which you have studied in lesson 3. on structure of atoms.1 ELECTROSTATICS Ordinarily. a Greak philosopher. knew that amber when rubbed with fur acquires the property of attracting small bits of wood. This is exactly what you are going to study in this lesson. combination of resistors and consumption of electric power and electric energy in our houses. who published his work in 1600 AD about charges and magnets. exhibit very interesting behaviour when at rest and very useful effects when in motion. if you bring a plastic comb near a piece of paper. It is impossible to think of a world devoid of electrical energy. the personal physician of queen Elizabeth-I. Thales of Miletus (600 BC). Would you not like to know the nature of electrical energy. 12. if you comb your dry hair with a comb and bring it close to a small piece of paper. Gilbert. you will find that the piece of paper is attracted towards the comb. is not available even for a short duration. potential difference. • define the terms electrostatic potential energy. The wonderful genie of electrical energy brings all comforts to our command just with the press of a button. It was Dr. Gilbert. the systematic study of electricity started with Dr. basically associated with the electrons and other such particles called charged particles. Ohm’s law.12 Electrical Energy The tiny electrons. who using the word . electric current and electric resistance. • define the commercial units of electric power and electric energy. • apply Ohm’s law for finding equivalent resistance of series and parallel combinations of resistances. • describe experiments to show the existence of two types of charges and state Coulomb’s law for the force between them. However. and the way it works. We start feeling very uncomfortable even if electricity. • solve numerical problems based on Coulomb’s law. • state Ohm’s law and describe its experimental verification. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. in our houses. you would not find any attraction between them. • describe experiments to illustrate thermal and magnetic effects of electric current. you will be able to: • cite examples of production of static electricity from everyday life. Electrical energy is the energy. We say that the comb gets charged or electrified in the process of combing. But.

The electricity (or charge) developed on a body. 12.: 214 : Electrical Energy “electron” for amber coined the word electricity. Observe carefully the position of first glass rod. a piece of silk. Dr. Gilbert. through his experience also indicated that the process of charging is not limited to amber only. It was realised that metals cannot be charged that way. an insulating stand with which a stirrup is hanging vertically with the help of a silken thread. (iii)Rub an ebonite-rod with a piece of wool and bring it close to the end of glass rod on stirrup as in step (ii). What difference do you note in the position of the glass-rod ? (iv)Repeat the experiment by placing an ebonite-rod on the stirrup instead of glassrod. whereas. (ii) two charged eboniterods also repel each other.1 Glass-rod rubbed with silk has a charge different than the charge acquired by ebonite rod rubbed with wool What do you observe? We observe that (i) two charged glass-rods repel each other. a piece of woolen cloth. but. Many other materials. two ebonite rods. ebonite and sealing wax can also be charged similarly.1 Nature of charges A French chemist Charles Dufay. (iii) a charged glass-rod attracts a charged ebonite rod. when it is rubbed in intimate contact with another body is called frictional electricity. Insulating stand Silken thread Stirrup Glass rod A Glass rod B Ebonite rod (a) Glass rod A hanging on a stirrup (b) Glass rod A moves away from Glass rod B (c) Glass rod A moves towards the ebonite rod Fig. What should you do? (i) Rub a glass-rod with a piece of silk and place it on the stirrup so that it stays horizontally. like glass. (ii) Rub the second glass-rod with silk and bring it close to one end of the first glass-rod. non-metallic solids can be charged. Let it come to rest. ACTIVITY 12. found that charge acquired by a glass rod on getting it rubbed with silk is different from the charge acquired by an ebonite rod rubbed with wool. 12.1. What do you conclude? We conclude that: .1 Aim : To identify two different types of charges What do you need? Two glass-rods. Let us perform the activity performed by Dufay to understand the difference. while performing experiments on charged bodies.

thus. Dufay called the charge acquired by glass-rod on rubbing it with silk as vitreous electricity and the charge acquired by ebonite-rod on rubbing it with wood as resinuous electricity. Insulating stand Silken thread Pith ball Woolen cap (A) (B) (C) (D) Fig. (ii) woollen cap attracts the negatively charged pith ball. What do you observe? We observe that (i) negatively charged ebonite rod repels negatively charged pith ball.Electrical Energy : 215 : (i) Charge developed on glass-rod on rubbing it with silk has a different nature that the charge developed on ebonite rod rubbed with wool. ACTIVITY 12. 12. . What do you conclude? We conclude that ebonite rod has negative charge and woollen cap has equal amount of positive charge. Gilbert also constructed a device for detecting charge. Dr. Such a device is called electroscope. a small silk thread.2 (a) (ii) Insert the ebonite rod in woollen cap. and bring the rod close to the pith ball. put a knot at the lower end and attach the other end with the insulating stand as shown in Fig. rub them with each other for some time and then touch the ebonite rod with path ball. The pith ball will. (ii) Like charges repel each other while unlike charges attract each other. Benjamin Franklin termed the former as positive charge and the latter as negative charge.2 Using pith ball electroscope to show that equal and opposite charges are produced by friction.2 Aim : To verify that in the process of charging by friction. Later. get negatively charged. 12. What should you do? (i) Pass the silk thread through the pith ball. Let us also construct a simple electroscope and do another activity using it. an insulating stand. equal and opposite charges are developed on the bodies rubbed together What should you need? A pith-ball with acqua-dag coating. 4 " long woollen cap which fits on the ebonite rod. (iii) Now put woollen cap on the ebonite rod. an ebonite-rod. Is there any attraction or repulsion shown by the pith ball? (iv) Check again with and without woollen cap on ebonite rod one by one. which is indicated by its repulsion with ebonite rod. (iii) when ebonite rod with woollen cap is brought near the pith ball no attraction or repulsion takes place.

Coulomb presented the inferences of his experiments in the form of a law which is stated below.. The factors on which this force of attraction or repulsion depends was studied first by the french physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb. then the two charges will continue to repel each other with a force. Also.. experiences a repulsive force on 1N. k = 9 x 109 Nm2 c-2. 1C charge is the charge which when placed at a distance of 1 m from an equal like charge in vacuum. Thus. (12. If q1=q2 q2=1C and r=1 m. Equation 12. Coulomb’s law The magnitude of the force of attraction (or repulsion) between two point charges is directly proportional to the quantity of charge present on each of them and inversely proportional to the square of the distance separating them.. r where k is a constant of proportionality depending on the nature of the medium in which the charges are placed. An atom possesses a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons. Its SI unit is coulomb. Normally charge acquired by bodies are of the order of micro coulomb or at the most milli coulomb. The body which gains electrons becomes negatively charged and the body which loses electrons becomes positively charged.2 Force between electrical charges : Coulomb’s law In the previous section we have seen experimentally that we can give different amounts of charge to bodies by friction.6 x 10-19C If a body gains n electrons it will acquire a negative charge q = n e . that some of its charge can be transferred from a charged body to an uncharged body by contact..3 Coulombian force between two charges seperated by a distance r .. We have also learnt that like charges repel each other while unlike charges attract. f= 1 2 ____________ 2 kq q Coulomb is a very big unit of charge..1. for vacuum (or for air) Charge is a scalar quantity.(12. When we rub two materials in intimate contact with each other. How to explain this? A material as such may be neutral but it is made of atoms..: 216 : Electrical Energy Remember : Charging by friction always produces equal and opposite charges on the two bodies which are rubbed in intimate contact.. The charge of an electron (e) = 1. In SI units. f=9x109 N.2).2 may be used to define 1C. You may recollect that 1 micro coulomb = 10–6C and 1 milli coulomb = 10–3C Fig 12. some of the weakly bound electrons from one body are transferred to the other body.1) 12. If a charge q1 is placed at a distance from a similar charge q2.

. If Q and q both are of the same nature (i.3 Electric potential Consider a big charge ‘Q’ fixed at a point. Positive charges always move from higher potential to lower potential. is positive and decreases with distance. Let us call it source charge.6 x 10-19C Charge q = + n e n=q = 1   1. Hence in moving charge ‘q’ towards ‘Q’ work will (1890) have to be done on the charge ‘q’. negative charges move from lower potential to higher potential.. the other name for which is volts (V). At a very large distance from ‘Q’ a small charge ‘q’ will experience negligibly small force. at any point around it.25 x 1018 electrons . moves from a distance r from charge Q one point to another point. This work will be stored up as potential energy in the charge.. Potential is more significant than potential energy itself. Using equation 12. (12.(12.1.4 Potential energy of charge q place at region surrounding a fixed charge. Whereas the potential due to a negative source charge is negative at any point around it and increases with increasing distance.. Example 12... The importance of electrostatic potential lies in the fact that it is this quantity which determines the direction of flow of charge.. The electrostatic potential energy possessed by a charge q when it is at a distance r from charge Q is given by : KQq .6 x 10–19 e = 6. It may be noted that potential due to a positive source charge. 12. On the other hand. V = _____ The potential at a point is 1 V if a + 1C charge placed at that point possesses a potential energy of 1J. It is because of this electrostatic potential energy... that a charge when left of itself in the Fig.3 we can say that potential at a point U= ________ U KQ = _______ -----------..4) q r Electrostatic potential is a scalar quantity and its SI unit is JC-1...Electrical Energy : 217 : 12. potential energy per unit charge is called electrostatic potential. As we bring ‘q’ towards ‘Q’ the magnitude of force between Q and q increases. both positive or both negative) there will be a force of repulsion between them.1 : How many electrons make one coulomb? Solution : Let n electrons make 1 C Since charge is built by the excess or deficiency of electrons only Charge on 1 electron is 1.3) r In electricity.....e..

1 1. how many times will become the Coulombian force between them? 4. You are familiar with a device which can be used to maintain potential difference between the two ends of a wire-the dry cell. Calculate (i) the force of repulsion between them.2 CURRENT ELECTRICITY Can charge produced at one place be transferred to some other place without actually moving the charged body? Yes.5 x 10–3 N = 9 x 10–3 J Example 12. An electric cell is a device which converts chemical energy into electrical energy. (ii) the electrostatic potential energy of the charge system. by connecting the charged body to an uncharged body through a metallic wire. In a torch having many cells you are using a battery of cells. the wire should be insulated. Solution : (i) F = (ii) U = KQq r2 KQq r = = 9 x 109 x 1 x 10-6 x 2 x 10-6 (2)2 9 x 109 x 10-6 x 2 x 10-6 2 = 4. If the charge of the particle is 1 micro coulomb (i) what is the potential at the position of the particle (ii) what is the value of the fixed charge? 5. A charged particle placed at a distance of 50 cm from a fixed charge has a potential energy of 10J. . you have to maintain a potential difference between them.2 : Two point charges having magnitudes 1 microcoulmb and 2 microcoulombs respectively are kept separated by a distance of 2 m. When a glass rod is rubbed with a piece of silk it acquires +10 micro coulomb of charge. So if you want to pass charge continuously. What type of charge does an ebonite rod acquire when it is rubbed with wool? What is the nature of the charge acquired by wool? 2. can you do so by holding the naked wire in your hand? You will say.1 Electric cells–Sources of potential difference As you have learnt in the previous section. Solution : V = KQ r = –9 x 109 x 60 x 10-6 30 x 10-2 = –1. 12. What you know by sheer experience today. no. How many electrons have been transferred from glass to silk ? 3. from one body to another body through a wire. But. you will say. positive charge flows from higher to lower potential. Define the unit of (i) charge (ii) potential 12.3 : Calculate the potential at a point.8 x 106 volts CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 12.: 218 : Electrical Energy Example 12. distant 30 cm from a 60 micro coulomb negative charge. The dry cell is a type of electric cell.2. was shown by Stephen Gray in 1729 by extensive and expensive research of several months. If the charge on two particles be doubled and separation between them be halved. A group of cells is called battery.

What do you infer ? We infer that (i) the LED glows continuously. 5 thin strips of copper. (iii) The arrangement does not supply enough charge to glow a 3V bulb. whereas insulators have none.3 Aim : To construct a battery of cells and use it to light up an LED What you need? 5 lemons. because. (ii) copper wire conducts charge but cotton thread does not.Electrical Energy : 219 : ACTIVITY 12. 12. (v) Repeat the experiment using cotton threads instead of copper wires with LED. (ii) Insert one copper and one zinc strip in each of the lemons as shown in Fig. What to do? (i) Arrange the lemons in a line on a table. It is the structure of the material which determines whether it will conduct charge or not. The electric current flowing through a conductor is defined as the charge flowing through any section of the conductor in 1 second. (ii) LED does not glow when we use cotton thread instead of copper wire. (iii) 3V bulb does not glow in this arrangement. A conductor has a large number of free electrons. an LED.5 A battery of 5 lemon cells used to light up an LED (iii) Connect zinc strip of first lemon with the copper strip of the second lemon and this way connecting all the cells. Non-metals are generally insulators. A directed flow of charge is called electric current. 2. leaving one copper strip free at the end of first lemon and one zinc strip at the end of last lemon. Remember: 1. . (vi)Repeat experiment using 3V bulb instead of LED. 5 thin strips of zinc. (iv)Connect LED between these free strips. What do you observe ? You will observe that (i) the LED glows continuously when connected across the battery using copper connecting wires.5 L E D Connecting wire Copper strip Zinc strip 1 2 3 4 5 Lemon Fig 12. All metals are good conductors of electricity. continuous charge flows through it due to a constant potential difference applied across its ends with the help of battery of lemon cells. (ii) Those through which charge does not pass are called insulators. copper connecting wires. There are two types of substances: (i) those through which electric charge can flow easily are called conductors.

3. Cell Cell Battery Connecting wire Wires connected together Wires crossing without being connected Fixed resistance Variable resistance Ammeter Voltmeter Galvanometer Switch Closed key Lamp Fig. As a convention. The emf of a cell is its characteristic property.2.5V. 12. A dry cell bears a marking 1. This is called emf of the cell. galvanometer . 12. the direction of flow of positive charge is taken as the direction of flow of electric current. They flow in opposite direction to the direction of conventional current. During contact programme request your tutor to show you various electrical devices they use in laboratories.1 we have seen that current flows through a conductor when we apply a potential difference between its ends with the help of an electric cell. 4. when no current is being drawn from it.2.2 Electric circuits and Ohm’s law When we connect some devices like electric bulb across a cell through connecting wires.e. current flows through the arrangement in a closed path.: 220 : Electrical Energy i.6.6 Some important symbols used in electric circuits In this list of symbols. This type of arrangement of cells. 12. The question arises how does the value of current flowing through a wire change when the potential difference applied across it is changed.a device to detect current and rheostat to change current in the circuit. This figure indicates the maximum potential difference that can be applied to this cell.2. In circuit diagrams various components are represented by definite symbols. To answer this let us perform the following activity. 12.2a Ohm’s Law In section 12. Current through a conductor is 1A if 1C charge flows through it in 1 second. Thus in an electric circuit current is considered to be flowing from the positive terminal of the battery towards negative terminal. conductors and bulbs is called electric circuit. The current flowing through a conductor is measured with the help of a device called ammeter. In conductors it is the negatively charged free electrons which move to constitute current.(12.5) Current is a scalar quantity and its SI unit is ampere (A). some of which are given in Fig. voltmeter is a device used to measure potential difference between any two points of a circuit. Actual potential difference which we can apply with the help of the cell is slightly less than its emf. I Q = t ------------. . 5.

2... connecting wires and a plug key.. a standard fixed resistance coil (1 Ohm). as shown in Fig.. (vi) Plot a graph between ammeter and voltmeter readings.. What to do? V (i) Connect the fixed resistor (R). Record these readings.... What do you observe? You will observe that : (i) on increasing ammeter reading voltmeter reading increases in the same proportion. (v) After changing the readings 4 to 5 times... The law can be applied only to conducting wires and that too when its temperature and other physical conditions remain unchanged.e.. (ii) the voltage-current graph is a straight line as shown in Fig. is a constant for a given wire.Electrical Energy : 221 : ACTIVITY 12.. i. R is a constant of proportionality and is called the resistance of the given wire. (12...... This observation was first made by George Simon Ohm and is called Ohm’s Law... 12.. plug key Resistance (R) (K) and rheostat (Rh) is series (end Rheostat (Rh) Ammeter Cell to end) and voltmeter (V) in parallel Plug key A to R...6) Here.7 Circuit diagram to show the readings in ammeter and relationship between voltage and current voltmeter is zero. (iii) Insert the plug in the key and move the sliding contact of the rheostat so that there is some small reading in ammeter and voltmeter.5V).8. an ammeter (range 0–1A). If the temperature of the conductor increases its resistance also increases. ammeter (A). . 12.. dry cell (D). (ii) When the key K is open check that Fig 12. resistance of wire. record the corresponding values current and voltage from ammeter and voltmeter.4 Aim : To find the relation between the current flowing through a wire and the potential difference applied across it What you need? A dry cell. What do you conclude? We conclude that the current flowing through a wire is directly proportional to the potential difference applied between its ends. Remember : 1. (iv) Increase the value of current with the help of rheostat.... Record ammeter and voltmeter readings again.e. It can be easily shown that resistance of a wire depends on : . V ∝ I or V = RI . rheostat (0–1 Ohm).8. a voltmeter (range 0–1. ‘R’ i.

voltage across r1. 3. This we can do in two different ways. i.(12. when the combination is connected to a cell.9). 1A current flows through it. 4.8 Graph showing variation in voltage with the variation in current 12. V = V1+V2+V3+ ---------------. .7a) I V gives the resistance of the combination R  I R = r1 + r2 + -------------. across r2 is V2 = I r2 and so on. i. The resistance of a wire can never be negative.3 Combinations of resistors In electrical circuits. Thus.e.: 222 : Electrical Energy its length – longer the wire.8) The resistance of a number of resistances in series is equal to the sum of the resistances of the component resistors.2. same current flows through all of them (Fig. which when 1V potential difference is applied.(12. Potential difference (V)/ volts • • Slope = Resistance (R) Current (I)/amperes Fig 12. R1 R2 R3 R1 V1 V2 V3 Fig 12.7) = Ir1+Ir2+ Ir3 + ---------------V ___ = r1+r2+ ---------------.(12.9 Series combination of resistances If we measure voltage across each of the resistances with the help of a voltmeter.e. more the resistance its thickness – thicker the wire. so that. Also. 12. we connect a number of devices having different resistance values. V1 = Ir1. we will find that more the resistance more the potential difference across it.. Resistance is a scalar quantity and its SI unit is Ohm (Ω). Ohm is the resistance of a wire across. the total voltage across the combination is the sum of the voltage across individual resistors. (a) Series combination In this combination a number of resistances are connected end to end. lesser the resistance • the nature of material – copper wire has lesser resistance than iron wire of same length and thickness.

But the chain of small bulbs that we use for decoration on Deewali has the bulbs connected in series. I2 = V . In parallel combination equal potential difference is applied across each resistor.4 : Find the equivalent resistance of the following combination of resistors.10. R1 R1 R2 R3 Fig. Fig.Electrical Energy : 223 : (b) Parallel combination Resistances are said to be connected in parallel when one end of all the resistors is connected to the positive terminal of the battery and the other end to the negative terminal.10. 12. I3 = V    r1 r2 r3 Also. If the resistance of the combination be R. Normally all the appliances in our household circuits are connected in parallel.e. total current drawn from the cell by the combination is equal to the sum of currents drawn by the individual resistors. 12. Example 12. The current drawn from the cell is inversely proportional to the resistance. Remember : 1. As we add resistances in series the circuit resistance increases but when we connect resistances in parallel the total resistance is smaller than the smallest of the resistances involved.11. i. as shown in Fig. 2. . 12.9) + V + V   r2 r3 + 1  r2 + 1 -----------------------(12. then I=V  R and I = I1 + I2 + I3 V = V   R r1 ⇒ 1  R = 1  r1 -------------------(12. Parallel combination of resistances I1 = V .10)  r3 The reciprocal of the resistance of a combination of a number of resistors connected in parallel is equal to the sum of the reciprocal of the individual resistances.

R2 = 1+2+3 = 6Ω R ×R2 6 x6 36 1 _________ _______ _____ R = = = = 3Ω R1+R2 6+6 12 (c) Here we have 3 parallel combinations of 2 resistances each connected in series.13). A number of bulbs are connected in a circuit. 3. produced due to electric current. R1 = 1+2+3 = 6Ω.5 Ω 3+3 6 2 R = R1 + R2 + R3 = ½ + 1 + 3/2 = 3Ω CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 12. . 12. Decide whether the bulbs are connected in series or in parallel. Define the units of (i) current (ii) resistance 2.: 224 : Electrical Energy Solution : (a) Here all resistors are connected in series R=r1+r2+r3+r4+r5+r6=1+2+3+3+2+1=12Ω (b) Here we have two series combination of 3 resistors in parallel. 12. r1 x r2 1x1 1 _________ _______ ___ = = Ω R = r1 + r2 1+1 2 2 x2 _________ R = = 1Ω 2+2 3 x3 9 3 _________ ___ ____ R = = = = 1. 12. 4. Fig. These changes.2 1. 5. when an extra resistance R is connected (i) series with the battery (ii) parallel to the resistance R. Assume ammeter. how will the following quantities be affected (i) resistance of the wire (ii) current flowing through the wire. What is the reading of ammeter in the adjoining curcuit (Fig. when (i) the whole circuit goes off when one bulb is fused (ii) only the bulb that gets fused goes off. are called effects of electric current. How will the readings of ammeter and voltmeter change in the adjoining circuit (Fig.3 Effects of electric current When current is passed through a conductor some changes take place in and around its material. 12.12 Fig.13 12. When the potential difference across a wire is doubled.12). voltmeter and cell to be ideal devices.

