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graduate program in architectural design
0 7 -1 5 s ep te mb e r 2 0 1 3
2013 architectural excursion
The program “discovering architecture through world metropolises,” initiated in 2006, has now completed its 7th year. The History of Modern Architecture was studied each year within the context of, respectively, Vienna, Chicago, London, Amsterdam, Barcelona, Hamburg and Berlin, and was concluded with an architectural excursion carried out at the end of each academic year thanks to the support of VitrA. Together with course and studio instructors, students had the opportunity to discover the places with which they were acquainted from books and pictures. Through these intensive excursion programs they evaluated legendary objects of architecture and urban planning that have determined the modern world’s paradigms of urbanization and architecture within the relationships their city, community, and world establish with social, economic, political, and cultural contexts. We owe a debt of gratitude to VitrA as an institution and to its managers and supporting members individually for providing this meaningful opportunity to architects of the future.
Instructors + Participants İhsan Bilgin, Gerhard Fehl, Emre Altürk, Şebnem Yalınay Çinici, Burcu Kütükçüoğlu, Mehmet Kütükçüoğlu, Tansel Korkmaz, Murat Tabanlıoğlu, Sinan Omacan, Han Tümertekin, Ali Osman Öztürk, Selçuk Avcı, Meral Yılmaz Coordinators İdil Erkol, Elif Simge Fettahoğlu (Bilgi Uni.. Selin Uysal, Bengü Eken (VitrA. Students Yağmur Arıcı, Ethem Aybar, Nimet Bekar, Zeynep Burçoğlu, Sedef Çatalkaya, Feyza Daloğlu, Gizem Ertaş, Efe İnanç Güneş, Gizem İçer, Irmak Kalkan, Derya Karaali, Mete Keskin, Mehmet Örücü, Hurşit Türker Özdede, Elif Özgür, Aybüke Samast, Hazer Sarıçetin, Cemal Şapoğlu, Ayça Yazıcı Special Thanks to Gerhard Fehl, Levent Yılmaz, Murat Belge, Fatih Özgüven, Necmi Zekâ, Komet, Virgine PiconLefebvre, Pierre Pinon and Can Onaner
i n dex // par is e xcur sion
e xc ur s ion s c h e dule day 1 | 07. 09. 2013 day 2 | 08. 09. 2013 day 3 | 09. 09. 2013 day 4 | 10. 09. 2013 day 5 | 11. 09. 2013 day 6 | 12. 09. 2013 day 7 | 13. 09. 2013 day 8 | 14. 09. 2013 day 9 | 15. 09. 2013 par is in m aps app e n dix
day 1 | 07. 09. 2 0 1 3
7a 7b 7c Centre Georges Pompidou Montmarte Sacre Coeur
day 4 | 10.09.2013
10a Palace of Versailles
day 2 | 08. 09. 2 0 1 3
8a 8b 8c 8d 8e 8f1 8f2 8g 8h 8i 8j 8k 8l 8m 8n Isle Cite Cathedrale Notre Dame Mémorial des Martyrs de la Déportation Hopital Hotel-Dieu Place Dauphine Louvre Palace Louvre Pyramidev Tuillerienpark Place de la Concorde Eglise de la Madeleine Champs Elysee Theatre des Champs Elysee Musee de I’Armee Unesco Building Tour de Montparnasse
day 3 | 09.09.2013
9a 9b 9c 9d 9e 9f 9g 9h 9i 9j 9k 9l 9m 9n Opera Garnier Passages Place Vendome Mixed Used Building / Bofill Bibliotheque Nationale Palais Royal Place Victories Les Halles Hotel de Ville Marais Place des Vosges Place de la Bastille Opera de la Bastille Canal Saint-Martin
day 5 | 11.09.2013
11a Palais d’Iena 11b Place du Trocadero 11c Tour Eiffel’e bakış 11d Palais de Chaillot 11e Apartment - Rue Franklin 11f Apartment - Rue Raynourd 11g Chancellerie de L’Ambassade de Turquie 11h Villa La Roche 11 11 11 Villa Jeanneret Apartments by Mallet-Stevens Glass Houses
da y 6 | 1 2 .0 9 .2 0 1 3
12a Musée du Quai Branly 12b Gare d’Orsay 12c Maison de Verre 12d Foundation Cartier 12e Ozenfant Evi ve Atölyesi 12f Maison de l’Inde 12g Pavillon Suisse 12h Pavillon Netherlands 12 12j 12l Maison du Brésil Cite de Refuge Le Cinémathèque Française
11k Immeuble Molitor 11m Canal Plus Office Buildings 11n Ambassade D’Australie 11o Tour Totem 207 11p Apartments - “Les Colonnes” Dinner by VitrA
12k National Library of France 12m Cité de La Mode et du Design
day 7 | 13. 09. 2 0 1 3
13a St.Germain 13b Jardin de Luxembourg 13c Pantheon 13d Bibliotheque St Genevieve 13e Jussieu Campus 13f Institut du Monde Arabe 13g Place de la Republique 13h Social Housing 13i Siege Central du Parti Communiste Fran. 13j 13 Student Residence in Paris Plein Soleil 13k 46 Homes in Rue du Maroc 13m Parc de la Villette 13n Musee National de Sciences des Techniques et des Industries 13o Music Center
day 8 | 14.09.2013
14a La Defense 14b La Grande Arche de la Défense 14c Notre Dame de Pentecôte Church 14d Hotel Fouquet’s Barriè 14e Bureau Building 14f Villa Savoye
day 9 | 15.09.2013
15 Free Day Flight Back to Istanbul Paris-Istanbul / PC 874 / 18.30
7a 7b z7c Montmarte Sacre Coeur
Flight Istanbul - Paris / PC 401 / 10.30 Hotel Arrival - B&B Porte de la Villette 4 Rue Emile Reynaud 75019 Public transport : Bus lines 75, 139, 150, 152, 249. Bus stop Porte de la Villette. Métro : 300m from the hotel line 7. Station Porte de la Villette, exit Avenue Porte de la Villette Centre Georges Pompidou Metro Rambuteau (11-Kahverengi Mairie des Lilas Yönü. >Metro Belleville (Aktarma: 2-Mavi Porte Dauphine Yönü.. > Metro Anvers
The site for the Centre Pompidou is located in the centre of Paris, within one kilometre of Notre Dame Cathedral and the Louvre Museum, on the edge of a densely populated medieval quarter Les Halles, the famous inner city market nearby, later to be demolished. To the east, the Marais was rundown and in need of regeneration. In the midst of this, the Centre Pompidou, was planned as a key connection in the renewal of the historic heart of the capital. In 1970, an international competition was announced for the design of an arts centre, which would include a library, modern art museum, a centre for industrial design, and a music research centre.
Montmartre was a village just to the north of Paris. The village took its name from the 130m high Montmartre hill. The latter was city dominated by the Romans around the year 55 AD who built a temple at the top of the hill. Montmartre was a burial ground of Christian martyrs’ and its name is coming from the roman words for hill and martyrs “mons martirium”. As the centuries passed, Montmartre retained, and strengthened, its religious importance, but also adopted a military importance. The exquisite location proved to be an excellent vantage point from which to bomb and attack conquering foreigners. During the 1590 Siege of Paris, Henry IV made this his headquarters of artillery operations, as did the invading Russians who took over the area during the Battle of Paris in 1814. The Montmartre of today is very much what was built up in the 19th century during the reign of Napoleon III (grandson of Napoleon.. It was he who declared war on the Prussians and so quickly lost (1870.. However, much of what is to be seen in the way of city urbanization and reforms is thanks to him. Napoleon III got Baron Haussmann to destroy the small alleys and poorer areas which caused so much discontent and move the inhabitants further out. 18th arrondissement is also an example of this rebuilding. The beginning of Paris Commune (1871. is apparently marked by an event by which the peasants of Montmartre took over 150 cannons taken from the Prussians to the top of the hill. The government declared its ownership over them and sent the military to get them at which point the peasants revolted, killed the commanding officers and began their revolt. After this Franco – Prussian War the Basilica of Sacre Coeur was built as a public subscription of the defeat. Due to the light of heights and low rents, the mound was colonized by artists from the 19th century such as Corot, Géricault, Renoir, Degas, Cezanne, Max Jacob, Apollinaire, Juan Gris, Vlaminck, Braque, Picasso.
Sacre Coeur is a popular landmark, located at the highest point in the city; also a double monument both political and cultural. The laying of the foundation stone in 1884 was closely associated with the founding of the Third French Republic, the constitution of which was adopted the same year. The basilica was controversial in that it was built “to expiate the crimes of the Communards,” as some people at the time put it. It was also seen as a memorial to the many French citizens who lost their lives
The architect went to work and produced one of the most unusual designs in the competition. His Sacre-Coeur was a blend of Romanesque and Byzantine styles. All openings—windows, doorways, pendentives—were framed by Roman, semicircular arches, not the high, pointed openings characteristic of Gothic. But all of the domed designs had been faithful to Romanesque in this respect. The floor plan is a typical basilica layout with an equal-armed Greek cross and a large dome (83m high) over the crossing. What made his design stand out were its elongated domes, which gave the design a distinctly exotic eastern look.
Abadie’s design called for one tall central dome bracketed by four smaller domes at the corners in turn topped by and surrounded by several smaller lanternons or cupolas. These domes were sheathed in small stone tiles, giving the surface of the domes a scaly texture. Despite its outward radiating appearance, the main portal has grand bronze doors with foliage designs which leads into a dim and rather gloomy sanctuary with heavy and almost overly ornate details.
8a 8b 8c 8d 8e Isle Cite Cathedrale Notre Dame Mémorial des Martyrs de la Déportation Hopital Hotel-Dieu Place Dauphine Meet in 09.30 at Kathedrale Notre Dame > Pont Neuf (7-Pembe La Courneuve Yönü. > Metro Palais Royal Musee du Louvre 8f1 8f2 8g 8h 8i 8j 8k 8l 8m 8n Louvre Palace Louvre Pyramidev Tuillerienpark Place de la Concorde Eglise de la Madeleine Champs Elysee Theatre des Champs Elysee Musee de I’Armee Unesco Building Tour de Montparnasse
The Ile de la Cité is the cradle of Parisian civilization. It was here that the Parisii tribe lived; the Romans, led by Caesar’s lieutenant Labenius, conquered the Parisii in 52 AD and set up camp. The city was given the name Lutecia, from the Latin lutum meaning “mud”. During the barbarian invasion, Lutecia’s inhabitants, galvanized by the young Sainte Geneviève, took refuge on the easily defended Ile de la Cité. Clovis, king of the Francs and defeater of the Romans, made the island his capital. It stayed the area’s center of activity throughout the Middle ages. In the 9th century, the Norman invasions subjected Paris to repeated Viking attacks. One such attack in 885 met with the resistance led by Count Eudes, later king; once again, the defeat was organized on the island.The island kept its role as a religious and judicial center throughout the Middle Ages. Notre-Dame, Saint Chapelle and and the Conciergerie are the last three Middle-Aged buildings left on the island.The plaque here in the square is the zero-point for all distances measured from other towns to Paris, underlining yet again the central role of the island in Parisian history. The land between the eastern and the western part
was, until the 1850s, largely residential and commercial, but since has been filled by the city’s Prefecture de Police, Palais de Justice, Hôtel-Dieu hospital and Tribunal de Commerce.
Most of Notre-Dame was complete by the 1220s, the later masters having remained generally faithful to the first design. The cathedral can be classed as a masterpiece of the earlyGothic period. From the mid 1220s on, Notre-Dame was largely re-modelled in an attempt to modernize the cathedral in response to subsequent stylistic developments. Those later modifications are manifest on the exterior, and it would be said that today’s cathedral is a 12C building in 13C dress. The final round of major work came in the 19C when, following a century of neglect and the brutal vandalism of the Revolution. Nearly all the decorative elements date from this time. In 1160, Paris’s newly invested bishop, took the eventful decision to replace the city’s cathedral and planned big: the new building would be the largest of its kind yet constructed, 127.5 m long, 40 m wide and 33.1 m high under the main vault. His urban redevelopment scheme included the building of a brand-new bishop’s palace to the south of the cathedral, and the cutting of a new, straight street through the tight jumble of houses in front of Notre-Dame’s west facade. The widest in Paris, at 6 m, this street was designed to link the complex to the north-south road crossing the Ile de la Cite, thereby ensuring connection with the mainland, and would also facilitate delivery of raw materials to the building site. The Rue Neuve Notre-Dame, was aligned with the axis of the cathedral’s central portal, and opened out onto a square, a transitional space between the secular world and the house of God. Although only a fraction of the size of Notre-Dame’s current place, this parvis was exceptionally large for its era.
