Nature (1836

)
by Ralph Waldo Emerson
A subtle chain of countless rings The next unto the farthest brings; The eye reads omens where it goes, And
speaks all languages the rose; And, striving to be man, the worm Mounts through all the spires of form.
Introduction
Our age is retrospective. It builds the sepulchers of the fathers. It writes biographies, histories, and criticism.
The foregoing generations beheld God and nature face to face; we, through their eyes. Why should not we also
enjoy an original relation to the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and not
of tradition, and a religion by revelation to us, and not the history of theirs? Embosomed for a season in nature,
whose floods of life stream around and through us, and invite us by the powers they supply, to action
proportioned to nature, why should we grope among the dry bones of the past, or put the living generation into
masquerade out of its faded wardrobe? The sun shines to-day also. There is more wool and flax in the fields.
There are new lands, new men, new thoughts. Let us demand our own works and laws and worship.
Undoubtedly we have no questions to ask which are unanswerable. We must trust the perfection of the creation
so far, as to believe that whatever curiosity the order of things has awakened in our minds, the order of things
can satisfy. Every man's condition is a solution in hieroglyphic to those inquiries he would put. He acts it as life,
before he apprehends it as truth. In like manner, nature is already, in its forms and tendencies, describing its
own design. Let us interrogate the great apparition, that shines so peacefully around us. Let us inquire, to what
end is nature?
All science has one aim, namely, to find a theory of nature. We have theories of races and of functions, but
scarcely yet a remote approach to an idea of creation. We are now so far from the road to truth, that religious
teachers dispute and hate each other, and speculative men are esteemed unsound and frivolous. But to a sound
judgment, the most abstract truth is the most practical. Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own
evidence. Its test is, that it will explain all phenomena. Now many are thought not only unexplained but
inexplicable; as language, sleep, madness, dreams, beasts, sex.
Philosophically considered, the universe is composed of Nature and the Soul. Strictly speaking, therefore, all
that is separate from us, all which Philosophy distinguishes as the NOT ME, that is, both nature and art, all
other men and my own body, must be ranked under this name, NATURE. In enumerating the values of nature
and casting up their sum, I shall use the word in both senses; -- in its common and in its philosophical import. In
inquiries so general as our present one, the inaccuracy is not material; no confusion of thought will occur.
Nature, in the common sense, refers to essences unchanged by man; space, the air, the river, the leaf. Art is
applied to the mixture of his will with the same things, as in a house, a canal, a statue, a picture. But his
operations taken together are so insignificant, a little chipping, baking, patching, and washing, that in an
impression so grand as that of the world on the human mind, they do not vary the result.

Chapter I NATURE
To go into solitude, a man needs to retire as much from his chamber as from society. I am not solitary whilst I
read and write, though nobody is with me. But if a man would be alone, let him look at the stars. The rays that
come from those heavenly worlds will separate between him and what he touches. One might think the
atmosphere was made transparent with this design, to give man, in the heavenly bodies, the perpetual presence
of the sublime. Seen in the streets of cities, how great they are! If the stars should appear one night in a
thousand years, how would men believe and adore; and preserve for many generations the remembrance of the
city of God which had been shown! But every night come out these envoys of beauty, and light the universe
with their admonishing smile.
The stars awaken a certain reverence, because though always present, they are inaccessible; but all natural
objects make a kindred impression, when the mind is open to their influence. Nature never wears a mean
appearance. Neither does the wisest man extort her secret, and lose his curiosity by finding out all her
perfection. Nature never became a toy to a wise spirit. The flowers, the animals, the mountains, reflected the
wisdom of his best hour, as much as they had delighted the simplicity of his childhood.
When we speak of nature in this manner, we have a distinct but most poetical sense in the mind. We mean the
integrity of impression made by manifold natural objects. It is this which distinguishes the stick of timber of the
wood-cutter, from the tree of the poet. The charming landscape which I saw this morning is indubitably made
up of some twenty or thirty farms. Miller owns this field, Locke that, and Manning the woodland beyond. But
none of them owns the landscape. There is a property in the horizon which no man has but he whose eye can
integrate all the parts, that is, the poet. This is the best part of these men's farms, yet to this their warranty-deeds
give no title.
To speak truly, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very
superficial seeing. The sun illuminates only the eye of the man, but shines into the eye and the heart of the child.
The lover of nature is he whose inward and outward senses are still truly adjusted to each other; who has
retained the spirit of infancy even into the era of manhood. His intercourse with heaven and earth becomes part
of his daily food. In the presence of nature, a wild delight runs through the man, in spite of real sorrows. Nature
says, -- he is my creature, and maugre all his impertinent griefs, he shall be glad with me. Not the sun or the
summer alone, but every hour and season yields its tribute of delight; for every hour and change corresponds to
and authorizes a different state of the mind, from breathless noon to grimmest midnight. Nature is a setting that
fits equally well a comic or a mourning piece. In good health, the air is a cordial of incredible virtue. Crossing a
bare common, in snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence
of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. I am glad to the brink of fear. In the woods too, a
man casts off his years, as the snake his slough, and at what period soever of life, is always a child. In the
woods, is perpetual youth. Within these plantations of God, a decorum and sanctity reign, a perennial festival is
dressed, and the guest sees not how he should tire of them in a thousand years. In the woods, we return to
reason and faith. There I feel that nothing can befall me in life, -- no disgrace, no calamity, (leaving me my
eyes,) which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground, -- my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted
into infinite space, -- all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the
currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of God. The name of the nearest
friend sounds then foreign and accidental: to be brothers, to be acquaintances, -- master or servant, is then a
trifle and a disturbance. I am the lover of uncontained and immortal beauty. In the wilderness, I find something
more dear and connate than in streets or villages. In the tranquil landscape, and especially in the distant line of
the horizon, man beholds somewhat as beautiful as his own nature.
The greatest delight which the fields and woods minister, is the suggestion of an occult relation between man
and the vegetable. I am not alone and unacknowledged. They nod to me, and I to them. The waving of the
boughs in the storm is new to me and old. It takes me by surprise, and yet is not unknown. Its effect is like that
of a higher thought or a better emotion coming over me, when I deemed I was thinking justly or doing right.
Yet it is certain that the power to produce this delight, does not reside in nature, but in man, or in a harmony of
both. It is necessary to use these pleasures with great temperance. For, nature is not always tricked in holiday
attire, but the same scene which yesterday breathed perfume and glittered as for the frolic of the nymphs, is
overspread with melancholy today. Nature always wears the colors of the spirit. To a man laboring under
calamity, the heat of his own fire hath sadness in it. Then, there is a kind of contempt of the landscape felt by
him who has just lost by death a dear friend. The sky is less grand as it shuts down over less worth in the
population.

Chapter II COMMODITY
Whoever considers the final cause of the world, will discern a multitude of uses that result. They all admit of
being thrown into one of the following classes; Commodity; Beauty; Language; and Discipline.
Under the general name of Commodity, I rank all those advantages which our senses owe to nature. This, of
course, is a benefit which is temporary and mediate, not ultimate, like its service to the soul. Yet although low,
it is perfect in its kind, and is the only use of nature which all men apprehend. The misery of man appears like
childish petulance, when we explore the steady and prodigal provision that has been made for his support and
delight on this green ball which floats him through the heavens. What angels invented these splendid ornaments,
these rich conveniences, this ocean of air above, this ocean of water beneath, this firmament of earth between?
this zodiac of lights, this tent of dropping clouds, this striped coat of climates, this fourfold year? Beasts, fire,
water, stones, and corn serve him. The field is at once his floor, his work-yard, his play-ground, his garden, and
his bed.
