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# Pumps & Pumping

Systems

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PUMP

## Pumping System Types of Pump Design Calculations

Introduction Centrifugal Pump Efficiency
Bernoulli’s Theorem Positive Displacement

## Characteristic Curves Reciprocating

Cavitation Rotary
Gear
NPSH, NPSHa, NPSHr
Vane
Screw
Lobe

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Introduction

## Pump is a device which converts

mechanical energy into pressure
energy due to which the fluid moves
from one point to another.

## (US DOE, 2001)

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Pumps – Bernoulli’s Theorem
• Pressure head: measure of fluid’s mech.
PE
• Velocity head: measure of fluid’s mech.
KE
• Friction head: measure of energy lost
that heats fluid

## Z/z: fluid height; P: fluid pressure; ρ: fluid density 4

V/v: fluid velocity U: internal energy W/w: work
• PUMP CHARACTERISTICS :
- It is the relationship between Capacity, Head, Power and
Efficiency.
- The graphs, showing the inter-relationship between
Capacity, Head, Power and Efficiency, are called Pump
Characteristic Curves.
➘ Capacity :
- It is the quantity of fluid flowing through the Pump for a
given time of period.
- It is expressed in m3/hr.
- It is measured by weight method, volumetric method,
orifice plate or by weirs.
- It is the measure of energy to move the fluid from one
point to another.
- It is expressed in metres of liquid column. 5
- It is the total head of a system against which a pump
must operate.
- For a given capacity, it is expressed as
to discharge level + Discharge Pressure - Suction
Pressure - Friction losses - entrance and exit losses

 

Specific gravity

    

6

## Total static head = static discharge

suction lift
7
continued
Lighter than water like oil Sp. Gr. = 0.85
Heavier than water like brine Sp. Gr. = 1.15
For most cases water Sp. Gr. = 1.0

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➘ Power :
- The horse power produced by the liquid is called as
Water Horse Power (WHP) or Liquid Horse Power
which is expressed as
WHP = (γ Q H) / 75
where Q = m3/sec , H = mlc & γ = kg/m3
- The power required to drive the pump is called as
Brake Horse Power (BHP) which is expressed as
BHP = (γ Q H) / 75 η
where η is the efficiency of Pump.

➘ Efficiency :
- It is the measure of the Pump performance.
- It is the ratio of WHP to BHP.
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Calculation of Pump Performance

## • Pump shaft power (Ps) is actual horsepower

delivered to the pump shaft
Pump shaft power (Ps):
Ps = Hydraulic power Hp / pump efficiency ηPump
Pump Efficiency (ηPump):
ηPump = Hydraulic Power / Pump Shaft Power

## • Pump output/Hydraulic/Water horsepower (Hp) is

the liquid horsepower delivered by the pump

## Hydraulic power (Hp):

Hp = Q (m3/s) x Total head, hd - hs (m) x ρ (kg/m3) x g (m/s2) / 1000

ρ - density of the fluid g – acceleration due to gravity
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CHARACTERISTIC CURVE OF A PUMP
1800
5 2 .5 H z
50 H z

H E A D ( m lc )
1600

1400

1200
4 7 .5 H z
1000
P O W E R (k W )
2000

1500

1000

500

90

80

70
E F F IC IE N C Y (% )

60

50 20

N P S H R ( m lc )
40 15

30 Η 10
3% ∆
20 5

10 0

0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420 450
S U C T IO N F L O W (c u b . m . / h r.) 11
Pump operating point

Pump performance
• Duty point: rate of flow at curve
operating
• Pump operating point: Head System point
intersection of pump curve curve
and system curve
Static

Flow

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Pumping System

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Pump suction performance (NPSH)
• Cavitation or vaporization: bubbles inside pump
• If vapor bubbles collapse
• Erosion of vane surfaces
• Increased noise and vibration
• Choking of impeller passages
• NPSH Available: how much pump suction
exceeds liquid vapor pressure
• NPSH Required: pump suction needed to avoid
cavitation
NPSHA > NPSHR