Like the majority of Gothic great churches. Notre-Dame’s principal vessel, only 12.5 m wide, is very narrow in relation to its enormous height to give verticality rising towards heaven. In original form, Notre-Dame’s main-vessel elevations were divided into four “storeys.: firstly, a comparatively low arcade; on top of the arcade a generous tribune gallery: above the gallery a row of oculi opening into the tribune roof space; and finally a row of short clerestory windows under the vault. First architect wisely pierced oculi to animate a space which in the main vessels of many Romanesque cathedrals was left dead. In comparison to its Romanesque predecessors’; Notre-Dame’s internal elevations are rather flat and these oculi opening as they did onto the dark attic space above the tribune vaults, would have given a more traditional feeling of depth to the nave walls. When you look at the Notre-Dame’s choir elevations, the cathedral’s first architect try to break traditionally horizontal emphasis of Romanesque great churches and instead put the accent on the interior’s upward movement. Various structural innovations can be seen in the church. This departure from usual practice seems explicable only by a desire for greater uniformity. Notre-Dame’s west elevation has today become one of the most celebrated images in Gothic architecture, a highly graphic, iconic distillation of the classic two-tower formula, achieved in part through the unusual flatness and relative sobriety of its surfaces. In comparison to the overcharged composition of other French-Gothic west fronts, it is a model of clarity and simple harmonious proportions. If you stand at the entrance to Notre-Dame’s original courtyard, you will see that the facade’s proportions were calculated so that, when viewed from this spot, the statue appears at the exact center of the rose window above, which thus forms an enormous halo around the figures heads. This kind of scholastic symbolism is present throughout the cathedral: its twelve doors recall the twelve tribes of Israel arid the twelve apostles. its towers, pinnacles and spire evoke the Heavenly Jerusalem, and so on.
On the eastern tip of the Ile de la Cite, underground behind Notre Dame lies this stark monument to the more than 200,000 French men, women, and children who died in Nazi concentration camps during World War II. The evocative memorial, inaugurated by Charles de Gaulle in 1962, was intentionally designed to be claustrophobic. Concrete blocks mark the narrow entrance to the crypt, which contains the tomb of an unknown deportee killed at the Neustadt camp. A dimly lit narrow gallery studded with 200,000 pieces of glass symbolizes the lives lost; while urns at the lateral ends contain ashes from the camps.At the exit to the chamber is the injunction, engraved, found at all sites memorializing the victims of the Nazis: “Forgive but never forget.”
Hôtel Dieu has been in existence since 651, making it the oldest hospital in the city and one of the oldest in Europe.It still resides on the left bank of the Île de la Cité, next to Notre-Dame where the facility was originally built between the 7th and 17th centuries, with two buildings being linked by the pont au Double.Because of its dead central location, just next to Notre Dame cathedral, it is a strategic place, surrounded by 9 arrondissements.It original purpose was to serve the poor of the city, with donations being provided by the bourgeois and nobility. By 1650, it had become hugely overcrowded treating some 2,800 patients at any given time.As a symbol of charity and hospitality, it was the first hospital in Paris until the Renaissance.In 1772, a fire destroyed a fair amount of the structures and it was decided to rebuild Hôtel Dieu on the opposite side of Notre Dame in 1877.
It was initiated by Henry IV, in 1607 the second of his projects for public squares in Paris.From the “square”, actually triangular in shape, one can access the middle of the Pont Neuf, a bridge which connects the left and right banks of the Seine by passing over the Île de la Cité. Only two buildings whose facades are looking through the Pont Neuf’, are still remaining their ancient style: while the others buildings have changes in height, facade or in material.Originally all were built with more or less the specified facades, which were similar to those at the Place Royale, although the houses were more modest. Each repeating unit comprised on the ground floor two arcaded shopfronts interior court with a steep staircase leading to two residential floors above. These were faced with brick and limestone quoins, chaînes, and tablets.The building looks like monobloc from the roof view, however it looks seperated when looking at the facades.
It is located in the center of medieval Paris, which is the oldest bridge of the city. It is total length is 232 m. and it is width is 22 m.The bridge is composed of two separate spans, one of five arches joining the left bank to the Île de la Cité, another of seven joining the island to the right bank. Old engraved maps of Paris show how, when the bridge was built, it just grazed the downstream tip of the Île de la Cité; since then, the natural sandbar building of a mid-river island, aided by stone-faced embankments called quais, has extended the island.It is important because of being the first bridge whose horse road and the pedestrian road were seperated from each other.
The complex occupies about 40 hectares François I ordered the construction of new and forms two main quadrilaterals which buildings at the Louvre in 1546. The work begun under François I was completed enclose two large courtyards: the Cour by Henri II. Carrée (“Square Courtyard”) and the larger Cour Napoleon (“Napoleon Courtyard”) C - Henri II’s widow Catherine de Médicis with the Cour du Carrousel to its west ordered the building of a new residence a short distace to the west. Plans for A - Philippe Auguste’s fortress of 1190 the Tuileries palace were drawn up by was not a royal residence, but ıt was a sizable arsenal. Philibert Delorme in 1564. (It was burned in 1871) In the mid-14th century, Paris spread far D- Henri IV built the Galerie du Bord de beyond Philippe Auguste’s original wall. l’Eau between 1595 and 1610. Also the Louvre lost its defensive function. known as the Grande Galerie, the long In 1364(Charles V) , the old fortress passage provided a direct link from the began transforming into a splendid royal royal apartments in the Louvre to the residence. Tuileries palace. Work begun by him After the death of Charles VI, the Louvre fifteen years later was completed under slumbered for a century until 1527. Louis XIV.
G - Louis XIII ordered the demolition of part of the north wing of the medieval Louvre and its replacement by a continuation of the Lescot wing, in 1625. I - the architect Jacques Lemercier installed the monumental Pavillon de l’Horloge (Pavilion Sully), now known as the Pavillon Sully, in 1639. L- In 1667, a committee that included the physician Claude Perrault designed the celebrated Colonnade, a monumental facade with a peristyle of double columns occupying the entire upper story. Building was stopped in 1672, when Louis XIV moved to Versailles, leaving the project unfinished. King Louis XIV in 1678, completed the Cour Carrée, which was closed off on the city side by a colonnade.
P- The Louvre was still being added to by Napoleon III. The new wing of 1852–1857, by architects Louis Visconti and Hector Lefuel In 1793 the Museum Central des Arts opened to the public in the Grande Galerie and the Salon Carré, from where the collections gradually spread to take over the building.
The construction of the pyramid triggered considerable controversy because many people felt that the futuristic edifice looked quite out of place in front of the Louvre Museum with its classical architecture. Certain detractors ascribed a “Pharaonic complex” to Mitterrand. Others lauded the juxtaposition of contrasting architectural styles as a successful merger of the old and the new, the classical and the ultra-modern. The main pyramid is actually the largest of several glass pyramids that were constructed near the museum, including the downward-pointing La Pyramide Inversée that functions as a skylight in an underground mall in front of the museum. During the design phase, there was a proposal that the design include a spire on the pyramid to simplify window washing. This proposal was eliminated because of objections from I. M. Pei.
Tuillerien Garden is created after the French Revoluby Catherine de Medicis tion. Tuileries Palace, built for herself and for her son in 1564, it was gradually Francois II, as a palace extended until it closed apart from the Louvre off the western end of the called `Tuileries Palace`, Louvre courtyard and disand this garden extends played an immense façade through the Concorde. of 266 metres. Since the Tuillerien Garden takes destruction of the Tuileries place through the Louvre/ by the Paris Commune, La Defense horizontal city the Louvre courtyard has axes. This garden was cre- remained open and the site ated first in the renaissance is now the location of the style in 1559, then in 1660, easternend of the Tuilerit was redesigned by Andre ies Garden, forming an Le Notre in formal French elevated terrace between style. The garden opened the Place du Carrousel and to the public in 1667, and the gardens proper. became a public park
The Place de la Concorde is one of the major public squares in Paris. Measuring 8.64 hectares in area. It is the largest square in the French capital. The center of the Place is occupied by a giant Egyptian obelisk decorated with hieroglyphics. (Luxor Obelisk) This is one of two obelisks given to France in 1829 by The Ottoman viceroy of Egypt, Mehmet Ali. Another main feature of Place de la Concorde is its two large fountains, designed by the architect Jacque-Ignace Hittorff. The south one, closer to the Seine, is dedicated to the seas,
with figures representing the Mediterranean. The north one is devoted to the rivers, with figures representing the rivers Rhone and Rhine. At each corner of the octagonal square is a statue representing a French city: Bordeaux, Brest, Lille, Lyon, Marseille, Nantes, Rouen and Strasbourg. From the Place de la Concorde you can see the Arc de Triomphe on the west, Hôtel de Crillon, Church of the Madeleine on the north, the Tuileries on the east and,across the Seine, the Palais Bourbon.
La Madeleine, a church dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, is an impressive building in Paris’ financial district. It is located at the Place de la Madeleine, close to Palais Garnier and Place de la Concorde. La Madeleine was designed by Pierre Alexandre Vignon at 1806. Napoleon III, desired to build a temple to represent his army’s greatness and truimphes With completion of the Arc de Triomphe in 1808, the original commemorative role for the temple was blunted. The temple is built in the Neo Classical style was inspired by renowned Roman temple Maison Caree at Nimes. It looks impressive from a distance, with its flight of broad steps and its 20m.-high columns going all round the church: there are 52 of these columns in all The church is decorated by precious details and sculptures
The Champs-Élysées was originally fields and gardens, until 1616, when Marie de’ Medici decided to extend the axis of the Tuileries Garden with an avenue of trees. It was called “Grand Cours”. King Louis XIV commissioned to make Champs Elysées, which was to be seen from Louvre palace. The Champs Elysées was first created by Andre le Notre by extending Jardins des Tuileries. The avenue was named Champs Elysées in 1709. The avenue runs for 1.91 km in northwestern Paris. To the east, you can find the Tuileries gardens and Louvre museum and to the north, you can see St. Lazare train station and to the South is the Seine River. The Champs-Élysées ends at the Arc de Triomphe. It was built when Napoleon returned in 1806 from the battle of Austerlitz . The current shape which we see today was designed by the French architect Ignaz Hittorf in 1838. He also installed sidewalks, gas lamps and fountains. The latest renovation was done in 1994 by Bernard Huet. He redesigned the side lanes in to pedestrian zones and installed underground parking lot and few more new trees were planted.
Perret remained royal to reinforced-conabout not only from an architectural point crete all his life, and it had been the main of view-it was there, after all, that modernelement of his buildings of the decades. ism in ballet originated. Only rarely are the façades of his concrete Despite its name, the theatre is not on the structures disguised with cladding, as with Champs-Élysées, but nearby in another the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, which part of the 8th arrondissement of Paris. is adorned with reliefs by the artist Antonie The venue is one of few major examples Bourdelle. In addition to the Antoine of Art Deco in the city and significant as Bourdelle’s artwork, the building includes an early landmark of reinforced concrete a dome by Maurice Denis, paintings by construction and, at the time, shockÉdouard Vuillard and Jacqueline Maringly plain in appearance. The building’s val, and a stage curtain by Ker-Xavier concrete construction was not merely a Roussel. The building houses two smaller stylistic choice. Subsoil conditions and the stages, the Comédie des Champs-Élysées site’s proximity to the Seine made concrete theatre on the 3rd floor, and the Studio necessary. Henry van de Velde was the des Champs-Élysées on the 5th floor. This initial architect, resigning when it was clear site for contemporary music on impressive that the Perret brothers had a far deeper Paris street, incidentially, became talked understanding of the project than he did.
