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• The German sociologist Max Weber described certain leaders as having exceptional qualities—a charisma—that enabled them to motivate followers to achieve outstanding performance. Charisma is a Greek word meaning ―gift bestowed by the gods.‖
Requirements for Charismatic Leadership
• Four conditions give rise to charismatic leadership: 1. A crisis situation 2. Potential followers in distress 3. An aspiring leader 4. A doctrine promising deliverance.
Charismatic visionaries lead people ahead—and sometimes astray. Used wisely. 1996 . January 15. indulged. Con artists. charlatans." Fortune. it can be a curse.A Blessing and a Curse • "Charisma is a tricky thing. and presidents. and megalomaniacs can make it their instrument as effectively as the best CEO's entertainers. it's a blessing. Jack Kennedy oozed it—but so did Hitler and Charles Manson.
The Crisis • Both Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) and Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933. The situation was desperate. . at the height of the Great Depression.
• Wages for those who retained their jobs fell almost 43% between 1929 and 1933. 25% Unemployment 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1929 .830..000 people were unemployed).e.40% 1933 Wages . Many farm families lost their homes or went hungry.The Situation in the United States: An Economic Crisis • Unemployment was at 25% (i. • Farm prices fell dramatically. 2.
US Incomes: 1932 Occupation Factory Worker Cook Accountant Doctor Weekly Salary* $16.05 $45.50 $29.28 $61.11 *National Averages for 1932 Savings $33.89 $15.00 $488.00 $180.00 .
1-BA bungalow: $35 per month • Payment on Chevrolet coupe: $14. reveals these costs: • • • • • 1 loaf of Grandmother's Quality bread: 5 cents 1 quart of milk: 25 cents 1 pound of cheese: 19 cents 1932 Price 1 pound of bananas: 15 cents List Mortgage 2-BR.US Prices: 1932-1933 • The 1932-1933 Price List for Mooresville. Indiana.09 .
• The middle class. a necessity for a stable democratic government.The Situation in Germany: An Economic and Political Crisis with Low National Morale • After World War I. • By 1923 the mark was worth one-trillionth (0. Socialists. • The Weimar Republic. Germany had to disarm. established in 1919.2 0 Pre -War 1923 .6 0.000000000001) of its original value. and low national morale. had a divided democratic Reichstag with many parties including Communists. • The devastated country suffered from widespread unemployment. 1. Value of Mark was wiped out. • Many feared a Communist revolution.8 0. Germany faced a series of crises: • Under the Versailles Treaty. give up land and pay heavy reparations. runaway inflation. and Fascists. • The Germans were used to a strong autocratic regime.4 0.2 1 0.
000 1931: 4.000.000 1. • Unemployment increased from 650.000 1933: 6.100.000 6.000 in 1928 to 6.000 3.350.000.000 7.102.000 5.000.000.000 0 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 Unemployment .000.000 1929: 1. affecting nearly every German family.000 1932: 5.000.000 in 1933 (25 % of the workforce): • 1928: 650.000.000. • Millions of workers were laid off.Decline in German Incomes • Companies throughout Germany went bankrupt.000 1930: 3.000 4.320.000 2.100.
This gave Adolf Hitler his chance.German Political Disunity • The crisis of the Great Depression brought political disunity to Germany. . • Members of the Reichstag could not get together to enact desperately needed legislation. uncompromising groups and was finally dissolved in July 1930. • There was a call for new elections. • It broke up into squabbling.
The Way is Clear • The German people were tired of all of these things: • The political squabbling • The misery and the suffering of the Great Depression • The weakness exhibited by the democratic Weimar Republic • These were desperate times and they were willing to listen to anyone. .