## Otherwise pump will cavitate.

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NPSHA _ net positive suction head (available)

pa p
NPSH A = − Z i − h fi − v
ρ .g ρ .g Temp Vapor
°F press.
P.S.I.A
212 14.7
210 14.1
Pa - atmospheric or reservoir pressure208 13.7
p p
NPSH A = a − Z i − h fi − v Zi - height from water level to pump inlet
206 13.0
ρ .g ρ .g
Pv - vapor pressure of the fluid 204 12.5
202 12.0
hfi - friction losses on the suction side
200 11.5
190 9.3
160 4.7
120 1.7
80 0.5
40 0.1

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NPSHA
vent Atmospheric pressure (PA) = 14.7 psia
Water at 90°F SP.GR. =
.99 PV = 0.69 psia

## Friction loss in SP.GR.

suction line HF = 1 ½ ft. = 2.31 (14.7-0.69) + (10-1.5)
0.99
= 32.7 + 10 –1.5
= 41.2 ft NPSHA

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NPSHA
Gate Value
Atmospheric pressure (PA) = 14.7 psia Strainer

## Friction loss in suction pipe with strainer

and gate valve HF = 1½ ft.

2.31(PA −P V )
NPSH A = + (H E − H F )
Water at 90°F Sp. Gr. Foot value Sp.Gr.
= 0.99 PV = 0.69 psia 2.31(14.7 − 0.69)
= + (-15 − 2.5)
0.99
= 32.7 - 17.5
= 15.2 ft NPSH A

## In selection the pump it would be necessary to see that the NPSHR

required did not exceed 13 to 14 ft at the duty point, otherwise noise
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and cavitation would occur at the pump

For Example 550 G.P.M. the pump head as selected from the
system head curve will be 98 ft. T.D.H.
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CAVITATION
• Very destructive phenomena that occurs when the pressure of the fluid
drops below vaporization point. The result is the formation of tiny
bubles that colapses when pressure increase on the impeller. Those
implosions work as small “explosions” on the impeller that will destroy
it.

## • It’ll happen mainly for 3 reasons:

∀ • Clogging of pre-filters.
∀ • Valves closed on the suction side.

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Types of Pumps
Pumps

## Lobe Gear Rotary Vane Screw

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Positive Displacement Pump
• Reciprocating pump
– Displacement by reciprocation of piston plunger
– Used only for viscous fluids and oil wells

• Rotary pump
– Displacement by rotary action of gear, cam or vanes
– Several sub-types
– Used for special services in industry

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Reciprocating Pump

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Gear Pump

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External Gear Pump

## 1.Liquid flows into the cavity and is trapped

by the gear teeth
as they rotate.
2. Liquid travels around the interior of the
casing in the pockets
between the teeth and the casing
3. Finally, gears forces liquid through the
outlet port under pressure.

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Internal Gear Pump
1. Liquid enters the suction port
between the rotor and idler teeth.
2. Liquid travels between the teeth of
the "gear-within-a-gear" principle.
The crescent shape divides the
liquid and acts as a seal between
the suction and discharge ports.
3. forcing the liquid out of the
discharge port.
4. Rotor and idler teeth mesh
completely to form a seal
equidistant from the discharge and
suction ports. This seal forces the
liquid out of the discharge port.

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Lobe Pump
1. Liquid flows into the cavity
and is trapped by the lobes as they
rotate.
2. Liquid travels around the
interior of the casing in the
pockets between the lobes and the
casing
3. Finally, the lobes forces liquid
through the outlet port under pressure.

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Screw Pump

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VANE PUMP
1. As the impeller rotates and fluid
enters the pump, centrifugal force,
hydraulic
pressure, and/or pushrods push the
vanes to the walls of the housing.
2. The housing and cam force fluid into
the pumping chamber through holes in
the cam. Fluid enters the pockets
created by the vanes, rotor, cam, and
sideplate.
3. The vanes sweep the fluid to the
opposite side of the crescent where it is
squeezed through discharge holes of
the cam as the vane approaches the
point of the crescent. Fluid then exits
the discharge port

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Centrifugal Pump
• Centrifugal pumps are the most widely
used pump
• Centrifugal pumps depend on centrifugal
forces
• The advantages of the centrifugal pump
are its simple construction and operation,
space requirements and rotary action.