Les Invalides, officially known as L’Hôtel national des Invalides (The National Residence of the Invalids), is a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the building’s original purpose.
Louis XIV initiated the project by an order dated 24 November 1670, as a home and hospital for aged and unwell soldiers The architect of Les Invalides was Libéral Bruant. The selected site was in the then suburban plain of Grenelle. By the time the enlarged project was completed in 1676 . the complex had fifteen courtyards, the largest being the cour d’honneur (“court of honour”) for military parades
Louis XIV commissioned Mansart to construct a separate private royal chapel referred to as the Église du Dôme from its most striking feature . Inspired by St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome, the original for all Baroque domes, it is one of the triumphs of French Baroque architecture. Mansart raised its drum with an attic storey over its main cornice, and employed the paired columns motif in his more complicated rhythmic theme. The general
programme is sculptural but tightly integrated, rich but balanced, consistently carried through, capping its vertical thrust firmly with a ribbed and hemispherical dome. The domed chapel is centrally placed to dominate the court of honour. It was finished in 1708. The interior of the dome was painted by Le Brun’s disciple Charles de La Fosse with a Baroque illusion of space seen from below. The painting was completed in 1705.
The UNESCO planning committee had studied the feasibility of establishing its new international headquarters. The Unesco Building were designed by three architects of different nationalities under the direction of an international committee.Three more buildings complete the headquarters site. The main Building Located in the Place de Fontenoy is seven floors high, resting on stilts and was constructed in the form of a ‘Y’. This building houses the Secretariat of the Organization. Nicknamed the ‘three-pointed star’, the entire edifice stands on seventy-two columns of concrete piling.
The building 2 It is known as the “accordion”, holds the egg-shaped hall with a pleated copper ceiling where the plenary sessions of the General Conference are held. The small four-story building 3 It is in the form of a cube. behind the main building was originally built to house the Permanent Delegates and Non-governmental Organizations. Six sunken patios, building 4 Totally invisible on ground level, conceived in 1965 by Bernard Zehrfuss. construction consists of two office floors.
The tower was designed by architects Eugène Beaudouin, Urbain Cassan and Louis Hoym de Marien and built by Campenon Bernard. Constructed from 1969 to 1972. It was the tallest skyscraper in France until, when it was surpassed by the 231m Tour First. It is the 14th tallest building in the European Union. The tower would have a maximum height of 154 meter. But even after this was approved by a commission, the developers increased the height to more than 210 meter, even though this increase was never officially approved. The 59 floors of the tower are mainly occupied by offices. The 56th floor, with a restaurant called le Ciel de Paris, and the terrace on the top floor, are open to the public for viewing the city. The view covers a radius of 40 km. The tower’s simple architecture, large proportions and monolithic appearance have been often criticised for being out of place in Paris’s urban landscape. As a result, two years after its completion the construction of buildings over seven storeys high in the city centre was banned.
9a 9b 9c 9d 9e 9f 9g 9h Opera Garnier Passages Place Vendome M > Rue de la Paix Palais Royal Place Victories Les Halles 9i 9j 9k 9l 9m 9n Hotel de Ville Marais
Meeting 9:30 at Place de la Opera
Mixed Used Building / Bofill Bibliotheque Nationale
M > Rue Danielle-Casanova - Rue des Petit Champs
M > Metro Les Halles (4-Fuşya Porte d’Orleans Yönü. > Metro Chatelet (Aktarma: 1-Sarı Chateau de Vincennes Yönü. > Metro Hotel de Ville M > Rue de Rivoli/Rue St.Antoine Place des Vosges Place de la Bastille Opera de la Bastille Canal Saint-Martin
Paris has been through tremendous transformation throughout history. The city has withstood poverty, disease, underdevelopment, deindustrialisation, criticism and many hardships throughout 19th Century and was redeveloped during the second empire of Napoleon III. A famous figure, Baron Haussmann, comes to mind when identifying Paris’s urban regeneration. Haussmann, as he is commonly known, was responsible for changing the landscape of Paris into the wide boulevards, cafes and shops, public parks and monuments and the entire urban architectural façade the city boasts of having today. To understand Paris’ present urban structure and prosperity, it is therefore important to look at some of the city’s historical prominence.
During a time of industrial change and cultural advancement, Paris became the new home for many, The pre-industrial revolution period brought huge immigrant flow into Paris, increasing the population and resulting in a chaotic urban structure with many local Parisians forming illegal colonies and suffering from prolonged famine and hunger constructed, with disease and death surrounding the city. The city had, after all, grown rapidly in population, from 786,000 in 1831 to more than 1,000,000 in 1846 But it had been untouched since the Middle Ages. Napoleon III set about bringing order and structure to the chaotic, cramped city and putting an end to its’ identity crisis. Baron Haussmann, chosen by Napoleon III to lead the project, created new roads, public parks, public monuments, as well as installing new sewers and changing the architectural façade of the city.
One of the largest stages of the project, second only to the new roads, was the architecture. To accompany the new streets and provide visual unity to the entire city, Haussmann and his team of architects constructed a unifying architectural façade that changed the shape of Paris. As well as coating the city with a unifying style, they also constructed new public buildings, such as L’Opéra , as well as many other buildings. An emphasis on the horizontal can be seen in the façade, following the horizontal of the streets they sat next to, adding to the symmetry and geometric unity that Haussmann wanted the new Paris to have. The apartment buildings were typically five stories with the ground floor and the in between floors having thick walls.
Haussmann molded the city into a geometric grid, with new streets running east and west, north and south, dividing Medieval Paris into new sections. His plan brought symmetry to the city, something it was lacking beforehand. The projects included creating a north-south axis in the city, developing the quarters around the Opéra, as well as “the annexation of the suburbs to make them outer arrondissements, the sewer system, and the water supply The new streets were also wider than most of their predecessors, for reasons of public health and traffic engineering. It also alllowed for an increase in height of the buildings, providing more room. The next step in Haussmann’s plan for Paris was to divide the city into arrondissements. The decision to divide Paris into these new districts came about in 1853. The plan “implied the destruction of the old, heterogenous quarters in the city center and the creation of large new quarters implicitly dividing the population by economic status. The original plan called for twelve districts, but in 1860, Paris annexed surrounding communities and was divided into twenty districts.
The Paris Opera was designed as part of the great Parisian reconstruction, which was initiated by Emperor Napolean III of the Second Empire. The emperor chose Baron Haussmann to supervise the reconstruction, first ordering that he clear 12,000 square metres of land on which the theatre was to be built. This would be the second theatre for the world renowned Parisian Opera and Ballet companies. An open competition was announced in 1861, which was won by Charles Garnier who was an unknown 32-year-old architect at the time Palais Garnier is of the Neo-Baroque style. The monumental style can also be classified as Beaux-Arts, with its use of axial symmetry in plan, and its exterior ornamentation. The facade is decorated with rose marble
columns, friezes, sculpture groups and two large gilded statues. Palais Garnier became an influential architectural prototype for many theaters built around the World .It is 172 meter long, 125 meter wide and reaches a height of 73,6 meter The Paris Opera, or Palais Garnier, is one of the most famous auditoriums in the world with its 2,200 seats. Place de l’Opéra is located in the heart of Paris, making this square extremely important in Parisian life. One reason is the fact that The Grands Boulevards (Les Grands Boulevards) cross the square from east to west, creating a great deal of activity in the area. Also three branches of the Paris Metro have stations there, making it easily accessible.
The covered passages developed in the capital over a period of only sixty years or so, between the late 18th century and the mid-19th century. Each passage has its own special character but they have one thing in common: they are all private roads. Innovative in terms of their architectural shape as well as their social role, and systematically lined with shops, the passages were places of great diversity. There were usually homes above the shops, and luxury boutiques, toyshops, performance venues, bookshops and restaurants stood side by side.
The arcade itself is a building type that proliferated in early 19th-century Paris before Haussmann’s grand boulevards ripped through the city’s ancient fabric. Typically sheltered beneath an iron and glass roof, the arcade was a blocklong pedestrian passage nestled between two masonry structures. It was lined on either side with small shops. At its peak during the mid 19th century, there was a network of more than 140 passages, many connected to each other. They were very popular as they protected visitors from inclement weather and the often dirty and odorous streets. About 30 now remain, most of them clustered on the Right Bank in the first and second arrondisements.
For Benjamin, the Paris arcade was the most important building type of the 19th century. The arcade may have lacked the heroic muscularity of train stations, bridges and other feats of Victorian engineering. It had none of the classical gravitas sought by the Beaux Arts-trained architects of monumental public buildings. But the arcade represented a pivotal moment in modern history. With it, society began its transition from a culture of production to one of consumption. Beneath the arcade’s greenhouse roof, the technical apparatus of the industrial society was used to furnish people’s minds with images of desire. The arcade itself was a visual device: a spatial frame around the shop windows that inspired passersby
Place Vendôme is a square in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France, located to the north of the Tuileries Gardens and east of the Église de la Madeleine. It is the starting point of the Rue de la Paix. Place Vendôme was laid out in 1702. Architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart, who built most of the Versailles Palace , had originally purchased the land where it sits in hopes of making some money in real estate . Similar to the Place des Vosges, Mansard made all the buildings on the square identical, with arched ground floors and tall-windowed second floors. Pilasters and ornamental pillars were placed between each set of windows. Its regular architecture by Jules Hardouin-Mansart and pedimented screens canted across the corners give the rectangular Place Vendôme the aspect of an octagon.
Colonne Vendôme At the centre of the square there stood an equestrian statue of Louis XIV, which was destroyed during the Revolution. A bronze column with a statue of Napoleon I and decorated with a spiral sculpted with war scenes, known as the Vendome Column was erected by Napoleon as the Colonne d’Austerlitz is modeled after Rome’s Trajan Column. It was built to commemorate the victory at Austerlitz in 1805 After the Bourbon Restoration the statue was pulled down and melted down to provide the bronze for the recast equestrian statue of Henry IV on the Pont Neuf , A replacement statue of Napoléon in modern dress however, was erected by Louis-Philippe, and a better, more augustly classicizing one by Louis-Napoléon (later Napoléon III).
The project completed in 1985 by the international team Ricardo Bofill, Taller de Arquitectura was part of a renovation program in Paris 14th arrondissement, nearMontparnasse train station. Within this sensitive context the respect to the configuration of the existing urban tissue demanded a specific architectonic vocabulary. In the mid-1970s Bofill became involved with several projects designed for the French “New Towns” which surround Paris. All of these projects combine Bofill’s interest in baroque spatial organization with a desire to return to traditional elements of urban planning. In these projects Bofill turned from the vernacular architecture of the Mediterranean to the Classical language which characterizes much of the grand architecture in France since the Renaissance. Using reinforced concrete structures and prefabricated concrete panels, he approached the Classical style on a truly monumental scale. By applying the essence of baroque architecture the façade is not a mere wall, it breaks the established rigidity and becomes a décor for the city.
In designing the buildings the team confronted two imperatives: to respect the urban context and to obtain a formal relationship with the interior spaces of the project.Les Echelles du Baroque consists of a building apartment surrounding a circular plaza which, by its axial condition, encloses the project perspectives; behind this space, two clearly differentiated apartment blocks define two additional plazas: one elliptical and the other amphitheatreshaped. The façades facing the elliptical plaza define an elliptical space as the Italian baroque plazas. For these façades the architectural team used a curtain wall with glass columns that add rhythm to the design and become the bow-windows of the apartments.The three buildings contain 274 apartments over seven floors with a basement level for car park (300 cars). The ground floor contains apartments, shops, offices and workshops. The geometry of the apartments is based on the combination of modules in plan. The basic apartment module is 65 sqm (3 bedroom apartment unit) .All of the houses have dual orientation. The interior façade of the houses which delimit the elliptical plaza takes the form of a curtain wall, with a rhythmic sequence of glass columns which makes it possible to provide every apartment with a glazed window bay.