"More servants wait on man Than he'll take notice of." ------
Nature, in its ministry to man, is not only the material, but is also the process and the result. All the parts
incessantly work into each other's hands for the profit of man. The wind sows the seed; the sun evaporates the
sea; the wind blows the vapor to the field; the ice, on the other side of the planet, condenses rain on this; the rain
feeds the plant; the plant feeds the animal; and thus the endless circulations of the divine charity nourish man.
The useful arts are reproductions or new combinations by the wit of man, of the same natural benefactors. He
no longer waits for favoring gales, but by means of steam, he realizes the fable of Aeolus's bag, and carries the
two and thirty winds in the boiler of his boat. To diminish friction, he paves the road with iron bars, and,
mounting a coach with a ship-load of men, animals, and merchandise behind him, he darts through the country,
from town to town, like an eagle or a swallow through the air. By the aggregate of these aids, how is the face of
the world changed, from the era of Noah to that of Napoleon! The private poor man hath cities, ships, canals,
bridges, built for him. He goes to the post-office, and the human race run on his errands; to the book-shop, and
the human race read and write of all that happens, for him; to the court-house, and nations repair his wrongs. He
sets his house upon the road, and the human race go forth every morning, and shovel out the snow, and cut a
path for him.
But there is no need of specifying particulars in this class of uses. The catalogue is endless, and the examples so
obvious, that I shall leave them to the reader's reflection, with the general remark, that this mercenary benefit is
one which has respect to a farther good. A man is fed, not that he may be fed, but that he may work.

Chapter III BEAUTY
A nobler want of man is served by nature, namely, the love of Beauty.
The ancient Greeks called the world {kosmos}, beauty. Such is the constitution of all things, or such the plastic
power of the human eye, that the primary forms, as the sky, the mountain, the tree, the animal, give us a delight
in and for themselves; a pleasure arising from outline, color, motion, and grouping. This seems partly owing to
the eye itself. The eye is the best of artists. By the mutual action of its structure and of the laws of light,
perspective is produced, which integrates every mass of objects, of what character soever, into a well colored
and shaded globe, so that where the particular objects are mean and unaffecting, the landscape which they
compose, is round and symmetrical. And as the eye is the best composer, so light is the first of painters. There is
no object so foul that intense light will not make beautiful. And the stimulus it affords to the sense, and a sort of
infinitude which it hath, like space and time, make all matter gay. Even the corpse has its own beauty. But
besides this general grace diffused over nature, almost all the individual forms are agreeable to the eye, as is
proved by our endless imitations of some of them, as the acorn, the grape, the pine-cone, the wheat-ear, the egg,
the wings and forms of most birds, the lion's claw, the serpent, the butterfly, sea-shells, flames, clouds, buds,
leaves, and the forms of many trees, as the palm.
For better consideration, we may distribute the aspects of Beauty in a threefold manner.
1. First, the simple perception of natural forms is a delight. The influence of the forms and actions in nature, is
so needful to man, that, in its lowest functions, it seems to lie on the confines of commodity and beauty. To the
body and mind which have been cramped by noxious work or company, nature is medicinal and restores their
tone. The tradesman, the attorney comes out of the din and craft of the street, and sees the sky and the woods,
and is a man again. In their eternal calm, he finds himself. The health of the eye seems to demand a horizon. We
are never tired, so long as we can see far enough.
But in other hours, Nature satisfies by its loveliness, and without any mixture of corporeal benefit. I see the
spectacle of morning from the hill-top over against my house, from day-break to sun-rise, with emotions which
an angel might share. The long slender bars of cloud float like fishes in the sea of crimson light. From the earth,
as a shore, I look out into that silent sea. I seem to partake its rapid transformations: the active enchantment
reaches my dust, and I dilate and conspire with the morning wind. How does Nature deify us with a few and
cheap elements! Give me health and a day, and I will make the pomp of emperors ridiculous. The dawn is my
Assyria; the sun-set and moon-rise my Paphos, and unimaginable realms of faerie; broad noon shall be my
England of the senses and the understanding; the night shall be my Germany of mystic philosophy and dreams.
Not less excellent, except for our less susceptibility in the afternoon, was the charm, last evening, of a January
sunset. The western clouds divided and subdivided themselves into pink flakes modulated with tints of
unspeakable softness; and the air had so much life and sweetness, that it was a pain to come within doors. What
was it that nature would say? Was there no meaning in the live repose of the valley behind the mill, and which
Homer or Shakespeare could not reform for me in words? The leafless trees become spires of flame in the
sunset, with the blue east for their back-ground, and the stars of the dead calices of flowers, and every withered
stem and stubble rimed with frost, contribute something to the mute music.
The inhabitants of cities suppose that the country landscape is pleasant only half the year. I please myself with
the graces of the winter scenery, and believe that we are as much touched by it as by the genial influences of
summer. To the attentive eye, each moment of the year has its own beauty, and in the same field, it beholds,
every hour, a picture which was never seen before, and which shall never be seen again. The heavens change
every moment, and reflect their glory or gloom on the plains beneath. The state of the crop in the surrounding
farms alters the expression of the earth from week to week. The succession of native plants in the pastures and
roadsides, which makes the silent clock by which time tells the summer hours, will make even the divisions of
the day sensible to a keen observer. The tribes of birds and insects, like the plants punctual to their time, follow
each other, and the year has room for all. By water-courses, the variety is greater. In July, the blue pontederia or
pickerel-weed blooms in large beds in the shallow parts of our pleasant river, and swarms with yellow
butterflies in continual motion. Art cannot rival this pomp of purple and gold. Indeed the river is a perpetual
gala, and boasts each month a new ornament.
But this beauty of Nature which is seen and felt as beauty is the least part. The shows of day, the dewy morning,
the rainbow, mountains, orchards in blossom, stars, moonlight, shadows in still water, and the like, if too
eagerly hunted, become shows merely, and mock us with their unreality. Go out of the house to see the moon,
and’t is mere tinsel; it will not please as when its light shines upon your necessary journey. The beauty that
shimmers in the yellow afternoons of October, whoever could clutch it? Go forth to find it, and it is gone: 'tis
only a mirage as you look from the windows of diligence.
2. The presence of a higher, namely, of the spiritual element is essential to its perfection. The high and divine
beauty which can be loved without effeminacy is that which is found in combination with the human will.
