MTH6141 Random Processes, Spring 2012, Exercise Sheet 7

Please drop your answer to Questions 2 and 4 in the red box on the second ﬂoor of the maths building by 13:00 on Tuesday 13th March 2012. You are strongly encouraged to attempt as many questions as possible. Please send comments and corrections to m.jerrum@qmul.ac.uk. 1. (a) I arrive at a bus stop at a random time. What is my expected waiting time under the following assumptions: i. I am in Z¨ urich, and the buses are equally spaced in time, 10 minutes apart. ii. I am in London, and the buses arrive according to a Poisson process with rate 6 per hour? (b) How would you explain the diﬀerence in your answers to the two parts to a non-mathematician? (Note that the expected number of buses per hour is the same, namely 6, in both cases.) 2. Complete the proof of Theorem 2.2. In lectures, we saw that FT1 (t) (the c.d.f. of T1 ) is FT1 (t) = P(X (t) ≥ 1) = 1 − e−λt , and by diﬀerentiation that fT1 (t) (the p.d.f. of of T1 ) is λe−λt . We also saw, likewise, that FT2 (t) = P(X (t) ≥ 2) = 1 − e−λt − λte−λt , and fT2 (t) = λ2 te−λt . By considering the general case, show that fTn (t) = λn tn−1 −λt e , (n − 1)!

i.e., that Tn has the Gamma distribution. 3. Let X (t) be a Poisson process of rate λ. Show that for all n > 0 the probability density function of T1 conditioned on X (t) = n is fT1 |X (t)=n (u) = for 0 < u ≤ t. [Hint: Work out the cdf ﬁrst.] Use this to ﬁnd E(T1 | X (t) = n). n u 1− t t
n−1

.

1

. (a) Show that the expected cost per minute to run the server is k cλT + . (b) E(T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 | X (4) = 3). . be the arrival times of a Poisson process X (t) of rate λ. T 2 [Hint: First work it out conditioned on there being n requests waiting at time T . In addition each request incurs a cost of £c for each minute it waits before processing. Every T minutes the requests are processed regardless of how many there are (even if there are none). Find the following (a) E(T1 + T2 + T3 | X (4) = 3). Requests arrive at a server as a Poisson process of rate λ per minute. .] (b) How should T be chosen to minimize the cost of running the server? 2 .4. T2 . Let T1 . and 2 2 2 2 2 | X (2) = 5). + T5 + T4 + T3 + T2 (c) E(T1 5. Suppose that processing costs £k (regardless of how many requests are processed).