The National Library of France traces its origin to the royal library founded at the Louvre Palace by Charles V in 1368. However before Labrouste (1801-75),libraries were private places -in monasteries or educational buildings- that passersby could not enter. So when he embarked on designing Paris’s Bibliothèque Sainte‐ Geneviève(1838-50), and later the Bibliothèque Nationale (1854-75), he had to start from scratch. He was the first person to think [of] what happens when you open the doors of the library to the public. As a result of this attempt, the triumph of the building is widely acknowledged. He gave built form to his notions of a modern library also became the pioneer of cast-iron construction with his design. The term “Salle Labrouste” is in the habitual memory of seven generations of readers in Paris, where those with any kind of bookish bent are familiar with the stunning reading room of the original Bibliothèque Nationale.
With this masterpiece; Labrouste gave form to “the idea of the modern library as a machine for knowledge and a space for contemplation.” He combined classic, antiquity-inspired design with the latest materials and building technologies, with the exposed modern frameworks, detailed masonry walls, and new mechanical systems and forms of heating and light. Many hundreds of thousands of books provide the dominant interior décor, as Labrouste insisted. Natural and artificial light — he was also a pioneer in insisting upon gaslight to enable evening use of the library— suffuses the interior Labrouste’s daring exposure of the supporting ironwork, gives optical and structural elevation to the room, allowing the insertion of huge clerestory windows. Also many hundreds of thousands of books provide the dominant interior décor of this reading room, as Labrouste insisted.
The Palais Royal is located in the first arrondissement of Paris . It lies opposite the north wing of the Louvre. The Palais Royal is made up of three parts the Palace, the courtyard and the garden. Despite its name, never was a residence of kings. Its construction was commissioned by Cardinal Richelieu, to architect Jacques Lemercier. Construction work began in 1624. When the palace became the seat of the Philip II Duke of Orleans, his great grandson Louis Philip who became known as “Philippe-Egalite,” shrank the gardens size and hired architect Victor Louis to enclose the gardens with colonnades, buildings and arcades, which were lined with shops. He then opened the garden to the french public which made him very popular with the people. Theaters were located at each end of the shops.
Today the palace is the headquarters of the State Council, the Constitutional Council and the Ministry of Culture. In the back of the gardens there were the old buildings of the Bibliothèque nationale,and the deposit of the library with a collection of more than 6 million books, documents, maps and prints The larger inner courtyard, Cour d’Honneur, has since 1986 contained Daniel Buren’s site-specific art piece Les Deux Plateaux, known as Les Colonnes de Buren. Project consist of 280 modern black and white striped truncated columns dominated by a large sculpture. Palais-Royal is a significant parisian space because of its extream contrasts. The sober stone columns of its historic arcades are viewed against the modern, black-and-white-striped truncated columns in the courtyard
The site began as Louis XIII’s hunting lodge before his son Louis XIV transformed and expanded it, moving the court and government of France to Versailles in 1682. Each of the three French kings who lived there until the French Revolution added improvements to make it more beautiful. In the 1670s Louis XIV built the Grand Apartments of the King and Queen, whose most emblematic achievement is the Hall of Mirrors designed by Mansart, where the king put on his most ostentatious display of royal power in order to impress visitors. The Chapel and Opera were built in the next century under Louis XV. The château lost its standing as the official seat of power in 1789 but acquired a new role in the 19th century as the Museum of the History of France, which was founded at the behest of Louis-Philippe, who ascended to the throne in 1830. nch history.
In the mid-19th century, Louis Phillippe took a personal interest in the redevelopment of the central market in Paris. Napoleon III: “All we need is opened umbrellas.” Victor Baltard developed glass pavillions with iron pillars and roof structures. The two cruciform groups of buildings were
connected by covered walkways so that the pavillions could be reached comfortably in bad weather. In 1854 Rue des Halles is built. In 1865, 10 pavillions are built. The Belly of Paris / 1874, Emile Zola. In the years after the Second World War, the site had become run down and not fitted to the
demands of a modern commercial centre. Les Halles gained an underground station for the RER, a network of new express underground lines which was completed in the 1960s. Jean Nouvel tried to discourage them from demolishing Les Halles. But he could not win the competition.The demolishing of Les Halles in 1971 must rank among the most unfortunate urban planning decisions of th 20th century. The area functioned as the main source of foodstuffs for Parisians for almost 700 years. In 1973 the notion of “protected area” came up with the awareness of society. After the demolition, the wholesale market was relocated to the suburb of Rungis in 1971.
The existing multi-level shopping mall with its arched, steel ribs, some of which open out organically, the Forum is meant to recall the iron “umbrellas” of the old market hall, but its architecture is not convincing in that regard.
Place de Grève (French for “Square of The Hôtel de Ville is the building housing the Strand”), a place where Parisians the city’s local administration. Standoften gathered, particularly for public ing on the place de l’Hôtel-de-Ville executions (formerly place de Grève) in the city’s IV. arrondissement, it has been the location of the municipality of Paris since 1357. During the next two centuries, no It serves multiple functions, housing the local administration. changes were made to the edifice which was the stage for several famous events In July 1357, Étienne Marcel, provost during the French Revolution . Eventuof the merchants of Paris, bought the ally, in 1835, on the initiative of Rambuso-called”House of Pillars” in the name teau, préfet of the Seine département, of the municipality on the gently sloping two wings were added to the main shingle beach which served as a river building and were linked to the facade port for unloading wheat and wood by a gallery, to provide more space for and later merged into a square, the the expanded city government.
During the Franco-Prussian War, the building played a key role in several political events. On 30 October 1870, revolutionaries broke into the building and captured the Government of National Defence, while making repeated demands for the establishment of a communard government. The Paris Commune chose the Hôtel de Ville as its headquarters, and as anti-Commune troops approached the building, Communards set fire to the Hôtel de Ville destroying almost all extant public records from the French Revolutionary period. The blaze swallowed the building from the inside, leaving only an empty stone shell.
Reconstruction of City Hall lasted from 1873 through 1892 (19 years) and was directed by architects Théodore Ballu and Édouard Deperthes, who had won the public competition for the building’s reconstruction. The architects rebuilt the interior of the Hôtel de Ville within the stone shell that had survived the fire. The central ceremonial doors under the clock are flanked by allegorical figures of Art, by Laurent Marqueste, and Science, by Jules Blanchard.Some 230 other sculptors were commissioned to produce 338 individual figures of famous Parisians on each facade, along with lions and other sculptural features.
Paris Aristocratic District, Le Marais spreads across parts of the 3rd and 4th arrondissements. In 1240 the Temple turned the district into an attractive area, and many religious institutions were built nearby. From that time to the 17th century and especially after the Royal Square the Marais was the French nobility’s favorite place of residence. French nobles built their urban mansions there. M any of the old aristocratic mansions survive as museums or public buildings. After the nobility started to move to the Faubourg Saint-Germain, the district became an active commercial area, hosting one of Paris’ main Jewish communities, until world war II. By the 1950s, the district had become a working-class area. The main Hôtels particuliers have been restored and turned into museums. The Marais is now one of Paris’ main localities for art galleries.
Place des Vosges was the Two pavilions that rise first program of royal city higher than the unified roofplanning, built on the site line of the square center the of the Hôtel des Tournelles north and south faces and and its gardens. Place offer access to the square des Vosges was designed through triple arches. by Baptiste du Cerceau Though they are designated in 1612. Then The King the Pavilion of the King and ordered all 39 other build- of the Queen, no royal perings bordering the square to sonage has ever lived in the follow the same housefront aristocratic square.It initiated design and he gave the subsequent developments houses as a present to of Paris that created a suitchoice persons of different able urban background for social standing. The public the French aristocracy and space frequently was used it is the prototype of all the for festivities and turna- residential squares of Euroments. pean cities to come. With
dimensions of 140 x 140 meters, is the first example grand urban schemes .
The Place de la Bastille is a square in Paris, where the Bastille prison stood until the ‘Storming of the Bastille’ and its subsequent physical destruction between 14 July 1789 and 14 July 1790 during the French Revolution. On 16 June 1792, the area occupied by the Bastille was turned into a square celebrating libertyand a column would be erected there. The first stone was laid by Palloy, however construction did not commence. In 1833,
Louis-Philippe decided to build the July Column as originally planned in 1792. The July Column which commemorates the events of the July Revolution (1830) stands at the center of the square. Other notable features include the Bastille Opera, the Bastille subway station and a section of the Canal Saint Martin. Prior to 1984, the former Bastille railway station stood where the opera house now stands.
Inaugurated in 1989 as part of President François Mitterrand’s “Grands Travaux”, The Opéra Bastille is the work of the Canadian architect Carlos Ott, who was chosen in November 1983 after an international competition. The theatre was inaugurated on July 13th 1989. Its architecture is marked by transparent façades and by the use of identical materials. With its 2,700 acoustically consistent seats, its unique stage facilities, its integrated scenery, costume and accessory workshops, as well as its numerous work areas and rehearsal rooms, the Opera Bastille is a great modern theatre.
The Canal Saint-Martin is a 4.5 km long canal in Paris. It connects the Canal de l’Ourcq to the river Seine and runs underground between Bastille and République. Construction of the canal was ordered by Napoleon I in 1802, in order to create an artificial waterway for supplying Paris with fresh water to support a growing population and to help avoid diseases such as dysentery and cholera. The canal inspired painters such as Alfred Sisley. In the present day, many intricate works of graffiti are visible along the canal, and there is a large multimedia art space on its banks.
Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great , was the monarch of France from 1643 until his death. His reign of 72 years is the longest of monarchs of major countries in European history. During his reign, Louis XIV mostly ordered royal peripherial projects of Paris by calling the best architect and landscape designers of Europe. He also made a few patchwork investment to inner city and dedicated to royalty. The Place Des Victoire and the Place Des Conquetes (now the Place Vendome) are the examples of these patchwork projects.However, these square-projects had no other function than creating a public scenery for statues of Louis XIV. In both cases,the land was bought and subdivided by the state or the municipality. During his reign, Louis XIV practiced enormous peripheral project to modernize the urban layout of Paris. The new view of the city shows the
Baroque architect features such as symmetry, classical order, monumental scale, and center emphasis. The King Louis commissioned the first plan for a perfectly straith prestigious royal road that was to stretch from the Palace of the Louvre , through the Tulıer Garden till the Place de l’Etoile with 7,5 miles long. The other project of the King i s the Les İnvalides. The enormous building complex which was built, out of view of King, for the soldiers died or injured for the monarch and their family. the monumental Chapel covered with a golden dome to be seen from afar. The facades were built by private investors who sold the plots to private persons. Place Victoire could not be realized fully with its unified facade, since several of the houseowners were not willing to sell their lots to the king. As opposite of this, Place Vendome was buily as unified facade. Louis XIV bought up more land and a larger and more
pompous new facade with broken corners designed and again realized by the investors.The King also made improvements) in living conditions: he introduced public street lighting in main-roads, built public hospitals, introduced on a few coherent inner-city plots a new type of mass-housing.
Bus at Gare Montparnasse.
10 a Palace of Versailles
The dream peripheral project of Louis XIV was to create a new suburb as the new unofficial capital city of France. He decided to build his new palace to 20 km. southwest of Paris, Versailles. Le Brun was rested for overall project. He enlarged the existing hunting building and designed the Chateau and Le Notre designed the gardens (Le Notre’s garden design is particularly important because the axial composition was a direct influence in future city planning, and perhaps the ultimate expression of Baroque landscape design). To the Upside of the palace and attached to the main court. The houses were built for 20.000 people.
The palace and the gardens are both seminal examples of Baroque design which includes features such as parterres, buildings on axes, focal points within gardens,radial roads and integration with the surrounding landscape. Versailles consists of a central axis with a series of cross axes which creates the framework for the layout of the highly organized palace and garden. The palace creates one of the cross axes off of the central axis. The other cross axes created the framework for geometric designs within the landscape most of which had a focal point or central feature. The palace is located in the center and adjacent to grand courtdyard which was marked with avenues of SaintCloud, Paris and Sceaux.