14. They are : (i) Thermal effect (ii) Magnetic effect Let us study these effects of electric current one by one. Detach the contacts after 10 seconds. What to do? (i) Attach connecting wires to the free ends of 10-turn coil permanently.Electrical Energy : 225 : There are two effects of electric current flowing through a conductor that we come across in our day to day life.4 with 20-turn heater coil. Study of thermal effect What do you observe ? You will observe that (i) On passing current through a conductor it gets heated up. 12. thus passing current through it. What do you infer ? Thus.e.3. (ii) The coil is found to be heated when current is passed for a second. 12. (iv) When same voltage is applied across bigger coil less heat is produced in it. (v) Repeat steps 2. ACTIVITY 12.1 Thermal effect of electric current When current is passed through a conductor it gets heated up. connecting wires.5 Aim : To study thermal effect of electric current What you need? Two pieces of the element of electric heater (one of which has 10 turns and the other 20 turns). Fig. (iii) The coil is found to be hotter when greater voltage is applied across it. (iii) Repeat the experiment by passing current for 20 seconds. Now touch the coil and feel it. two dry cells. making series battery and repeat the second step. (ii) Touch the free ends of the connecting wires to the two terminals of dry cell. To study the heating effect of electric current let us perform the following activity. (ii) More heat is produced in a conductor when • more potential difference is applied across it • current is passed through it for more time (t) • more current is passed through the same conductor. (iv) Place two dry cells in contact.3. we conclude that (i) Current has a heating effect. i. . when current is passed through a conducter it gets heated up.

(12...6 Aim : To study the magnetic effect of electric current What do you need? A compass needle. two wooden stands What to do? Copper wire 1...12) Q = I2 Rt = V2 t R (12.13) According to Ohm’s Law : V = IR K=1 12. t = 1 second. using wooden stands. accidently. Q = 1 J Then Q = V I t . connecting wires. This was for the first time discovered by H.....2 Magnetic effect of electric current All of you.. 4... magnetism is just an effect of electric current. 2. Touch the reverse terminals of the battery with the free ends of the connecting wires... in 1820.C. Touch the free ends of the connecting wires to the two terminals of the battery. Attach connecting wires at Fig. 12. Place the magnetic needle on the table. might have played with magnetics.15 Set-up to study the magnetic effect the two ends of the thick of electric current copper wire. observe the magnetic needle again. A magnet attracts small pieces of iron. In fact. nickel and cobalt. Observe the magnetic needle carefully.... It also attracts unlike poles of another magnet and repels like poles. But a stationary magnet does not attract or repel a stationary charge. ACTIVITY 12.. Still electricity and magnetism are intimately related.. A magnet has such interesting properties that you cannot resist possessing one. (ii) The deflection in magnetic needle gets reversed when the direction of flow of current through the wire is reversed. . Let us perform an activity to understand oersted’s discovery. 5. so that Magnetic the wire is parallel to the axis compass of the magnetic needle. 3...3. A pivoted magnetic needle always stays in north-south direction and is used as a magnetic compass. Oersted. What do you observe ? (i) The magnetic needle gets deflected whenever an electric current is passed through the thick copper wire.: 226 : Electrical Energy Thus it can be seen that heat produced Q α VIt or Q = kVIt If V = 1 volt. I = 1 A.. a dry cell.. I am sure.. a thick copperwire.. Stretch the thick copper wire over the magnetic needle.... It will stay in northWooden stand south direction.

Fig. (iii) Time for which current is passed is doubled.4 ELECTRIC ENERGY AND ELECTRIC POWER We have seen in the previous section that when V volts is applied across a conductor and I amperes flows through it.13 then becomes Q = Pt = VIT = qv (12. 12.16 Right hand grip rule CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 12. 12. The magnetic field around a conductor carrying conductor is in the form of closed circular loops.3 1. Which will produce more heat in 1 second – a 1 ohm resistance on 10V or a 10 ohm resistance on the same voltage? Give reason for your answer.17. According to the rule. When plug is inserted in key K. hold the conductor is your right hand with thumb pointing in the direction of electric current. The electrical energy consumed in one second is called electric power and is given by P = Q = VI t Equation 12. scientists have devised a number of electric gadgets that we use in our houses for our comfort. Name a household electric device based on (i) thermal effect (ii) magnetic effect of electric current.17 12. the curling figures point is the direction of the magnetic field. How will the heat produced in a conductor change in each of the following cases? (i) The current flowing through the conductor is doubled.Electrical Energy : 227 : We conclude that a magnetic field is developed around a conductor when electric current is passed through it. then the energy produced in the conductor in t seconds is given by Q = VIt Actually this equation holds true in whatever form the electrical energy may be consumed. How much heat is produced in the conductor? 4. (ii) Voltage across the conductor is doubled. 12. 1 A current flows though a conductor of resistance 10 ohms for 1/2 minute. in a plane perpendicular to the conductor. 2. This observation is called magnetic effect of electric current. Making use of these devices.15) . then. 3. You will learn about some of these devices in the next lesson. Direction of magnetic field Magnetic compass Direction of electric current Fig. 5.14) (12. indicate the direction of magnetic field developed around wire AB in Fig. and is given by right hand grip rule.

Some of the important power plants of India are listed below : 1. (c) Periyar hydroelectric power station. Uttar Pradesh. we had developed a total installed capacity of more than 103 billion watts of power utilities.where potential energy of water stores in a dam is used for generating electricity. (d) Neyveli thermal power station.17) (12. has the same unit. Bihar. Nuclear power plants (a) Tarapore atomic power station. Maharashtra. joule (J). Tamilnadu (d) Iddika hydroelectric power house. for judging the progress of a nation and the standard of living of its people. with high targets of capacity additions in our future plans.4. (ii) Thermal power plant . Kerala.4.2 Electric power generation and consumption in India One of the criteria. (i) . Therefore for commercial purposes we use a very big unit for measuring electrical energy. (c) Barauni thermal power station.where a fossil fuel is burnt to produce steam which runs a turbine to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Thermal power plants (a) Badarpur thermal Power Station. 3. Tamil Nadu. Punjab (b) Rihand hydel power house. Orissa.6 X 106 J. (e) Umiam hydroelectric power station. Kota.: 228 : Electrical Energy 12. (12. called kilo watt hour (kWh) IkWh = 1000 x 3600 = 3. horse power (HP).1 Commercial units of electrical energy and electric power In SI units. India has come a long way in its efforts to generate and use electrical energy. Rana Pratap Sagar. Hydel power plants (a) Bhakra -Nangal hydroelectric power plant. (iii) Atomic power plant . Delhi (b) Talcher thermal power house. There are three types of large scale electricity. (b) Rajasthan atomic power station. generating plants : Hydroelectric power plants . the situation is not very unsatisfactory when it comes to the considerations of resources available. is the electrical energy generated and used by it. 1 HP = 746 watt 12. But in our houses we consume so much of electrical energy daily that joule proves to be a small unit for practical purposes. Assam 2. energy in each of its form.where nuclear energy obtained from a fissionable material like uranium is used to run a turbine. Assam. Though per capita electricity available to our people is still very low as compared to the per capita electricity available in developed and oil rich countries. Till 31st December 2001. (e) Namrup thermal power station.18) For electric power also commercially we use a bigger unit.

Tamil Nadu. Kalpakkam.18 x 103 x 30 t = 125.492 kW Q = Pt = 1.4 x 10 2 x 103 2000 x t 62. . (alternating current) at 50 hertz.7 s = Example 12. 250V electric bulb. we have to import fossil fuels the production is not to the full installed capacity. This power can be further stepped up to higher voltages using transformers and hence can be transmitted to long distances without much loss of power.18 x 103 J kg-1 C-1 60 – 30 = 300C.Electrical Energy : 229 : (c) Madras atomic power station. natural gas and diesel as fuel.492 x 10 kWh = 14. Express the result in joules.6 x 10 J = Example 12. geothermal energy or oceanic energy. solar power. Uttar pradesh.5% nuclear and the rest use other resources like wind energy.8 : How many kilowatt hour of energy will be consumed by a 2HP motor in 10 hours? Solution : P = 2 HP = 2 x 746 W = 1.92 kWh . Thus a change in shift to other sources becomes imperative. Solution : Q = Pt = = 2 x 2 kWh 6 = 625 Ω = 4 kWh 14. Because.4 x 106 J 4 x 3.5 Find the resistance of the filament of 100W. In India all the major plants produce A.19) Mass of 1 litre of water (m)= Specific heat of water (c) = P = 2 kW = 2000W = 3 Rise in temperature of water (θ) = Substituting in equation (12.. 11000 volts or more.19) we get 1 x 4. 2.7 How much time will a 2 kW immersion rod take to raise the temperature of 1 litre of water from 300 to 60°. Solution : P = = V2 P 250 x 250 100 Example 12.6 Calculate the energy consumed in a 2 kW electric heater in 2 hours. 7% thermal.C. Example 12.. Solution : Q Q mcθ = = = Pt mcθ pt 1 kg 4. (d) Narora atomic power station. This shows that main thrust by now has been on thermal power plants which use coal.(12. Of the total electrical power generation facilities available in India about 25% are hydel..

220V lamp can withstand? 3.9 : A potential difference of 250V is applied across a resistance of 1000 ohm. Which has a higher resistance a 40W. What is the maximum current that a 100W. E = F/q Work is done in moving a charge against electric field which is stored up as potential energy of the charge. S. 5. Potential energy per coulomb of charge at a point is called potential. total resistance of the combination is equal to the sum of the individual resistances. • • • • • • • • • . Resistances may be connected in two different independent ways (i) in series. Positive charge always moves from a higher potential to a lower potential and vice-versa. when charge is placed at a point in the field it possesses potential energy. In parallel. reciprocal of the combined resistance is equal to the sum of the reciprocals of the individual resistances. Ohm’s law states that current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference applied between its ends. Charge acquired by a glass rod rubbed with silk is positive and that acquired by an ebonite rod rubbed with fur is negative. What is its power? • • • • LET US REVISE When two bodies are rubbed together in contact. if the bulb is lighted 4 hours daily. How many units of electricity will be consumed by a 60W lamp in 30 days.I. Electric cell is a device with the help of which we can apply a potential difference between the two ends of a wire due to which current will flow through the wire. An electric heater is used on 220V supply and draws a current of 5 A. (ii) in parallel. Like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other. provided temperature and other physical conditions of the conductor remain unchanged. How many joules of electrical energy will a quarter horse power motor consume in one hour.: 230 : Electrical Energy Example 12. We say the bodies are electrified or charged by friction. Unit of resistance is ohm. Ratio of voltage applied across a conductor and the current flowing through it is called resistance of the conductor.4 1. 220W bulb or a 1 kW electric heater? 2. Calculate the heat energy produced in the resistance in 10 s. they acquire a peculiar property of attracting small bits of paper. Solution : Q = V2t = 250 x 250 x 10 = 625 J R 1000 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 12. Hence. 4. The force between two charges is given by Coulomb’s law according to which K q1 q2 F = ______________ r2 Force per coulomb of charge at a point is called electric field. Charges are of two types. In series.

Fill in the blanks. Unit of electric power is __________. 2. 5. of the two wires made of the same material and having same thickness the longer one has __________ resistance C. J C is the unit of (a) Current (b) Charge (c) Resistance (d) Potential 3. respectively. 5. Commercial unit of electrical energy is kWh and that of electric power is HP. What is the potential difference between the terminals of a battery if 250 J of work is required to transfer 20C of charge from one terminal of the battery to the other. What is the conventional direction of flow of electric current? Do the charge carriers in the conductor flow in the same direction ? Explain ? 7. Out of ammeter and voltmeter which is connected us series and which is connected in parallel ? 8. 3. The director of magnetic field around a current carrying conductor is determined using __________. 6. 2. A current carrying conductor carries a __________ field arount it. Name the instruments used to measure (a) current (b) potential difference. Give a one word name for the unit (a) J C-1 (b) C S-1 4. 4. 5. India is gradually moving towards its target of providing enough electric power to its people but still we have a long way to go. Give the symbols of (a) cell (b) battery (c) resistor (d) voltmeter. The device which converts chemical energy into electrical energy is called (a) electric fan (b) electric generator (c) electric cell (d) electric heater.Electrical Energy : 231 : • • • Current when passed through a conductor produces two effects. (i) Thermal effect. Combining these two resistances what other resistances can you obtain? . You are given two resistances of 3 ohm and 6 ohm. TERMINAL EXERCISES A. When current is passed through a conductor its temperature __________. 1. The resistance of a conductor does not depend on its (a) temperature (b) length (c) thickness (d) shape B. 1. Charge left on A after separation will be :(a) Q (B) Q/2 (C) Zero (D) 2Q -1 2. A charged conductor ‘A’ having charge is touched to an identical uncharged conductor ‘B’ and removed. 1. Descriptive type questions. Multiple choice type questions. Which of the following materials is an electrical insulator? (a) Mica (b) Copper (c) Tungsten (d) Iron 4. Name the quantity measured by the unit (a) NC-1 (b) C S-1 3.(ii) Magnetic effect.

.8 ohm. 12. 14. find : (i) Total resistance of the circuit.20 resistor You are given three resistors of 1 ohm. Show by diagrams. 12. (ii) Potential difference across 12 ohm Fig. For the circuit shown alongside (Fig.20). Also give their location. (a) Hydel power plants (b) Thermal power plants (c) Nuclear power plants 16. 12.18.21 (iii) The potential difference across 4 Ω resistor What is the fuel used in : (a) an atomic power plant (b) a thermal power plant What is the (a) frequency (b) voltage of electricity. (ii) Ammeter (A) reading (iii) Current flowing through 2 ohm resister 12. 12.19 13.5 Ω. 12.5 Ω A resistor of 8 Ω is connected in parallel with another resistor of X Ω. Fig.19). find (i) Total resistance of the circuit. The resultant resistance of the combination is 4. 10. (i) What is the current through 5 ohm resistance? Fig. (ii) Total current flowing through the circuit Fig. 12. Two resistances are connected in series as shown in fig. how will you connect these resistors to get (a) 6/11 Ω (b) 6 Ω (e) 1.: 232 : Electrical Energy 9. find the value of : (i) Current through 6 ohm resistor.21). What is the value of resistor X In the adjoining circuit (Fig. Two resistances when connected in series give 8 Ω and when connected in parallel give 1. 19. 2 ohm and 3 ohm. 12. supplied in our homes ? Name two of each of the following types of power plants in India. 11. 18. What is the value of these resistances ? Which effect of electric current can be utilized in detecting a current carrying wire concealed in a wall? Name the scientist who discovered this effect. 12. 17. 15.18 (ii) What is the value of R? (iii) What is the value of V? In the circuit shown alongside (Fig.

Negative charge. more   t R heat will flow is 1s in 1 ohm resistor. Unit of resistance is ohm .2 1. 4. _______ –6 10 12. 12.25 x 10 electrons e 1. When R is connected in series readings of voltmeter and ammeter will reduce to half. ⇒ F´ = K 1 2 _______________ 2q × 2q (r/2)2 = 8F (i) v = 5. 2. (i) Heat produced becomes four times (ii) heat produced becomes four times . 1A is the current in a wire in which 1C charge flows in 1 second. (ii) Unit of potential is 1 volt. If only one bulb goes off and the rest of the circuit remains working the bulbs are connected in parallel. reading of ammeter is doubled but reading of voltmeter remains unchanged. = 107V q 10 KQq Ur 10 × 0. = (i) (ii) Unit of current is ampere.Electrical Energy : 233 : 20. Q = V ´ This implies that more the resistance less the power. Therefore. Resistance of the wire remains unaffected current flowing through the wire is doubled.6 x 10 F = U k ____ 1 2 ________ qq r2 3. When R is connected in parallel to R. Volts is the potential at a point in an electric field such that if IC positive charge is brought from outside the field to this point against the field 1 J work is done. (i) (ii) 3.1 ohm is the resistance of a wire across which when 1V potential difference is applied 1A current flows through it.3 1.1 1. IC charge is the charge which when placed at a distance of 1 m from an equal like charge repels it with of force of 9 x 109 N.5 5 (ii) U = __________ = r = ______ = ____________________ = ____ × 10–3C 9 –6 r Kq 9 × 10 × 10 9 (i) Unit of charge is Coulomb. 1A. If the whole circuit goes off when one bulb is fused the bulbs are connected in series. 2. q 10 x 10-6 13 n =     –19  = 6. (i) (ii) (i) (ii) 5. Wool acquires postive charge. 2. 4. What are the three types of electric power plants in India? How do they differ from one another? ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 12.

Q = I Rt = 1 x 10 x 30 = 300 J. 5. . P P 100 5 I = ____ = ______ = ____ A. refer section 12. 2 _____ 746 Q = Pt = ________ × 3600 J = 675400 J.: 234 : Electrical Energy 3. 4.2 (i) Electric heater (ii) Electric fan 2 R = V = 40W lamp has higher resistance.3. 3.2 kWh. 2. V 220 11 Q = Pt = 60 × 30 × 4 = 7200 Wh = 7. 4. (iii) heat produced is doubled. 5.4 1. 4 P = VI = 220 × 5 = 1100 watt. 12.

• demonstrate the flow of electric current in a closed loop of conducting wire when magnetic field associated with it is changed. • draw circuit diagram to indicate how wiring is done to supply electric power to various devices in our houses or in industry. It is evident here that the magnetic field due to the loop at its centre is . • state the hazards involved in using electric energy and describe safety measures to minimize them. We will try to understand how electrical energy is generated.1 shows magnetic field due to a circular loop of wire carrying current.1 ELECTROMAGNETISM In the previous lesson we have seen that a magnetic field is developed around a current carrying conductor due to which a magnetic needle placed alongside shows deflection from its N-S orientation. we can say that man has gained a partial control over forces of nature with the help of electrical energy.c. The principle. construction and working of electric motor. you will be able to: • explain the principle and working of an electric motor. electric iron. generator and some of the domestic electric gadgets will be explained.13 Electricity in Our Homes Today. electric bell. dish washer. generator. • explain the principle and working of an a. refrigerator. electric heater. The important features of distribution systems and domestic wiring systems will also be highlighted in this lesson. radio. In this lesson also. In a way. Our households are full of electrical appliances such as electric bulb. television. In the previous lesson you studied about the story of the wonderful genie of electrical energy. washing machine. Use of electricity in the transport system is also increasing. electricity has become so essential part of our life that we can not think of life without it. • highlight the importance of fuse and earthing in electrical circuits. electric fan. 13. distributed and used. we will continue with the same story and highlight its uses in our daily life. 13. and • identify different household electrical appliances and explain their construction and working. air conditioner and so on. Fig. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. Electricity runs our industries and pumps out water for irrigation of our fields.

13. we can reverse the polarity of electromagnet. The current-carrying loop. then the current-carrying loop stretched thumb indicates that end of the coil.2 A solenoid carrying current behaves like a magnet Table 13. one face of it being North Pole and the other South Pole. Fig. A comparison of an electromagnet and a permanent magnet is given in the table below.: 236 : Electricity in Our Homes quite strong. ii) number of turns in the coil is increased. If you wind the coil on a cylindrical tube of cardboard and study the magnetic field by placing a magnetic needle inside it we can see that the magnetic field inside the coil increases when.1. in fact. behaves as a magnet. the coil will behave as a temporary magnet – one end serving as a north pole and the other as a south pole. Electromagnet An electromagnet is a temporary magnet. It remains magnet only for the duration the current flows through it. 13. Just by reversing the direction of current flow. Bar magnet is a weak magnet. The poles of a permanent magnet cannot be easily reversed. The strength of a bar magnet cannot be changed.1 Magnetic field due to a fingers pointing in the direction of the current. The strength of an electromagnet can be changed by changing the amount of current flowing through it. which functions as the north pole. Electromagnet produces comparatively stronger field. If we make a cylindrical coil of insulated wire having many turns (called solenoid) and pass current through it. 13.2).1 : Distinction between a bar magnet and an electromagnet Bar magnet Bar magnet is a permanent magnet. because. The stretched thumb also indicates the direction of the magnetic field inside the coil. . Hold your right hand above the coil with the curling Fig. iii) length of the coil is decreased. i) the current flowing through the coil is increased. and iv) a soft iron bar is introduced in the card board tube. every part of the current loop is providing field in the same sense.1 Electromagnets A current-carrying solenoid with soft iron core is called an electromagnet (Fig. This rule is called the right hand thumb rule. 13.

suspend flexible joint J. (ii) the amplitude of swing increases when the strength of the electromagnet is increased by increasing the current in it or when the current in the wire is increased. as a result of which the circuit breaks and wire falls back and swings in and out of the mercury cup. . (vi) Repeat the experiment by increasing current in the electromagnet and the wire AB. one by one. (iii) Connect the positive terminal of the battery with J and the negative terminal to a rheostat which is connected to an ammeter and a tapping key. two batteries. one plug key. a rheostat. (v) Insert plug in key K2 and press K1. 13. two ammeters. one tapping key. mercury in a shallow dish.3 Experimental set-up to demonstrate force on a current carrying conductor You will observe that (i) on pressing key. What to do ? (i) Place the dish containing mercury between the pole pieces of the electromagnet. Wire from the other end of the tapping key is dipped in mercury. (iii) The magnitude of the force also increases with the increase in the strength of the magnetic field.1 Aim : To study the forece experienced by a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field. the wire AB swings out of the pole pieces of the electromagnet.1. What do you observe ? + – S A T K1 A + – B N S K2 Fig. two rheostats. ACTIVITY 13. a flexible joint J and connecting wires. an ammeter and a plug key across the electromagnet as shown in figure 13.2 Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field Oersted’s experiment showed that a current carrying conductor deflects a magnetic needle. (ii) The force increases with an increase in the current flowing through the conductor. Newton’s third law of motion suggests that a current-carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field should experience a force. What do you infer ? (i) A current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field experiences a force due to which the conductor moves out of the mercury cup. What do you need ? A U-shaped magnet. (ii) From a rigid support T.3. Let the thick copper wire AB hang on J so that its lower end B just touches mercury. (iv) Connect a battery.Electricity in Our Homes : 237: 13.