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Centrifugal Pump

## • Liquid forced into impeller

• Vanes pass kinetic energy to
liquid: liquid rotates and
leaves impeller
• Volute casing converts kinetic
energy into pressure energy

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Centrifugal Pump

## Rotating and stationary components

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Centrifugal Pump

Impeller
• Main rotating part that provides
centrifugal acceleration to the fluid
• Number of impellers = number of pump
stages
• Impeller classification: direction of flow,
suction type and shape/mechanical
construction
Shaft
• Transfers torque from motor to impeller during pump
start up and operation
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Centrifugal Pump
Casings

• Functions
• Enclose impeller as “pressure vessel”
• Support and bearing for shaft and impeller

• Volute case
• Impellers inside casings
• Balances hydraulic pressure on pump shaft

• Circular casing
• Vanes surrounds impeller
• Used for multi-stage pumps 34
• AFFINITY LAWS :

## - All Centrifugal Pumps follow the Affinity Laws which are

given below :

Q α N Q α D
H α N2 and H α D2
P α N3 P α D3

## where N is the Speed of the Pump (rpm) &

D is the Diameter of the Impeller

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Major pumps in a power
station :-

##  BOILER FEED PUMPS

 BOILER FEED BOOSTER PUMPS
 CONDENSATE EXTRACTION PUMPS
 CIRCULATING WATER PUMPS
 AUX COOLING WATER PUMPS

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Function of Pumps
in a thermal power station

 BFPs are used to feed water from deaerator feed storage tank to
the boiler

##  Booster pumps are provided ahead of BFPs to ensure adequate

NPSH to BFP for its cavitation free performance

to deaerator

##  CWPs are used to circulate cooling water through condenser for

condensing steam and ACWPs to supply cooling water to
various auxiliary coolers

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BOILER FEED PUMP

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BFP BARREL & CARTRIDGE

Barrel

Cartridge

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BOILER FEED PUMP

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Boiler Feed BOOSTER PUMP

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BOOSTER PUMP

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CONDENSATE EXTRACTION PUMP

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CIRCULATING WATER PUMP

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CIRCULATING WATER PUMPS

## DRY WELL WET WELL

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DESIGN OPTIONS FOR CWPs

##  Wet well / Dry well

 Pull out / Non pull out
 Single / Double foundation
 With / Without thrust block at discharge elbow
 With / Without non reversible ratchet
 With/ Without shaft inclosing tube

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SUMP MODEL STUDIES

##  Vortex formation, swirl and poor flow distribution

 Loss of hydraulic performance
 Noise and vibration
 Accelerated wear of components
 Mechanical failures

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Multiple CW Pumps installations

## Sump Dimensions - Plan view

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Multiple CW Pumps installations

## Sump Dimensions- Elevation view

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Sump Dimensions versus Flow

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Multiple CW Pumps installations

## RECOMMENDED NOT RECOMMENDED

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Multiple CW Pumps installations

## RECOMMENDED NOT RECOMMENDED

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Multiple CW Pumps installations

## RECOMMENDED NOT RECOMMENDED

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CLASSIFICATION OF AUXILIARIES

## CEP, BFP and TG integral auxiliaries like vacuum pump,

GSC exhauster, oil purifier, oil vapour exhauster etc.
Power consumption for TG Auxiliaries for 500 MW shall be
~4% of total power consumption with TD BFP’s in operation

## Mills, ESP, ID / FD / PA fans and LT drives

Boiler Circulating Water Pumps for 500 MW unit

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CLASSIFICATION OF AUXILIARIES (contd..)