Between three avenues Grand and Petit Ecuries are placed in baroque Architecture. Water was used to emphasize axiality and centrality. The Fountain Lotona is the start point of east-west axis consisted of gravel, grass and it reached up into the horizon. The axis was meant to appear to extend into the landscape for eternity. The Grangd Cannal at the end of the garden strengten the main axes and at the starting point of cannal the symmetrical,radial roads designed. The intersecting north-south arm of the cannal provides the secondary axes which points the Grand Trianon. The Trainon is the part where the second building complexes are placed.
The site began as Louis XIII’s hunting lodge before his son Louis XIV transformed and expanded it, moving the court and government of France to Versailles in 1682. Each of the three French kings who lived there until the French Revolution added improvements to make it more beautiful. In the 1670s Louis XIV built the Grand Apartments of the King and Queen, whose most emblematic achievement is the Hall of Mirrors designed by Mansart, where the king put on his most ostentatious display of royal power in order to impress visitors. The Chapel and Opera were built in the next century under Louis XV. The château lost its standing as the official seat of power in 1789 but acquired a new role in the 19th century as the Museum of the History of France, which was founded at the behest of Louis-Philippe, who ascended to the throne in 1830. nch history.
Over the centuries 1607 : The Dauphin, the future Louis XIII, visits the hunting lodge 1630 : Day of the Dupes 1662 : Louis XIV’s visits to Versailles 1664 : The Royal Menagerie built by Le Vau 1675 : The large-scale landscaping of André Le Nôtre 1682 : Installation of the court in Versailles 1688 : The Grand Trianon of Louis XIV 1701 : The new bedchamber of Louis XIV 1710 : The Royal Chapel of Versailles 1715-1722 : After 7 years of absence, the return of Louis XV at Versailles 1736 : The works of Hercules Salon 1738 : Louis XV and the creation of the Small Apartments 1752 : The demolition of the Ambassadors Staircase 1770 : The inauguration of the Royal Opera 1771-1775 : The construction of the Gabriel Wing 1774 : Marie-Antoinette and the Petit Trianon 1785 : The “Grand Project” for the reconstruction of the façades of the palace facing the town 1789-1792 : The Revolutionaries against Versailles 1811 : Napoleon’s stays to the Grand Trianon 1821 : The construction of the Dufour pavilion 1837 : The inauguration of the History Galleries of Versailles 1855 : The visit to Versailles of Queen Victoria 1867 : “Marie-Antoinette” exhibition in the Petit Trianon 1875-1876 : The Congress Room 1892 : Pierre de Nolhac and the revival of Versailles
Marie-Antoinette’s estate The Petit Trianon and its park are indissociably linked to the memory of Queen Marie-Antoinette. She is the only queen to have imposed her personal taste on Versailles. Sweeping away the old court and its traditions, she insisted on living as she wished. In her Trianon domain, which Louis XVI gave her in 1774, she found the heaven of privacy that enabled her to escape from the rigours of court etiquette. Nobody could come there without her invitation. The reinstatement of the compound which shows most of the former arrangement: enclosing walls, gates, grills and saut-de-loup [Wolf’s jump] – shows the Petit Trianon domain as a guarded, preserved place, centred on its château. This arrangement shows the eclecticism and refinement of Marie-Antoinette, an art of living linked to free thinking, for the spirit of the Enlightenment was far from absent here.
From the central window of the Hall of mirrors the visitor look down on the grand perspective that leads the gaze from the Water Parterre to the horizon. This original perspective, which preceded the reign of Louis XIV, was developed and prolonged by the gardener André Le Nôtre by widening the Royal Path and digging the Grand Canal. This vast perspective stretches from the façade of the Château de Versailles to the railings of the park. In 1661, Louis XIV commissioned André Le Nôtre with the design and laying out of the gardens of Versailles which, in his view, were just as important as the Château. The works were undertaken at the same time as those for the palace and took forty years to complete.
11a Palais d’Iena 11i 11j M > Michel-Ange Molitor 11 Glass Houses
11b Place du Trocadero 11c Tour Eiffel’e bakış 11d Palais de Chaillot 11e Apartment - Rue Franklin 11f Apartment - Rue Raynourd 11g Chancellerie de L’Ambassade de Turquie 11h Villa La Roche Villa Jeanneret Apartments by Mallet-Stevens
11k Immeuble Molitor M > Michel-Ange Molitor (10-Hardal Gare d’Austerlitz Yönü.> Metro: Javel-Andre Citroen 11m Canal Plus Office Buildings 11n Ambassade D’Australie 11o Tour Totem 207 11p Apartments - “Les Colonnes” Dinner by VitrA
The headquarters of the Economic, Social and Environmental Council is a palace of the 16th arrondissement of Paris, which is made during the Specialized Exhibition of 1937. Although the work was not yet completed, the National Museum of Public Works was opened in 1939 with its first wing parallel to the avenue d’Iena. World War II delayed the progress of work and the rotunda could be completed in 1943. The palace houses a conference room with three hundred seats covered with a double dome. The lobby has a grand staircase suspended iron cheval. Building proportions are derived directly from the logic of the material. He defines the Palais d’Iena as a classical order whose proportions are derived directly from the logic of the material. Capturing the light and shadow on its concrete pink marble and green porphyry, the palace is one of the most important contributions of modern rationalism to universal architecture.
The hill of Chaillot was first arranged for the 1867 World’s Fair. For the 1878 World’s Fair, the (old) Palais du Trocadéro was built here, where meetings of international organizations could be held during the fair. The palace’s form was that of a large concert hall with two wings and two towers. For the Exposition Internationale of 1937, the old Palais du Trocadéro was demolished and replaced by the Palais de Chaillot, which now tops the hill.
Designed in two wings with a gap between, Palais de Chaillot frames axial view of the Eiffel Tower across the river, erected in 1889 as the entrance arch to the 1889 World’s Fair. This hill is also referred to ‘colline des musées’, since the Palais hosts many museums, such as the “Musée de l’Homme”, the “Musée de la Marine”, the “Cité de l’Architecture et du Patrimoine” and the “Théâtre national de Chaillot”.
The main symbol of the Fair was the Eiffel Tower, which was completed in 1889, and served as the entrance arch to the Fair. The Eiffel Tower is an iron lattice tower stands 324 metres (1,063 ft) tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building. The main architect of the tower was Stephen Sauvestre and constructed from the Gustave Eiffel’s company between 1887-1889. There were also around 50 other engineers, 100 iron workers and 121 construction workers working on construction of the Eiffel Tower. 18. 038 piece of iron were joined by two and a half million rivets.
The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a World’s Fair held in Paris. The exhibition was held during the year of the 100th anniversary of the storming of the Bastille, which is an event traditionally considered as the symbol for the beginning of the French Revolution. The fair included a reconstruction of the Bastille and its surrounding neighborhood. Including the Champ de Mars, the Trocadéro, the quai d’Orsay, a part of the Seine and the Invalides ,the 1889 Exposition covered a total area of 0.96 km², esplanade.The fair was also an expression and reflection of the time’s developments of construction technology with the usage of modern construction materials.
The Galerie des machines was a pavilion built for the Exposition Universelle (1889) in Paris. It was located in the Grenelle district. The huge pavilion was made of iron, steel and glass. It formed a huge glass and metal hall and was by far the largest vaulted building to have yet been built with an area of 115 by 420 metres and a height of 48.324 metres. The framework consisted of twenty trusses and there were no internal supports. The structure incorporated the threepin hinged arch, developed for bridge building. The Galerie des machines gave the exposition of 1889 an area of about 8 hectares (20 acres) of usable space. The Galerie des machines was reused for the 1900 exposition, and later used as a velodrome, agricultural exhibition hall and for other purposes. It was demolished in 1910 to open up the view along the Champ de Mars.
Similar to other momentous monuments, the Eiffel Tower was criticized by number of French artists, writers and intellectuals who complained in 1887 that the Tower would be a “monstrous symbol of the craven machine age” that would destroy the integrity of Paris. The petition read, “We, the writers, painters, sculptors, architects and lovers of the beauty of Paris, do protest with all our vigour and all our indignation, in the name of French taste and endangered French art and history, against the useless and monstrous Eiffel Tower.” However, the Eiffel Tower is not only one of the most recognizable structures in the world but also, a global cultural icon of France and permanent feature of the Paris skyline. “The first principle of architectural beauty is that the essential lines of a construction be determined by a perfect appropriateness to its use.” Gustave Eiffel
For the Exposition Internationale of 1937, the old Palais du Trocadéro was demolished and replaced by the Palais de Chaillot which now tops the hill. It was to be designed in “moderne” style by three architects. Like the old palais, the palais de Chaillot features two wings shaped to form a wide arc. These wings were built on the foundations of those of the former building. However, unlike the old palais, the wings are independent buildings and there is no central element to connect them. Instead, a wide gap leaves an open view from the
place du Trocadéro to the Eiffel Tower and beyond. Quotations by French poet and philosopher, Paul Valéry, decorate the buildings. Large bronze statues of Apollo and Hercules stand in front of each wing. Today, the Palais de Chaillot houses a number of different museums. In the south wing, there are two - the Musée de la Marine (Naval Museum) and the Musée de l’Homme (The Museum of Man). There’s also an architecture museum - the Cité de l’architecture et du patrimoine, which opened in 2007.
A. Perret made no secret of the structure of this apartment building: the load-bearing reinforced concrete skeleton is clearly separated from the non-load-bearing filling and bot hare clearly visible in the façade. Thanks to the narrow supports and large window areas, the building, despite its size, does not seen at all massive, but rather light, transparent. Perret, had decided in favor of a comperatively new building material: reinforced concrete, which had been in use only since mid-19th century. Perret’s take on reinforced concrete initially more in tune with the Gothic notion of rib-work and infill than Classical. While sunflowers in ceramic reminiscent of late Art
Nouveau, the frame model anticipates Le Corbusier’s free plan. More ingenious interpretation of the building regulations is to be seen in the semi-octagonal recess between these projections, which formed the most novel element in the composition, since it not only allowed every room a splendid view over Paris, but obviated the need to introduce the customary interior courtyard. After 1903 Perret regards the structural frame as the essential expression of the built form: “Construction is the architect’s mother tongue; the architect is a poet who thinks and speaks in construction.”
Close to Franklin Street, Auguste Perret conducted another apartment building at 51-55 Rue Raynouard. This apartment is the one in which Perret placed his own family’s apartment. He placed the offices of the family firm on the ground floor, dwellings on the upper floors and his flat on the top floor. The apartments on each floor are around 250m² and each offered panoramic views of Paris, as well as balconies and small terraces. Built between 1929 and 1932, listed as a historic monument in 1996, it reflects the mastery of concrete by Auguste Perret, which is as polished and shiny as marble. The elements of the framework are clearly visible and projected in front of the facade. Perret summed achieving Raynouard street: “This is a reinforced concrete frame, made to remain visible on the outside and inside, decorating the house.” To the rear and side of the building, some features, which are unfamiliar with Perret, are seen. The wall of glass - a rarity for a Perret building - bring light into his architectural studio, and to one side, a glass lift shaft which gives those going up and down views across Paris.
The site for the Paris chancery had constraints in terms of functional and contextual requirements. So the Turkish government preferred the “contemporary lines that that would symbolize Turkey’s progress towards future” instead of adapting to the surrounding 18th century Parisian architectural context.
Having an indisputably modern appearance was also the designer’s architectural predilection. Beauclair stated that When “national identity” is concerned, I believe that modernism was a means to establish it.18th century mansion (of the residence) had nothing to do with a particular Turkish characteristic and even if it was an archetype, I would refuse to make a pastiche of Turkish architecture. The only reference made regarding the national characteristics and its reflection in the design of the chancery was the gallery floor, where coffee was to be served. Architect made a populist remark in a speech given about the building “too much coffee is consumed in Turkey” This undulating glass structure was questioned by the users for its disadvantages after its completion. Karabey noted that during his visit there in 1979, there were complaints about the glass surfaces, which were assumed to be designed without considering that the officers especially working till late hours of the evening in the chancery constituted targets for terrorist attacks from outside. However, its significance as an architectural work seems to go beyond such disadvantages. Published in many architectural magazines and having a distinctive place among other architectural works, as the city guides evince, it has a reputation beyond functional inadequacies.