Beauty is the mark God sets upon virtue. Every natural action is graceful. Every heroic act is also decent, and
causes the place and the bystanders to shine. We are taught by great actions that the universe is the property of
every individual in it. Every rational creature has all nature for his dowry and estate. It is his, if he will. He may
divest himself of it; he may creep into a corner, and abdicate his kingdom, as most men do, but he is entitled to
the world by his constitution. In proportion to the energy of his thought and will, he takes up the world into
himself. "All those things for which men plough, build, or sail, obey virtue;" said Sallust. "The winds and
waves," said Gibbon, "are always on the side of the ablest navigators." So are the sun and moon and all the stars
of heaven. When a noble act is done, -- perchance in a scene of great natural beauty; when Leonidas and his
three hundred martyrs consume one day in dying, and the sun and moon come each and look at them once in the
steep defile of Thermopylae; when Arnold Winkelried, in the high Alps, under the shadow of the avalanche,
gathers in his side a sheaf of Austrian spears to break the line for his comrades; are not these heroes entitled to
add the beauty of the scene to the beauty of the deed? When the bark of Columbus nears the shore of America; -
- before it, the beach lined with savages, fleeing out of all their huts of cane; the sea behind; and the purple
mountains of the Indian Archipelago around, can we separate the man from the living picture? Does not the
New World clothe his form with her palm-groves and savannahs as fit drapery? Ever does natural beauty steal
in like air, and envelope great actions. When Sir Harry Vane was dragged up the Tower-hill, sitting on a sled, to
suffer death, as the champion of the English laws, one of the multitude cried out to him, "You never sate on so
glorious a seat." Charles II., to intimidate the citizens of London, caused the patriot Lord Russel to be drawn in
an open coach, through the principal streets of the city, on his way to the scaffold. "But," his biographer says,
"the multitude imagined they saw liberty and virtue sitting by his side." In private places, among sordid objects,
an act of truth or heroism seems at once to draw to itself the sky as its temple, the sun as its candle. Nature
stretcheth out her arms to embrace man, only let his thoughts be of equal greatness. Willingly does she follow
his steps with the rose and the violet, and bend her lines of grandeur and grace to the decoration of her darling
child. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope, and the frame will suit the picture. A virtuous man is in unison
with her works, and makes the central figure of the visible sphere. Homer, Pindar, Socrates, Phocion, associate
themselves fitly in our memory with the geography and climate of Greece. The visible heavens and earth
sympathize with Jesus. And in common life, whosoever has seen a person of powerful character and happy
genius, will have remarked how easily he took all things along with him, -- the persons, the opinions, and the
day, and nature became ancillary to a man.
3. There is still another aspect under which the beauty of the world may be viewed, namely, as it become s an
object of the intellect. Beside the relation of things to virtue, they have a relation to thought. The intellect
searches out the absolute order of things as they stand in the mind of God, and without the colors of affection.
The intellectual and the active powers seem to succeed each other, and the exclusive activity of the one,
generates the exclusive activity of the other. There is something unfriendly in each to the other, but they are like
the alternate periods of feeding and working in animals; each prepares and will be followed by the other.
Therefore does beauty, which, in relation to actions, as we have seen, comes unsought, and comes because it is
unsought, remain for the apprehension and pursuit of the intellect; and then again, in its turn, of the active
power. Nothing divine dies. All good is eternally reproductive. The beauty of nature reforms itself in the mind,
and not for barren contemplation, but for new creation.
All men are in some degree impressed by the face of the world; some men even to delight. This love of beauty
is Taste. Others have the same love in such excess, that, not content with admiring, they seek to embody it in
new forms. The creation of beauty is Art.
The production of a work of art throws a light upon the mystery of humanity. A work of art is an abstract or
epitome of the world. It is the result or expression of nature, in miniature. For, although the works of nature are
innumerable and all different, the result or the expression of them all is similar and single. Nature is a sea of
forms radically alike and even unique. A leaf, a sun-beam, a landscape, the ocean, make an analogous
impression on the mind. What is common to them all, -- that perfectness and harmony, is beauty. The standard
of beauty is the entire circuit of natural forms, -- the totality of nature; which the Italians expressed by defining
beauty "il piu nell' uno." Nothing is quite beautiful alone: nothing but is beautiful in the whole. A single object
is only so far beautiful as it suggests this universal grace. The poet, the painter, the sculptor, the musician, the
architect, seek each to concentrate this radiance of the world on one point, and each in his several work to
satisfy the love of beauty which stimulates him to produce. Thus is Art, a nature passed through the alembic of
man. Thus in art, does nature work through the will of a man filled with the beauty of her first works.
The world thus exists to the soul to satisfy the desire of beauty. This element I call an ultimate end. No reason
can be asked or given why the soul seeks beauty. Beauty, in its largest and profoundest sense, is one expression
for the universe. God is the all-fair. Truth, and goodness, and beauty, are but different faces of the same All. But
beauty in nature is not ultimate. It is the herald of inward and eternal beauty, and is not alone a solid and
satisfactory good. It must stand as a part, and not as yet the last or highest expression of the final cause of
Nature.

Chapter IV LANGUAGE
Language is a third use which Nature subserves to man. Nature is the vehble, and threefold degree.
1. Words are signs of natural facts.
2. Particular natural facts are symbols of particular spiritual facts.
3. Nature is the symbol of spirit.
1. Words are signs of natural facts. The use of natural history is to give us aid in supernatural history: the use of
the outer creation, to give us language for the beings and changes of the inward creation. Every word which is
used to express a moral or intellectual fact, if traced to its root, is found to be borrowed from some material
appearance. Right means straight; wrong means twisted. Spirit primarily means wind; transgression, the
crossing of a line; supercilious, the raising of the eyebrow. We say the heart to express emotion, the head to
denote thought; and thought and emotion are words borrowed from sensible things, and now appropriated to
spiritual nature. Most of the process by which this transformation is made, is hidden from us in the remote time
when language was framed; but the same tendency may be daily observed in children. Children and savages use
only nouns or names of things, which they convert into verbs, and apply to analogous mental acts.
2. But this origin of all words that convey a spiritual import, -- so conspicuous a fact in the history of language,
-- is our least debt to nature. It is not words only that are emblematic; it is things which are emblematic. Every
natural fact is a symbol of some spiritual fact. Every appearance in nature corresponds to some state of the
mind, and that state of the mind can only be described by presenting that natural appearance as its picture. An
enraged man is a lion, a cunning man is a fox, a firm man is a rock, a learned man is a torch. A lamb is
innocence; a snake is subtle spite; flowers express to us the delicate affections. Light and darkness are our
familiar expression for knowledge and ignorance; and heat for love. Visible distance behind and before us, is
respectively our image of memory and hope.
Who looks upon a river in a meditative hour, and is not reminded of the flux of all things? Throw a stone into
the stream, and the circles that propagate themselves are the beautiful type of all influence. Man is conscious of
a universal soul within or behind his individual life, wherein, as in a firmament, the natures of Justice, Truth,
Love, Freedom, arise and shine. This universal soul, he calls Reason: it is not mine, or thine, or his, but we are
its; we are its property and men. And the blue sky in which the private earth is buried, the sky with its eternal
calm, and full of everlasting orbs, is the type of Reason. That which, intellectually considered, we call Reason,
considered in relation to nature, we call Spirit. Spirit is the Creator. Spirit hath life in itself. And man in all ages
and countries, embodies it in his language, as the FATHER.