• Results of election of 1932: a landslide for Democrats and a mandate to use the government as an agency for human welfare. He advocated government ownership of the means of production. • Norman Thomas. the Socialist candidate. .How FDR Restored Hope • FDR was perceived as a man of action (promised a “new deal for the American people”) • His predecessor Herbert Hoover was viewed as a “do-nothing president” and attacked the Democrats as dangerous radicals. was viewed as a radical alternative.
he promised: • • • • Vigorous leadership and bold action Called for discipline and cooperation Expressed his faith in democracy Asked for divine protection and guidance .How FDR Restored Hope • FDR had a solution to the desperate situation the country was in when he entered office in March. • His first inaugural address restored confidence: “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself…” In that address. 1933: • Country was virtually leaderless • Banking system had collapsed.
How FDR Restored Hope • FDR had personal qualities that made him an effective leader: • He was a practical politician (practiced the art of the possible) • He genuinely liked people (exhibited a warmth and understanding of people) • He knew how to handle the press (focused attention on Washington) • He provided dynamic leadership in a time of crisis (1st week: special session of Congress. bank holiday. Emergency Banking Act. 1st fireside chat) • He was willing to experiment .
(This made people feel in control. If they know the reason for the desperate situation they are in. • The Jewish capitalists and the Jewish communists are the mortal enemies of the German people. • The Versailles Treaty imposed by the Allies was the root of all evil and had to be denounced. they can do something about it. . • Part 1 involved finding scapegoats.) He told them: • Germany did not loose the war but was stabbed in the back by the Jewish and socialist traitors.How Hitler Restored Hope • Hitler used his strong nationalistic convictions and oratory skills to deliver a simple 3-part message.
He told them: • The Germans are a superior race destined to rule the World: "In ourselves alone lies the future of the German people.wav . though our own labor." Hitler_021033_03. Only when we ourselves raise up our German people. only then shall we rise again. our own daring and our own perseverance. our own determination.How Hitler Restored Hope • Part 2 gave the German people confidence in their ability to succeed. our own industry.
30. you must give in. it must have been difficult at times.wav . you must submit to this overwhelming need to obey.you mustn't act yourself.33.How Hitler Restored Hope • Part 3 established himself as the savior of Germany: He told people: • The Fuhrer is infallible and the destiny of Germany is in his hands: “Germany is now awakened. I know. so time and time again the appeal has to be made to continue the struggle ." Hitler_to_SA_&_SS_1. when you were desiring change which didn't come. my comrades. We have won power in Germany. you must obey. Now we must win over the German people.
• He worked within the democratic political system to create new government agencies and sponsor legislation with these objectives in mind: • To put people back to work • To raise prices for business and agriculture • To bring about permanent economic reform . and Reform • FDR increased the size and scope of the federal government to meet the needs of the depression. Recovery.How FDR Achieved His Goals: Economic Relief.
– relief (gave money to states and municipalities so they could distribute money. and food to the unemployed) • Civilian Conservation Corp. wheat. but $22 were back to the family . Recovery. tobacco. hogs. they received $30 per month.for the recovery of industry (created a partnership of business. clothing. and gov’t to attack the depression with such measures as price controls. and Reform • Examples of New Deal legislation to bring about recovery and relief: • National Recovery Act . codes of fair competition) • First Agricultural Adjustment Act – for the recovery of agriculture (paid farmers who agreed to reduce production of basic crops such as cotton. – relief (gave outdoor work to unemployed men between the ages of 17 and 29. and corn. high wages. labor.How FDR Achieved His Goals: Economic Relief. money came from a tax on processors such as flour millers and meat packers who passed the cost on to the consumer) • Federal Emergency Relief Admin.
and Reform • Examples of New Deal legislation to bring about permanents reform: • Social Security Act (gave money to states for aid to dependent children. set up old-age pensions for retirees) • National Labor Relations Act (put restraints on employers and set up a National Labor Relations Board) • Second Agricultural Adjustment Act (paid farmers for conservation practices. but only if they restricted production of staple crops) • U. Housing Authority (used federal funds to tear down slums and construct better housing) .S. Recovery. established unemployment insurance through payroll deduction.How FDR Achieved His Goals: Economic Relief.