In the Villa Jeanneret, the reversed layout, as Le Corbusier mentions it, places the bedrooms on the floor below the living area, which connects to a roof garden protected from view. At La Roche, to the east of the entrance hall are small, private quarters with a socalled purist bedroom. To the west side were spaces considered public enough to open to visitors twice a week. A sequence of spaces at different heights beginning at the gate to the cul-de-sac moves through the great hall and gallery, culminating in the sky-lit library. The term ‘promenade architecturale’ used to describe the path through La Roche refers to this sequence of spaces
The development of the entire neighborhood of Auteuil (south of 16th arrondissement) at this period made the site attractive to Le Corbusier, who also acted as the developer, finding the site and the clients. He planned the L-shaped villa for the bachelor banker Raoul La Roche and the adjoining house for Le Corbusier’s brother, Albert Jeanneret, his wife and her three daughters. La Roche commissioned the architects to build a villa with a gallery to hold his new collection, which consisted of pieces of very famous painters such as Picasso, Leger etc. On the other hand the second part was supposed to be a family house. The architects treated the estate as a unity rather than as a conventional row of houses. It is a complex of form and program. In both houses, very small rooms of specific function - bed, bath and kitchen- are set off against living spaces, whose expansiveness is manufactured through architectural device and color as much as through their sizes. Also in both the experience of the top level and roof is privileged, in keeping with the traditional position of the piano nobile on the top level but with additional emphasis on light and private domain.
This group of five houses built between 1926 and 1927, from the number 9 to 12 is one of the works symbolic of the modernist movement. Its volumes were lined with terraces and the structure of the concrete fronts, his material of preference, gives every apartment an individual identity. A work esteemed in particular by the bourgeoisie who offered him, thanks to a multitude of private orders throughout his career, long-lasting and well-deserved success. This complex was created by Parisbased architect, designer and production designer Robert Mallet-Stevens (1886-1945), co-founder of UAM (Union of Modern Artists) in 1929. The street is composed of four housing blocks that create a private dead-end crossing; there are also ateliers at the ground floor (one used to be Mallet-Stevens’ office and is now an art gallery open to the public). Mallet-Stevens’ architecture explores all different variations of modernist architecture language; in this work he displays a huge catalogue of windows, volumes and formal compositions; the architect was also criticised for the use of such a complex language.
Immeuble Molitor is an attempt to present the elements of a new urbanism, “sky, green, glass, cement, in that order of importance.” At the time of its construction, the street was an undeveloped edge to the city. Le Corbusier hoped to challenge the existing Parisian building industry with a structure of metal, although in the end only the window framing and balcony details were executed in iron. Built of concrete, the columnar frame still allowed for an open and flexible plan ‘adaptable to the needs of the buyer’. Interior partitions could be rearranged and apartment units combined. Taking advantage of the through-block site, each of the two apartments per floor has such a facade, as well as two interior courts to bring natural light to the foyer, baths and kitchen. The adjoining athletic facilities and gardens were understood as a part of the building’s total environment.
Extending to 13 hectares, this park is the largest constructed in Paris since the 1870s. It is in the west of the capital beside the Seine, on a site formerly occupied by the Citroën production plant.
The composition is based on a central void, a huge 320 x 130m rectangular lawn set perpendicular to the river. This device imitates other Left Bank parks: the Champs de Mars, the Invalides and the Jardin des Plantes. The embankment is almost one kilometre long. The central lawn connects all the other parts of the site, giving direction and force to their relationship. It gently slopes down to the embankment without a break, thanks to the construction of a tunnel for the expressway and a viaduct for the regional express railway tracks. At the other end of the lawn, to the south, a sloped court serves as a base for two large 15m-high greenhouses , between whicha peristyle (known as the ‘dry fountains’) blocks the view. Water is in abundance, with a large canal running along the western flank of the lawn. Like the diagonal path that runs north-south, the ‘Serial Gardens’ and the lily ponds, the canal and the lawn are part of the hierarchy. Architecture underpins landscape. Connections are made between the lily ponds to the west and the serial gardens to the east. Water is present in all its states: the calm expanse of the slightly elevated canal is enlivened by fountains, while a stream cascades down steps at the end of the embankment.
The Canal+ headquarters in Paris is a commercial application of Meier’s recipe of all-white paneling, all-white detailing and glass. In this case the building houses studio production facilities, in its east wing, and offices, in its west wing with views over the Seine, for the commercial television company Canal+. Meier’s platonic idea of a television station comes in the shape of an L, entered through a tall atrium space where the two wings meet. Offices stretch out along one wing, in a tapering horizontal sweep set parallel to the Seine. Production studios are lodged in a boxier block that runs perpendicular to the river. The L frames a small square park that was already on the site. The building itself is an eight-story composition in solid and void, elaborated in variations of clear and white opaque glass, semitransparent metal sun screens, white enameled aluminum panels, and emptiness carved by the manipulation of these
materials. The panels, set with open seams into the building’s concrete structure, form a grid that is carried into three dimensions by means of rotated and extruded planes and rectangular solids. The occasional curve, cone or cylinder relaxes the grid into an approximation of voluptuousness some may find discreetly French. The facade of the office wing is transparent, that of the studio wing opaque, and the most dramatic contrast within the building is that between the different kinds of illumination in the two wings. polar bears in a snowstorm. In the studio wing, to which the public is admitted for talk-show tapings, celebrity shades are in order. Ski goggles would come in handy in the offices, where avalanches of light cascade into rooms lacquered the color of Here, bursts of artificial colored light explode over the altar of an anchor’s desk with the force of medieval stained glass. The image suits the narrator of contemporary life.
With the Eiffel Tower a mere 400 metres away, the Embassy site overlooks the river palisades with its tree lined parks, the Palais de Chaillot and the famous landmarks of central Paris visible in the distance. Two buildings were planned; the Chancellery, housing Australia’s diplomatic missions to France, OECD and UNESCO with the Ambassador’s apartment and reception
spaces on the top floor and a residential apartment building containing 34 units of various sizes for some of the Australian diplomats and their families. The design of the two opposing quadrant shaped buildings relate to the axes of the Champ de Mars. The resulting concave and convex building facades take maximum advantage of the magnificent views.
Totem Tower is a residential skyscraper with 31 floors and two basements located in the Front de Seine in the 15th arrondissement of Paris, France. It comprises 207 homes. The housing blocks are hung in clusters on a central bearing structure apparent orientation is supposed to optimize their view of the Seine. With an instantly recognizable face, this is one of the most original towers Front-de-Seine.
12b Gare d’Orsay 12f
12a Musée du Quai Branly > RER:Pont de I’Alma (C Massy-Chantiers Yönü. > RER: Musee d’Orsay > Rue du Bac - Rue Saint Guillaume 12c Maison de Verre >Metro: Saint Sulpice (4-Fuşya Porte Orleans Yönü. >Metro: Raspail 12d Foundation Cartier >Metro: Raspail (4-Fuşya Porte Orleans Yönü. >Metro: Porte d’Orleans (Aktarma: T3 Porte d’Ivry Yönü. > T. Montsouris 12e Ozenfant Evi ve Atölyesi >Tram: Montsouris (T 3 Porte d’Ivry Yönü. > T: Stade Charlety Maison de l’Inde 12g Pavillon Suisse 12h Pavillon Netherlands 12i Maison du Brésil >Tram: Montsouris (T 3 Porte d’Ivry Yönü. > T: Stade Charlety 12j 12l Cite de Refuge Le Cinémathèque Française 12k National Library of France 12m Cité de La Mode et du Design
The building was designed by architect Jean Nouvel. The “green wall” (200m long by 12m high) on part of the exterior of the museum was designed and planted by Gilles Clément and Patrick Blanc. The museum complex contains several buildings, as well as a multimedia library and a garden. The museum’s frontage facing onto quai Branly features very tall glass panelling which allows its interior gardens to be remarkably quiet only metres from the busy street in front of them. ‘All that remains is to invent the poetry of the site by a gentle discrepancy: a Parisian garden becomes a sacred wood, with a museum dissolving in its depths.’
Maison de Verre is a stunning example of the 20th century modern architecture, especially because of its steel structure. It was built underneath the top floor of the former building as the tenant on the top floor refused to sell his floor, and the bottom three floors were demolished to construct the Maison de Verre. Viewed from the courtyard the house looks like a glowing translucent box, its great glass-block facade embedded in the 18th-century fabric and capped by the old one-story apartment level above. Its glass facade is made up of glass blocks supported by a steel frame structure. In the interior, spaces are separated by movable, sliding, folding or rotating screens in glass, sheet or perforated metal. The whole steel structure with bare beams, the canalisation and conduits remain visible from the outside and contribute to the architecture thus transforming utilities into decorative elements.
Cartier Foundation is a contemporary art In the Cartier Foundation, the buildings center with exhibition halls, offices and dissolves into the surrounding environment, car parks, located in Boulevard Raspail, a garden filled with trees, with the transpardesigned by Jean Nouvel. ency, sequence of layers and superimposed scenes. It disappears into nature, greenery Before it has built, an opaque wall had been and creates a new landscape, new urban located in the area as a barrier. Now the environment. In summer the huge sliding intervention comes up with a new characteristic by blurring the tangible boundaries of bays disappear and the hall transforms into the extension of the park. Boulevard Raspail.
“The house and studio in Paris for Le Corbusier’s friend the painter Ozenfant is an early example of ‘minimal’ architecture, a prototype of the Dom-ino house and a manifestation of some of the principles which Le Corbusier was to set out in his famous ‘five points.’ It possessed a geometrical clarity inside and out which has since been lost with the elimination of the north-light roof and its replacement by a flat one.”
Dennis Sharp. Twentieth Century Architecture: a Visual History. p66.
In 1922, some time after beginning their collaboration with Ozenfant, Le Corbusier made a home-study for the painter. This is the first work that Le Corbusier built in Paris. However, it was not the only, since that same year and the following other projects designed to house painters. By then, Le Corbusier had already been investigating the new materials (reinforced concrete), and had also developed some of his most important work of youth: Citröhan Mansion or L’Esprit Nouveau Pavilion and with them, his theories on housing, standardization, new structural systems and architectural language that would accompany them. These houses studio, not represent a true embodiment of Le Corbusier’s theories (or, as he was the Villa Savoye) and are a reflection of many of them: the facade free, independent of the structure and therefore capable of allowing light to enter a couple, or the standardization of the window on a human scale.
Built in the 1960s Nedyam Raghavan, the Indian ambassador to France, signed the official donation on 17 June 1960, accompanied by Humayun Kabir, the Indian Minister of scientific research and cultural affairs. The house opened its doors in June 1968. A colourful building India House was designed by two Indian architects, M. Benjamin and H.R Laroya, assisted by French architect Gaston Leclaire. It is six stories tall and includes 104 rooms, one studio apartment and an apartment for senior researchers, as well as a reception room for 200 guests in an overhanging annex. The building is made colourful by the red bricks, the green mosaic and the purple sandstone tiles.
Pavillon Suisse was built as a dormitory for Swiss students on a newly formed campus of international hostels. Together with the contemporaneous Cite de Refuge, the building introduced an organization based on the program of elements as independent volumes. No single envelope contaions the parts. Here the particular format of the parts - slab on pilotis with a free-formed public zone beneath- became the model for a multitude of post-war buildings. The dormitory floors are of steel frame. Le Corbusier thought of the rooms as
packaged cells inserted into the frame and wrapped in lead plates for sound proofing. The exterior sheathing of the frame is a glass skin facing south, conceived as a bio-technical machine for providing maximum light, air and view. In contrast to the architects’ other experimental curtain walls, this one had operable sliding panels from the beginning. Overheating still remained as a problem. The northern wallalong the corridor has punched windows in a stone facing. The side walls are blank, suggesting that the slab is but a fragment of a possible utopian environment.