It is easily seen that there is nothing lucky or capricious in these analogies, but that they are constant, and
pervade nature. These are not the dreams of a few poets, here and there, but man is an analogist, and studies
relations in all objects. He is placed in the centre of beings, and a ray of relation passes from every other being
to him. And neither can man be understood without these objects, nor these objects without man. All the facts in
natural history taken by themselves, have no value, but are barren, like a single sex. But marry it to human
history, and it is full of life. Whole Floras, all Linnaeus' and Buffon's volumes, are dry catalogues of facts; but
the most trivial of these facts, the habit of a plant, the organs, or work, or noise of an insect, applied to the
illustration of a fact in intellectual philosophy, or, in any way associated to human nature, affects us in the most
lively and agreeable manner. The seed of a plant, -- to what affecting analogies in the nature of man, is that little
fruit made use of, in all discourse, up to the voice of Paul, who calls the human corpse a seed, -- "It is sown a
natural body; it is raised a spiritual body." The motion of the earth round its axis, and round the sun, makes the
day, and the year. These are certain amounts of brute light and heat. But is there no intent of an analogy
between man's life and the seasons? And do the seasons gain no grandeur or pathos from that analogy? The
instincts of the ant are very unimportant, considered as the ant's; but the moment a ray of relation is seen to
extend from it to man, and the little drudge is seen to be a monitor, a little body with a mighty heart, then all its
habits, even that said to be recently observed, that it never sleeps, become sublime. Because of this radical
correspondence between visible things and human thoughts, savages, who have only what is necessary,
converse in figures. As we go back in history, language becomes more picturesque, until its infancy, when it is
all poetry; or all spiritual facts are represented by natural symbols. The same symbols are found to make the
original elements of all languages. It has moreover been observed, that the idioms of all languages approach
each other in passages of the greatest eloquence and power. And as this is the first language, so is it the last.
This immediate dependence of language upon nature, this conversion of an outward phenomenon into a type of
somewhat in human life, never loses its power to affect us. It is this which gives that piquancy to the
conversation of a strong-natured farmer or back-woodsman, which all men relish. A man's power to connect his
thought with its proper symbol, and so to utter it, depends on the simplicity of his character, that is, upon his
love of truth, and his desire to communicate it without loss. The corruption of man is followed by the corruption
of language. When simplicity of character and the sovereignty of ideas is broken up by the prevalence of
secondary desires, the desire of riches, of pleasure, of power, and of praise, -- and duplicity and falsehood take
place of simplicity and truth, the power over nature as an interpreter of the will, is in a degree lost; new imagery
ceases to be created, and old words are perverted to stand for things which are not; a paper currency is
employed, when there is no bullion in the vaults. In due time, the fraud is manifest, and words lose all power to
stimulate the understanding or the affections. Hundreds of writers may be found in every long-civilized nation,
who for a short time believe, and make others believe, that they see and utter truths, who do not of themselves
clothe one thought in its natural garment, but who feed unconsciously on the language created by the primary
writers of the country, those, namely, who hold primarily on nature. But wise men pierce this rotten diction and
fasten words again to visible things; so that picturesque language is at once a commanding certificate that he
who employs it, is a man in alliance with truth and God. The moment our discourse rises above the ground line
of familiar facts, and is inflamed with passion or exalted by thought, it clothes itself in images. A man
conversing in earnest, if he watch his intellectual processes, will find that a material image, more or less
luminous, arises in his mind, cotemporaneous with every thought, which furnishes the vestment of the thought.
Hence, good writing and brilliant discourse are perpetual allegories. This imagery is spontaneous. It is the
blending of experience with the present action of the mind. It is proper creation. It is the working of the Original
Cause through the instruments he has already made. These facts may suggest the advantage which the country-
life possesses for a powerful mind, over the artificial and curtailed life of cities. We know more from nature
than we can at will communicate. Its light flows into the mind evermore, and we forget its presence. The poet,
the orator, bred in the woods, whose senses have been nourished by their fair and appeasing changes, year after
year, without design and without heed, -- shall not lose their lesson altogether, in the roar of cities or the broil of
politics. Long hereafter, amidst agitation and terror in national councils, -- in the hour of revolution, -- these
solemn images shall reappear in their morning lustre, as fit symbols and words of the thoughts which the
passing events shall awaken. At the call of a noble sentiment, again the woods wave, the pines murmur, the
river rolls and shines, and the cattle low upon the mountains, as he saw and heard them in his infancy. And with
these forms, the spells of persuasion, the keys of power are put into his hands.
3. We are thus assisted by natural objects in the expression of particular meanings. But how great a language to
convey such pepper-corn informations! Did it need such noble races of creatures, this profusion of forms, this
host of orbs in heaven, to furnish man with the dictionary and grammar of his municipal speech? Whilst we use
this grand cipher to expedite the affairs of our pot and kettle, we feel that we have not yet put it to its use,
neither are able. We are like travellers using the cinders of a volcano to roast their eggs. Whilst we see that it
always stands ready to clothe what we would say, we cannot avoid the question, whether the characters are not
significant of themselves. Have mountains, and waves, and skies, no significance but what we consciously give
them, when we employ them as emblems of our thoughts? The world is emblematic. Parts of speech are
metaphors, because the whole of nature is a metaphor of the human mind. The laws of moral nature answer to
those of matter as face to face in a glass. "The visible world and the relation of its parts, is the dial plate of the
invisible." The axioms of physics translate the laws of ethics. Thus, "the whole is greater than its part;"
"reaction is equal to action;" "the smallest weight may be made to lift the greatest, the difference of weight
being compensated by time;" and many the like propositions, which have an ethical as well as physical sense.
These propositions have a much more extensive and universal sense when applied to human life, than when
confined to technical use.
In like manner, the memorable words of history, and the proverbs of nations, consist usually of a natural fact,
selected as a picture or parable of a moral truth. Thus; A rolling stone gathers no moss; A bird in the hand is
worth two in the bush; A cripple in the right way, will beat a racer in the wrong; Make hay while the sun shines;
'T is hard to carry a full cup even; Vinegar is the son of wine; The last ounce broke the camel's back; Long-lived
trees make roots first; -- and the like. In their primary sense these are trivial facts, but we repeat them for the
value of their analogical import. What is true of proverbs, is true of all fables, parables, and allegories.
This relation between the mind and matter is not fancied by some poet, but stands in the will of God, and so is
free to be known by all men. It appears to men, or it does not appear. When in fortunate hours we ponder this
miracle, the wise man doubts, if, at all other times, he is not blind and deaf;
------ "Can these things be,
And overcome us like a summer's cloud,
Without our special wonder?"
for the universe becomes transparent, and the light of higher laws than its own, shines through it. It is the
standing problem which has exercised the wonder and the study of every fine genius since the world began;
from the era of the Egyptians and the Brahmins, to that of Pythagoras, of Plato, of Bacon, of Leibnitz, of
Swedenborg. There sits the Sphinx at the road-side, and from age to age, as each prophet comes by, he tries his
fortune at reading her riddle. There seems to be a necessity in spirit to manifest itself in material forms; and day
and night, river and storm, beast and bird, acid and alkali, preexist in necessary Ideas in the mind of God, and
are what they are by virtue of preceding affections, in the world of spirit. A Fact is the end or last issue of spirit.
The visible creation is the terminus or the circumference of the invisible world. "Material objects," said a
French philosopher, "are necessarily kinds of scoriae of the substantial thoughts of the Creator, which must
always preserve an exact relation to their first origin; in other words, visible nature must have a spiritual and
moral side."
This doctrine is abstruse, and though the images of "garment," "scoriae," "mirror," &c., may stimulate the
fancy, we must summon the aid of subtler and more vital expositors to make it plain. "Every scripture is to be
interpreted by the same spirit which gave it forth," -- is the fundamental law of criticism. A life in harmony with
nature, the love of truth and of virtue, will purge the eyes to understand her text. By degrees we may come to
know the primitive sense of the permanent objects of nature, so that the world shall be to us an open book, and
every form significant of its hidden life and final cause.