Hitler’s title became Fuehrer and Reich Chancellor. Hindenburg died. • Control of the Judiciary: The Nazis gained control of the judiciary when they transferred jurisdiction over treason cases from the Supreme Court to a new People’s Court controlled by the Nazi party. freed of all legislative and constitutional constraints. The “Enabling Act” made Hitler dictator of Germany. Economic Recovery. German Superiority • Immediately after becoming Germany's Chancellor in 1933. Hitler started an extensive process of consolidating his power: • The Reichstag Fire: On February 27. 1934.How Hitler Achieved His Goals: Power. Hitler requested the Reichstag to temporarily delegate its powers to him so that he could adequately deal with the crisis. • Suspension of Civil Liberties: The next day Hitler persuaded President Hindenburg to suspend civil liberties to deal with the crisis. the Nazis created a crisis by setting the Reichstag on fire and blaming it on the Communists. and the title of president was abolished. • The Enabling Act: Two weeks later. • The New Order: On August 2. .
• As the world depression receded. high government expenditures wiped out unemployment. Hitler achieved economic recovery with rearmament and public works projects related to the military: • An extensive highway system (the autobahn) • Extension of the Navy and Air Force • An increase in the size of the army to 500. Economic Recovery. German Superiority • At home.How Hitler Achieved His Goals: Power.000 • Compulsory service in the Labor Corp (which reduced unemployment). .
France. Hitler embarked on a series of high-risk adventures to achieve superiority: • He renounced the Treaty of Versailles • He occupied the Saar Land. • There were not enough goods and services available to satisfy the demand caused by the increased supply of money. • This improved the national morale and made Hitler very popular but caused problems: • The 45 billion marks spent on rearmament tripled the amount of money in circulation and caused inflation. Economic Recovery. and dismembered Czechoslovakia. .How Hitler Achieved His Goals: Power. German Superiority • On the international scene. and Russia – precipitating World War II. annexed Austria. Hitler embarked on new international adventures: Poland. • Facing a collapse of the economy.
states rights violated) • It increased the power of the Presidency (FDR was reaching toward dictatorship. political disunity was evident (critics on right and left) • Criticisms of Conservative Opponents of the New Deal (ND went too far) • It was socialism (ND was destroying the “American system” of individualism) • It added to the national debt (money thrown away on relief. $35 billion debt) • It violated the constitution (ND legislation unconstitutional. separation of powers shattered) • Organization: American Liberty League had money but small in numbers. Congress a rubber stamp.How FDR Handled Opposition • By 1935. encouraged idleness. independence of judiciary threatened. so FDR not worried .
Townsend: an elderly physician from CA.” • Dr. program would be financed by a 2% national sales tax. Francis E. broadcasts called “Golden Hour of the Little Flower. advocated nationalization of banking and currency and national resources. . had a plan whereby the federal government would pay $200 per month to unemployed people over 60.How FDR Handled Opposition • Criticisms of Radical Opponents of the New Deal (ND didn’t go far enough) • Sen Huey Long (LA): ND relief measures mere crumbs.” said there was an international bankers conspiracy and Jews were responsible. so FDR was concerned. and demanded a “living wage.000 by confiscating wealth over $5 million) • Fr. advocated a share the wealth plan (guaranteed annual income of at least $5. Charles E. each pensioner would be required to spend the money in 30 days (this would stimulate the economy) • These people were demagogues (rabble-rousers) and had popular followings. Coughlin: a rabble-rousing radio priest from Detroit.