One free end of the coil is welded with X and the other with Y. Contact brushes (PQ) kept in contact with the half-rings of the commutator to provide for the convenience of supplying current to the coil through them.6 Construction of an electric motor .: 238 : Electricity in Our Homes The direction of the force experienced by a conductor placed in a magnetic field is perpendicular to the direction of current as well as magnetic field and is given by Fleming’s Left Hand Rule. the thumb will indicate the direction of the force experienced by the conductor (Fig. Rectangular coil (ABCD) with large number of turns of insulated copper wire mounted on a rotor shaft R and having a soft iron core (core not shown in figure).5 Diagram showing application of Faraday’s discovery of force experienced by a Flemings Left Hand Rule current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field was a great discovery. 13. then.4). which is a copper ring split in two part X and Y and mounted on the rotor shaft. mixer-juicer-grinders. C R B iii) N D PX YQ + – Battery A S iv) Fig.5. An electric motor is a device that can convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. 13. Force Magnetic field Current Fig. centrifuges. because it helped in the development of electric motor. is the main component of electric fans. 13. which is a U-shaped permanent magnet with cylindrically curved pole pieces. For example.6) consists of the following parts: i) ii) Field magnet (N-S). Electric motor. Split ring commutator (XY). a) Construction of electric motor An electric motor (Fig. 13.1. 13.3 Electric motor South Fig. etc.4 Diagram to illustrate Flemings Left Hand Rule East B Force 13. the central finger and the thumb of your left hand at right angles to each other in such a way that the forefinger points in the direction of magnetic field and the central finger is in the direction of current. 13. as you already know. if we consider a horizontal magnetic field running west to east in which a conductor hangs vertically and the current in it flows in a vertically downward direction. if you hold the forefinger. electric churners. then the wire will experience a force in southward direction as shown in Fig. According to this rule.

7 Electric current induced in a coil due to a moving magnet What to do? Hold the coil horizontally. by changing magnetic field associated with it. Move the magnet towards the coil. These two. unlike equal parallel forces acting on the coil. 13. a galvanometer N G S Fig. It can be seen by applying Fleming’s Left Hand Rule that on the strand DC the force due to magnetic field acts in vertically downward direction where as on BA it acts in vertically upward direction. tend to rotate it. unlike parallel forces giving rotation to the coil in the same sense (anti-clockwise). Name the rule you will use to find the direction of magnetic field due to a current loop. Connect free ends to a galvanometer. current flows through the coil. as shown. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 13.2 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION It again occurred to Faraday that if electric current can give rise to magnetic field. Give two factors on which the strength of an electromagnet depends. Thus the coil and the shaft attached with it rotate continuously till the current is passed. 3. Move it away from the coil. 13. ACTIVITY 13. One of the experiments that Faraday performed to demonstrate the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction you can also try in the form of the following activity. State Fleming’s Left Hand Rule. Give two points of difference between an electromagnet and a permanent magnet. a changing magnetic field should also give rise to electric current. What is the rule used for? 2. State the rule. Hold the magnet at a distance from the coil. 5. State the principle of working of an electric motor. This phenomenon of producing electric current in a coil. ii) The galvanometer pointer swings in one direction when the magnet moves towards the coil and in the opposite direction when the magnet moves away from the coil. a tightly wound cylindrical coil of insulated copper wire mounted on an insulating pipe. 4.1 1. Move the magnet towards and away from the coil at a faster rate. Now the current in AB and CD again provides for a pair of equal.2 Aim : To induce current in a coil by changing the magnetic field associated with it What do you need? A strong magnet. . is called electromagnetic induction. What do you observe? i) The galvanometer shows a deflection whenever the magnet is moved relative to the coil. The coil makes a half rotation. Then the strands AB and CD interchange their positions and so do half-rings Q and P.Electricity in Our Homes : 239: b) Principle and working of electric motor When the contact brushes P and Q are connected to a battery.

This will induce a continuously changing current in the coil. generators.c.8. . More rapidly the field is changed greater is the magnitude of the induced current. Depending on the way the energy is tapped out and the type of current we get in the output.c. generators are of two types: • Direct current (d. iv) The deflection in the galvanometer is more when the magnet moves faster. generator consists of the following parts: Rectangular coil ABCD made of very large number of turns of insulated copper wire. This phenomenon of a changing magnetism into electricity is called electromagnetic induction and is the principle behind an electric generator.) generators: These provide an output current. What do you infer? An electric current is induced in a coil whenever the magnetic field associated with the coil is changed.) generators: These provide steady and unidirectional current output. When magnetic field threading the coil increases. ii) Rotor shaft R attached to a rotating system (viz.2. • Alternating current (a. 13. 13.c. it flows in opposite direction.1 Electric generator Electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Most of the generators in use these days are a. the magnetic field associated with the coil will change continuously. i) b Pivot c N S a d B1 Rl S1 S2 B2 R Rotating system Fig. a) Principle of an electric generator If we rotate a rectangular coil of wire in a uniform magnetic field about an axis perpendicular to the field lines. which varies continuously in magnitude and periodically in direction.c. 13. the pointer of the galvanometer returns to zero position when the magnet is stopped at any position.: 240 : Electricity in Our Homes iii) The galvanometer shows deflection only when the magnet is moving. a turbine. Let us study the construction and working of this generator.c.) generator An a. the current flows in one direction but when the field associated with the coil decreases. generator is shown in Fig. wound over an insulated frame and mounted on a rotor shaft.8 An alternating current (a.c. b) Construction of an alternating current generator The construction and working of an a. not shown in the figure) with the help of which it can be rotated rapidly between the pole pieces of the field magnet.

mounted on the rotor shaft insulted from each other and insulated from the shaft. The rate. d) is connected to S2. is the maximum in the beginning and then it decreases continuously.9 Current in the coil of generator as it rotates . The magnetic field entering into the face ABCD of the coil increases from zero to some finite value and continues to increase till the coil becomes normal to the field. to begin with. generator let us consider that the coil. When the coil becomes normal to the field the rate at which flux changes becomes zero and hence current in the coil is zero. iv) A pair of slip rings S1 and S2. 13. Thus the current in the coil decreases and attains a zero value when the coil is normal to the field. 13. One free end of the coil wire (say.c.Electricity in Our Homes : 241: iii) Field magnet N-S is a strong horse shoe type permanent magnet.9 shows the positions of the coil at crucial stages of rotation and the current in the coil at these instants. The current starts flowing in the initial direction and attains a maximum value when the coil comes in the position we started with. Thus the induced current in the coil is maximum at time. which are metallic rings. Fig. and decreases with passing time. The field entering into the face DCBA now continues increasing till the coil again becomes parallel to the field at which position we find that the field linked with the coil is zero but change in magnetic flux is maximum resulting in maximum current. Io O Io b c b c c b c b b c a a B1 B2 t=o B=o I=Io d a d S1 S2 B1 B2 S1 S2 B1 B2 S1 S2 d a d B1 B2 S1 S2 B1 B2 t=T B=o I=o S1 S2 a d t=T/4 B=max I=o T=T/2 B=max I= – Io T=3T/4 B=max I=o Fig. is parallel to the magnetic field lines and starts rotating in anti-clockwise direction. c) Working of an alternating current generator To understand the working of an a. kept in contact with S1 and S2. 13. Then again the face of the coil turning towards the north pole is reversed.8 and is called load. t = 0. As the coil rotates further the flux linked with DCBA increases with a lesser rate of change in field. through which current is taken out and passed in external circuits or appliances connected across them. The appliance connected across the generator is shown by RL in Fig. v) Contact brushes B1 and B2 are metallic (or carbon) brushes. at which the magnetic field linked with the coil changes. When the coil further rotates the face of the coil through which magnetic field enters starts changing and hence the direction of field-change and hence direction of current is reversed. a) is connected to S1 and the other (say.

Such a current is called alternating current. 13. But we have developed devices. According to the rule.3 DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER Generators are to be constructed near the source of energy. Explain. A transformer. .3.1 Transmission system Long distance transmission of DC power is technically impractical and financially nonviable. Who discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction? 13.2 1. What is meant by electromagnetic induction? 2. is called step-down transformer. 3. Power is generated on large scale at one place and then it is distributed to consumers situated at far off places from the generating stations.10 Diagram to illustrate Fleming’s Right Hand Rule CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 13.9 is the actual direction we obtain for the given situation. is called step-up transformer and the one. 13. State the principle of working of an electric generator. 5.: 242 : Electricity in Our Homes Thus. the forefinger and the central finger of your right hand at right angles to each other and hold them in such a way that the North forefinger points in the direction of magnetic Induced field and thumb in the direction to motion current West B of the conductor then the central finger will Magnetic field point in the direction of the induced current Motion (Fig. When a strong permanent magnet is moved towards the solenoid. stretch the thumb. Vertically downward Fig. which can increase or decrease the magnitude of alternating voltage. we have to transmit power at the same voltage at which it is generated.10 is towards north as shown. which decreases the level of voltage. 4. Because. the bulb glows. d) Direction of induced current: Fleming’s Right Hand Rule The direction of induced current that is indicated in Fig. State Fleming’s Right Hand Rule and its use. Using this law now you can easily check that the direction of induced current in Fig. You cannot construct a dam for every house or a thermal power plant for every industry. These devices are called transformers. The direction of current induced in a conductor moving in a magnetic field is given by Fleming’s Right Hand Rule. which increases the level of voltage. a continuously varying current which changes its directions after every T/2 seconds is obtained. 13. 13. An LED is connected across a long solenoid (see the adjoining figure).10). How is it done? The conductor system through which electric power is conveyed from a generating station to consumer’s premises may be divided in two parts: • Transmission System • Distribution System 13.

13. One of these wires is at a high potential of 220V. The other wire is ground potential of zero volt. 50Hz.12 A ring mode distribution system 13.2 Distribution system The distribution system is the arrangement. S S F1 Feeder Substation Feeder F2 S Distributor S S Service Mains Fig. which provides power from town substation to the consumer.Electricity in Our Homes : 243: In a transformer. For neutral wire we can use any colour except red or green. we use for live wire. It is called live wire and is denoted by L. Also the cost of the distribution system decreases substantially.3. S 13. Transmission is done at this high voltage. Distribution line G 220 v Electric pole Electric pole Town substation Step down Transformer Distribution step down Transformer Power station (11 kv) Step-up Transformer (139 KV) Fig. and viceversa. 13.2 kV. Using a step-up transformer this voltage is stepped up to 13.11 A typical transmission system In India.11. 13. if voltage is increased current decreases in the same proportion. Normally. All the appliances in our house are connected in parallel to these two wires. 13. It is called neutral wire and is denoted by N.12. A typical transmission system is shown in Fig. the power losses and voltage drops on lead wires reduce to very low values. Due to low current. it is the ring system that we use. Normally there are two types of distribution systems: • Tree system • Ring system These days.3. 13. sub-distributors and service mains.3 Domestic wiring circuit Through the distribution system the electricity reaches to an electric pole in our street from the pole two insulated copper wires come to our house. The arrangement of various components of ring mode distribution is shown in Fig. Thus. distributors. this voltage is first reduced to 33 kV with the help of a step-down transformer and then 33 kV is stepped down to user level 220V. A typical household circuit is shown in Fig. It involves feeders. At the town substation. 13. 50 Hz using a step-down distribution transformer. . a wire having red-coloured insulation. using a step-up transformer we can transmit power at high voltage and low current. at the generating station the power is normally generated at 11000V. mostly.

may also cause sparking which may lead to an electrical fire. For example. But carelessness in the use of electrical energy may prove to be fatal for the operator as well as for the installation. Name the electrical device used to increase or decrease the magnitude of voltage. . Which effect of electric current is used in the working of an electric fuse? 3. Can it be used with direct current? 5. Defects in household wiring like loose connections. In domestic electrical wiring. (iii) A third wire of green colour called earth wire also runs along with live and neutral wires. (ii) All fuses and switches are to be placed on live wire. Three specific features of the circuit are to be specially noted. 4. • Short-circuiting due to damaged wiring or overloading of the circuit can cause electrical fire. Switching off a bulb in one room has no effect on other lamps in the same building. on which wire do we normally place switch to operate light? 2. suggested in the next subsection below. defective switches. plugs. electricity is the most convenient form of energy. which may damage the building.13 A typical domestic electric wiring circuit from electric pole to a room consisting of bulb. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 13. sockets. • If a person touches a live wire he or she may get a severe shock which may lead even to death.4 HAZARDS IN USING ELECTRICAL ENERGY When used with care. 13. therefore. Why? 13. These are as follows: (i) All the appliances are connected in parallel. a fan and a plug prompt.: 244 : Electricity in Our Homes Meter Main fuse L From electric pole Main switch Main fuse To other rooms N B Fan Sub circuit fuse S1 S2 Room -1 E Fig. Why are domestic appliances connected in parallel? Give one reason. Bodies of all electrical appliances are earthed through this wire. etc.3 1. What are the advantages in transmission of electric power at high voltage? 6. Some precautions and safety measures are.

4. This naked live wire may touch the metal case of an electrical appliance raising its voltage to the level of the main voltage. rubber shoes and use tools with insulted handles. sockets. The metal body of the appliance if connected to ground. c) Switch off the mains before you start working on a repair job on the electrical circuit. d) In case of an electrical accident switch off the main switch of electrical supply. should be immediately replaced. In any case do not touch him directly. Overloading of electrical circuit results. Plugs. plugs. • • Short-circuiting takes place when a naked live wire touches a naked neutral wire. b) Short circuiting and over loading These are two faults in electrical circuits due to which heavy current may flow through the circuit resulting in the overheating of conducting live wires and consequent fire in the installation. switches and electrical appliances used should be ISI marked.2 Causes of electrical hazards There are basically three causes behind most electrical hazards: • Current leakage • Short-circuiting • Overloading a) Current leakage Some times. current will flow through it to the ground resulting in current leakage. when the number of appliances operated on the circuit at the same time exceeds the limits the circuit wiring can withstand. due to wear and tear or due to excessive heating. 13. In case it is necessary to work on live circuit put on rubber gloves. the insulation covering of connecting wires is removed and the wire becomes naked. Ensure that the fuses are placed on live wires and are of proper current rating. We know that in household circuits all the appliances are connected in parallel. e) Ensure that the safety measures of earthing and fuse are properly done in your household electrical circuit. Never use water to extinguish fire arisen due to electrical sparking. In parallel circuits as we add more and more resistors (appliances) in parallel more current is drawn from the supply. sockets.1 Precautions in the use of electrical energy a) For household wiring always use good quality wires having proper thickness and insulation. b) All the switches in your household electrical wiring circuit should be placed on the live wire of the circuit so that when the switch is off. All the wire connections should be tight and all the wire joints should be covered with an insulating tape. the appliance is disconnected from the live wire and on touching the device you do not get shock.4. Normally sub-standard wires wear out soon and may cause short-circuiting. etc. Body of a person also acts like a conductor and a person who touches the metal case of a current leaking appliance may get a shock. . Try to insulate the person who has received a shock. Defective switches.Electricity in Our Homes : 245: 13.

What will you do if you see a person in contact with a live wire? 6.3 Safety devices used in electrical circuits a) Electric fuse Electric fuse is a weak link in the electrical circuit. The free end of the earth wire is attached to a copper plate buried deep in the ground.: 246 : Electricity in Our Homes A slight omission causing short circuiting or overloading may. runs all through the circuits along with live and neutral wires. Metal bodies of all the appliances are kept connected with the earth wire. It is a short piece of a thin wire made of a lead-tin alloy. Some of these appliances are based on thermal effect an electric current and the other are based on magnetic effect. Why do electricians wear. i. connected to earth. . 3. 15A fuse wire is thicker then a 5A fuse wire.5 HOUSEHOLD ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES There is a long list of electrical appliances that we use in our houses for convenience in our work and comfort. cause fire and damage the whole installation. b) Earthing the electrical appliance To avoid shock due to current leakage in electrical appliances the metal body of the appliance is earthed.e. when current in the circuit starts increasing the specified limit the fuse wire gets heated up and blows off. State two hazards associated with the use of electricity. In this section we will study the construction and working of some of the important electrical appliances we use in our houses. 13. The above discussion shows how important the provisions of earthing and fuse are in our electrical circuits. This leaves the body of electrical appliances at the same potential (zero) as the earth and hence when we touch the metal body we do not get shock. Consequently. Depending on the circuit specification we use fuse wires of different current rating normally 5A for domestic lights and 15A for domestic power.4 1. A safety device against this is a fuse. An electric fuse wire is always placed in series with the main supply on the live wire.4. What is the usual rating of an electric fuse used in the following: (i) lighting circuits (ii) power circuits 5. The fuse wire thus saves the installation from getting damaged. therefore. rubber shoes or rubber hand gloves while working on electric circuits? 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 13. a third wire is also used in domestic electrical wiring. What is the name of this third wire? What is the purpose of this wire? 13. For this purpose a separate wire. Why is a fuse wire is made of a tin-lead alloy? 4. called earth wire. Earthing is thus a safety device incorporated in an electric circuit to protect the operator. Along with live wire and neutral wire. The material that a fuse wire is made of has a low melting point and high resistance as compared to the material of live wire. We have already studied these effects in the previous lesson.

and mercury vapour Base Lamp Mountain panel To on/off switch Fig.Electricity in Our Homes : 247: 13. 13. electric room heater. When the bulb is put in its holder and switched on.1 Electrical appliances based on thermal effect of electric current When potential difference is applied across a conductor. electric iron. The Holder pins mercury vapours give off both visible and ultra violet light. 13. such as electric bulb. electric kettle. and • upper cover with handle of insulating material such as bakalite. Tube filled with Argon gas. electric water heater. etc.15 Fluorescent lamp . • heating element. If we closely examine an electric bulb we find that a small coil of tungsten wire (melting point 3300 K) called filament is mounted on insulating supports inside the bulb. As a result the conductor gets heated up. i) Incandescent lamp: An incandescent lamp. ii) Fluorescent lamp: A fluorescent lamp has a filament sealed in one end of a glass tube and another electrode at the other end. The heat so produced can be utilized in a number of electrical appliances. is based upon the principle that when a conductor having a high melting point is heated electrically to a high temperature it becomes incandescent and starts emitting light. current 220 v 60 w flows through the filament heating it to incandescence. The ultra violet light strikes the fluorescent coating Base Contacts on the inside surface of the glass tube and causes it to glow brilliantly.5. • pressure plate. This is the reason why their efficiency is comparatively high. The colour of the light given off by the Fig. soldering iron. A brief description of some of these devices is given below. a) Electric lamps Generally two types of electric lamps are used in our houses for producing light • incandescent lamps • fluorescent lamps. The two ends of the filament are taken to the base of the bulb by two thick metal leads. An electric current is then set up through the mercury Brass cap vapours from one end of the tube to the other. electric oven. the free electrons in it move up the potential to minimize their potential energy. b) Electric iron or electric press An electric iron basically has four parts: • base plate. In doing so they collide with other particles of the material of the conductor on their way. This entire assembly is enclosed in a sealed glass bulb filled with noble gases at low pressure (Fig. Glass Bulb The inert gas in the glass bulb prevents the filament from Filament getting oxidised at that high temperature. 13. Fluorescent lamps produce a great deal of light with little heat. which is also called an electric bulb.14). The tube contains little amount of mercury that vaporizes when the filament gets hot.14 Incandescent lamp lamp depends upon the material used for the fluorescent coating.

(i) Base Plate (ii) Cast iron pressure plate (iii) Heating element (b) Room Heater Fig.18). 13. The heating element is placed between the base plate and the pressure plate.E. The electric stove and room heaters (a) Electric stove are two such devices (Fig. You might have seen electric Coil Rubber sealing kettles of different shapes and sizes being used in houses. Fig. The metallic tube is coiled in a few turns so that its long length may be accommodated in a smaller space and as such may remain in contact with the liquid to be heated. Terminal e) Electric immersion heater An immersion heater consists of a heating element made of nichrome wire housed in a metallic tube. When electric current is passed through the heating element. Code Element 3-Pin plug top Fig. Mica has a special property that it acts as an insulator for electricity but as a conductor for heat. 13. The design of an electrical immersion heater is shown in Fig. Fig. the heating element is mounted in a frame having a highly polished concave reflector at its back. 13.18 Electric kettle offices and restaurants. the heating element is fitted at the bottom of the vessel in such a way that maximum heat from the heating element is conducted to the vessel. it gets heated and starts radiating heat. heat is generated in it that is transferred to the base plate by conduction. of nichrome wire in the form of spiral arranged in the grooves of ceramic plate or rod. 13.17 (a) Electric stove (b) Room heater In heat radiators. In an electric kettle. c) Electric heater and electric heat radiators These devices have heating elements made H. The heat radiation Lid falling on the concave polished Container Handle reflector are also reflected in the forward direction. 13. mica is used for electrical insulation. In electric irons. between thin strips of mica. When an electric current passes through the heating element. The heated base plate can now be used to iron clothes.16 Electric iron d) Electric kettle It is an electrical device in which heating effect of electric current is used (Fig. which is further enclosed.19. 13.19 Electric immersion heater .17).: 248 : Electricity in Our Homes The heating element consists of fine nichrome strip wound on a mica sheet. The nichrome wire is separated from the metallic tube by filling the intervening space with magnesium oxide powder that is an electrical insulator and a reasonably good conductor of heat. 13. The pressure plate protects the heating element and does not allow it to move from its position.