A new interest surprises us, whilst, under the view now suggested, we contemplate the fearful extent and
multitude of objects; since "every object rightly seen, unlocks a new faculty of the soul." That which was
unconscious truth, becomes, when interpreted and defined in an object, a part of the domain of knowledge, -- a
new weapon in the magazine of power.

Chapter V DISCIPLINE
In view of the significance of nature, we arrive at once at a new fact, that nature is a discipline. This
use of the world includes the preceding uses, as parts of itself.
Space, time, society, labor, climate, food, locomotion, the animals, the mechanical forces, give us
sincerest lessons, day by day, whose meaning is unlimited. They educate both the Understanding
and the Reason. Every property of matter is a school for the understanding, -- its solidity or
resistance, its inertia, its extension, its figure, its divisibility. The understanding adds, divides,
combines, measures, and finds nutriment and room for its activity in this worthy scene. Meantime,
Reason transfers all these lessons into its own world of thought, by perceiving the analogy that
marries Matter and Mind.
1. Nature is a discipline of the understanding in intellectual truths. Our dealing with sensible
objects is a constant exercise in the necessary lessons of difference, of likeness, of order, of being
and seeming, of progressive arrangement; of ascent from particular to general; of combination to
one end of manifold forces. Proportioned to the importance of the organ to be formed, is the
extreme care with which its tuition is provided, -- a care pretermitted in no single case. What
tedious training, day after day, year after year, never ending, to form the common sense; what
continual reproduction of annoyances, inconveniences, dilemmas; what rejoicing over us of little
men; what disputing of prices, what reckonings of interest, -- and all to form the Hand of the mind;
-- to instruct us that "good thoughts are no better than good dreams, unless they be executed!"
The same good office is performed by Property and its filial systems of debt and credit. Debt,
grinding debt, whose iron face the widow, the orphan, and the sons of genius fear and hate; -- debt,
which consumes so much time, which so cripples and disheartens a great spirit with cares that seem
so base, is a preceptor whose lessons cannot be forgone, and is needed most by those who suffer
from it most. Moreover, property, which has been well compared to snow, -- "if it fall level to-day,
it will be blown into drifts to-morrow," -- is the surface action of internal machinery, like the index
on the face of a clock. Whilst now it is the gymnastics of the understanding, it is hiving in the
foresight of the spirit, experience in profounder laws.
The whole character and fortune of the individual are affected by the least inequalities in the culture
of the understanding; for example, in the perception of differences. Therefore is Space, and
therefore Time, that man may know that things are not huddled and lumped, but sundered and
individual. A bell and a plough have each their use, and neither can do the office of the other.
Water is good to drink, coal to burn, wool to wear; but wool cannot be drunk, nor water spun, nor
coal eaten. The wise man shows his wisdom in separation, in gradation, and his scale of creatures
and of merits is as wide as nature. The foolish have no range in their scale, but suppose every man
is as every other man. What is not good they call the worst, and what is not hateful, they call the
best.
In like manner, what good heed, nature forms in us! She pardons no mistakes. Her yea is yea, and
her nay, nay.
The first steps in Agriculture, Astronomy, Zoology, (those first steps which the farmer, the hunter,
and the sailor take,) teach that nature's dice are always loaded; that in her heaps and rubbish are
concealed sure and useful results.
How calmly and genially the mind apprehends one after another the laws of physics! What noble
emotions dilate the mortal as he enters into the counsels of the creation, and feels by knowledge the
privilege to BE! His insight refines him. The beauty of nature shines in his own breast. Man is
greater that he can see this, and the universe less, because Time and Space relations vanish as laws
are known.
Here again we are impressed and even daunted by the immense Universe to be explored. "What we
know, is a point to what we do not know." Open any recent journal of science, and weigh the
problems suggested concerning Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism, Physiology, Geology, and
judge whether the interest of natural science is likely to be soon exhausted.
Passing by many particulars of the discipline of nature, we must not omit to specify two.
The exercise of the Will or the lesson of power is taught in every event. From the child's successive
possession of his several senses up to the hour when he saith, "Thy will be done!" he is learning the
secret, that he can reduce under his will, not only particular events, but great classes, nay the whole
series of events, and so conform all facts to his character. Nature is thoroughly mediate. It is made
to serve. It receives the dominion of man as meekly as the ass on which the Saviour rode. It offers
all its kingdoms to man as the raw material which he may mould into what is useful. Man is never
weary of working it up. He forges the subtle and delicate air into wise and melodious words, and
gives them wing as angels of persuasion and command. One after another, his victorious thought
comes up with and reduces all things, until the world becomes, at last, only a realized will, -- the
double of the man.
2. Sensible objects conform to the premonitions of Reason and reflect the conscience. All things are
moral; and in their boundless changes have an unceasing reference to spiritual nature. Therefore is
nature glorious with form, color, and motion, that every globe in the remotest heaven; every
chemical change from the rudest crystal up to the laws of life; every change of vegetation from the
first principle of growth in the eye of a leaf, to the tropical forest and antediluvian coal-mine; every
animal function from the sponge up to Hercules, shall hint or thunder to man the laws of right and
wrong, and echo the Ten Commandments. Therefore is nature ever the ally of Religion: lends all
her pomp and riches to the religious sentiment. Prophet and priest, David, Isaiah, Jesus, have drawn
deeply from this source. This ethical character so penetrates the bone and marrow of nature, as to
seem the end for which it was made. Whatever private purpose is answered by any member or part,
this is its public and universal function, and is never omitted. Nothing in nature is exhausted in its
first use. When a thing has served an end to the uttermost, it is wholly new for an ulterior service.
In God, every end is converted into a new means. Thus the use of commodity, regarded by itself, is
mean and squalid. But it is to the mind an education in the doctrine of Use, namely, that a thing is
good only so far as it serves; that a conspiring of parts and efforts to the production of an end, is
essential to any being. The first and gross manifestation of this truth, is our inevitable and hated
training in values and wants, in corn and meat.
It has already been illustrated, that every natural process is a version of a moral sentence. The
moral law lies at the centre of nature and radiates to the circumference. It is the pith and marrow of
every substance, every relation, and every process. All things with which we deal, preach to us.
What is a farm but a mute gospel? The chaff and the wheat, weeds and plants, blight, rain, insects,
sun, -- it is a sacred emblem from the first furrow of spring to the last stack which the snow of
winter overtakes in the fields. But the sailor, the shepherd, the miner, the merchant, in their several
resorts, have each an experience precisely parallel, and leading to the same conclusion: because all
organizations are radically alike. Nor can it be doubted that this moral sentiment which thus scents
the air, grows in the grain, and impregnates the waters of the world, is caught by man and sinks into
his soul. The moral influence of nature upon every individual is that amount of truth which it
illustrates to him. Who can estimate this? Who can guess how much firmness the sea-beaten rock
has taught the fisherman? how much tranquillity has been reflected to man from the azure sky, over
whose unspotted deeps the winds forevermore drive flocks of stormy clouds, and leave no wrinkle
or stain? how much industry and providence and affection we have caught from the pantomime of
brutes? What a searching preacher of self-command is the varying phenomenon of Health!