• Social Security Act of 1935 – Response to Townsend. and old-age pensions. Extended federal control over private banking practices. Included provisions for unemployables (dependent children. unemployment insurance. the handicapped. .How FDR Handled Opposition • FDR used the democratic political system and sponsored moderate legislation to silence radical opposition: • Revenue Act of 1935 – Response to Huey Long. • Banking Act of 1935 – Response to Coughlin. Increased taxes on large incomes and corporations. the blind).
of the poster. of writing. of journalism. however. He must have the gift to use the major methods of influencing public opinion such as the press. It may be good to have power based on weapons. and of the leaflet. to win and hold the heart of a nation. It is better and longer lasting. film and radio to serve his ideas and goals. . above all in an age of advancing technology.Joseph Goebbels 1934 . .‖ -.How Hitler Handled Opposition • Propaganda: Hitler tried to gain cooperation first and foremost by using propaganda (see PPT on Nazi Propaganda): ―The effective propagandist must be a master of the art of speech.
make noise. It was the Task Force's job to round up all the Jews and other "undesirables" living within Germany's newly conquered territories. The Nazis armed themselves with blackjacks. They also used raids. Hitler's elite paramilitary corps. operated without any restrictions by civil authority. and beer bottles. during which furniture was destroyed and a number of persons hurt. and unnerve the speaker. • The Gestapo: The Gestapo was part of the SS (Schutzstaffel). no consequences would arise. The Rollkommandos were a group organized by Goebels to interrupt meetings. and to suppress opposition in their own meetings. brass knuckles. . and to either send them to concentration camps or put them to death. • Rollkommandos: The Nazis used physical violence and terror to break up meetings of political opponents. rubber truncheons. walking sticks. The Gestapo. resulting in fights. and were also taught many of the practices that German doctors in Dachau tested on the inmates of concentration camps. • The army units within the Gestapo were taught many torture techniques. its members knew that whatever actions they took. during its tenure. They constituted the Secret Police and • Einsatzgruppen (Task Force) became an integral part of the Gestapo. meaning that its members could not be tried for any of their police practices. This unconditional authority added an elitist element to the Gestapo. It was a semi-military voluntary group of young men trained for and committed to the use of violence to control the streets.How Hitler Handled Opposition • Terrorist Tactics: The Nazis also used terrorism to achieve their goals: • The SA: The Nazis created a party organization called the Sturmabteilungen (SA).
• • • • . Redefined democracy: came to mean more than just a form of government (rule by the people. Increased size and scope of government to meet needs of the depression Provided the leadership that enabled Congress to put through the necessary relief. • Revitalization of politics and extension of democracy • • • • • Maintenance of a democratic system of government and society in a world threatened by totalitarianism. and security. housing Entered the domain of agriculture and labor Strengthened executive branch Reasserted presidential leadership Revitalized political party as a vehicle for the popular will and as an instrument for effective action. It now defined a way of life in which economic security and social justice were just as important as political rights. recovery. welfare. public health. political rights for the individual).The Outcome: FDR’s New Deal • Physical and human rehabilitation of country • • • • • • • • Attacked soil erosion Built dams and planted trees to prevent floods Reclaimed the grasslands of the Great Plains Developed water power resources Encouraged regional reconstruction projects like the TVA and Columbia River project Established the principle that government has responsibility for the health. Sponsored moderate legislation to neutralize the popularity of radical opponents Redefined the concept of democracy so that it included not only political rights but economic security and social justice as well. and reform measures. as well as the protection and education of its citizens Embraced social security.
Roosevelt .• ―I never forget that I live in a house owned by all the American people and that I have been given their trust.‖ – Franklin D.
250. • The city of Berlin (divided between the Soviet Union and the West) became a pawn in the Cold War • The Berlin Wall dividing East and West Berlin.810. • Loss of lives: • Over 7 million Germans lost their lives during World War II: 3. and the Soviet Union). Great Britain. • Hitler was largely responsible for the 56 million lives lost by all nations during World War II • The Holocaust: 6 million Jews (2/3 of the Jewish population of Europe) lost their lives. erected by the Soviet Union to protect its interests.000 civilian casualties.000 military casualties. did not come down until 1989. 3.The Outcome: Hitler’s New World Order • Total destruction of the German nation (it was defeated in World War II and occupied by France. . the United States.
. we shall drag a world with us. no never.• ―We shall not capitulate.. but if we are.‖ – Adolf Hitler ... We may be destroyed. a world in flames.
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