Mostly a fan uses a Blade permanent capacitor type motor. voltmeter etc. Is fluorescent tube based on heating effect of electric current? 5.21 Parts of a ceiling fan motor.20 Electric bell ends of the windings of the electromagnet are connected to the power supply (battery or the mains) through a make and break arrangement and a push button called the bell push (a kind of switch). As soon as the switch is made an electric current flowing through the motor rotates the blades which circulate air of the room. mixer-grinder and ammeter.20. 13. 3. When the bell push (B) is pressed the electric current flows through the coils of the electromagnet and the soft iron core of the electromagnet becomes magnetized. viz. electric bell and electric fan.5. This magnetized iron core attracts the armature. 13. Condenser housing CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 13.Electricity in Our Homes : 249: 13. The armature due to spring action returns back to original Bubin Bolt position.21 shows the various parts of a ceiling fan. 13. Which material is the filament of an incandescent lamp made of? 2. Back Cover Three blades are symmetrically Motor Back Cover Decorating cup attached to the rotor shaft of the Fig. The process is repeated Shakle again and again. consequently the hammer attached to the armature hits the gong and a loud sound is produced. The electromagnet no more remains magnet. make use of an electromagnet and/or the motor described in section of this lesson. Bolt to hold Condenser Canopy Upper cover (b) Electric fan Terminal connector Bottom canopy Heat bolt Electric fans are used to circulate air in a room. Name a substance that is good conductor of heat but a bad conductor of electricity.5 1. Fig. .2 Electrical appliances based on magnetic effect of electric current All the devices based on magnetic effect of electric current such as electric bell. Below is given a brief description of two of these devices. Name the energy transformation that takes place in an electric fan. 13. But as soon as the armature is attracted by the electromagnet the circuit is broken at the contact screw. What is the role of a polished concave surface behind the element of a room heater? 4. The two Fig. The hammer Top Canopy periodically keeps on hitting the gong Hanging rod Split pin till the push button is not released. AC Mains B Coil Spring Armature Soft-iron core Contact Screw Hammer (a) Electric bell Gong If you closely examine an electric bell you will see that it has a U-shaped electromagnet as shown in Fig. electric fan.

There are two types of transformer (i) step-up transformers. electric kettle. so long as the change in magnetic field is continued. fuse and earthing are very important safety provisions. Long distance transmission of a. electric heater. electric fan. Electric bell. we must take proper precaution in the use of electricity. which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. electric mixer-juicer-grinder are appliances based on magnetic effect of electric current. etc. (ii) current flowing through the conductor. Careless use of electric power may be dangerous. are examples of appliances based on thermal effect of electric current. The device is based on the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. which decrease the level of voltage.c. Electric bulb. which increase the level of voltage (ii) step-down transformers. power has become possible by the use of devices called transformers. which converts electrical energy into magnetic field. 1. An electric motor is a device. TERMINAL EXERCISES • • • • • • • • • • A. and (iii) the nature of the core material. When magnetic field associated with a closed coil is changed a current is induced in the coil. The magnitude of the force depends on (i) strength of the magnetic field. The strength of an electromagnet depends on (i) strength of current flowing through the coil. (iii) length of the conductor. Objective type questions. This observation first made by Faraday is called electromagnetic induction. The direction of the force experienced by a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field is given by Fleming’s Left Hand Rule. Electric generator is a device.: 250 : Electricity in Our Homes • LET US REVISE A current-carrying coil behaves as a magnet. electric crane. which lasts. A current-carrying conductor placed in magnetic field experiences a force. electric iron. (ii) number of turns per unit length of the coil. Name the device which converts i) ii) iii) electrical energy into mechanical energy mechanical energy into electrical energy high voltage into low voltage . The polarity of the coil is determined by using the Right Hand Thumb Rule. and (iv) orientation of the coil with respect to the field. In domestic wiring circuits. one end of which behaves as the north pole and the other as the south pole. Therefore.

iii) iv) v) B. Descriptive type questions. In a hydroelectric power plant ____________ of water stored in a dam is converted into ____________ of rotation of a turbine. . Fill in the blanks. ____________ and/or ____________are at the root of all electrical hazards. Explain the principle and working of an a. 6. Explain the construction and working of the following: i) ii) iii) iv) v) Electric motor Electric iron Electric bulb Electric fan Electric bell 4. With the help of suitable diagrams show how electrical energy is i) ii) Transmitted from generating station to town substation. In the statement for Fleming’s Left Hand Rule central finger points in the direction of ____________. i) ii) The electricity in our home has voltage __________________ volts.Electricity in Our Homes : 251: iv) low voltage into high voltage v) electrical energy into light energy 2. The power plant in which ____________ or ____________ is used as basic fuel is called thermal power plant. generator. What is the maximum number of 100 W (220V) bulbs that can be safely used in the circuit? 2. and thumb points in the direction of____________ _______________. which in turn changes into ____________ energy. frequency ____________Hz and it provides ____________ current. Distributed from town substation to the consumer site. Explain the role of earthing and fuse in electric circuits. A circuit has a fuse of 5A. 3. whereas Uranium–235 is used in ____________ power plant.c. 1. Distinguish between the following: i) ii) Permanent magnet and electromagnet Electric generator and electric motor 5. forefinger points in the direction of ____________.

ii) The strength and polarity of an electromagnet can be changed but that of a permanent magnet is fixed. Describe an experiment to demonstrate: i) Force experienced by a current-carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field ii) Phenomenon of electromagnetic industries 9. 5. 4. i) An electromagnet is much stronger than permanent magnet. The law states.: 252 : Electricity in Our Homes 7. 8. the magnetic field associated with the coil is changed due to which current is set up in the coil. 3. thumb points in the direction of motion of the conductor.1 1. then the stretched thumb will indicate the direction of magnetic field. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 13. . 2. the central finger will point in the direction of induced current. stretch the forefinger. Provide separate fuse for each room and separate switch for each device. hold the right hand above the coil with the curling fingers pointing in the direction of current. the central finger and thumb of your left hand at right angles to each other and hold them in such a way that the forefinger points in the direction of the magnetic field. then. When a coil of wire is rotated in a uniform magnetic field. 13. When a current-carrying coil is placed in a uniform magnetic field it experiences a pair of equal. According to the rule. 2. opposite and parallel forces due to which the coil rotates. and (ii) number of turns in the coil. Draw a domestic electric wiring diagram from electric pole to one room of the house having a bulb. We use Fleming’s Right Hand Rule to determine the direction of the current induced in a conductor when the conductor moves in a magnetic field crossing the field lines. then thumb will point in the direction of motion of (or force) in the conductor. stretch the forefinger. a socket and a fan. 3. The direction of magnetic field due to a current-carrying loop can be determined using Right Hand Thumb Rule. the central finger and the thumb of your right hand at right angles to each other. The strength of electromagnet depends on (i) the current flowing through the conductor. Enlist the precautions one must observe in the use of electrical energy. and hold it in such a way that forefinger points in the direction of field. Fleming’s Left Hand Rule is used to find the direction of force experienced by a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field. central finger points in the direction of electric current.2 1. The phenomenon of setting up electric current in a coil by changing magnetic field associated with it is called electromagnetic induction. According to this rule.

Tungsten Mica It reflects the heat falling on it and sends it in forward direction. 5. 5. No it cannot be used with d. It is a safety device to protect the operator from electric shock in case of current leakage from the body of the appliance. 6. 2. 3. Michael Faraday Live wire Thermal effect So that different appliances may draw different currents needed by them. i) Light circuit 5 A ii) Power circuit 15 A 5. 4. 4. ii) Short circuiting or over loading may cause fire. the magnetic field threading the coil increases inducing a current in it. When the magnet moves towards the coil.c. 3. Because all the lamps are connected in parallel. 13. Tin-lead alloy has low melting point and high resistance. The third wire is earth wire.4 1. 2. 4. i) Electricity may give shock to the careless operator. 2. The insulating rubber shoes or gloves do not let the current flow through the body of the electrician to earth and he is saved from getting any shock. 13. 6.3 1. We will switch off the main switch and try to insulate the body of the person (so that he does not remain in contact with earth) without directly touching him/ her. Transformer. hence blows off much before the rest of the circuit wiring is heated appreciably. 13. 5. Transmission at high voltage provides for low current due to which the power losses and voltage drop in lead wires substantially decreases and transmission can be done at low cost. No Electrical energy into mechanical energy .5 1.Electricity in Our Homes : 253: 4. 3. Due to the induced current the LED glows.

which at one end is connected to the metallic body of an appliance and the other end is connected to a copper plate. Transformer: A device which can increase or decrease the magnitude of alternating voltage. buried deep in the ground. Step-up transformer: A device. Electromagnetic induction: Phenomenon of producing electric current in a coil by changing the magnetic field associated with it. Neutral wire: A wire that is at ground potential of zero volts may be of any colour except red or green. Step-down transformer: A device. Electromagnet: A current-carrying solenoid with a soft core inside it. Electric fuse: A short piece of thin wire made of lead-tin alloy. that acts as a safety device. which increases the magnitude of alternating voltage. Electric generator: A device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Live wire: Red-coloured wire that carries electricity at high potential of 220V. .: 254 : Electricity in Our Homes GLOSSARY Earth wire: Green-coloured wire. placed in series with the main supply on the live wire. which decreases the magnitude of alternating voltage. Electric motor: A device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.

radioisotopes. change of chemical energy into electrical energy. you will be able to : • • • • • • • • • • • differentiate between chemical and nuclear energy. Other forms of energy are chemical and nuclear energy. define combustion and calorific value of fuel and solve problems related to calorific value. In this lesson we shall study in detail about chemical and nuclear energies and their various sources. biomass. define various fossil fuels. We will also study about the process of combustion and the conditions necessary for it. list the important compounds of petroleum and their uses. electricity etc. explain the terms radioactivity. light and electricity. But we have only limited resources of conventional sources of energy (coal. scientists all over the world are trying to develop alternate sources of energy. Of the various sources of energy that would serve as alternative to conventional sources. petroleum. its weaknesses and necessary modifications.14 Chemical and Nuclear Energy You have studied in the previous lessons that energy is an essential part of our life. petroleum. running the transport system and industries. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. This knowledge is useful in finding ways and means of controlling fire which some times proves to be destructive and dangerous. We will also study the types of fuels. The conventional energy sources such as coal. The most common forms of energy are heat.) and they are depleting at a very fast rate. and about nuclear energy. fuel. the main sources are nuclear and solar energies. state the conditions necessary for combustion and describe the functioning of sodaacid fire extinguisher. explain the functioning of voltaic cell. . It is also needed for cooking food. We all require energy in our daily life in the form of food. petroleum and natural gas are being increasingly used. describe the functioning of nuclear reactor and generation of electricity therefrom. list some uses of nuclear energy and hazards involved in its production. Therefore. fission and fusion. such as coal. compare nuclear power plant with a thermal power plant. highlight the importance of food as body fuel. etc.

Such reactions are called thermochemical reactions.1. etc. chemical energy is that form of energy. This energy is chemical energy. Add a few drops of vinegar or lemon juice to it. Hence. The reaction can be represented as: C + O2 CO2 + Heat Such chemical reactions in which heat is given out are called exothermic reactions. Here the following transformation takes place. there is loud hissing sound. addition of water to quick lime is also an exothermic reaction.1 Aim : Heat change in chemical reactions What to do? Take a small amount of baking soda in a test tube. These reactions can be divided into two types – exothermic reactions and endothermic reactions. 14. when water is added to quick lime. What do you feel? Does the test tube become hot? You will find that the test tube becomes hot. Do you know why does this happen? In this case.1 Exothermic reactions You know that burning of coal gives out large amount of heat. which the substances have by virtue of their composition and nature. there must be some stored energy in the chemicals involved in the reactions. a chemical reaction between quick lime (CaO) and water (H2O) takes place in which large amount of heat is liberated as follows: CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2 + Heat liberated This means. it is an exothermic reaction.1. This shows that heat is evolved during this reaction. Can you think of some other examples of exothermic reactions? 14. H2O(l) + Heat H2O(g) Such reactions where heat is absorbed are called endothermic reactions. .2 Endothermic reactions You must have noticed that evaporation of water on a hot day is faster.: 256 : Chemical and Nuclear Energy 14. light and electricity. which comes out as heat. Thus. Similarly. ACTIVITY 14. Chemical energy becomes apparent during chemical reactions when chemical energy of a substance changes into other forms such as heat.1 CHEMICAL ENERGY You must have noticed that at the time of whitewashing. and the mixture almost starts boiling. We shall now consider those reactions where chemical energy is converted into heat energy or vice versa. What do you observe? You will observe that a brisk effervescence takes place and a colourless gas is evolved? Touch the bottom of the test tube.

The ability to do work is known as ____________ 14. or other oxidizing agent. But there are many other important points to be considered. and • their supply and distribution is easier. which take place when a fuel burns. When carbon is burnt in the presence of oxygen what type of energy is evolved? 2. alcohol. are shown below: Fuel Useful energy released + reaction + Oxidizer (burning) Chemical products (such as oxygen) But. a chemical called hydrazine is used as a rocket fuel. which burns is not necessarily a good fuel.2 FUELS You know that for cooking food we require heat energy that we get by burning wood. For most people it is probably convenience and cost that seem to be important. you should remember that every chemical. which react with an oxidizing agent. as compared to solid fuels because: • these can flow through pipes. We prefer fuels which are safe to use and which do not produce unpleasant gases and smoke when they burn. 2HgO + Heat Hg(l) + O2(g) CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 14. Any substance. diesel. When Uranium-235 is bombarded with neutrons which type of energy will be evolved? 3. • no ash is left. coal gas and petrol gas Liquid and gaseous fuels are better. Energy is released during the reaction and new chemicals are formed. • have high heat content. the decomposition of mercuric oxide (HgO) is also an endothermic reaction. To run vehicles we need petrol or diesel.1 Classification of fuels On the basis of physical states the fuels are classified into three categories: a) Solid: coke. The over all changes. The fuel must release plenty of energy when it is burnt. diesel and kerosene c) Gas: liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). • can be lighted at a moment’s notice. kerosene. Other examples are the splitting of uranium in nuclear fuel reactors and the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy in electrochemical cells. Scientists have developed other fuels for special purposes.Chemical and Nuclear Energy : 257 : Similarly. All these fuels burn in the presence of oxygen. For example. The amount of energy liberated in a chemical reaction is large or small? 4. All these provide substances that generate energy are known as fuel. which reacts with oxygen. . coal and natural gas. The best known fuels include petrol. could be used as fuel. coal. Fuels are chemicals. 14. or liquid petroleum gas (LPG). coal. but it is oxidized by concentrated nitric acid. It is not burnt in oxygen.2.1 1. Usually the oxidizing agent is oxygen itself. wood and charcoal b) Liquid: petrol.

In the past it was used as illuminant also for lightning homes. This process is known as destructive distillation. we get different varieties of coal. When coal is heated strongly to a temperature of about 1273K to 1373K. It is used to describe a broad range of fossil hydrocarbons that are found as gasses. i) Coal gas: One of the most promising methods for making coal more efficient and cleaner fuel involves the conversion of coal to a gaseous form. liquids and solids beneath the earth surface. Anthracite 90% Bituminous 80% Coal is important because it can also be used as a Lignite 70% source of other fuels like coal gas and synthetic petrol. We have limited amount of fossil fuels. The fossil fuels can be divided into two categories – coal and petroleum. This process is called coal gasification.: 258 : Chemical and Nuclear Energy 14. called depeletable or non-renewable source of energy. it was used for surfacing roads. hydrogen and oxygen and some free carbon. a) Coal Coal may be defined as a sedimentary rock that burns. we will learn about the types of fossil fuels. It is called petroleum because it is found in the crust of earth trapped in rocks. The fossil fuels are carbon-containing substances that were formed from the remains of the marine organisms that lived millions of years ago. b) Petroleum The name petroleum means rock oil (petra: rocks. These are known as fossil fuels. . it decomposes into coal gas. All the gases present in coal gas can burn to provide heat.2 Fossil fuels Coal and petroleum are major fuels that are being used in large amount at present. Fossil fuels are therefore. Peat 60% We know that wood is the starting material for coal. i. Coal deposits were formed long ago by decomposition of plant matter buried under the ground. According to some estimates we would run out of fossil fuels before the middle of the twenty first century. The two common forms of petroleum are crude oil and natural gas. coke. It is a complex mixture of compounds of Table 14. coal gas. ammoniacal liquor and coal tar. Due to this. It has now been found to be a rich source of aromatic hydrocarbons. methane and carbon monoxide. Type Carbon content It also contains small quantity of nitrogen and sulphur.1. factories and streets. oleum: oil). in the absence of air. Even its disposal was a problem. The ammonium sulphate is used as a fertilizer.1 : Types of coal carbon. Let us study more about these components of coal. These forms are different in carbon contents as listed in Table 14. Subsequently. ii) Coke: It is used as a reducing agent in blast furnaces to extract iron from its ores.e. under the influence of high temperature and pressure in the interior of earth. It is used as a cooking gas. iii) Ammoniacal liquor: It is converted into ammonium sulphate by absorbing in dilute sulphuric acid. coal gas is an excellent fuel having high calorific value. In this subsection. Depending on the extent of carbonization. Coal gas is a mixture of hydrogen. iv) Coal tar: It was earlier considered to be a nuisance. It is also used as a source of carbon in the chemical industry and as a fuel.2.

The fraction having lowest boiling point range is collected in the topmost part of the tower. So it is to be purified or refined before it can be used for specific purposes.2. When a fuel containing sulphur is burnt. i) 273 – 303 K crude oil storage section of bubble cap C1 – C4 303 – 360 K C5 – C7 363 – 513 K C7 – C13 513 – 623 K C13 – C18 623 – 773 K crude oil storage pre-heating furnace Over 500 °C Boiling point range Fig.1). The refining of petroleum or separation of petroleum into different components is based on the fact that the different compounds of crude oil have different boiling points ranges. The process of separating crude petroleum oil into more useful fractions is called refining.1 Fractionating tower . an acidic gas. The refining of petrol is done by the process of fractional distillation. 14. The various fractions obtained by the fractional distillation of crude petroleum oil and their uses are given in Table 14. The process of breaking bigger hydrocarbon molecules into smaller hydrocarbons molecules by heating in the presence of a catalyst is called cracking. Refining is needed to make sure that all the oil is turned into useful products. The final stage of refining involves the removal of impurities such as sulphur compounds. the sulphur in it turns into sulphur dioxide.Chemical and Nuclear Energy : 259 : Crude oil: It is a complex mixture of alkane hydrocarbons with water and earth particles. Cracking also occurs during the refining process of petroleum. 14. The fraction of petroleum having highest boiling point range is collected in the lowest part of the fractionating tower (Fig. Such a process of separation of different fractions of petroleum from crude oil is called fractional distillation.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 14. for dry cleaning As motor fuel. 2. In the later case. candles. Name any two constituents of coal gas. Crude naphtha Petroleum ether C5-C7 Petrol/gasoline Benzene Kerosene oil C7-C9 C9-C10 C10-C13 C13-C18 303-363K 363-393K 393-423K 423-513K As solvent in varnish and rubber industries. but a typical sample contains 80% methane. for matches.2 : Fractions obtained by fractional distillation of petroleum Fraction Gaseous hydrocarbons Approximate composition C1-C4 Boiling range Up to 303K Uses As fuel gas after liquefaction.: 260 : Chemical and Nuclear Energy Table 14. paraffin wax. The propane and butane separated from the natural gas are usually liquefied under pressure and called as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The composition of natural gas depends upon the source. as solid fuel. transformer oil. 7% ethane. 6% propane and 4% butane. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is also used as fuel for transport as well as in industries. protecting paints C30 onward Forms residue Paints. water proofing. whereas others produce natural gas as well as petroleum. for dry cleaning For dry cleaning Fuel for stoves. paints.2 1. some wells dug into the earth produce only natural gas. It is used as domestic and industrial fuel. cracking stock for gasoline Fuel oil Gas oil Diesel oil Furnace oil Lubricant oil Medicinal oil Motor oil Grease Paraffin wax Petroleum jelly Petroleum wax Petroleum coke Heavy fuel oil and bitumen 513-623K C15-C18 Above 543K Paint oil. Therefore. . C18-C30 673K Upward Ointments. road surfacing (ii) Natural gas: Natural gas is a mixture of lightweight alkanes. manufacture of oil gas. as carbon black. Natural gas occurs deep under the crust of the earth alone or along with the petroleum deposits. as an illuminant Fuel for diesel engine and tractors. for lubrication etc. natural gas is a byproduct of petroleum. Write two examples of fossil fuels that you use in your daily life.