Herein is especially apprehended the unity of Nature, -- the unity in variety, -- which meets us
everywhere. All the endless variety of things make an identical impression. Xenophanes
complained in his old age, that, look where he would, all things hastened back to Unity. He was
weary of seeing the same entity in the tedious variety of forms. The fable of Proteus has a cordial
truth. A leaf, a drop, a crystal, a moment of time is related to the whole, and partakes of the
perfection of the whole. Each particle is a microcosm, and faithfully renders the likeness of the
world.
Not only resemblances exist in things whose analogy is obvious, as when we detect the type of the
human hand in the flipper of the fossil saurus, but also in objects wherein there is great superficial
unlikeness. Thus architecture is called "frozen music," by De Stael and Goethe. Vitruvius thought
an architect should be a musician. "A Gothic church," said Coleridge, "is a petrified religion."
Michael Angelo maintained, that, to an architect, a knowledge of anatomy is essential. In Haydn's
oratorios, the notes present to the imagination not only motions, as, of the snake, the stag, and the
elephant, but colors also; as the green grass. The law of harmonic sounds reappears in the harmonic
colors. The granite is differenced in its laws only by the more or less of heat, from the river that
wears it away. The river, as it flows, resembles the air that flows over it; the air resembles the light
which traverses it with more subtile currents; the light resembles the heat which rides with it
through Space. Each creature is only a modification of the other; the likeness in them is more than
the difference, and their radical law is one and the same. A rule of one art, or a law of one
organization, holds true throughout nature. So intimate is this Unity, that, it is easily seen, it lies
under the undermost garment of nature, and betrays its source in Universal Spirit. For, it pervades
Thought also. Every universal truth which we express in words, implies or supposes every other
truth. Omne verum vero consonat. It is like a great circle on a sphere, comprising all possible
circles; which, however, may be drawn, and comprise it, in like manner. Every such truth is the
absolute Ens seen from one side. But it has innumerable sides.
The central Unity is still more conspicuous in actions. Words are finite organs of the infinite mind.
They cannot cover the dimensions of what is in truth. They break, chop, and impoverish it. An
action is the perfection and publication of thought. A right action seems to fill the eye, and to be
related to all nature. "The wise man, in doing one thing, does all; or, in the one thing he does
rightly, he sees the likeness of all which is done rightly."
Words and actions are not the attributes of brute nature. They introduce us to the human form, of
which all other organizations appear to be degradations. When this appears among so many that
surround it, the spirit prefers it to all others. It says, `From such as this, have I drawn joy and
knowledge; in such as this, have I found and beheld myself; I will speak to it; it can speak again; it
can yield me thought already formed and alive.' In fact, the eye, -- the mind, -- is always
accompanied by these forms, male and female; and these are incomparably the richest informations
of the power and order that lie at the heart of things. Unfortunately, every one of them bears the
marks as of some injury; is marred and superficially defective. Nevertheless, far different from the
deaf and dumb nature around them, these all rest like fountain-pipes on the unfathomed sea of
thought and virtue whereto they alone, of all organizations, are the entrances.
It were a pleasant inquiry to follow into detail their ministry to our education, but where would it
stop? We are associated in adolescent and adult life with some friends, who, like skies and waters,
are coextensive with our idea; who, answering each to a certain affection of the soul, satisfy our
desire on that side; whom we lack power to put at such focal distance from us, that we can mend or
even analyze them. We cannot choose but love them. When much intercourse with a friend has
supplied us with a standard of excellence, and has increased our respect for the resources of God
who thus sends a real person to outgo our ideal; when he has, moreover, become an object of
thought, and, whilst his character retains all its unconscious effect, is converted in the mind into
solid and sweet wisdom, -- it is a sign to us that his office is closing, and he is commonly
withdrawn from our sight in a short time.

Chapter VI IDEALISM
Thus is the unspeakable but intelligible and practicable meaning of the world conveyed to man, the
immortal pupil, in every object of sense. To this one end of Discipline, all parts of nature conspire.
A noble doubt perpetually suggests itself, whether this end be not the Final Cause of the Universe;
and whether nature outwardly exists. It is a sufficient account of that Appearance we call the
World, that God will teach a human mind, and so makes it the receiver of a certain number of
congruent sensations, which we call sun and moon, man and woman, house and trade. In my utter
impotence to test the authenticity of the report of my senses, to know whether the impressions they
make on me correspond with outlying objects, what difference does it make, whether Orion is up
there in heaven, or some god paints the image in the firmament of the soul? The relations of parts
and the end of the whole remaining the same, what is the difference, whether land and sea interact,
and worlds revolve and intermingle without number or end, -- deep yawning under deep, and
galaxy balancing galaxy, throughout absolute space, -- or, whether, without relations of time and
space, the same appearances are inscribed in the constant faith of man? Whether nature enjoy a
substantial existence without, or is only in the apocalypse of the mind, it is alike useful and alike
venerable to me. Be it what it may, it is ideal to me, so long as I cannot try the accuracy of my
senses.
The frivolous make themselves merry with the Ideal theory, as if its consequences were burlesque;
as if it affected the stability of nature. It surely does not. God never jests with us, and will not
compromise the end of nature, by permitting any inconsequence in its procession. Any distrust of
the permanence of laws, would paralyze the faculties of man. Their permanence is sacredly
respected, and his faith therein is perfect. The wheels and springs of man are all set to the
hypothesis of the permanence of nature. We are not built like a ship to be tossed, but like a house to
stand. It is a natural consequence of this structure, that, so long as the active powers predominate
over the reflective, we resist with indignation any hint that nature is more short-lived or mutable
than spirit. The broker, the wheelwright, the carpenter, the toll-man, are much displeased at the
intimation.
But whilst we acquiesce entirely in the permanence of natural laws, the question of the absolute
existence of nature still remains open. It is the uniform effect of culture on the human mind, not to
shake our faith in the stability of particular phenomena, as of heat, water, azote; but to lead us to
regard nature as a phenomenon, not a substance; to attribute necessary existence to spirit; to esteem
nature as an accident and an effect.
To the senses and the unrenewed understanding, belongs a sort of instinctive belif in the absolute
existence of nature. In their view, man and nature are indissolubly joined. Things are ultimates, and
they never look beyond their sphere. The presence of Reason mars this faith. The first effort of
thought tends to relax this despotism of the senses, which binds us to nature as if we were a part of
it, and shows us nature aloof, and, as it were, afloat. Until this higher agency intervened, the animal
eye sees, with wonderful accuracy, sharp outlines and colored surfaces. When the eye of Reason
opens, to outline and surface are at once added, grace and expression. These proceed from
imagination and affection, and abate somewhat of the angular distinctness of objects. If the Reason
be stimulated to more earnest vision, outlines and surfaces become transparent, and are no longer
seen; causes and spirits are seen through them. The best moments of life are these delicious
awakenings of the higher powers, and the reverential withdrawing of nature before its God.
Let us proceed to indicate the effects of culture. 1. Our first institution in the Ideal philosophy is a
hint from nature herself.