Maison du Brésil is a building in the Cité Universitaire complex. Lucio Costa provided the initial proposal and Le Corbusier oversaw design development and construction. Brazil’s House is almost thirty years after the construction of Le Corbusier’s Swiss Pavilion in the same complex. Costa would return all the principles of the international movement and the great influence of the Swiss Pavilion was reflected in the project. In both, a dormitory slab on pilotis straddles the volumes of communal rooms. The pilotis also allow continuous view and passage through the campus greenery. At the Brazil Pavilion the program also included a series of individual music rooms. Le Corbusier first conceived the structure as steel frame as at the Swiss Pavilion, but the post-war prices of steel caused the change to a rough concrete. In the form of balconies the concrete sun-breaks define the individual cell on the exterior.
This occupiable wall was developed concurrently for the Unite d’habitation of 1952, in which Le Corbusier’s late utopian goals are most clearly stated.
In the Salvation Army, Le Corbusier had the chance to execute his social ideas, derived in part from such social utopian models as Fourierism and a direct encounter with Soviet socialist housing. Cite de Refuge was a complex community on a grand scale. It contained separate dormitories and dining rooms for men and women, single rooms for mother with children, a nursery, workshops, library and counseling facilities. Here Le Corbusier, in a sense, turned the purist-villa inside out, discarding the envelope and placing the geometric episodes of plan on a podium framed by the dormitory slab. Dormitory slab is the dominent piece by size and program. Just like the contemporaneous Pavillon Suisse its size and its sheathing held great significance for the project. In fact, the linear repetitive structure allowed for great economy in construction.
Employing Taylorized, assembly-line methods, separate crews moved sequentially along the slab completing the structure ahead of schedule. Although the original design called for a uniform monolith, zoning regulations eventually forced terracing on the north side, duplex penthouses on the roof, and slight setbacks on the south which generated a tilt backward.
On 14 July 1988, President François Mitterrand announced the construction and the expansion of one of the largest and most modern libraries in the world, intended to cover all fields of knowledge, and designed to be accessible to all, using the most modern data transfer technologies, which could be consulted from a distance, and which would collaborate with other European libraries. In July 1989, the services of the architectural firm of Dominique Perrault were retained. The construction was carried out by Bouygues. Construction of the library ran into huge cost overruns and technical difficulties related to its high-rise design, so much so that it was referred to as the “TGB” or “Très Grande Bibliothèque” . After the move of the major collections from the rue de Richelieu, the National Library of France was inaugurated on 15 December 1996. It contains more than ten million volumes.
After a long residency at the Palais de Street. The inside spaces, reconverted Chaillot, the Cinémathèque française has by Dominique Brard, make use of an since September 2005 made its home abundance of inclined planes which enable within the modern building designed by communication between the different volFrank Gehry.The Cinémathèque building umes and the great number of overlaped was wittily named “the dancer raising her levels.Cinémathèque Française hosts the tutu” by its creator. It faces a park on one largest archive of films, movie documents, side and features a reception hall which and film-related objects in the world. It makes use of space and light in a very nice holds daily screenings of a variety of films way, contrasting with the elevation made from all over the world. of white stone on the side facing Bercy
Industrial buildings, the Magasins Généraux, located on the Left Bank between the Gare d’Austerlitz and the Bibliothèque François Mitterand, have undergone an audacious architectural renovation. French
and New Zealand architects Dominique Jakob and Brendan Macfarlane (who we thank for the restaurant at the Pompidou Centre) have been chosen to remodel it.
13a St.Germain 13b Jardin de Luxembourg 13c Pantheon > Rue Soufflot 13d Bibliotheque St Genevieve > Rue Clovis 13e Jussieu Campus 13f Institut du Monde Arabe > Pont de Sully >Metro: Sully-Morland (7-Pembe Villejuif Yönü. > Metro: Jussieu (Aktarma: 10-Hardal Gare d’Austerlitz Yönü. > Metro: Gare d’Austerlitz (5-Turuncu Bobigny Pablo Picasso Yönü. > Metro: Republique 13g Place de la Republique 13h Social Housing > RER:Pont de I’Alma (C Massy-Chantiers Yönü. > RER: Musee d’Orsay 13i Siege Central du Parti Communiste Fran. > Metro Colonel Fabien (2-Mavi Porte Dauphine Yönü. > Metro La Chapelle 13j Student Residence in Paris > Place Stalingrad 13k 46 Homes in Rue du Maroc 13l Plein Soleil > Canal de la Villette 13m Parc de la Villette 13n Musee National de Sciences des Techniques et des Industries 13o Music Center
At the begining of 17th century, the wife of Henri IV ordered a palace with huge royal garden which calls Luxembourg Palace in the quartier de l’Odeon. Also in the 17th. century the neigborhood became popular place for intellectuals. After the Second World War, the area became the center point for philoshophers, painters, writers and artists.The famous cafes where they gathered such as Floral,Landelle,Procope are the cafes reached today. The arrondissement also host many famous art schools, museums. Today the area is one of the most attractive place for tourists eventhough its the most expensive parts of Paris to live in.
Luxembourg Garden is the royal family`s first project located in the periphery.The Luxembourg Palace was created by Maria de Medici between 1614-1620, that looks like the Palace Petit in Florence.First the garden of the palace was 8 hectar.It included French gardens, orthogonal pool and a fountain of Medici. Then the garden enlarged to a 30 hectar.In 1780 it reached to a 40 hectar.In the period of Louis Napoleon (1865) the garden scaled down 15 hectar, and according to the opened new boulards; the place of the fountain of Medici had changed and took place where we see today.The diagonal that opened beside the Medici fountain reaches to the Pantheon in the end. At the end of the 19. century, it contains Marionette Theatre, music kiosk, rose and fruit gardens, greeneries and bee hives, modern art sculptures and it`s last size was 25 hectar.
King Louis XV vowed in 1744 that if he recovered from an illness he would replace the ruined church of Sainte-Geneviève with an edifice worthy of the patron saint of Paris. The Marquis of Marigny was entrusted with the work. He had sponsored the architect Soufflot, whom he chose for the construction of the new Église Sainte-Geneviève (today the “Panthéon”), a major work in the neoclassical style. The overall design was that of a Greek cross with massive portico of Corinthian columns. Its ambitious lines called for a vast building 110 meters long by 84 meters wide, and 83 meters high.
No less vast was its crypt. The foundations were laid in 1758, but due to financial difficulties, it was only completed after Soufflot’s death, by his pupil Jean-Baptiste Rondelet, in 1789. As it was completed at the start of the French Revolution, the new Revolutionary government ordered it to be changed from a church to a mausoleum for the interment of great Frenchmen, with a pediment of The Fatherland crowning the heroic and civic virtues by Jean Guillaume Moitte (replaced on the Bourbon Restoration with one by David d’Angers).
“One of the greatest cultural buildings of the nineteenth century to use iron in a prominent, visible way was unquestionably the Bibliotheque Ste.-Genevieve in Paris, designed by Henri Labrouste and built in 1842-50. The large (278 by 69 feet) two-storied structure filling a wide, shallow site is deceptively simple in scheme: the lower floor is occupied by stacks to the left, rare-book storage and office space to the right, with a central vestibule and stairway leading to the reading room which fills the entire upper story. The ferrous structure of this reading room—a spine of slender, cast-iron Ionic columns dividing the space into twin aisles and supporting openwork iron arches that carry barrel vaults of plaster reinforced by iron mesh—has always been revered by Modernists for its introduction of high technology into a monumental building.”
Marvin Trachtenberg and Isabelle Hyman. Architecture: from Prehistory to Post-Modernism. p478.
The campus was opened in 1951 and eventually it would host a great part of the old faculty of sciences of the Sorbonne. Built on the site of the old “Halle aux vins,” a wine market created by Napoleon Bonaparte, the campus remains incomplete to this day. In 1957, the first university buildings were built along the Eastern bank of the River Seine (le quai Saint-Bernard), and Rue Cuvier. In order to allow the wine to remain on the site, the architects planned to construct the buildings on stilts above the roads of the market. However, in 1964, with over 20,000 science students graduating high school (the baby boom generation), the old Sorbonne could not accommodate the influx of students.
André Malraux entrusted the architect Édouard Albert with the task of rapidly constructing a new science campus on the site. Albert’s grand vision of modular metallic buildings, designed to facilitate interdisciplinary work and improve teaching, was never achieved, and eventually abandoned in 1972. Most of the campus consists in a regular grid of 6-floor wings; at the points of intersection are staircases and elevators. The grid is built on a large elevated slab, and the wings do not reach to the bottom of the slab, making it possible to walk across the campus without crossing the buildings. Underneath the slab are ground-level and underground facilities, including a car park. In the center of the campus is the Tour Zamansky, or Tour Jussieu, with 24 floors and a height of 90 meters, used for administrative purposes. Certain research libraries (in mathematics, for instance) are among the largest and with the widest selection of books in France. Campus restaurants are located in the northeast corner of the campus, many of which afford a pleasant view of the Seine River.
The building acts as a buffer zone between the Jussieu Campus of Pierre and Marie Curie University (Paris VI), built in large rationalist urban blocks, and the Seine. The river façade follows the curve of the waterway, reducing the hardness of a rectangular grid and offering an inviting view from the Sully Bridge. At the same time the building appears to fold itself back in the direction of the Saint-Germain-des-Prés district. In contrast to the curved surface on the river side, the southwest façade is an uncompromisingly rectangular glassclad curtain wall. It faces a large square public space that opens toward the Île de la Cité and Notre Dame. Visible behind the glass wall, a metallic screen unfolds with moving geometric motifs. The motifs are actually 240 photosensitive motor-controlled apertures, or shutters, which act as a sophisticated brise soleil that automatically opens and closes to control the amount of light and heat entering the building from the sun. The mechanism creates interior spaces with filtered light — an effect often used in Islamic architecture with its climateoriented strategies. The innovative use of technology and success of the building’s design catapulted Nouvel to fame and is one of the cultural reference points of Paris. Notably, the building received the Aga Khan Award for Architecture. The building houses a museum, library, auditorium, restaurant, and offices.
Proposes are; a substantial increase in pavement space which is to establish continuities between the city and the plaza, concentrating all specifically urban flows (buses and taxis) around its edge. The pavement, transformed into a boulevard, would then be able to accommodate both pedestrian traffic and the kiosks and galleries that house the overflow of ground-floor businesses, as well as being a place for people to sit and rest. ‘The most abstract boundary would be on the threepronged Haussmann layout: bvd Voltaire, République, bvd du Temple. This is the site of the big demonstrations that characterize the place. We propose the construction of a great petrous esplanade. The great esplanade constitutes the dialectical counterpoint with the small salon, at the same time ensuring continuity with the symbolism of the monument.’
The building is a compact object with volumes cut out of it, each one representing one of the apartments. This puzzle constitutes one of the major challenges (successes) of the architectural signature of the project. The street is no longer defined by one linear facade but according to a series of varying volumes and living spaces. The upper floors containing the apartments overhang the ground floor which is set back from the street. As a result, the local residents benefit from a widening of the narrow pavement at this section which leads to the angle of two roads intersecting at a small plaza. The bare concrete, smooth and light grey in colour, highlights the missing volumes. The panels making up the facades can be as much as two storeys high. The indentations in the panels, forming the balconies, the loggias or the windows of the buildings, confirm the intention of attaining a clear outline.
The project consists of eleven social housing apartments on the upper floors and two commercial properties on the ground floor. Organised around one central access, the apartments fit together with optimal use of the different types allowed in the programme, for example the duplexes on the 3rd and 4th floors, without resorting to the repetition of the same layout on every floor. Thus, the flats benefit from multiple aspects, their terraces, loggias or balconies looking out onto three different urban facades and also a neighbouring courtyard belonging to the building next door. The two courtyards together form a harmonious unit and a breathing space in the otherwise dense plot.