Name any two products of the petroleum. petrol. Thus.3 COMBUSTION You would have seen that when coal is burnt in an angithi or chulah. 313K and 543K. . glowing of bulb is not combustion because no chemical change occurs. the composition of a substance changes. but in case of the substances like glass and stone no change is observed. coal changes into carbon dioxide and ash. it turns red hot. gaps are left between the logs of wood. on burning. These gaps are left for the air to enter the chulah. hence.e. This is called combustion.Chemical and Nuclear Energy : 261 : 3. i. We know that in chulahs used in the villages for cooking food. What are two main varieties of coal? 4. the substance changes into other substances. We get light from it. alcohol. stone and glass.e. we find that glowing bulb also produces heat. when we switch on an electric bulb it starts glowing. a good supply of oxygen is necessary for burning. If no chemical change occurs in the reaction but heat and light are produced. If we bring a burning matchstick near paper.3. kerosene. Name any one hydrocarbon fraction obtained during fractional distillation of petroleum which is used as domestic fuel. For example. Such substances that can burn are called combustible substances. When we cover burning coal with vessel the supply of air is cut off. we find no coal but the ash is left. The boiling point of water. methyl alcohol and kerosene are 373K. Combustion may be defined as a chemical change in the presence of oxygen in which both heat and light are produced at the same time and the composition of substance changes. Hence. 14. If a mixture of these three liquids is separated by fractional distillation column. 7. For example. which component of the mixture will be collected near the bottom of the column? 5. Do you think that glowing of electric bulb is a case of combustion? No. For example. We know that air contains oxygen. State any two uses of petroleum products. 14. no new substance is formed. After some time when the chulah cools down. which is a good supporter of combustion. Hence. Substances that do not burn are called non-combustible substances. paper. that reaction will not be combustion.1 Conditions for combustion Let us look at some of our day to day experiences and find out the conditions that are necessary for combustion. they immediately catch fire and start burning. the coal fire stops. respectively. What has happened to the coal? On burning. kerosene. If we touch. we can say that for combustion a combustible substance is required. i. Burning of coal. candle and hydrocarbon are the examples of combustion. etc. 6. petrol or alcohol. Chemical equations of some combustion reactions are given below: combustion C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g) + heat + light CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) + heat + light It may be noted that during combustion certain chemical change should occur.

Thus. ACTIVITY 14.2 b).2 a. Glass tumbler Burning candle Plastic trough Candle goes off Water (a) Immediately after setting up (b) After some time Fig. lesser the amount of heat required to burn it. the activity clearly proves that air is necessary for combustion. A substance cannot catch fire or burn as long as its temperature is lower than its ignition temperature. Lower the value of ignition temperature of a substance.: 262 : Chemical and Nuclear Energy Often we find that in order to light up a pressure stove. match box What to do? Take a candle about 8 cm long and fix it in a plastic trough. at which the substance starts burning. Pour water in the trough as shown in Fig. 14. a glass tumbler. Why does this happen? It is because no fresh air enters in the glass tumbler to support combustion. Light the candle. It is also seen that to burn coal in an angithi sufficient amount of heat is supplied by burning waste paper or cloth soaked in kerosene oil. 14. 14. The ignition temperature of kerosene is higher than that of petrol. Why is it so? Whenever a substance is heated. its temperature increases till it become equal to a temperature. Can you give reasons as to why a matchstick does not catch fire on its own? . a candle.2 To show that air is necessary for burning What do you observe? You will see that candle continues burning for a few seconds. Similarly the ignition temperature of coal is very high. The ignition temperature is the lowest temperature at which a substance catches fire and starts burning. This temperature is called the ignition temperature. Let us perform an activity to prove that air is necessary for burning. Invert the glass tumbler over the candle. The ignition temperatures of different substances are different. So petrol catches fire immediately whereas kerosene requires more heat to start burn. a burning matchstick is kept for some time over the kerosene oil taken in a cup round the burner and the oil starts burning. water. It requires more heat to start burning.2 Aim : Air is necessary for burning What is required? A plastic trough. The flame then starts flickering and finally goes off (Fig.

it is necessary to learn the ways and means of controlling fire. the matchstick starts burning. fuel). Heat the paper cup. What do you observe? You will see that we can boil the water in a paper cup without burning the paper. Why is it so? It can be explained on the basis of ignition temperature of paper cup. combustion cannot take place. Why does the coke not burn in air at room temperature? 2. • presence of supporter of combustion (oxygen from air). Thus. Unless all of these three conditions are fulfilled. 4. State any one condition necessary for combustion.g. heat is produced due to friction. Therefore. some times it proves to be destructive. pour water in the cup. water and a spirit lamp What to do? Take a paper cup. From where does this oxygen come? 3. On rubbing of matchstick against the side of the box.Chemical and Nuclear Energy : 263 : Room temperature is much lower than the ignition temperature of matchstick therefore. When we heat water in a cup. the heat supplied to the paper cup is quickly transferred from the paper cup to the water. .3 The fire triangle CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 14. especially when it becomes uncontrollable.4 FIRE EXTINGUISHERS We know that fire is very useful in our day to day life. it does not catch fire. Now we can say that three conditions are necessary for combustion: • presence of a combustible substance (that burns easily e. He Ox yg en Ox yg en ati ng He ati ng Fuel Fuel Fig. heating. This heat raises the temperature of chemicals present on the matchstick head to its ignition temperature. Here is a simple activity which prove that ignition temperature is necessary for combustion ACTIVITY 14. Petrol catches fire immediately whereas kerosene does not why? 14. It is said that oxygen is essential for burning. Hence. and • attainment of ignition temperature i. the temperature of paper cup does not reach its ignition temperature. However.e. 14.3 1.3 Aim : Ignition temperature is necessary for combustion What is required? A paper cup. we find that a substance can not catch fire or burn as long as its temperature is lower than its ignition temperature. and hence it does not burn.

: 264 : Chemical and Nuclear Energy As you are aware that small fire can be extinguished by covering it with a lid. against the Trigger Iron grating Ampule with H2SO4 Solution of sodium bicarbonate Fig. the fire is extinguished. When the cylinder is inverted and knob struck. How does this happen? This type of fire extinguisher contains a bottle of sulphuric acid supported by a metallic container filled with a baking soda solution (Fig. If we cut off the supply of air by covering fire with lid. Similarly. For example. coal fire or fire in frying pan is extinguished by covering it with a lid. We often see that whenever fire spreads over a vast area. It increases the percentage of carbon dioxide in air (CO2 is non supporter of combustion). The apparatus used to extinguish fire is called fire extinguisher. You would have seen fire extinguishers in petrol pumps. pouring water or sand puts it off. Table 14. 14. The carbon dioxide is liberated by the action of acid on baking soda. cinema halls and other public places.4 Soda acid fire extinguisher . their working principle and the nature of fire for which they are used are listed in Table 14.4.2 Soda acid fire extinguisher The most common fire extinguisher is soda acid.4. 14.3 : Working principle and uses of different types of fire extinguishers Type of fire extinguisher Working principle Nature of fire for which used All types of fire All types of fire except due to electrical and inflammable liquids Fire due to inflammable liquids All types except due to electricity and oil Fire due to electricity Dry powder extinguisher Cuts off supply of air (sand and baking soda) Baking soda sulphuric acid Cuts off supply of air extinguisher (soda acid) Foam type extinguisher Water Cuts off supply of air Cools the substance below the ignition temperature Cuts off supply of air Carbon tetrachloride extinguisher 14. The different types of fire extinguishers. you would have seen that when a person catches fire than we cover him with a thick blanket and make him to roll on the ground.3).3. How is the fire put off by covering or pouring the water? As you have learnt one condition of supporting combustion is air (oxygen).1 Principle of fire extinguisher The principle of working of fire extinguisher is based on either of the following three conditions: • • • cooling the combustible material below its ignition temperature. or cutting off the supply of air. 14. big buildings. or cooling the combustible material and at the same time cutting the supply of air.

such as wood. Deforestation and desertification are taking place. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 14. the acid bottle breaks and the acid comes in the contact with the backing soda. better is the fuel. dung cakes and agricultural wastes. These chulahs are designed in such a way that less amount of heat is lost to the surroundings. which is not sustainable for long at present level of consumption. 2. Similarly cattle dung can be converted into biogas.5 BIOFUELS The organic waste. 14. A cause of concern in recent years has been the excessive consumption of firewood. when it is covered with lid? 3. fire is extinguished. If fire is due to the electricity. inefficient burning of biofuels in traditional chulhas causes air pollution. Biofuels. 5. Biomass contains carbon compounds and it is the oldest source of heat energy for domestic purposes. 14. the age-old practice of burning dung cakes and agricultural wastes is depriving the lands of much needed humus and consequently causing loss of soil fertility. Various fuels have different composition and hence. more efficient than the conventional chulahs. these chulah consume less fuels and hence. Give any one condition on which principle and working of fire extinguisher is based.2 Biomass as fuel Biomass can be used as fuel in two ways: • By burning dry biomass like wood and cattle dung directly to produce heat. fuels on burning produce different amount of heat. wood can be converted into charcoal. Name the chemicals present in a soda acid fire extinguisher. Higher the calorific value. etc. can we use to water as fire extinguisher? 4. 14. which is a better fuel as compare to coal.6 CALORIFIC VALUE (FUEL VALUE) OF FUELS You know heat is produced on burning of fuels. constitute main source of energy in rural areas. Name the gas evolved in soda-acid fire extinguisher. which is better fuel than cattle dung.1 Smokeless chulah In order to overcome the problems of lower energy and smoke hazards of conventional chulahs. Thus. are called biomass. The usefulness of the fuels is measured in terms of Calorific values. 2NaHCO3 baking soda + H2SO4 sulphuric acid Na2SO4 sodium sulphate + 2H2O water + 2CO2 carbon dioxide As a result carbon dioxide is liberated. adversely affecting the ecology. Due to this the supply of air is cut off and there. for example.Chemical and Nuclear Energy : 265 : ground.4 1.5. Different. different energy contents. Why is fire of frying pan extinguished. agricultural residues and cattle dung. smokeless chulahs designed scientifically are now available for use.5. which help the smoke to escape into the upper atmosphere. This increases the percentage of carbon dioxide in air. These are provided with a tall chimney. These types of extinguishers are used in cinema halls. . such as firewood. Secondly. • By converting biomass into more useful fuels. 14. multistorey buildings. Moreover.

is gram. each carbon atom is bonded with one hydrogen and one oxygen atom. C2H6 and C12H22O11. The percentage of oxygen in wood is quite high. i.e.G 50 kJ g-1 Methane 55 kJ g-1 Hydrogen gas 150 kJ g-1 Calorific value of some fuels is listed in table 14. The unit of mass usually taken. In compound A. the lowest calorific value is of sugar C12H22O11 because it has lower percentage of hydrogen due to the presence of oxygen. wood has lower calorific value. but it is not used commonly as a domestic or industrial fuel. its handling is difficult and secondly. C3H8 and H2 the lowest calorific value is of C3H8 because it has lower percentage of hydrogen. the fuel containing higher percentage of hydrogen will have a higher calorific value than that which have a lower percentage of hydrogen in it. Can you tell which compound will have higher calorific value? Compound A will have higher calorific value because of more percentage of hydrogen. Therefore. Therefore. So the calorific value of carbon is 34 kJ g-1. C2H6. a) Hydrogen as fuel: Why hydrogen is not commonly used as a fuel even though its calorific value is high. b) Hydrocarbons as fuels: Hydrocarbons contain carbon and hydrogen and are used as fuels. Firstly. c) Wood as fuel: Cellulose. Therefore. then it will produce 50 kiloJoule of heat energy. The calorific value of methane (CH4) is higher than that of butane (C4H10) because percentage of hydrogen in CH4 (25%) is higher than that in C4H10 (17%). calorific value of carbon is 34013 Jg-1. 1 cal = 4. it burns with an explosion. In the molecule of another compound B.18 J 1000 J = 1 kJ Table 14.4 we know that the calorific value of petrol is 50 kJ g-1. From table 14. Hydrogen gas has highest calorific value. calorific value may be defined as the amount of heat produced by burning completely one gram of fuel.4 : Calorific value of some fuels Type of fuel Calorific value Wood 18 kJ g-1 Charcoal 35 kJ g-1 Dung cake 8 kJ g-1 Coal 30 kJ g-1 Gasoline 34 kJ g-1 Kerosene 37 kJ g-1 Natural gas 50 kJ g-1 Petrol 50 kJ g-1 Biogas 40 kJ g-1 L. (C6H10O5)n is the chief constituent of wood. out of CH4. The calorific value is expressed in kilojoule/gram (kJ g-1) because Joule is very small unit of energy.: 266 : Chemical and Nuclear Energy Calorific value may be defined as the amount of heat liberated by the complete combustion of a unit mass of fuel. . This means that if one gram of petrol is burnt completely. by burning of one gram carbon (charcoal) produces 8137 calories of heat (or 34013 joules).4. Since hydrogen has the highest calorific value therefore. For example. Whereas. Out of CH4. The oxygen supports the combustion but does not produce heat. for measuring the calorific value of fuel.P. The calorific value of CH4 is 55 kJ g-1 whereas for butane it is 50 kJ g-1. each carbon in a molecule is bonded with three hydrogen atoms. There are two problems in using hydrogen as a fuel.

1 Voltaic cell The first electrochemical cell was constructed by Volta in 1796. How do we get energy in our body from the food? 6. This cell gives a more steady current.2 Daniel cell An improvement over the voltaic cell was Daniel cell. The chemicals present in cell and batteries react to generate the electric current. The device used to generate electricity through chemical reaction is called an electrochemical cell. Here.1 volt. the zinc sulphate solution is kept in a porous pot that is suspended in a solution of copper sulphate in a copper vessel. Zn Zn 2+ + 2e– (Oxidation) These electrons flow through the wire to the copper cathode. the Leclanche cell. that is. 14. The zinc plate acts as an anode (negative electrode). It is to be kept in mind that the signs of the electrodes in an electrochemical cell are opposite to that of an electrolytic cell. Let us learn about some of the commonly used electrochemical cells. while copper plate acts as cathode (positive electrode). so it has a greater tendency to lose electron. The electrolyte consists of ammonium chloride and zinc chloride in water to which starch is added to thicken the solution to a paste like consistency so that it is less likely to leak (Fig. but Zinc Copper plate plate does not allow the mixing of the two solutions. A carbon rod serves as cathode.7. transistors and watches etc. The most common dry cell. butter.7. 14.3 Dry cell The cell used in torch and transistor etc is called dry cell. In this cell.5 (a) Voltaic cell Working of a voltaic cell When both the electrode terminals are connected by a wire then there is a flow of electrons (electric current) from zinc to copper terminal (Fig. peanuts and curd? 14. 14. 14. Zinc metal is more reactive than copper. ZnSO4 solution CuSO4 solution Fig. We use cells in torches. The anode of the dry cell consists of zinc container which is in contact with manganese dioxide (MnO2) and an electrolyte.: 268 : Chemical and Nuclear Energy 5. Which food has higher calorific value – carbohydrate. a strip of zinc is placed in zinc sulphate solution and a copper strip is placed in copper sulphate Flow of electrons solution. Both the solutions are separated by a porous Porous partition partition which allows the ions to pass through it. The voltage of cell is 1.6). It is called Voltaic cell. The reaction that occurs at the copper cathode is Cu2+ + 2 e– Cu (Reduction) 14. 14. . You know that cars and other automobiles are started with the help of battery. is used in flashlight and transistor radios.7. egg.7 VOLTAIC AND DRY CELLS Now we will learn about electrochemical cells.4). which is immersed in the electrolyte in the centre of cell.

Chemical and Nuclear Energy : 269 : Zinc Anode Central carbon rod surrounded by MnO2 paste Steel cover Cathode Insulating washer CuSO4 solution Electrolyte NH4Cl and ZnCl2 paste Paper cover Porous separator (paper) Zinc can Expansion chamber ZnSO4 solution Copper vessel Fig. 8. Dry cell is also known as ______________ 7. How much voltage is produced in dry cell? 10.6 1. . In which cell does chemical energy change into electrical energy – electrochemical cell or electrolytic cell? 6. Name the materials used to make the electrodes of a voltaic cell. What precaution is adopted to prevent over mixing of the solutions of electrolytes? 14. the composition of the nucleus of an atom does not change. Such reactions are called nuclear reactions and the energy released during such reaction is known as nuclear energy.8 NUCLEAR ENERGY – ENERGY FROM THE ATOM You have seen that chemical reactions are accompanied by energy changes. 9.5V. study the following table (14. At which electrode in a cell does reduction take place? 3. 14.6 Construction of a dry cell The cell reactions are: Anode : Cathode : Zn(s) 2NH (aq) + 2MnO (s) + 2e Zn2+(aq) + 2e– Mn O (s) + 2NH (aq) + H O(l) Zn 2+ (aq) + 2NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) + + – 4 2 2 3 3 2 _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Overall : Zn(s) + 2NH4+(aq) + 2MnO2(s) Mn2O3(s) Actually this equation is over simplification of the complete process. 2. To understand the difference between chemical and nuclear energy. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 14. 14. At which electrode in a cell does oxidation take place? 4. In a chemical reaction. Name the electrolytes used in dry cell.5 (b) Daniel cell Fig. The conversion of Zn to Zn2+ is oxidation or reduction? 5. But there are some reactions in which the composition of the nucleus of an atom changes. Name the materials used to make cathode of a dry cell.6). The voltage produced by dry cell is about 1.

14.2 Nuclear fission The splitting of the nucleus of an atom into fragments that are roughly equal in mass along with the release of energy is called nuclear fission. • can cure skin cancer and other diseases if used in controlled quantities. (c) have pronounced physiological effects like • power to kill plants seeds and human tissues. • destroy bacteria. all the nuclei of uranium split in a fraction of second and this is the case of a devastating explosion.7 Nuclear fission If the chain reaction is uncontrolled. Chain reaction Fission reaction Uranium – 235 Neutrons Fig. 14. all three types of radioactive radiation can (a) affect photographic plate.7). it gets absorbed. Uranium nucleus on absorbing a neutron becomes highly unstable and splits into smaller atoms releasing huge amount of energy in the process.8.8. . such as that of atom bombs which were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 14.Chemical and Nuclear Energy : 271 : Apart from the above properties. A great deal of heat is produced in this reaction. The reaction continues rapidly and is known as chain reaction (Fig. A nuclear reactor is an arrangement in which the energy produced (in the form of heat) in a nuclear fission can be used in a controlled manner to produce steam. • cause cancerous growths. (b) cause fluorescent materials like ZnS to glow. These neutrons split other nuclei of the uranium. 235 U + 1n 0 141 Ba + 92 Kr + 3 1n + energy 0 92 56 36 During this process three neutrons are also released. 14. which can run the turbine and produce electricity. When a neutron strikes the nucleus of a uranium atom at an appropriate speed.3 Nuclear reactors A peaceful application of nuclear fission is the generation of electricity using heat from a controlled chain reaction in a nuclear reactor.

Shield Control rod Heat exchanger Concrete Steam Steel To steam turbine Water Coolant Moderator Water Nuclear fuel Pump Control rod Uranium fuel Fig. 14. And it should be resist conversion into radioactive substance by neutron bombardment. usually in the form of its oxide. Such a substance is called as a moderator.9 Nuclear reactor . Because fission reactors are highly exothermic. the entire reactor core is enclosed in a heavy steel or concrete dome. A good moderator should be a nontoxic and inexpensive substance. c) Control rods: In principle. Slow neutrons hit uranium-235 nuclei more efficiently than do fast ones. e) Shield: To prevent the losses of heat and to protect the people operating the reactor from the radiation and heat. The nuclear fuel consists of uranium. Large quantity of water is used as coolant. uranium 235 must be enriched to a concentration of 3 or 4%. The reactor core is made up of the following parts: a) Nuclear fuel: It is the fissionable material used in nuclear reactors to produce energy by fission process. The factor limiting the rate of the reaction is the number of neutrons present. the main difference between an atomic bomb and nuclear reactor is that the chain reaction that takes place in a nuclear reactor is kept under controlled conditions at all the times. called the shield.8 Core of nuclear reactor Fig. 14. This can be controlled by lowering cadmium or boron rods between the fuel elements.8.: 272 : Chemical and Nuclear Energy The main part of nuclear reactor is called the core as shown in Fig. For this purposes a substance is used that can reduce the kinetic energy of neutrons. where it is used to produce steam to drive an electric generator. 14. For effective operation of reactor. For greater collision efficiency. Naturally occurring uranium contains about 0. U3O8. Graphite (C) or heavy water (D2O) are commonly used as moderators. d) Coolant: It is the substance which is circulated in pipes to absorb the heat given off by the nuclear reactor and transfer it outside the reactor core.7% of uranium 235 isotope which is too low a concentration to sustain a chain reactions. neutrons must be slowed down. the neutrons produced usually move with high velocities. b) Moderator: An important aspect of the fission process is the speed of the neutrons.