Nature is made to conspire with spirit to emancipate us. Certain mechanical changes, a small
alteration in our local position apprizes us of a dualism. We are strangely affected by seeing the
shore from a moving ship, from a balloon, or through the tints of an unusual sky. The least change
in our point of view, gives the whole world a pictorial air. A man who seldom rides, needs only to
get into a coach and traverse his own town, to turn the street into a puppet-show. The men, the
women, -- talking, running, bartering, fighting, -- the earnest mechanic, the lounger, the beggar, the
boys, the dogs, are unrealized at once, or, at least, wholly detached from all relation to the observer,
and seen as apparent, not substantial beings. What new thoughts are suggested by seeing a face of
country quite familiar, in the rapid movement of the rail-road car! Nay, the most wonted objects,
(make a very slight change in the point of vision,) please us most. In a camera obscura, the
butcher's cart, and the figure of one of our own family amuse us. So a portrait of a well-known face
gratifies us. Turn the eyes upside down, by looking at the landscape through your legs, and how
agreeable is the picture, though you have seen it any time these twenty years!
In these cases, by mechanical means, is suggested the difference between the observer and the
spectacle, -- between man and nature. Hence arises a pleasure mixed with awe; I may say, a low
degree of the sublime is felt from the fact, probably, that man is hereby apprized, that, whilst the
world is a spectacle, something in himself is stable.
2. In a higher manner, the poet communicates the same pleasure. By a few strokes he delineates, as
on air, the sun, the mountain, the camp, the city, the hero, the maiden, not different from what we
know them, but only lifted from the ground and afloat before the eye. He unfixes the land and the
sea, makes them revolve around the axis of his primary thought, and disposes them anew.
Possessed himself by a heroic passion, he uses matter as symbols of it. The sensual man conforms
thoughts to things; the poet conforms things to his thoughts. The one esteems nature as rooted and
fast; the other, as fluid, and impresses his being thereon. To him, the refractory world is ductile and
flexible; he invests dust and stones with humanity, and makes them the words of the Reason. The
Imagination may be defined to be, the use which the Reason makes of the material world.
Shakspeare possesses the power of subordinating nature for the purposes of expression, beyond all
poets. His imperial muse tosses the creation like a bauble from hand to hand, and uses it to embody
any caprice of thought that is upper-most in his mind. The remotest spaces of nature are visited, and
the farthest sundered things are brought together, by a subtle spiritual connection. We are made
aware that magnitude of material things is relative, and all objects shrink and expand to serve the
passion of the poet. Thus, in his sonnets, the lays of birds, the scents and dyes of flowers, he finds
to be the shadow of his beloved; time, which keeps her from him, is his chest; the suspicion she has
awakened, is her ornament;
The ornament of beauty is Suspect,
A crow which flies in heaven's sweetest air.
His passion is not the fruit of chance; it swells, as he speaks, to a city, or a state.
No, it was builded far from accident;
It suffers not in smiling pomp, nor falls
Under the brow of thralling discontent;
It fears not policy, that heretic,
That works on leases of short numbered hours,
But all alone stands hugely politic.
In the strength of his constancy, the Pyramids seem to him recent and transitory. The freshness of
youth and love dazzles him with its resemblance to morning.
Take those lips away
Which so sweetly were forsworn;
And those eyes, -- the break of day,
Lights that do mislead the morn.
The wild beauty of this hyperbole, I may say, in passing, it would not be easy to match in literature.
This transfiguration which all material objects undergo through the passion of the poet, -- this
power which he exerts to dwarf the great, to magnify the small, -- might be illustrated by a
thousand examples from his Plays. I have before me the Tempest, and will cite only these few lines.
ARIEL. The strong based promontory
Have I made shake, and by the spurs plucked up
The pine and cedar.
Prospero calls for music to soothe the frantic Alonzo, and his companions;
A solemn air, and the best comforter
To an unsettled fancy, cure thy brains
Now useless, boiled within thy skull.
Again;
The charm dissolves apace,
And, as the morning steals upon the night,
Melting the darkness, so their rising senses
Begin to chase the ignorant fumes that mantle
Their clearer reason.
Their understanding
Begins to swell: and the approaching tide
Will shortly fill the reasonable shores
That now lie foul and muddy.
The perception of real affinities between events, (that is to say, of ideal affinities, for those only are
real,) enables the poet thus to make free with the most imposing forms and phenomena of the
world, and to assert the predominance of the soul.
3. Whilst thus the poet animates nature with his own thoughts, he differs from the philosopher only
herein, that the one proposes Beauty as his main end; the other Truth. But the philosopher, not less
than the poet, postpones the apparent order and relations of things to the empire of thought. "The
problem of philosophy," according to Plato, "is, for all that exists conditionally, to find a ground
unconditioned and absolute." It proceeds on the faith that a law determines all phenomena, which
being known, the phenomena can be predicted. That law, when in the mind, is an idea. Its beauty is
infinite. The true philosopher and the true poet are one, and a beauty, which is truth, and a truth,
which is beauty, is the aim of both. Is not the charm of one of Plato's or Aristotle's definitions,
strictly like that of the Antigone of Sophocles? It is, in both cases, that a spiritual life has been
imparted to nature; that the solid seeming block of matter has been pervaded and dissolved by a
thought; that this feeble human being has penetrated the vast masses of nature with an informing
soul, and recognised itself in their harmony, that is, seized their law. In physics, when this is
attained, the memory disburthens itself of its cumbrous catalogues of particulars, and carries
centuries of observation in a single formula.
Thus even in physics, the material is degraded before the spiritual. The astronomer, the geometer,
rely on their irrefragable analysis, and disdain the results of observation. The sublime remark of
Euler on his law of arches, "This will be found contrary to all experience, yet is true;" had already
transferred nature into the mind, and left matter like an outcast corpse.
4. Intellectual science has been observed to beget invariably a doubt of the existence of matter.
Turgot said, "He that has never doubted the existence of matter, may be assured he has no aptitude
for metaphysical inquiries." It fastens the attention upon immortal necessary uncreated natures, that
is, upon Ideas; and in their presence, we feel that the outward circumstance is a dream and a shade.
Whilst we wait in this Olympus of gods, we think of nature as an appendix to the soul. We ascend
into their region, and know that these are the thoughts of the Supreme Being. "These are they who
were set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was. When he prepared the
heavens, they were there; when he established the clouds above, when he strengthened the
fountains of the deep. Then they were by him, as one brought up with him. Of them took he
counsel."
Their influence is proportionate. As objects of science, they are accessible to few men. Yet all men
are capable of being raised by piety or by passion, into their region. And no man touches these
divine natures, without becoming, in some degree, himself divine. Like a new soul, they renew the
body. We become physically nimble and lightsome; we tread on air; life is no longer irksome, and
we think it will never be so. No man fears age or misfortune or death, in their serene company, for
he is transported out of the district of change. Whilst we behold unveiled the nature of Justice and
Truth, we learn the difference between the absolute and the conditional or relative. We apprehend
the absolute. As it were, for the first time, we exist. We become immortal, for we learn that time
and space are relations of matter; that, with a perception of truth, or a virtuous will, they have no
affinity.