The historic French Communist Party (PCF) tov, Jean- Maur Lyonnet an Jean Prouve. headquaters is the work of Brazilian archiThe two long sides of the building, the tect Oscar Niemeyer, who began work on curves which are reminiscent of a flag flying the project in 1965. The building was com- in the wind, are completely covered by curpleted in 1971. The dome and the laying tain walls. These glazed facades allow the out of the forecourt and of the underground interior, which combines raw concrete with hall was finalized in 1979-198. Niemeyer timber shuttering, to benefit from natural was aided during the construction process lighting, and the undulating floor rises and by architects Jean Deroche, Paul Chemefalls in keeping with curves of the walls.
The half-buried dome houses the large conference hall, designated for meetings of Central commitee. It is covered with thousands of aluminum panels which conceal the lights. The rows on terrrace, which offers a panaromic viewpoint. cover the air-conditioning equipment. Photos of
former protest movements are on display in the lobby of this sober and refined “House of the worker” . This atypical builging was added to the list of historic monuments in 2007, and renamed Espace Niemeyer in 2008 when the PCF was obliged to led out some floors for financial reasons.
The project for a student residence was considered in the context of the urban fabric of the La Chapelle district in Paris and its role in its evolution. The plot is on the corner of rue Philippe de Girard and rue Pajol in the 18th arrondissement, close to the ZAC Pajol, an ambitious redevelopment of former railway yards, on which
social, cultural and sports amenities are currently being created. The district is a very heterogeneous mixture of Haussmannian residential buildings, factories and workshops, and therefore has a richness and wide diversity of situations unusual within Paris itself.
The structure is based on a system of slabs and load-bearing walls with a central concrete core containing the staircase and lift. The partitioning is independent of the structural frame created by the walls and slabs. The apartment lay-out has been designed to allow for changes to the partitioning, and each apartment is open-plan and can therefore be modified as needed.The external skin is light-sensitive alucoil cladding ranging from white to pale grey in colour. The loggias on the south side and the double skin on the east are designed as extensions of the living space. These are accessed by transparent or white sliding glass panels, which modulate sound and temperature. The non-load bearing north and south walls are fitted with external insulation, which seals off the end of each slab to prevent thermal bridging.
The structure is based on a system of slabs and load-bearing walls with a central concrete core containing the staircase and lift. The partitioning is independent of the structural frame created by the walls and slabs. The apartment lay-out has been designed to allow for changes to the partitioning, and each apartment is openplan and can therefore be modified as
needed.The external skin is light-sensitive alucoil cladding ranging from white to pale grey in colour. The loggias on the south side and the double skin on the east are designed as extensions of the living space. These are accessed by transparent or white sliding glass panels, which modulate sound and temperature. The non-load bearing north and south walls
The Parc de la Villette is one of the largest parks in Paris, located at the northeastern edge of the 19th arrondissement. The park houses one of the largest concentration of cultural venues in Paris, including the Cité des Sciences et de l’Industrie (City of Science and Industry), Europe’s largest science museum, three major concert venues and the prestigious Conservatoire de Paris. Probably the most iconic pieces of the park, the follies act as architectural representations of deconstruction. In architecture, a folly is a building constructed primarily for decoration, but either suggesting by its appearance some other purpose, or merely so extravagant that it transcends the normal range of garden ornaments or other class of building to which it belongs. Thirty-five follies are placed on a grid and offer a distinct organization to the park. Architecturally, the follies are meant to act as points of reference that help visitors gain a sense of direction and navigate throughout the space. While the follies are meant to exist in a deconstructive vacuum without historical relation, many have found connections between the steel structures and the previous buildings that were part of the old industrial fabric of the area. Today, the follies remain as cues to organization and direction for park visitors.
The situation of the plot at number 16 rue Riquet is exceptional: largely visible from the corner of Avenue de Flandre, it is very close to the Bassin de la Villette and has a length of 36 meters of frontage facing south with a depth varying from 18 to 22 meters. The building at the corner of Avenue de Flandre constructed at right angles as well as the small buildings
with adjoining ground floors gives to the western corner of the plot a very valuable “faubourg” touch. On the other side of the same street, the large gable of number 14 allows the new building to be built upon. The whole of these characteristics bear a rich urban potential. This project aims at making the most of it in the setting up and design of the new building.
La Géode opened on 6 May 1985. La Géode is located in the north-east of Paris in a vast 55-hectare green area called the Parc de la Villette. La Géode opened its doors one year before the Science and Industry Park, the opening of which on 13 March 1986 coincided with the pass-
ing through of Halley’s comet. La Géode houses France’s leading movie theatre, number one by dint of the number of people visiting it, entirely devoted to the projection of large scale films on its giant 1000 m2 hemispheric screen.
The building is constructed around the vast steel trusses of an abattoir sales hall on which construction had halted in 1973. The transformation, commissioned on September 15,1980, was designed by the
architect Adrien Fainsilber and engineer Peter Rice. It was opened on March 13, 1986, inaugurated by François Mitterrand upon the occasion of the encounter of the Giotto space probe with Halley’s Comet.
14a La Defense 14f Villa Savoye
14b La Grande Arche de la Défense 14c Notre Dame de Pentecôte Church 14d Hotel Fouquet’s Barriè 14e Bureau Building --- La defense’dan geçen trene binilecek. RER A > Poissy
La Défense is a major business district near Paris, in France. With its 560 hectares (5.6 million square metres) area, its 72 glass and steel buildings and skyscrapers, its 180,000 daily workers, and 3.5 million square metres of office space, La Défense is Europe’s largest purpose-built business district. Around its Grande Arche and esplanade (“le Parvis”), La Défense contains many of the Paris urban area’s tallest high-rises, and is home to no fewer than 1,500 corporate head offices, including those of 15 of the top 50 companies in the world. The district is located at the western-most extremity of the ten-kilometre-long Historical Axis of Paris, which starts at the Louvre in Central Paris, and continues along the Champs-Élysées, well beyond the Arc de Triomphe before culminating at La Défense. The district is centred in an orbital motorway straddling the Hauts-de-Seine département municipalities of Courbevoie, Nanterre and Puteaux. La Défense is primarily a business district, and hosts only a population of 25,000 permanent residents and 45,000 students.La Défense is also visited by 8,000,000 tourists each year, and houses an open-air museum.
La Grande Arche de la Défense is a monument and building in the business district of La Défense and in the commune of Puteaux, to the west of Paris, which marks the bicentennial of the French Revolution and is a distinctive piece reminiscent of 20th century architecture. The Grande Arche completes the Historical Axis which is extending from the Louvre along the Champs-Elysees to the Arche de Triomphe – and guides Paris to the future. The competition for a “modernized Arche de Triomphe” was won by Johann Otto von Spreckelsen, whose concept was more or less a hollowed, symmetrical cube.
The Arche was designed to be an infrastructural canopy. The 110 meter long, wide, and tall hypercube is made of concrete and marble and features reflective glazing on the outside walls. It’s pure form makes it valuable. The massive scale of the Arche is most obvious in its atrium, which hosts a parasitic stretched Teflon mesh. This portion of the building was an afterthought added to the project. The freestanding, transparent elevator shafts which also occupy the interior quad provides some of the most remarkable views of Paris. This shaft climbs to the uppermost level, establishing a datum that measures a thirty-five story structural phenomenon. As the elevator ascends, the Historical Axis reveals itself in all its magnificence. The Grande Arche’s closest neighbor, The Arche de Triomphe is just 6 kilometers away. The thirty-five story Grande Arche functionsmainly as an office space, and contains an exhibition hall at its uppermost level. Below the Arche sits a shopping mall and cinema. The Arche is a notable technological achievement and was aimed to “assert France’s central place in the world at the end of the 20th century.”
When Paris-based architect Franck Hammoutene won a design competition held by the city’s Catholic diocese to build a church for the city’s downtown La Defense business area that is workplace to around 100,000 people, two questions were paramount in his mind. The first: how to fit another building, “a meaningful building”, into the ultra-crowded, high-rise, action-packed ‘spiritual desert’ that is La Defense. Of particular concern, the tiny site allocated to the church is surrounded by skyscrapers and a motorway, has a tunnel running underneath it and the great white vault that is the CNIT exhibition centre towering over it. The second point: what are the points of reference if an architect is asked to build a place of worship today in a contemporary urban setting? Hammoutene decided to try and create an architectural ‘still point in the turning world’ (T.S. Eliot) that would visually arrest people, however busy, and also act as a symbolic doorway to a serene other world.
French architect and landscape designer Edouard François was encharged of the renovation and façade design of the Fouquet’s Barrière Hotel in Paris, which is located in one block facing Avenue des Champs Elysées. The architect mission was the general plan of the whole hotel, including courtyards, administration offices and a spa service, spread on different plots of the “golden triangle”, and the design of new facades for extensions. The decision to reproduce the typical Haussmann façade which stands on Champs Elysées, with his characteristic windows, basement, roof and decorations, in grey concrete panels, is more significant than a simple imitation: it’s a re-interpretation of the “old” through nowadays industrial technology. The dimensions of the concrete panels are not the same as the typical stone blocks of Paris, but the composition of tones of grey remind them clearly. Beside the accuracy of the reproducing work, at first sight the façade seems to belong to that Hausmann époque: here is the “COPY” work.
Pacific Tower is a high-rise office tower in the La Défence district of Paris. It sites adjacent to the “Grand Arche” which was completed for the Bicentennial of the French Revolution. The building is used as follows: Basement: Space for progress and innovation 1-5th storeys: Japan service and temporary offices 6-24th storeys:Offices for rent 25th storey: Japanese tea house and garden. Introducing the Japanese tradition and culture. In the urban planning, Pacific Tower plays a role as a bridge and gate for pedestrians who access over the express highway from Valmy district to La Defense district. As Kurokawa was one of the jury for the International Design Competition for the Grand Arche, the harmony with the Grand Arche was carefully considered and its axis in relation to the urban landscape. The curtain wall facade of Pacific Tower expresses “Shoji”, a sliding door made of wood and paper, of Japanese architecture, and the curved facade expresses the tradition of masonry-structured architecture in Europe using precast stone. On top of the building, there is an abstractly symbolized Japanese garden and tea ceremony room.
The last of the so-called purist villas, Savoye expresses a decade of Corbusian ideals. The creation of such a house required specific contingencies in site, client and program. The client’s stated requirements were for a weekend home well-equipped with servants’ quarters where they could enjoy the rustic landscape. It was supposed to be a dwelling for the elite. At Savoye the envelope of the house is a prismatic solid through which the ‘architectural promenade’, described by Le Corbusier, unfolds. Column placements, bay structure, color, even window mullions orchestrate the promenade. At Savoye the arriving sequence was designed for the car: the glass enclosure for its turning radius. Once inside, the interior promenade appeals to the human scale. The ramp, composed in a relation to the spiral stair, is the centerpiece of the promenade and the house, combining interior and exterior, simultaneously unifying and slashing the space apart. The ramp is perhaps the most recurrent and important Corbusian motif. Le Corbusier valued it as a device of uninterrupted circulation that makes the imagined continuity of plan and section physical.
Green Spaces of Paris
1. Bois de Boulogne 2. Jardins du Trocadero 3. Anatole France 4. Esplanade des Invalides 5. Parc Monceau 6. Parc Andre Citroen 7. Jardin des Tuileries 8. Square Georges Brassens 9. Jardin du Luxembourg
10. Parc de Montsouris 11. Jardin des Plantes 12. Parc des Buttes Chaumont 13. Parc de Villette 14. Parc de Bercy 15. Bois de Vincennes
1. Gare Saint Lazare 1837 2. Gare Montparnasse 1940 3. Gare d’Austerlitz 1940 4. Gare du Nord 1846 5. Gare l’Est 1849 6. Gare de Lyon 1900
Train Stations of Paris
Perceptual Maps of Paris
1. Ile Cite /First Govermental Center of City / Notre Dame 2. Latin Quarter / Educational / Pantheon / Sorbonne University 3. 2. Goverment al Center / Lourve / Halles Centralles 4. Nobles & Bastille / Revolution / Bastille Square 5. Passages / Walter Benjamin 6. Expansion Zone / Cafes of Paris
Expansion of City Walls
Renaissance Era Paris
1789 French Revolution
1949 Paris Metro Map
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