However. a minor fault in the design of reactors or a natural calamity striking a perfectly designed reactor. say of the order of 4 million degree Celsius (4000000oC). The devastation caused in these two accidents by the release of nuclear radiations is yet to be fully assessed.8. Enormous amounts of energy are released during nuclear fusion. steam turbine. agriculture and research. d) Nuclear energy is used in making radioisotopes that are used in medicine. 14. To prevent leakage of these dangerous and toxic radiations. The hydrogen bomb also relies on this kind of reaction. You may be aware of the two major accidents in the nuclear power plants. It could pose a permanent threat to the living beings of the surrounding areas.4 Nuclear fusion Energy is also produced when two light nuclei such as deuterium (heavy hydrogen) fuse together to form a heavy nucleus. and steam condensing system (Fig. b) Nuclear energy is now being used to run submarines and ships. Apart from possible accidents at the reactor site. one at Three Mile Island (USA) in 1979 and the other at Chernobyl (The Soviet Union) in 1986. steam generator. A process in which the nuclei of light atoms combine to form the nucleus of a heavier atom with the release of energy is called nuclear fusion. This is the mechanism through which the energy is produced in stars.8. It is still not possible to control nuclear fusion to provide us with a steady supply of energy. c) Nuclear energy in the form of bombs (atom bomb and hydrogen bomb) is used in warfare. Vessels driven by nuclear energy can sail for long distances without having to refill. 14. the additional danger of harmful waste matter produced at various steps of . Nuclear fusion requires very high temperature.Chemical and Nuclear Energy : 273 : A complete nuclear power plant essentially consists of the four parts: reactor core. there is of course.6 Hazards of producing nuclear energy While producing nuclear energy harmful radiations may be released which can penetrate human bodies and cause irreparable damage to cells.8. nuclear reactors are covered with a thick covering of radiation absorbing substance such as lead. The steam then turns a turbine.9). including the sun. 1 1 2 1 3 2 1 H + 1H 1 2 H + 0e + energy 1 +1 H + H 1 3 3 He + γ + energy 2 He + He 2 4 He + 2 1 H + 1H + energy 1 1 14. Some of the reactions that occur during nuclear fusion are shown below. 14.5 Uses of nuclear energy The important uses of nuclear energy are as follows: a) The heat produced in a nuclear reactor is used to boil the water to form steam. could result in the release of these extremely harmful radiations into the environment. In our country the scientists are making attempts to understand the basic process which may in future lead to controlled nuclear fusion. which runs an electric generator to produce electricity.

The nuclear power generation for the year 2001. How many operative reactors are present in India? 12. The reaction where heat is absorbed is called endothermic where as the reaction where heat is given out is called exothermic.2002 was 19193 million units. 11. Hydrogen bomb is based on nuclear _______________ reaction. Plants also supply wood as fuel. 4. Plants and animals are fossilized to coal. Which isotope of uranium is used in nuclear fission? 2. Plants take energy from sun through the process of photosynthesis. 5. Table 14.8 : Location of Atomic power plants in India Capacity 160 MW 220 MW 100 MW 220 MW 220 MW 220 MW 220 MW 14. The energy related to the nature and composition (atoms/molecules) of a substance is called the chemical energy. How many neutrons are emitted in a single nuclear fission? 6. Atomic bomb is based on nuclear _______________ reaction. What is the function of cadmium rods in a nuclear reactor? 8. 3.Chemical and Nuclear Energy : 275 : was used to determine the source of O2 in photosynthesis. Name the coolant used in nuclear reaction. Name the elements produced in nuclear fission.7 1. What do you mean by BWR and PHWR? • • • • • LET US REVISE Coal and petroleum are fossil fuels. 9. . 10. Give two examples of nuclear fuels. The chemical energy can be converted into heat energy and vice versa during chemical reactions. Chemical energy can be converted to electrical energy and vice versa. State peaceful uses of nuclear energy. petroleum and natural gas. Plants serve as food for animals.9 NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IN Place Number INDIA Tarapur 2 India has 14 operating reactors out of which Rajasthan 2 two are Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) and 2 12 are Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors Kalapakkam 2 (PHWR). respectively. Two more reactors with capacities Narora 2 of 500 MW are under construction at Tarapur Kakrapara 2 in Maharashtra and are expected to attain Kaiga 2 criticality in 2005 and 2006. The sun is the ultimate source of energy The ultimate source of all the energies is sun. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 14. What is the role of moderator in nuclear reaction? 7.

are called combustible substances and those.: 276 : Chemical and Nuclear Energy • • • • • • • • Combustion is a chemical change in which heat and light are produced at the same time. are called fire extinguishers. Multiple choice type questions. TERMINAL EXERCISES A. Fire which is very useful in our daily life. Which of the following can provide maximum voltage? (a) Voltaic cell (b) Daniel cell (c) Dry cell (d) Distilled water 4. which burn rapidly. are called non-combustible substances. Substances. Radioactivity is a spontaneous process of disintegration of the nucleus of an atom accompanied by the emission of energy bearing rays or particles. which have been developed to extinguish fire. The three conditions necessary for combustion are presence of combustible substance attainment of ignition temperature continuous supply of a good supporter of combustion (generally air). Which of the following food components has maximum calorific value? (a) Carbohydrates (b) Proteins (c) Fats (d) Mineral salts . 1. The working principle of different type of fire extinguishers is based either on the conditions to remove the combustible substance or to cutoff the supply of air or to cool the burning substance below its ignition temperature. Which of the following variety of coal has maximum carbon content? (a) Anthracite (b) Bituminous (c) Lignite (d) Peat 2. is produced by combustion of substances like coal. Fission is a process of splitting of the nucleus of a heavy atom into fragments that are roughly of equal masses with the release of huge amount of energy. The instruments. Which of the following has highest calorific value? (a) Natural gas (b) LPG (c) Biogas (d) Hydrogen 3. The lowest temperature at which a substance starts burning is called ignition temperature. etc. Ignition temperature is different for different substance. which do not burn at all. petrol.

13. 523K and 623K. How is it possible that water can be boiled in a paper cup without burning? 19. 2. B and C are 443K. Coke does not burn at room temperature because _____________is high. Calorific value and ignition temperature of fuel X are 75kJ g-1 and 20 oC respectively and those for Y fuel are 50k J g-1 and 75 oC respectively. Define fossil fuel. Coal gas is a mixture of _____________and _____________ 8. 1. On burning the fuel Y produces . respectively. Name the product obtained by the distillation of petroleum that is used for making road surfaces. 3. When heat is released and absorbed. LPG is known as _____________ 9. 10. The isotope of Uranium used in nuclear fission is _____________ C. Give suitable examples. the reactions are called_____________and _____________reactions. Name two organic compounds obtained by distillation of coal. The energy stored in a substance is known as _____________released in form of _____________ energy. 10. 4. With the help of examples explain exothermic and endothermic reactions. It is very difficult to burn a heap of fresh green leaves but it catches fire easily once the leaves dry up. On fractional distillation. Name any one hydrocarbon fraction obtained during fractional distillation of petroleum which is used as domestic fuel. What is biomass? For what purpose it is usually used? 5.Chemical and Nuclear Energy : 277 : B. 12. The energy released by bombarding Uranium-235 with neutrons is _____________ 5. Define chemical and nuclear energy. Descriptive type questions. 3. Define fuel and also explain its role in every day life. Name the two components of petroleum obtained by fractional distillation. 11. 4. 1. 9. Soda acid fire extinguisher contains _____________and _____________ 7. How does we get chemical energy in our body from the food we consume? How does this process differ from normal burning process? 16. Explain why charcoal is a better fuel then wood? 6. What is the full form of LPG and also gives its chemical composition? 15. Mention different types of fossil fuel. 7. Fill in the blanks. which of the three compounds will be obtained at the bottom of fractional distillation column. 14. Two main products of petroleum are _____________and _____________ 6. Why? 18. The boiling points of substances A. 8. What are three conditions necessary for combustion? Pouring water on a fire which condition of combustion is not satisfied? 17. When water added in lime the heat released in form of _____________energy. 2. Give the chemical composition of coal gas. respectively.

only CO2 while fuel X produces CO2 and CO. What are the measures taken to prevent the leakage of radiations from the nuclear reactors? ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 14. 28. Coal and petroleum 3. 2.2 1. Which of the two is a better fuel? Give the reasons to support your answer. 27.acid fire extinguisher. Small 4. 21. which can be fissioned easily.1 1. 32. 26. Which fuel is used in nuclear reactor? Why can it not be used as a fuel in the form it occurs in nature? State two peaceful uses of nuclear energy. 30. Will the petrol catch fire? Explain your answer. 29. Why is water not used to extinguish fire due to electricity? Why is the crude oil sometimes called “Black Gold”? Calorific value of LPG is 55kJ g-1. If the calorific value of LPG be 55k Jg1 . if it requires a cylinder containing 14. nuclear chain reaction and critical mass. 33.5 kg of LPG.: 278 : Chemical and Nuclear Energy 20. What is a nuclear reactor? Will the help of a labeled diagram describe how a nuclear power plants used as nuclear reactor to generate electricity. Explain the nuclear wastes. what will be the power of combustion of the burner? Define nuclear fission. Name the isotopes of two different elements. inside a closed tank full of petrol. 35. 23. 31. On what principle does fire extinguisher work? Explain the working of soda. 34. what are the problems inherent in their disposal. Calculate the energy consumed by a family in one month. Chemical energy 2. Nuclear energy 3. A burner consumes 1g of LPG in 55 seconds. Methane and carbon monoxide. Which one of the two compounds will have higher calorific value? An electric spark is struck between two electrodes placed near each other. Energy 14. 36. Which isotope can undergo nuclear fission? What is the function of cadmium rods in a nuclear reactor? Define term moderator in a nuclear reactor. Lignite and bituminous 4. 24. Kerosene . Name any two type of radiations emitted during nuclear fusion. 22. Define ignition temperature and also explain why coke does not burn in air at room temperature? Compound A has each of its carbon atom bonded with four hydrogen atoms while compound B has each carbon atom bonded with three hydrogen atoms. 37. 25.

Petrol has lower ignition temperature as compared to kerosene 14.5 V 10. 6.Chemical and Nuclear Energy : 279 : 5.4 1. Leclanche cell 7. Attainment of ignition temperature 4. From air 3. 2. 8. Carbon dioxide 5. By using porous pot 14. Zn electrode (Anode) 4. C2H5OH H2 Problem in handling and also burn with explosion Because they have higher percentage of oxygen which is a supporter of combustion Metabolism (by burning the food) Butter 14. Oxidation 5. 3. Petroleum kerosene 6. The ignition temperature of coal is high 2. NH4Cl + ZnCl2 9.7 1. Any one of the following: (a) Cooling below ignition temperature or (b) Cutting the supply of air or (c) Cooling the fire. Electrochemical cell 6. Petroleum gas 14. 4. Fuels. 1.3 1. Baking soda and sulphuric acid 2. Carbon rod. and also cutting the supply of air. 14. 5. It stops the supply of oxygen. Zn and Cu rods 2.6 1. 235U 92 . 3. Cu electrode (Cathode) 3. No 4. solvents for organic compounds 7. lubricants.5 1.

with the release of energy. Critical mass: The minimum mass of fissionable material required generating a selfsustaining nuclear chain reaction. Radioactive isotopes: An isotope that spontaneously decays to become an isotope of different elements. 8. 7. Galvanic cell: A device for converting chemical energy into electrical energy. BWR: Boiling water reactor. Combustion: Chemical change in the presence of oxygen in which both heat and light are produced at the same time and the composition of the substance changes. Nuclear chain reaction: A self-starting sequence of nuclear fission reactions. 4. Fission: The splitting of a heavy nucleus (mass number 7200) into lighter fragments with the release of energy. Radioactivity: The spontaneous break down of an atom by emission of particles and/ or radiations. 9. The electrolyte is a moist paste of NH4Cl. 141 Ba and 92Kr 36 56 Fission Fusion Three Graphite and D2O Slow down the speed of neutrons. Dry cell: A chemical galvanic cell with a zinc anode and a graphite cathode surrounded by solid MnO2. Nuclear energy: Energy stored in a nucleus of an atom. 10. . Fusion: The process in which two light nuclei combine to produce a heavier nucleus with mass number A less than 60. PHWR: Pressurized heavy water reactor GLOSSARY Chemical energy: Energy stored within the structural unit of a substance. Daniel cell: A galvanic cell utilizing the reduction of Cu2+ ion by zinc. 14 12. Most fission processes are initiating by bombarding the heavy nucleus with thermal electrons. Fuel: Any substance that produces energy in the form that can be used for practical purposes. 5. Energy: The capacity to work or produce change. Ignition temperature: It is the latest temperature at which a substance catches fire and starts burning. 6. ZnCl2 and some inert filler. 3.: 280 : Chemical and Nuclear Energy 2. Nuclear reactor (to generate electricity) Water U3O8 enriched with 235U 92 11.

i. the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. The Earth also came into existence almost the same time as the other members of the solar system. 16.its changing structure and evolving life support system. This is the planet we live on and where multitude of diverse life forms have evolved. This should put us on alert to save our planet. justify that the sun is the ultimate source of all energy on Earth except nuclear energy and geothermal energy. but. explain the origin and evolution of life on Earth and suggest some measures to protect the Earth and its life support systems.Mahatma Gandhi You have studied in the previous lesson that the Earth is the third planet of the solar system as counted from the sun. Scientists are trying hard to find out whether life exists elsewhere also in the universe. We will also study that various components of our environment are in fine balance but facing a threat due to various human activities. In this lesson we will study the brief story of the 4. i.16 The Earth – A Living Planet Mother Earth has every thing to fulfill man’s needs but not his greeds. around 4.5 billion years ago. explain the differentiation of Earth and evolution of atmosphere and hydrosphere in its present form.1 WHY ONLY EARTH HAS LIFE? You can easily identify living things around you. Let us analyse the possibility of life in our solar system.1. Earth has life on its surface. stating conditions necessary for it.5 billion years of Earth’s life . you will be able to : ! ! ! ! ! ! explain why life evolved on the Earth.e. till date they could not find any.1 Physical conditions necessary for life For life to exist on a celestial body the following conditions seem to be necessary : .e. . 16. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. explain how the solar energy is cycled in nature and utilised by living beings. the biosphere comprising the lithosphere. describe the life supporting systems on the Earth.

2 Possibility of life on other planets of the solar system You might be wondering whether there is possibility of any life on any other planets of the solar system. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. range No Yes No Presence of water No Yes Yes Protective blanket Yes Yes No This shows that no other planet. 1. The table given below discusses the planets Venus.1. 2. fulfils the conditions necessary for life and hence.3 Are we alone in the universe? This is the next obvious question you will ask. Earth is the only planet in Solar system where life has originated. Most of the living organisms cannot survive at too high (>700C) or too low (<O0C) temperatures because. we have life on it. Give one reason to explain why there is no life on Jupiter. On the other hand planets Jupiter Saturn. The narrow belt containing Venus. (iii) Presence of a liquid medium.1 1. if no other phenomenon like green house effect alters its temperature. On the Earth all these conditions are satisfied and hence. 3. suggest that there is a very high probability of inhabited worlds. Urenus. Table 16. N2 Yes Yes Yes Correct temp. oxygen (O2). The way the universe came into existence and the way various gallaxies and solar systems are formed.1 : Conditions necesary for life on different planets S. evolved and flourished. Earth and Mars and the four physical conditions necessary for life. O2. Planet mercury is so close to the sun that it is too hot to sustain life. (iv) Presence of a protective atmosphere having a protective layer like ozone layer. Thus. (ii) Suitable temperature range on its surface for sustenance of life. In fact. except Earth. 16. scientists expect millions of such worlds to exist. to prevent harmful radiations to reach its surface. But all our efferts to contact the extra terriestrial beings have failed by now. N2. 16. Name two planets of solar system which have a protective layer in their atmosphere. which is a must for transporting nutrients inside a living body. Nitrogen (N2) and hydrogen (H2) which are involved in the basic structures of complex molecules forming living cells. life processes cannot be carried out at very high and very low temperatures. the Earth is a unique planet.: 300 : The Earth – A Living Planet (i) Presence of some elements such as carbon (C). Let’s check it. Why is the presence of a liquid medium necessary for life to exist on a celestial body ? . 2. Planet Venus Earth Mars Presence of C. 3. like water. No. Neptune and Pluto are so far away from the sun that due to extremely low temperatures on their surfaces life is impossible. Earth and Mars seem to be at suitable distance from the sun so that temperature of a planet in the region could possibly allow life to develop on it.1.

1 Different layers of earth . 16. asteroids etc. Dense rocks Molten iron Solid iron Inner core Outer core Mantle Crust Atmosphere Fig. Thus. The heavier elements from its surface sank towards its centre and formed a central region called the core. Mention the region of space in solar system where life may be possible ? 5. 16. by forces of mutual attraction. The process of reorganisation of the Earth in different layers of varying densities is called differentiation. (ii) Appropriate mass and size : The Earth has appropriate mass and radius so that it could provide gravitational field sufficient enough to hold atmosphere. Of these materials. satellites. (i) Planetesimals were still colliding with it and imparting their kinetic energy and mass to it. have contributed in this regard. (i) Right distance from the Sun : The Earth stays at the right distance from the sun in an almost circular orbit. 16. Give one reason to explain why planet mercury does not have any atmosphere ? 16. present in the Earth which released energy as they decayed which was absorbed by the Earth. Therefore. (iii) Occurence of some natural events on Earth at right time and in desirable sequence so that a life supporting system (called Biosphere) could evolve on its surface. The energy gained by these processes increased the temperature of Earth and it melted. When born.1 Birth of the Earth About 5 billion years ago. it seems. the leftover gases surrounding it started getting condensed into small chunks of matter called planetesimals. cooled and solidified to form crust. condensed aggregate of planetesimals. The primitive Earth then melted because of the following two processes nearly 3. (ii) There were radioactive elements like Uranium (U). so that. Thorium (Th) etc.5 billion years ago. The Earth also came into existence the same way around 4. the temperature range on its surface is suitable for the origin and evolution of life.2 Differentiation of the Earth As the Earth melted it acquired a spherical shape.2. it receives just appropriate amount of energy from the sun. The gases and water vapours trapped within the Earth's material were released from its surface and formed atmosphere.2 WHAT MADE EARTH A SPECIAL PLANET? What is special with the Earth that has made it an abode of life? The following three factors. whatever remained on the surface of the Earth as liquid.2.The Earth – A Living Planet : 301 : 4. The lighter materials rose to the outer region. The planetesimals as they revolved around the sun aggregated into bigger masses–planets.7 billion years ago and assumed its present structure. it was a cool. This resulted into the differentiation of the Earth. when the sun was formed. the Earth re-organised itself into different layers of varying densities.

it comes out to be 4. Scientists have developed a techinique of finding the age of a rocks. What does this mean? This means that for the first 800 million years the temperature of Earth was increasing due to which it got melted and differentiated during that period. A mixture of large number of minerals like silica. Temperature Size very hot ~ 4000 0C at the centre Radius of the core is about 3400 km. 16. it comes out to be only 3. Outer core is liquid. Solid . Inner core though at higher temperature. Table 16. only around 10km under the oceans and 35-60 km below the land mass 3 gcm–3 Density Pressure About 18 gcm–3 About 3.5 billion years.1 shows the various layers of Earth (not on the scale).2 : Characterstics of different layers of Earth Characterstic Location Constituents Core Innermost part Iron and some Nickel Mantle Middle part Silicates of iron and magnesium Crust Outermost part. Using the technique when we find the age of a meteorite. This technique is called uranium dating.: 302 : The Earth – A Living Planet Due to differentiation. 2900 km 4-6 gcm-3 Very thin. Some important characterstics of each layer are given in the table 16.7 million atmosphere at the centre.7 billion years. is solid on account of high pressure.3 Evidence of differentiation of Earth The theory of evolution of solar system suggests that the Earth also came into being at the same time and in the same manner as the other members of the solar system. That is why all signs of Earth for the evolutionary history of this period are wiped out. When we determine the age of oldest rock found in Greenland region of the Earth. The thickness between core and crust is about . State Mostly solid only a thin outer layer of tar like viscous fluid of molten rocks. the mass of the Earth got distributed in four different layers ! The core ! The mantle ! The crust ! The atmosphere Figure 16.2.2. alumina etc.

They have come to the conclusion that the entire land and water bodies of Earth in fact. Presently. Africa and Europe. What is the thickness of the crust of the Earth ? 3. 16.2. 16. The story of the evolution of life is intimately associated with the evolution of the biosphere. stay divided into (e) Present eight large and some smaller pieces called the Lithospheric plates. (a) 225 million years ago (b) 200 million years ago (c) 135 million years ago (d) 65 million years ago Through their studies on Earthquakes. geologists have acquired a lot of knowledge about the interior of the Earth. What material the inner core of the Earth is made of ? 2. called biosphere. Asia.The Earth – A Living Planet : 303 : CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. South America. (i) Lithosphere. Explain how the inner core of the Earth is solid though its temperature is (about 40000C) higher than outer core which is liquid ? 16.2 Position of These plates are rigid but they float over coal-tar like molten rocks continents in various of mantle. Antarctica. All these seven continents form six separate land masses. called magma . (ii) Hydrosphere. Australia. Fig. Then at about 225 million years ago the pangea fractured and started drifting apart and gradually assumed its present shape. Let us study the three parts of the biosphere one by one. and the remaining one fourth is a land mass devided in seven continets. namely – North America.1 Lithosphere The word lithosphere literally means a layer of rocky materials. As we look at the present world map we find that these six land masses appear as a jig-saw puzzle and may be adjusted at one place to from a one big land mass. seperated by water bodies – Europe and Asia forming one big entity.2 1. about three fourths of the surface of the lithosphere is covered with water in the form of oceans. the continents were a single piece of landmass called pangaea (meaning all Earth). The position of continents at various eras of Earth’s history is given in Fig. volcanoes and formation of mountain. 16. In 1912.3. What is the importance of right mass and right size of Earth ? 5.3 THE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS Life on Earth is found in a nearly 20 km thick spherical shell near its surface. When did differentiation of Earth took place ? 4. and (iii) Atmosphere. These three parts of the biosphere form the life supporting systems of the Earth. German geologist Alfred Lother Wegener suggested that in the begining of Earth’s history. Due to temperature and pressure eras of the earth’s history . Living beings are found to interact with each other and with their environment in the biosphere. It consists of the Earth’s crust and the small upper solid part of mantle.