## • CW, ACW, DMCW & Plant Water System

• DM plant & pre-treatment plant
• HP/ LP dosing & chlorination plant
• Hydrogen generation plant
• Coal and Ash handling plant
• Compressed air system
• Air conditioning & ventilation system
• Fuel oil system / Electric tracing
• Electrical system: GT, UAT, ST losses & lighting load

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AUXILIARY POWER

##  Auxiliary power consumption along with heat

rate are the two important technical
parameters used by the power utilities to
assess the performance of power plants

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AUXILIARY POWER (contd..)

##  Auxiliary power consumption can be defined as “the

difference between gross electric power generated at
generator terminals and net exportable power to grid

##  Power plant itself consumes nearly 8 – 10% of energy

generated

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Optimisation Areas in Pumps

##  Sizing and design margins

 Mechanical design

 Materials of construction

##  Quality / Inspection checks

 Performance testing
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OPTIMISATION OF AUXILIARY POWER

##  Aux. power can be brought down by proper sizing of

pumps, selection of technology and equipments

##  The following factors having impact on auxiliary power

consumption need to be considered during design
stage of the project:

## • Proper selection of equipments

• Layout options
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Optimisation of sizing & design margins

##  Design margins are provided on equipment / systems

to cater for ageing, wear & tear, uncertainties etc
 Conservative designs with large margins ( e.g. on flow
and head of pumps) and specifying suitability for
abnormal operating conditions result in lower efficiency
and higher auxiliary power consumption
 Proper standby philosophy based on efficiency of
operation, availability & reliability, like
1x100% Working + 1x100% Standby or
1x100% Working + 1x30% Startup or
2x50% Working + 1x50% Standby etc.
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OPTIMUM DESIGN MARGINS
COMPARISON OF 500 MW CEP PARAMETERS
Parameters CEP
Stage-II *
Design Parameters
Capacity (M 3/Hr) 835 800
Power at Pump Input (KW) 971 731
Efficiency (%) 81 81
Capacity (M 3/Hr) 617 615
Power at Pump Input (KW) 840 628
Efficiency (%) 79.5 80
* FOR VINDHYACHAL CEP PARAMETERS WERE WORKED OUT BY NTPC
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CEP SIZING CRITERIA (Typical)

A. Flow calculations
Description Unit Max. flow Normal Under frq Turbine
Flow Bypass
1 Temperature of the condensate C
0
40.00 45.00 40.00 40.00
2 Density of water kg/m3 992.16 990.20 992.16 992.16
3 Condensate flow (HRSG with 0% BD) TPH 163.89 155.24 163.89 208.89
4 HRSG blow down (3% Con , 2% Int) TPH 8.19 7.76 8.19 10.44
5% 5% 5% 5%
5 Total flow ( 3+4) TPH 172.08 163.00 172.08 219.33
6 Flow with margin due to low TPH NA NA 181.14 NA
frequency
7 Flow with 10% margin . Only 4% in TPH 189.29 NA NA 228.11
turbine bypass
8 Required flow from each pump TPH 189.29 163.00 181.14 228.11
9 Required flow from each pump m3/hr 190.79 164.61 182.57 229.91
Say m3/hr 191 165 183 230

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CEP SIZING CRITERIA (Typical)

Flow frq Bypass

## 1 Deaerator operating pressure Kg/cm2 1.23 1.23 1.23 1.23

2 Static head up to Deaerator nozzle(22 mts Kg/cm2 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20
above ground)
2a Static head from ground level to eye of Kg/cm2 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
impeller(4 mts)
3 Pressure drop in Deaerator spray nozzles Kg/cm2 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
4 Pressure drop in flow control valve Kg/cm2 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50
5 Pressure drop in CPH Kg/cm2 4.36 3.92 4.36 5.89
6 Pressure drop in Flow nozzles (2 nos) Kg/cm2 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
7 Pressure drop in piping Kg/cm2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
8 Pressure drop in Gland steam condenser Kg/cm2 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80
9 Pressure drop in SJAE Kg/cm2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
10 Margin on variable pressure drop {21% of Kg/cm2 1.99 NA NA 2.31
(sum of 3 to 9 above) or min 1.0 kg/cm2}
11 Total required discharge pressure. Kg/cm2 15.28 12.85 13.29 17.12
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CEP SIZING CRITERIA (Typical)