Crust.: 304 : The Earth – A Living Planet difference between the core and the upper part of the mantle. salts and sea foods. Land The five oceans are : (i) Pacific ocean (ii) Atlantic ocean (iii) Indian ocean (iv) Arctic ocean (v) Antarctic ocean Oceanologists have explored the floor of the oceans using Ultrasonic echo devices like SONAR and found that the ocean floors are uneven. Surface of earth – land and oceans. The researches show that the average depth of oceans is about 4 km. Between the altitude of 10 .3 Atmosphere Surrounding the Earth there is a few hundred kilometer thick envelope of air called atmosphere.3 Convection currents in magma drifted lithospheric plates You know that sea water is salty. The huge water body surrounding the continents is divided into five parts called oceans. convection currents are set up in magma because of which the Lithospheric plates drift slowly. (iii) They dissolve atmospheric carbon dioxide and thus help in keeping the biosphere in equilibrium. minerals. hills. (i) They regulate the global temperature.2 Hydrosphere The water bearing component of biosphere is called hydrosphere-most of it is in the form of oceans (97%) and the rest as Polar ice caps (2. Fig. (v) They act as medium for transporting men and materials using ships. Liquid outer core.3. Solid inner core. Winds and oceans are a big support for life. boats etc. 16. But the percentage of salts in sea water is almost a constant for the duration of a life time. 4. Equator Convection currents in outer mantle Ocean 1. As we go up in atmosphere the air thins out. 16.3. The scientists have estimated that the continents are drifling even today at an average pace of 15 cm per year or so. Some important functions of oceans are listed below. Weathering and erosion of rocks makes these salts available for winds and waters which take them to oceans and make them salty. 3. valleys and plateaus. 2. so much so that 90% of the air is found within 20 km of height from the ground. they also have planes. Like lands. Though at some places they may be more than 10 km deep.50 km lies the ozone (O3) layer which protects the Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiations of sun. 16.5%) and atmospheric vapours. The main constituents of air are nitrogen and oxygen and it is upto a height of 12 km from the Earth’s surface that cloud formation and weather changes take place. (iv) They provide good resources for fossil fuels. . Solid inner mantle. 6. (ii) The primitive life form originated in the oceans. 5. Tar like liquid outer mantle.

carbon dioxide and water vapour.3 1. (iii) Billions of meteors entering into Earth’s atmosphere burn out due to air friction. All this did not happen in a day. These components of the biosphere then interacted with each other. (vi) Carbon dioxide though present in the atmosphere in a very small amount (0. (v) The ozone layer of atmosphere protects us from the harmful effects of ultra-voilet rays of sun-light. How do scientists study the interior of the Earth? 2.The Earth – A Living Planet : 305 : Atmosphere also is a crucial life support system. (i) It is because of the atmosphere that the radiations from the sun do not straight way reach the surface of the Earth. as the light elements rose up. It had no oxygen in the beginning. ! CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. Then came the first ever self multiplying organisms on the scene. (Details of photosynthesis in lesson 25). In absence of atmosphere they will reach Earth’s surface and hit it with great force. . Finally.033%) it is important for two reasons ! Green plants absorb carbon dioxide from atmosphere in preparing their food through photosynthesis. They grew in complexities and modified each other’s properties and composition.4.4 EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH A very precise sequence of events gave rise to the life supporting systems mentioned in the previous section. It has the following important functions.7 billion years to reach to the presennt stage of evolution of the biosphere.1 Formation of primitive atmosphere To begin with when the differentiation of Earth started. the blue-green algae. which were present in gaseous form bubbled out of the surface of molten Earth and formed the primitive atmosphere. Give two important functions of oceans? 16. 16. It took more than 3. (iv) The water vapours present in atmosphere provides for rains which is vital for agriculture. Give two important functions of atmosphere? 4. the very light elements. there was no atmosphere. Carbon dioxide being a greenhouse gas traps infrared (heat) radiations and makes nights warmer and more comfortable. (ii) Nitrogen and oxygen in the atmosphere are in correct proportion due to which living beings can breathe and controlled burning of fuels becomes possible. hydrogen.Let us have a broad look at the major events in the process of evolution of life on Earth. The primitive atmosphere was very thin and had only nitrogen. Thus the atmosphere prevents the Earth from getting too hot. Give two important functions of carbon dioxide in atmosphere? 3. an equilibrium condition was obtained where every thing was in a fine balance supporting each other. In the process of differentiation.

This was the blue-green algae. In this process some gases were also released mainly due to the hydrated minerals in the molten rocks. . There was no oxygen in atmosphere. as they moved. In the oceans. The increasing level of oxygen accelerated the process of evolution of life in two ways. the first living organisms that ever originated on Earth. But fortunately the oxygen in air was added at a very slow pace so that the growing life forms could adjust with it. But nature had a provision to remove this extra oxygen in the beginning years of evolving life.4 Evolution of higher life forms When the blue green algae appeared in oceans. it could not offer any resistance to the falling meteorites and they hit the crust with great force. because the algae could have easily got oxidised in an oxygen rich environment. The algae as they prepared their food through photosynthesis used carbon dioxide and evolved oxygen. creating vents in it.4.: 306 : The Earth – A Living Planet 16. got charged and electric discharge between them resulted in thunderstorms and lightening. And this was good. got solidified and became part of the crust.4. The lightening fused the elements of the primitive atmosphere into complex compounds. The rainwater on one hand speeded up the process of cooling of Earth on the other hand it filled up the low lying areas and formed the oceans. 16. These gases enriched the atmosphere. The water vapour in this primitive atmosphere got condensed and formed clouds. Through these vents magma flew out. Since the atmosphere at that time was very much rarefied. With passing time more and more complex molecules came into existence which could utilize the energy and materials from their environment.3 Origin of life on Earth As more and more gases were added to the atmosphere it became gradually denser.4. Then the possibility of life on Earth would have been wiped out . It had two properties markedly different from the existing materials– self growth and self propagation.2 Formation of primitive hydrosphere As the outer surface of the molten Earth cooled and solidfied to form a thin crust. The clouds then came down in the from of rains. using carbon dioxide from air and water from occean. The early forms of life thus survived and developed into more advanced organisms. These are clearly the properties of living beings. hydrogen. The iron dissolved in oceans consumed the oxygen exhaled by algae and got oxidised. 2000 to 3500 million year old deposits of iron stones at the bottom of oceans are evidences of this proposition. under suitable circumstances more and more complex molecules like carbohydrates and amino acids were developed. During this period (2000 to 3500 million years from now) however the content of carbon dioxide in atmosphere decreased and that of oxygen increased gradually. Finally. (i) The new organisms adjusted themselves to have greater tolerence for oxygen and to utilise it for more efficient metabolic processes. atmosphere had only nitrogen. water vapours and carbon dioxide. The clouds. in the oceans appeared a complex structure which could prepare its own food. 16. in presence of sunlight. These compounds were then washed down by heavy rains and sent to oceans. it was repeatedly hit and punctured by falling meteorites.

5 million years ago Human ancestor 1. What is the evidence to suggest that apes were the ancestors of man? 16.The Earth – A Living Planet : 307 : (ii) Some of the oxygen formed ozone layer to protect the living organisms from harmful ultraviolet radiations. the atmosphere and various life forms on Earth interact with each other and support each other. To run . Why? 2. 16. On the basis of fossil remains from various excavation sites they have developed a chain of successive stages of evolution of man.4 1. The diverse life forms that we see around us today is a result of the evolutionary process of these 600 million years. What evidence do we have to believe that the oxygen evolved in early years of life was removed by some natural process. What was this process? 4.4 Stages in evolution of man CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. On the other hand reduction in the level of carbon dioxide reduced the green house effect. So the Earth may be visualised as a system.5 Evolution of man Man also has his place in the story of the evolution of life.7 million years ago Human ancestor 100000–50000 years ago Oldest of human ancestor (10-13 million years ago) Human ancestor 20000–50000 years ago Fig. An oxygen free atmosphere was crucial for the survial of early life. Scientists now believe that apes (like Chimpanzee and gorilla) were the ancestors of modern man. Which evolved earlier–atmosphere or hydrosphere? Could it be otherwise? 3. the hydrosphere. 16.4. Around 600 million years ago the environmental conditions and composition of atmosphere became almost similar to the present status. because of which the temperature on Earth could settle down to values more favourable for higher forms of life.5 THE EARTH SYSTEM The lithosphere. Human ancestor 3. Under these conditions more advanced forms of life evolved which could survive even on land. The organisms of the time also had reached a level of evolution to develop into more advanced life forms. In which period of time oxygen replaced carbon dioxide from its dominant position? How do we know this? 5.

After a nuclear holocaust the sky some scientists say. How is sun responsible for the energy we receive from a hydroelectric power plant ? 5. Can you give one explanation for this ? 4.1 Examples of threats to the balance in nature by human activities 1. Thus. the carbon dioxide which was fixed for millions of years is being returned to the atmosphere in few hundred years. Let us consider some of the human achivities which are disturbing the balance in nature at an alarming rate. 2.5 1. Name the reaction responsible for the production of energy in the sun ? 16.6. The brown haze in Asian sky will result in low agricultural produce. 16.6 BALANCE IN NATURE By now you might have understood that the Earth system has several interacting constituents in delicate balance. Name two forms of energy which we do not receive on the Earth from the sun. The mindless use of chloro fluoro carbons (the chemicals we use as refrigerants and perfume sprays) are eating up our protective ozone layer creating a hole in it above Antarctica.The Earth – A Living Planet : 309 : Sun Atmosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Fig. 16. This is causing not only an energy crisis but also posing a threat of global warming.5 Circulation of solar energy in the biosphere The most effective and low cost method of utilizing solar energy is used by plants in the process of photosynthesis and hence by increasing the green cover of Earth we can think of maximum utilization of solar energy. . Can you think of one consequence of this situation ? 3. A slight disturbance in this balance may bring a big threat to the entire life. In our craze for comfort and zeal for industrialization we are burning fossil fuels at a very fast rate. will get covered with dense dust clouds for several months. 2. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16.

Let us be careful and mend our ways. after it melted.: 310 : The Earth – A Living Planet 3. Give a consequence of deforestation.5 billion years ago along with the other members of the solar system. The Earth’s solid stuff differentiated into three layers (i) core (ii) mantle (ii) crust. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! LET US REVISE The Earth was formed around 4. What is meant by a biodegradable substance? 4.6 1. 16.7 billion years ago. It is under very special circumstances that its life support systems have evolved. 2. Crust of Earth along with oceans and atmosphere is the region in which living organisms are found and. The first living organism developing on Earth was (a) Bacteria (b) Virus . 1.6. Man’s activites are disturbing the balance of our ecosystem and posing a threat to the entire life on our unique planet. and seltted down to an interactive system in equilibriun. Creation of non-biodegradable materials like polythene is making the Earth barren and pausing threats for various life forms. Biosphere has three life support systems (i) Lithosphere (ii) Hydrosphere and (iii) atmosphere The oxygen free atmosphere → the hydrosphere → the blue green algae → oxygen containing → atmosphere → higher life forms → Homo sapiens (man) evolved on Earth in this particular sequence. Deforestation for paper and wood is minimizing the effective use of available solar energy on Earth. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. they together are called biosphere.7 billion years old. Multiple choice type questions. Suggest one step to maintain balance in nature. TERMINAL EXERCISES A. 4.2 Our duty to protect the Earth We must understand that the Earth is a unique planet. 3. Due to the kinetic energy of the colliding planetesimals and disintegration of radioactive elements the Earth melted and got differentiated around 3. Differentiation is the process of reorganization of Earth into different layers of varying density Radiodating techniques used by scientists revealed that the oldest rock found in Greenland is only 3. We must take special care to maintain the equilibrium between the various components of the Earth system so that life on this planet may flourish and progress. Name a substance responsible for creating ozone hole. therefore.

Up to what height do we have significant amount of water ? 4. Descriptive type questions. 4. (c) Algae (d) Fungus How much time (approximately) did it take for the formation of fossil fuel? (a) 2. 5. The density of air __________ as we go up. 1. Name the four layers the Earth is differentiated into. 5. The primitive algae were prone to oxidation. The temperature at the core of the Earth is about __________ 5. What is the age of the Earth ? 3. 9. 7. The oldest rock found on Earth is 4500 years old. 3. How does the atmosphere protect us from the falling meteors? 8. The concentration of salt in oceans remains roughly constant over a life time. Green plants trap solar energy when they are alive and release it when they die. Fill in the blanks.5 x 106 years (d) 2.5 x 104 years Which part of the Earth do we interact with the most? (a) Inner core (b) Outer core (c) Mantle (d) Crust The first organism originated in (a) Ocean (b) Atmosphere (c) Marshy land (d) Desert Which of the following is not the part of biosphare? (a) Lithosphere (b) Hydrosphere (c) Atmosphere (d) Mantle B.5 x 108 years (b) 2. 3. 2.The Earth – A Living Planet : 311 : 2. 1. Earth was born along with other members of solar system nearly __________ years ago.5 x 102 years (c) 2. 3. The continents are fixed with respect to the Earth. 4. Name two major ways by which carbon dioxide present in air is consumed. C. 5. What is meant by Pangaea ? 2. 2. Explain. even then these survived in the oxygen exhaled. __________ radiations present in sun light can cause skin cancer. “Deforestation may lead to melting of polar ice caps”. 4. One of the factors due to which the primitive Earth melted was radio active decay of elements like __________ D. Explain how it could be possible ? 10. the temperature of the Earth’s surface would have varied over a wide range in 24 hours. If there were no atmosphere. How were complex molecules formed from the elements present in the primitive . When did the atmosphare reach a composition similar to what we have today ? 6. 1. Mark the following statements true or false.

15.4 1. 16. . 13. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 16. 2. Venus and Earth Because it is very cold So that nutrients may be transported to different parts of the organism The belt containing Venus at its inner edge and Mars on the outer edge. 4. 3. Oxidation of iron dissolved in water removed the oxygen from the atmosphere. (i) green plants prepare their food using CO2 (ii) being green house gas it maintains night temperature to a comfortable value. (i) Regulate global temperature (ii) Mineral and food resource 4. 2. State the five advantages of oceans? What made Earth a unique planet of solar system ? Explain. 2. 16.: 312 : The Earth – A Living Planet 11. Atmosphere evolved before hydrosphere. 12. volcanos and formation of mountains. Because the very first organism blue-green alga was prone to oxidation.7 billion years ago from now Right mass and right size ensures right gravitational field to hold atmosphere because of very high pressure. 3. 5. No life was then possible without water. 14. 16. 4. Had it been in reverse order the lighter water molecules could have escaped out of Earth. Iron 10km under the sea floor and 35-65 km under the land Around 3. List some activites of man which are disturbing balance of the life support systems of the Earth. 3. The red iron stones at the sea-beds ageing 2 billion years are evidence. Because that is the minimum age of the red iron stones found at sea beds. atmosphere? Discuss why life could not evolve on planet Mars ? What is meant by the term differentiation.3 1. Studying the Earth quakes. Provide oxygen for respiration and CO2 for photosynthesis. Around 600 million years ago.2 1. 16. 2 3. Describe major layers of Earth with the help of a labelled diagram ? State five advantages of atmosphere. 4. Very high range of temperature variation and low gravity to hold the atmosphere.1 1. 5.

5 1. forms clouds. Evolution : The process where by species of living things gradually change to adapt to their environment. 4. Convection current : A process of transfer of heat in liquids and gases where in hot and light fluid rises up and gets cooled at higher place and heavy cool fluid sinks down. 16. Magma : Hot. .The Earth – A Living Planet : 313 : 5. Photosynthesis : The process by which green plants use sun light as an energy source to turn CO2 and H2O into sugars they need for their food. its history and structure. molten rock formed beneath the Earth’s crust. Geologist : A scientist who studies the Earth. Decrease in the effective use of available solar energy Chloro fluoro carbons A substance which can be broken up into simpler substances by some germs. ice or wind. Nuclear fusion. Volcano : An opening in Earth’s crust through which magma erupts. 4. comes down in the form of rains. Global warming : Gradual rise in the average temperature of Earth. Solar energy evoporates water which rises to high altitudes. rocky outer layer of the Earth. Core : The innermost portion of the Earth. 3. Crust : The thin. It is the potential energy of this water collected in dams which runs turbines of our power plants and generates electricity. 16. Organism : Any living being. roots and leaves found in water or ground.6 1. GLOSSARY Algae : Plants without true stems. Erosion : The weathering away of Earth’s surface by water. The fossil remains of man-like creatures suggest a definite evolutionary trend. Nuclear and geothermal energy A global winter Lesser light from sun reaches the Earth slowing down the process of photosynthesis. Atmosphere : A blanket of gases surrounding the Earth. 5. Pressure : Amount of force acting on unit area. Mantle : The layer of the Earth that lies between crust and core. 2. 2. Grow more trees. 3.

: 314 : The Earth – A Living Planet .

including human beings. All our activities are influenced by the environment in which we live. The days are very hot while the nights are cool in deserts. air. It is because of such adverse conditions of the abiotic components that . will find it difficult to live in such an environment. if it does not rain for some days and the temperature is very high. animals. • Biotic components. Any thing that surrounds us forms our environment. which include all non-living things around the organism. • discuss the different types of habitats and the adaptation of animals and plants in these habitats. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson. • compare the carbon and nitrogen cycles within the ecosystem. These activities include the functioning of our body and our interaction with other parts of our environment. The desert area is covered with sand all around. • define biosphere and ecosystem.1 COMPONENTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT The environment has two types of components. you will be able to: • define environment and list the biotic and abiotic components of the environment. which include living beings including humans. and discuss the ecological significance of these levels of organization. Therefore. the environment is important for our survival. • Abiotic components. water and land all form our environment. We should take care of it. It rains very little in such areas hence water is scarce. 17. The plants. • explain the causes and consequences of alterations in habitats and the need to conserve habitats. the plants will dry up and animals. food web and trophic levels in a biological community and discuss how these are constituted as the pyramids of energy. • explain food chain. These two components have an effect on each other.17 Our Environment The word environment means to encircle or surround. For example.

heat. There are streams and rivers flowing in the area that provide water. light. if there are more trees at a place the air will contain more moisture at the place. 3. the abiotic components are also affected by biotic components. However. but at the same time many plants and animals share the same habitat. Animals. man.2 HABITAT AND ADAPTATION Every living organism lives in a specific environment. Name one desert animal and one desert plant.2. Also. All forests are not habitats of tigers or lions. Classify the following into biotic and abiotic components of the environment: neem.1 Modes of life The following modes of life have been identified for different organisms: • Aquatic : For organisms living in water • Terrestrial : For organisms living on land • Aerial : For organisms that use air as a medium for their activities such as locomotion • Amphibious : For organisms. 17. such as a moss plant and a frog that complete their life cycles by living one part of their life in water and another part on land. humidity 2. Jim Corbett National Park in Uttaranchal has thick forests. as soon as it is taken out of water. We know that a fish swims with ease in water.1 1. The amount of dust particles in the air shall be less. we find that biotic components depend upon the abiotic components for their survival.: 2 : Our Environment there is very little vegetation and only a few species of animals can live in deserts. a habitat must provide the organisms suitable climatic conditions. 17. For example. it dies. air. On the other hand. butterfly. and plants like cactus that can survive without water for many days are found in such places. shelter and food. Have you ever felt such difference between a place with more trees and the one with fewer trees? The amount of fertility of the soil at a place gets affected by the water. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 17. buffalo. Give an example to show that abiotic components of environment depend upon the biotic components. such as camels. soil. Do you know the reason? This is because the changed environmental condition is not suitable for the survival of the fish. Thus. the temperature of the place will be relatively low. A place or a set of environmental conditions in which a particular organism lives is called its habitat. The presence of deer and sambhar in large number in the same habitat provide food for the tigers. temperature and air. cow.Thus. rose. The habitats of different plants and animals are different. . It provides optimum conditions for the tigers to live.

ii. defend themselves from attack by other organisms (enemies).2 Some plants that live in water currents. iii. Plants that live in Lotus water have the following Hydrilla characteristics: i. successfully compete for food. Thin and narrow leaves (Hydrilla) or long. flat and ribbon-shaped l e a v e s (Vallisneria): As Water hyacinth this helps to withstand water Fig.2 Aquatic adaptations in organisms a) In plants Plants that live in water are called hydrophytes (hydro: water. 17. Look at the picture above and relate. find a mate to reproduce/find favourable conditions to reproduce. phyte: plant).2.1 Different organisms live in different habitats Organisms that live in a specific habitat have some important characteristics that help them to adjust and to live successfully. 17. Poorly developed root system: As they can easily absorb water and minerals from the plentifully available water. respond efficiently to the change in environment. This adjustment is called adaptation. and iv. ii.Our Environment : 3 : Fig. The organisms adapt so that they can: i. 17. Vallisneria .

water flea and some worms. 17. It allows more light to enter for clear vision in water.3. Fins help to swim. steer and maintain balance.: 4 : Our Environment In a lotus plant. Vertebrates that live in water have Catla the following characteristics: i.4 Diversity of animal life in water . 17. Some fish have swim bladders Ray fish that act as floats and allow the Fig. Gills help the animal to breathe in water. A whale (a Hammer-headed shark mammal) has flippers to swim. There are numerous other kinds of aquatic animals with varying adaptations. the leaves float on water with their broad upper surface coated with wax. This wax acts as water repellant.3 Some fishes that live in water organisms to float in water. Lobster Some coelenterates Echinoderms Labeo Some sponges Octopus Fig. iii. v. The body surface gives out some secretions. ii. The body is streamlined (pointed at both ends) that helps Labeo in reducing friction and allows swift movement in water. b) In animals Observe the animals shown in the figure 17. iv. such as Hydra. Pupil of the eyes is large as compared to other vertebrates. which lubricate the scales and help the animal slip away and escape from enemies. vi.

17. banyan.6 Xerophytic plants Table 17. Examples: cactus (Opuntia). 17.Our Environment : 5 : 17.5 Mesophytic plants Some plants live on land under extreme water scarcity and high temperature conditions. These are called xerophytes (xeros: scarce water). papaya. wheat. mango. solid and branched Xerophytes Extensively developed to possible from the ground Flattened.3 Terrestrial (land) adaptations in organisms a) In plants Some plants live on land and require moderate (neither low nor high) supply of water and temperature. fleshy and green to store water and function as leaves Well-developed.2. tomato. Examples: neem. stoma if present sizes and with large reduced in number to number of stomata prevent loss of water Leaves . Babool (Acacia). Casuarina Opuntia Fig.1 Adaptations in land plants Part of the plant Roots Stem Mesophytes Well-developed draw as much water as Well-developed. Wheat Rice Papaya Bamboo Banyan Fig. These plants are called mesophytes (meso: moderate). etc. numerous. Reduced (modified) into of various shapes and spines.

such as birds. squirrels and many others • Reptiles: lizards and snakes Terrestrial animals may be of different types according to their mode of locomotion.2.7 Aerial adaptations in a bird CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 17. wings that help to fly are modified forelimbs. lion.2. iv. Examples of some terrestrial mammals and reptiles are given below : • Mammals: tiger. light weight because of hollow bones along with reduction in the number of bones. snakes. Such animals have well-adapted toes. spiders and scorpions. These are different types of animals.5 Aerial adaptations in organisms Besides insects. deer. body covered with feathers.4 Xerophytic adaptations in organisms Animals found in the xeric (dry) conditions show certain special types of adaptations. Examples: polar bear. 17. mainly use air as a medium to fly. These are: • Runners: deer and antelopes • Climbers: monkeys and squirrels • Burrowers: rats. ii. and v. • Extreme cold and scarcity of water: These animals have oily hairs that provide thick winter coat. organisms. Fig.17. Name the type of habitat in which the following organisms are found. Examples: camel. which trap air to keep the body warm and help the bird to fly.: 6 : Our Environment b) In animals Most animals you see around are those living in a moderate type of a habitat. • Extreme heat and scarcity of water: These animals have very scaly skin. bear. streamlined body to steer through the air. iii. moles and snakes • Fliers: bats and birds All vertebrate terrestrial animals breathe through lungs. i) Acacia ii) Snake iii) Bat iv) Frog v) Lotus vi) Mango tree . 17. Birds show the following adaptive features that help them to fly: i.2 1. strong flight muscles. reindeer. resistant to drying and show many adaptations to conserve water.

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2. Give the adaptive features of the following: i) Birds with respect to bones ( ) ii) Snakes with respect to high temperature ( ) iii) Neem tree with respect to the number of stomata ( iv) Xerophytes with respect to the root system ( v) Fish with respect to shape of the body ( )

) )

17.3 EFFECT OF ALTERATION OF HABITAT The survival of an organism in a habitat depends upon the way an organism is conditioned to the abiotic and the biotic components of the environment in the habitat. Any change or alteration in the habitat can disrupt the balance in nature. Bhopal gas tragedy Do you know what happened on 3rd Dec 1984 in Bhopal? Leakage of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas from Union Carbide factory totally disturbed human and animal life there. The adverse effects of that gas are seen till today. Gujarat earthquake What happened in Gujarat on 26th January 2001? The earthquake damaged human, animal and plant life. In a similar way other natural calamities, like floods, volcanic eruptions and tornadoes cause so much of damage to life all around. Much more than this, a kind of change in the habitat is brought about by human beings for their selfish gains. Some such activities are, deforestation, indiscriminate use of poisonous materials in form of pesticides and chemical repellants, industrialization and mismanagement of industrial waste, automobiles, hunting and fishing, and use of nuclear weapons. Natural calamities or adverse human activities have a destructive effect on the natural habitat. As a result, the organisms may die an unnatural death, or lose their place of shelter. Many of the species in turn many get completely wiped out from the world, i.e. they may become extinct. To save the living treasure (flora and fauna) and to protect the natural habitat many laws have come into force. These are being operated by many organizations. It is compulsory to implement the plan related to Human Resource Development (HRD) and Natural Resource Development (NRD). To conserve the natural habitat, many national parks and sanctuaries are being maintained by the government. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 17.3 1. Name any one recent natural calamity that occurred in India and any one calamity caused due to human activities. 2. List any four human activities that affect the natural habitat adversely. 17.4 BIOSPHERE The land, water and air on the earth support living organisms. The region comprising water forms the hydrosphere. The soil and rocks on the earth’s surface

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as well as below the oceans make up the lithosphere. The air above the earth’s surface forms the atmosphere. These three parts act together to provide surroundings called the biosphere in which life exits. Biosphere is considered as the largest organisational unit of the biological system. 17.4.1 Environmental levels of organization Let us start at the level of the whole organism, such as a plant or an animal. This is called organismal level. Take an example of a human being as an organism. All human beings of your family, locality, city, state, country and the world form one kind of individuals, they can potentially interbreed and produce fertile young ones, thus they are one species. Individuals of a species occupying a definite space or area at a given time constitute population. Thus there can be a population of frogs in a pond, population of squirrels in a garden, or population of peepal trees in a forest, etc. Any population of individuals cannot live independently. Can we live without domestic animals, crops or plants? When you look in a pond, you may see plants like lotus, hydrilla and algae. You may also see frogs, fish, water fleas and some other insects. There are different kinds of organisms (populations) in that area. All these organisms are interdependent and live together forming a community. A community of living organisms is called biotic community. We have learnt earlier that no biotic community can exist in the absence of abiotic factors (water, air and light). The interdependence of the two types of factors occurs in an ecosystem. A pond and a lake are examples of aquatic ecosystems. Examples of some terrestrial ecosystems are natural forests, crop fields, etc.

Fig. 17.8 A pond is an aquatic ecosystem.

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Fig. 17.9 A forest is a terrestrial ecosystem

In simple language we can say that, the living organisms which are found in a definite geographical region together with the physical environment of that region form an ecosystem. All the ecosystems taken together in a geographical area form a bigger unit called biome. For example, in forest biomes one may find ponds, lakes, grasslands and forests. Organisms exist up to 8 km in the air above sea level and up to 5 km below sea level. These life supporting regions of the earth comprise the biosphere. Various levels of organization and their sequence is given below. The biosphere includes the total world of life. The living world which is made up of millions of organisms, depends upon the earth for the necessary materials that enter into its composition and upon the sun for its constant need of energy to perform its vital activities.
Individual

Biome

Ecosystem

Community

Population

17.5 FLOW OF ENERGY The sun gives out a large amount of radiation that consists of many different kinds of rays. Only some of these rays reach the earth’s surface. Others are either reflected by the earth’s atmosphere or turned away by the earth’s magnetic field.

Fig. 17.10 Various levels of organisations

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The amount of sunlight, which the earth receives in the form of energy, is very little. A portion of it is also reflected back to the earth’s surface. No animal can use sunlight directly for its living activities. Green plants possess chlorophyll. This chlorophyll is capable of trapping a fraction of the incoming sun’s energy to make food for the plants by a process called photosynthesis. During photosynthesis, water and carbon dioxide are used to build up complex carbohydrates. The absorbed light energy is thus trapped as chemical energy. Thus, solar energy enters into the biosphere through photosynthesis. Only a negligible amount of solar radiation striking the plants is fixed through photosynthesis. The pathway along which the energy flows through the organisms can be studied in the following two ways: • • We can study the food relationship between the species and the community by way of food chains and food webs. We can also find out the energy flow in terms of number of organisms and their biomass (i.e. weight of all organisms and calorie content.) 17.5.1 Food chain We know that green plants make food during photosynthesis, taking raw material from the earth and energy from the sun. Thus, the green plants are producers in the living world. It is seen that the animals eat green plants, which in turn are the food for other animals. Hence, the food produced by green plants is consumed directly or indirectly by all kinds of animals, which are called consumers. The relationship of eating and being eaten up at different levels in an ecosystem is represented in the form of a chain called food chain. A food chain is the representation of a single energy pathway from the producer to the consumer.
Secondary consumer

Energy source

Producer

Primary consumer

The study of food chains in an area or habitat helps us to know about interactions among the different organisms and also their interdependence. Let us take the example of a simple food chain in grassland in which the grass is eaten by the grasshopper that in turn is eaten by a bird Fig.17.11. In this process of eating and being eaten, energy is passed on from one step to next in a food chain.

Fig. 17.11 Energy flow in a food chain

This energy flow can be represented in a food chain as shown in figure 17.11. In this chain, the grass is the producer, the grasshopper, which consumes grass, is a herbivore and the bird, which consumes the grasshopper, is called the carnivore. Animals that consume both plants and animals are called omnivores. Herbivores, carnivores and omnivores are consumers. The best example of omnivores is man.

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17.5.2 Food web In a community, a large number of food chains exist. Many of these chains are interconnected by a species, which occurs in more than one chain. Grassland can have many food chains operating in it as shown in fig. 17.12. These interconnected food chains establish a network of species’ relationships called food web. A food web is a network of species relationship formed by interconnected food chains.

Fig. 17.12 A food web

A food web indicates that one organism may occupy position in more than one food chain. For example, a snake and also a hawk may consume a rat. The organisms representing producers and consumers in the food chain give a definite structure of the ecosystem. We have seen that in a food chain there are different steps and energy is passed on from one step to the next step. Each of these steps in a food chain is called trophic level. In other words, the various steps in a food chain at which energy transfer takes place are denoted as trophic levels. Plants are producers and form the first trophic level. Herbivores, i.e. plant eaters, are the first order consumers and form the second trophic level. Carnivores, i.e. animal eaters, which feed upon the herbivores, form the third trophic level. Large carnivores that feed upon small carnivores form the fourth trophic level, and so on.

the flow of energy through various trophic levels is one-way energy transfer.13 Pyramid of numbers If you compare the number of organisms living at each trophic level in a food chain. 17. Some amount of energy is lost during these transfers. . ii) The number of organisms living at different trophic levels in a food chain is the least for large carnivores. Producers form the base of the pyramid and the apex by the last order consumers. Thus.4 1. 3. ii) The third trophic level in a food chain is formed by the _________ iii) A food chain is the representation of single energy pathway from_________ to__________ 2. And. Which of the following statements are TRUE? i) One organism cannot occupy position in more than one food chain.1 Carbon cycle Carbon is the main constituent of the living matter. 17. An interesting point emerges from the study of food chains. iv) The solar energy enters the biosphere through the process of photosynthesis going on in the plants. One can study the cycling of each element and have a total picture of this property of the ecosystem. Nearer the eater is to the plants. then you can represent the chain by a pyramid of numbers.7. iii) Plants are called producers because they can produce a new plant. The pyramidal shape shows that the large carnivores at the top are fewer in numbers (Fig. 17. What is the difference between a biome and an ecosystem? 17.: 12 : Our Environment Large carnivores Small carnivores Herbivores Producers Fig. 17. Energy is also used up by the organisms at each trophic level to carry out various activities. Shorter the chain. Maximum energy is at the plant level (producers). more is the energy available at each level. greater is the energy available to it. the amount of energy available goes on decreasing during its transfer from one trophic level to the other.13) One can also construct a pyramid of energy if it is measured in term of joules for each trophic level. Complete the following sentences : i) Plants trap solar energy and pass it to the next trophic level in the form of__________ energy. the cycle is also known as biogeochemical cycle. It is found in carbohydrates.6 AMOUNT OF ENERGY FIXATION Energy after being trapped by plants (producers) is passed to the animals (consumers) of the next trophic level in the form of food. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 17.7 CYCLING OF MATERIALS Since materials flow from non-living to the living and back to the non-living in a more or less circular path.

From both PREHISTORIC PLANTS plants and animals. 17. Nitrogen fixation: Free nitrogen from the atmosphere can be fixed in following two ways: denitri nitrates y ca de ORGANIC REMAINS ammonia NITROGEN IN SOIL ammonium compounds fying b nitrates acteria NITROGEN IN THE AIR by action of nitrifying bacteria de ath NITROGEN IN ANIMALS eaten NITROGEN IN PLANTS LEGUMINOUS PLANTS deat h nitrogen fixing bacteria in the soil Fig.03 n te to 0. burning of fuels like wood. However. y ca De n Re sp ira tio Co m bu sti on 17. It is available from the following three main sources – atmosphere. this does not happen in reality. Nitrogen cycle can be studied in five steps as given below. Green plants absorb nitrogen in the form of nitrites and nitrates from the soil and water in organic or inorganic form. oceans (hydrosphere).7. coal and petroleum of the lithosphere.e. petroleum. etc.2 Nitrogen cycle Nitrogen is an essential component of the proteins and nucleic acids in living beings. There are processes by which carbon dioxide is returned to the atmosphere to maintain a balance. animals and decomposers. 17. The processes by which carbon dioxide is returned to the atmosphere are as follows: • By the process of combustion.14 Carbon cycle in nature such processes of taking in and passing on continued then there would have been no carbon dioxide left in the atmosphere. The atmospheric carbon taken in by the plants is transferred to animals in the form of food. The atmosphere is the biggest source of nitrogen.Our Environment : 13 : fats. Ea Green plants use this carbon dioxide to ANIMALS synthesize food by the process of photosynthesis. i. If Fig. Photosynthesis Decay ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE Respiration GREEN PLANTS The atmosphere contains about 0.15 Nitrogen cycle in nature ro ot no du le s Fo ssi lisa tio n absorpti e excr tion on . i.04% carbon dioxide in free state. coal. it is then passed on to the decomposers after their death. proteins and nucleic acids that make up the living cell. which takes place continuously. • By the process of respiration in plants. and lime stone.

These are removed from the body along with urine. gram. Ammonification: Proteins in the body of animals are broken down in simpler form. Choose the correct answer from the following : i. This nitrogen is then taken by animals from plants in the form of proteins (complex form of amino acids) through the food chain. Denitrification: Denitrifying bacteria living in some soils like the soil of ponds and marshes change the soil nitrates into nitrogen which goes back to the atmosphere. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 17. Which of the following gases is essential for burning? a) Oxygen b) Nitrogen c) Water vapour d) Carbon dioxide ii. such as urea and ammonia. • Some microbes like blue green algae and bacteria fix the free nitrogen in the atmosphere into nitrites and nitrates. Why do living organisms need nitrogen? .: 14 : Our Environment • ii. These oxides of nitrogen dissolve in rainy water and on reaching the earth’s surface become a part of soil and water. beans. iii. found in the soil convert ammonia into nitrites. Nitrification: Conversion of ammonia into nitrates is called nitrification. Remains of the dead organisms are also converted into ammonia. v. Nitrogen assimilation: Plants absorb nitrogen in the form of nitrates to prepare amino acids. Some other bacteria convert these nitrites into nitrates. Some bacteria. The process of conversion of free atmospheric nitrogen into nitrites and nitrates is called a) nitrification b) denitrification c) nitrogen assimilation d) nitrogen fixation iii.5 1. This process is known as ammonification. Nitrogen and oxygen combine with each other to form oxides in the atmosphere by lightning during cloud formation. They fix the atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates. Nitrogen fixing bacteria are found in the soil and in root nodules of the roots of some leguminous plants like peas. etc. The processes by which carbon dioxide is returned to the atmosphere are a) combustion and respiration b) photosynthesis and respiration c) decomposition and nutrition d) photosynthesis and digestion 2. These nitrates are released into the plants or soil. iv.

e. In the process of eating and being eaten up. It includes all the living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components of the world. Efforts are being made at international and national level to maintain balance in nature. energy trapped by the green plants is passed on through various trophic levels. Thus. lower level (up to individual) and higher level (up to biosphere). cycle through the ecosystem. animals (consumers) and microorganisms (decomposers). The food inter-relationships between the organisms of various trophic levels are studied through food chains. the energy is released and it does not re-enter the system. biotic and abiotic.e. which are divided into two main groups. carbon and nitrogen cycles. A habitat provides shelter. i.e. Aquatic. It works like a system showing interactions and interdependence between different organisms and different physical environments. a cyclic flow of energy is seen in an ecosystem. all the ecosystems. The living community in the biosphere has various trophic levels like green plants (producers). Each level of organization works like a system involving both matter and energy. Any alteration in the habitat because of natural or man-made calamity causes imbalance in nature. viz. The materials or nutrients which plants and animals require for their normal growth and development. Biosphere is the highest level of organization. • • • • • • • • • • • • . Living organisms have various levels of organization. They are absorbed by plants. Nature has a unique way to maintain balance in the atmospheric gases through various cycles. i. food and climate to the organism. terrestrial. Different organisms are adapted to live successfully in different modes of life. Energy is lost at each transfer and maximum of it is available near the beginning of the food chain.Our Environment : 15 : LET US REVISE • • • • • • • • • The environment has both living and non-living parts. A place or a set of environmental condition in which a particular organism lives is its habitat. The biotic and abiotic components depend on each other. i. passed on to animals and returned to the environment by decomposers. aerial and amphibious are different types of habitat. Ultimately.

their bones are a) small-sized and jointed for flexibility. As a special feature of birds. 5. 3. 1. The largest unit of the biological system is a) population b) biome c) biosphere d) ecosystem The apex position in the pyramid of numbers is occupied by: a) producers b) small carnivores c) large carnivores d) herbivores 3. Ecosystem and biosphere Food chain and food web Carnivores and omnivores Producers and consumers Using a simple food chain. in one way? Explain with an example. . With the help of a diagram. 4. Plants found in which of the following habitats have poorly developed root system? a) Aquatic b) Terrestrial c) Xerophytic d) Amphibious 2. explain the cycling of carbon in the biosphere. i. Multiple choice type questions. Why do we say that energy flow in the biosphere is unidirectional. Descriptive type questions. B. d) hollow and few in number to make the body light in weight. b) identify areas where hunting and fishing can be done without any restriction. b) porous to allow circulation of materials. 1. Differentiate between the following : i) ii) iii) iv) 2.e. c) protect small animals from other carnivores that feed on them. d) protect animals from accidents. 4. c) filled with a hard material to provide strength.: 16 : Our Environment TERMINAL EXERCISES A. explain the pathway along which energy flows in an ecosystem. The government is maintaining national parks and sanctuaries in order to a) conserve natural habitat for animals.

Terrestrial iii) Bat . Camel. 2.Amphibious v) Lotus . . 17. 3. it is required for growth. While. 17. all ecosystems in a geographical area together form a biome. 2. Soil Air Light Heat Humidity Neem Buffalo Rose Butterfly Man Cow Presence of trees makes the air contain more moisture and keep the temperature low. Cactus 2.Terrestrial ii) Snake . (iv) True statements All living organisms in a definite geographical region along with the physical environment form an ecosystem. and fishing i) Chemical ii) Carnivores iii) Producer.Aquatic vi) Mango tree . i) Acacia . (a) ii. 17.2 1.4 1. Therefore.1 1. 2001 Calamity due to human activities: Leakage of MIC from the Union Carbide factory in Bhopal on 3rd Dec. 2. 2. (a) Nitrogen is an essential component of proteins and nucleic acids in living beings.Aerial iv) Frog .3 1. i. 3. use of pesticides and automobiles.5 1. (d) iii.Our Environment : 17 : ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 17. Natural calamity: Earthquake in Gujarat on 26th Jan. hunting.1984 Deforestation.Terrestrial i) Light and hollow bones ii) scaly skin iii) large number of stomata iv) root system extensively developed v) streamlined body. 17. consumer (ii).

Ecosystem: Living organisms found in a definite geographical region together with the physical environment of that region. Adaptation: The adjustment made by an organism that lives in a specific habitat by acquiring certain important characteristics that helps it to adjust and live successfully.: 18 : Our Environment GLOSSARY Habitat: A place or a set of environmental conditions in which a particular organism lives. Biotic community: A community of living organisms in an area. Food chain: The relationship of eating and being eaten up at different levels in an ecosystem represented in the form of a chain. Biome: All the ecosystems taken together in a geographical area. . Food web: A network of species relationship formed by interconnected food chains.