Description Unit Max. flow Normal Under frq Turbine
Flow Bypass
Net Differential head to be developed by Kg/cm2 14.84 12.37 12.85 16.64
pump (B11-C6)
Margin due to change in frequency i.e Kg/cm2 NA NA 1.34 NA
applying factor {(50/47.5)2-1}
Required differential pressure Kg/cm2 14.84 12.37 14.19 16.64
Required differential pressure mwc 149.6 124.9 143.0 167.8
Say (rounding up to next 5mwc) mwc 150 125 145 170

D. Final parameters
Capacity of each pump m3/hr 191 165 183 230
Pump differential head required mwc 150 125 145 170
Head developed as per curve mwc 188 198 190 170

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CEP/ BFP Sizing during turbine bypass condition
BOILER

GEN.

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BFP SIZING CRITERIA (Typical)
A. Flow calculations
Description Unit Max. flow Normal Under Transient
Flow frequency Condition
1 Temperature of the feed water C
0
105 105 105 105
2 Density of water kg/m3 954.74 954.74 954.74 954.74
3 HRSG capacity ( with super heater TPH 43.60 41.20 43.60 43.60
spray built in)
4 HRSG blow down (3% Con , 2% TPH 2.18 0.82 2.18 2.18
Intermittent)
5 Total feed water flow TPH 45.78 42.02 45.78 45.78
requirement(3+4)

## 5 Flow with margin due to low TPH NA NA 2.41 NA

frequency
6 Feed water flow with 20% margin TPH NA NA NA 9.16
during transient operation
7 Capacity of each Pump TPH 45.78 42.02 48.19 54.04

## 8 10% design margin on flow TPH 4.58 NA NA NA

(allowance for ageing)
9 Required flow from each pump TPH 50.36 42.02 48.19 54.94

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10 SELECTED CAPACITY IN CMH m3/hr 53.00 44.00 50.00 58.00
BFP SIZING CRITERIA (Typical)

## Description Unit Max. flow Normal Under TRANSIENT

Flow frequency OPERATION

## 1 Highest safety valve set pressure Kg/cm2 (a) 91.63 NA NA NA

2 Drum Operating Pressure Kg/cm2 (a) NA 81 81 81

## 3 Over Pressure ( 3 %) Kg/cm2 2.75 NA NA NA

4 Static pr. due to drum height (21.6 m) Kg/cm2 2.06 2.06 2.06 2.06
{height) x sp.gravity/10 }
5 Pr. Drop in Economizer Kg/cm2 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
6 Pr. Drop in feed control station Kg/cm2 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50
7 Pr. Drop in discharge piping including Kg/cm2 1.0 0.69 0.89 1.20
fittings, valves, etc.
8 Pr. Drop in flow element Kg/cm2 0.30 0.21 0.27 0.36
9 Pr. Drop in ARC valve at discharge Kg/cm2 1.0 0.69 0.89 1.20
10 Total variable pressure drop Kg/cm2 6.80 6.09 6.55 7.25
(5+6+7+8+9)
11 Margin on variable pr. drop (21%) Kg/cm2 1.43 NA NA 2.31
(min. 1 kg/cm2)
12 Pressure at discharge of Pump Kg/cm2(a) 140.67 89.15 89.61 90.32
(1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 10 + 11)
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BFP SIZING CRITERIA (Typical)

Flow OPERATION

## 1 Pressure of De-aerator Kg/cm2 (a) 1.23 1.23 1.23 1.23

2 Pr. due to Height of the De-aerator LWLL Kg/cm2 (a) 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.38
from BFP suction nozzle
3 Total of above (1+2) Kg/cm2 2.61 2.61 2.61 2.61
4 Pr.drop in suction strainer-50% clogged Kg/cm2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
(normal pr. drop approx. 0.1 Kg/cm2)
5 Pr. drop in suction piping, inclusive of Kg/cm2 0.20 0.14 0.18 0.24
fittings, valves, etc
6 Pr. loss on suction side of BFP (4+5) Kg/cm2 0.40 0.34 0.38 0.44
7 Available pr. on pump section side (3 – Kg/cm2 2.21 2.27 2.23 2.17
6)
8 Available NPSH (7 – 1) Kg/cm2 0.98 1.04 1.00 0.94
mwc 10.26 10.92 10.50 9085
9 Considering margin between NPSHA & Kg/cm2 5.13 8.42 8.00 7.35
NPSHR as minm. 2.5 m, the NPSHR of
the pumps shall be limited to max. ( 50
% for rated flow) 69
BFP SIZING CRITERIA (Typical)

Description Unit Max. flow Normal Under Transient
Flow frequency Condition
Net Differential head to be developed by Kg/cm2 102.46 86.88 87.38 88.15
pump
Margin due to change in frequency i.e. Kg/cm2 NA NA 9.44 NA
applying factor {(50/47.5)2-1}
Required differential pressure Kg/cm2 102.46 86.88 96.82 88.15
Required differential pressure mwc 1073.16 909.14 1014.07 923.25
Final selected differential pressure mwc 1074 910 1015 924

E. Final parameters
Capacity of each pump m3/hr 53.00 44.00 50.00 58.00
Pump differential head required mwc 150 125 145 170

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CWP SIZING CRITERIA (Typical)

A. Flow calculations
Description Unit Max. flow Normal Under Transient
Flow frequency condition
1 Temperature of the feed water C
0
32 32 32 32
2 Density of water kg/m3 1000 1000 1000 1000
3 Maximum water demand CMH 8750 8750 8750 8750

4 Capacity shared by each pump (50%) CMH 4375 4375 4375 4375
5 Margin in flow due to low frequency CMH NA NA 230.26 NA
on feed water flow

## 8 10% design margin on flow CMH 437.50 NA NA NA

(allowance for ageing)

9 Thus, capacity of each pump with CMH 4812.50 4375 4606 5250
margin
10 Selected capacity of each pump CMH 4815 4375 4606 5250
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CWP SIZING CRITERIA (Typical)
Description Unit Max. flow Normal Under Transient
Flow frequency Condition
1 Cooling tower spray nozzle elevation MWC 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00
from ground level including pr. drop in
spray nozzle
2 Pump impeller / bell mouth level below MWC 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50
pump-base plate level
3 Atmospheric head MWC 10.30 10.30 10.30 10.30
4 Total static head (1+2+3) MWC 21.80 21.80 21.80 21.80
5 Pr. Drop in discharge piping including MWC 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60
fittings, valves, etc.
6 Pump Internal losses MWC 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10
7 Pr. Drop in discharge piping including MWC 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
fittings, valves, etc.
8 Pr. Drop in flow element MWC 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60
9 Pressure drop in Condenser MWC 6.00 4.95 5.49 7.13
10 Pressure drop in rubber expansion joint MWC 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
11 Pressure drop in nozzle MWC 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
12 Pressure drop in return line MWC 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
13 Total variable pressure MWC 13.50 10.65 11.19 12.83
drop(5+6+7+8+9+10+11+12)
14 Margin on variable pr. drop MWC 5.00 NA NA NA
(21% subject to min. 5 mwc) 72
15 Bowl discharge head of Pump (4 MWC 40.30 32.45 32.99 34.63
CWP SIZING CRITERIA (Typical)

## Description Unit Max. flow Normal Under Transient

Flow frequency Condition

1 Pump bell mouth / impeller level below MWC 2.30 2.30 2.30 2.30
sump min. water level
2 Atmospheric head MWC 10.30 10.30 10.30 10.30

## 3 Total of above (1+2) MWC 12.60 12.60 12.60 12.60

4 Pr.drop in inline-strainer MWC 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
5 Available pr. on pump suction side (3-4) MWC 11.60 11.60 11.60 11.60

6 Vapour pressure head of water at 32ºC MWC 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61
7 Available NPSH (5-6) MWC 10.99 10.99 10.99 10.99

73
CWP SIZING CRITERIA (Typical)

Description Unit Max. flow Normal Under Transient
Flow frequency Condition
1 Differential Bowl Head of pump mwc 28.70 20.85 21.39 23.03
2 Margin due to change in frequency i.e. mwc NA NA 9.44 NA
applying factor {(50/47.5)2 -1}
3 mwc 28.70 20.85 23.70 23.03
Net Differential Pump Pr. (1+2)

4 Selected Differential Bowl Head of pump mwc 29.00 21.00 24.00 24.00

E. Final parameters
Capacity of each pump m3/hr 4815 4375 4606 5250
Pump differential head required mwc 29.00 21.00 24.00 24.00

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PROPER SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT

##  Pumps are selected based on Parameters :

- pump flow rate
- operating temperature
- suction pressure / NPSH available
 Developments  in  design  &  technology  have  made
available reliable & efficient products & systems aimed
to reduce auxiliary power consumption
 The best efficiency shall preferably be between design
and  normal  point.  Design  capacity  shall  be  within  80­
110% of the best efficiency capacity
 Pumps shall have stable Q­H characteristics
 Continuous  head  rise  to  shut  off  of  atleast  10%
preferred for parallel operation
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VARIABLE SPEED DRIVES

##  Boiler Feed Pumps (BFPs), Forced Draft (FD) fans and ID

Fans are large consumers
 Constant speed drives use throttling elements incurring
energy losses in the system
 Variable speed drives are being increasingly used due to
several advantages they have over the conventional fixed
speed drives
 Use of hydraulic coupling reduces the losses to some
extent as efficiency of coupling itself is very low at lower
speed
 VFD enables operation over a wide range of load at high
efficiency with low energy consumption at lower speeds
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77
Optimisation of Mechanical Design

##  Mechanical design parameters like the design

pressure of pump casings etc. are specified
corresponding to the most severe possible scenario
such as ;
- over frequency of operation at 51.5 Hz
- highest operating speed of the pump
- shut off head at zero flow

##  The above criteria results in higher values for design

pressures thereby increasing the pump component
costs. In actual site operation, eventuality of pump
subjected to all the above severe operating
conditions simultaneously is remote.
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Optimisation of Materials of construction

 Bronze
 Cast iron
 Cast steel
 400 series Stainless steel
 300 series Stainless steel etc.
Selection criteria for materials :
•corrosion resistance
•abrasive wear resistance
•cavitation resistance
•casting & machining properties
•endurance limit
•notch sensitivity
•galling characteristics
•cost 79
Optimisation of Quality / Inspection checks

##  Too much ambitious quality checks like LPI, MPI, UT

and Radiography for 100% quantity & 100% area
would add to cost of product as well as increased
cycle time in view of the CHPs involved

##  Too much ambitious special/type tests like NPSH test

on all the contracted pumps would add to cost of
product as well as increased cycle time in view of the
CHPs involved
Routine test is ok

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PERFORMANCE TESTING

## Routine tests on all pumps

 Mechanical performance to check :

- Vibrations
- Temperatures
- Leakages

## - Flow Vs Head Characteristic

- Flow Vs Power Characteristic
- Flow Vs Efficiency Characteristic
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PERFORMANCE TESTING

## Type tests as optional

• NPSH TEST
Special tests on Boiler feed pumps :
• HOT WATER PERFORMANCE TEST
• COMBINED STRING TEST
• AXIAL THRUST MEASUREMENTS
• PRESSURE PULSATION TEST
• DRY RUN TEST
• THERMAL SHOCK TEST
• VISUAL CAVITATION TEST
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Conclusion

## • Optimisation of sizing, selection, mechanical design,

quality/inspection checks and performance testing
results in :
– lower auxiliary power
– lower cost &
– lower cycle time

## • Hence utmost attention is to be given for the

optimisation of the above

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Thank You

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