5. Finally, religion and ethics, which may be fitly called, -- the practice of ideas, or the introduction
of ideas into life, -- have an analogous effect with all lower culture, in degrading nature and
suggesting its dependence on spirit. Ethics and religion differ herein; that the one is the system of
human duties commencing from man; the other, from God. Religion includes the personality of
God; Ethics does not. They are one to our present design. They both put nature under foot. The first
and last lesson of religion is, "The things that are seen, are temporal; the things that are unseen, are
eternal." It puts an affront upon nature. It does that for the unschooled, which philosophy does for
Berkeley and Viasa. The uniform language that may be heard in the churches of the most ignorant
sects, is,------"Contemn the unsubstantial shows of the world; they are vanities, dreams, shadows,
unrealities; seek the realities of religion." The devotee flouts nature. Some theosophists have
arrived at a certain hostility and indignation towards matter, as the Manichean and Plotinus. They
distrusted in themselves any looking back to these flesh-pots of Egypt. Plotinus was ashamed of his
body. In short, they might all say of matter, what Michael Angelo said of external beauty, "it is the
frail and weary weed, in which God dresses the soul, which he has called into time."
It appears that motion, poetry, physical and intellectual science, and religion, all tend to affect our
convictions of the reality of the external world. But I own there is something ungrateful in
expanding too curiously the particulars of the general proposition, that all culture tends to imbue us
with idealism. I have no hostility to nature, but a child's love to it. I expand and live in the warm
day like corn and melons. Let us speak her fair. I do not wish to fling stones at my beautiful
mother, nor soil my gentle nest. I only wish to indicate the true position of nature in regard to man,
wherein to establish man, all right education tends; as the ground which to attain is the object of
human life, that is, of man's connection with nature. Culture inverts the vulgar views of nature, and
brings the mind to call that apparent, which it uses to call real, and that real, which it uses to call
visionary. Children, it is true, believe in the external world. The belief that it appears only, is an
afterthought, but with culture, this faith will as surely arise on the mind as did the first.
The advantage of the ideal theory over the popular faith, is this, that it presents the world in
precisely that view which is most desirable to the mind. It is, in fact, the view which Reason, both
speculative and practical, that is, philosophy and virtue, take. For, seen in the light of thought, the
world always is phenomenal; and virtue subordinates it to the mind. Idealism sees the world in
God. It beholds the whole circle of persons and things, of actions and events, of country and
religion, not as painfully accumulated, atom after atom, act after act, in an aged creeping Past, but
as one vast picture, which God paints on the instant eternity, for the contemplation of the soul.
Therefore the soul holds itself off from a too trivial and microscopic study of the universal tablet. It
respects the end too much, to immerse itself in the means. It sees something more important in
Christianity, than the scandals of ecclesiastical history, or the niceties of criticism; and, very
incurious concerning persons or miracles, and not at all disturbed by chasms of historical evidence,
it accepts from God the phenomenon, as it finds it, as the pure and awful form of religion in the
world. It is not hot and passionate at the appearance of what it calls its own good or bad fortune, at
the union or opposition of other persons. No man is its enemy. It accepts whatsoever befalls, as part
of its lesson. It is a watcher more than a doer, and it is a doer, only that it may the better watch.

Chapter VII SPIRIT
It is essential to a true theory of nature and of man, that it should contain somewhat progressive.
Uses that are exhausted or that may be, and facts that end in the statement, cannot be all that is true
of this brave lodging wherein man is harbored, and wherein all his faculties find appropriate and
endless exercise. And all the uses of nature admit of being summed in one, which yields the activity
of man an infinite scope. Through all its kingdoms, to the suburbs and outskirts of things, it is
faithful to the cause whence it had its origin. It always speaks of Spirit. It suggests the absolute. It is
a perpetual effect. It is a great shadow pointing always to the sun behind us.
The aspect of nature is devout. Like the figure of Jesus, she stands with bended head, and hands
folded upon the breast. The happiest man is he who learns from nature the lesson of worship.
Of that ineffable essence which we call Spirit, he that thinks most, will say least. We can foresee
God in the coarse, and, as it were, distant phenomena of matter; but when we try to define and
describe himself, both language and thought desert us, and we are as helpless as fools and savages.
That essence refuses to be recorded in propositions, but when man has worshipped him
intellectually, the noblest ministry of nature is to stand as the apparition of God. It is the organ
through which the universal spirit speaks to the individual, and strives to lead back the individual to
it.
When we consider Spirit, we see that the views already presented do not include the whole
circumference of man. We must add some related thoughts.
Three problems are put by nature to the mind; What is matter? Whence is it? and Whereto? The
first of these questions only, the ideal theory answers. Idealism saith: matter is a phenomenon, not a
substance. Idealism acquaints us with the total disparity between the evidence of our own being,
and the evidence of the world's being. The one is perfect; the other, incapable of any assurance; the
mind is a part of the nature of things; the world is a divine dream, from which we may presently
awake to the glories and certainties of day. Idealism is a hypothesis to account for nature by other
principles than those of carpentry and chemistry. Yet, if it only deny the existence of matter, it does
not satisfy the demands of the spirit. It leaves God out of me. It leaves me in the splendid labyrinth
of my perceptions, to wander without end. Then the heart resists it, because it balks the affections
in denying substantive being to men and women. Nature is so pervaded with human life, that there
is something of humanity in all, and in every particular. But this theory makes nature foreign to me,
and does not account for that consanguinity which we acknowledge to it.
Let it stand, then, in the present state of our knowledge, merely as a useful introductory hypothesis,
serving to apprize us of the eternal distinction between the soul and the world.
But when, following the invisible steps of thought, we come to inquire, Whence is matter? and
Whereto? many truths arise to us out of the recesses of consciousness. We learn that the highest is
present to the soul of man, that the dread universal essence, which is not wisdom, or love, or
beauty, or power, but all in one, and each entirely, is that for which all things exist, and that by
which they are; that spirit creates; that behind nature, throughout nature, spirit is present; one and
not compound, it does not act upon us from without, that is, in space and time, but spiritually, or
through ourselves: therefore, that spirit, that is, the Supreme Being, does not build up nature around
us, but puts it forth through us, as the life of the tree puts forth new branches and leaves through the
pores of the old. As a plant upon the earth, so a man rests upon the bosom of God; he is nourished
by unfailing fountains, and draws, at his need, inexhaustible power. Who can set bounds to the
possibilities of man? Once inhale the upper air, being admitted to behold the absolute natures of
justice and truth, and we learn that man has access to the entire mind of the Creator, is himself the
creator in the finite. This view, which admonishes me where the sources of wisdom and power lie,
and points to virtue as to
"The golden key
Which opens the palace of eternity,"
carries upon its face the highest certificate of truth, because it animates me to create my own world
through the purification of my soul.
The world proceeds from the same spirit as the body of man. It is a remoter and inferior incarnation
of God, a projection of God in the unconscious. But it differs from the body in one important
respect. It is not, like that, now subjected to the human will. Its serene order is inviolable by us. It
is, therefore, to us, the present expositor of the divine mind. It is a fixed point whereby we may
measure our departure. As we degenerate, the contrast between us and our house is more evident.
We are as much strangers in nature, as we are aliens from God. We do not understand the notes of
birds. The fox and the deer run away from us; the bear and tiger rend us. We do not know the uses
of more than a few plants, as corn and the apple, the potato and the vine. Is not the landscape, every
glimpse of which hath a grandeur, a face of him? Yet this may show us what discord is between
man and nature, for you cannot freely admire a noble landscape, if laborers are digging in the field
hard by. The poet finds something ridiculous in his delight, until he is out of the sight of men.

Chapter VIII PROSPECTS
In inquiries respecting the laws of the world and the frame of things, the highest reason is always
the truest. That which seems faintly possible -- it is so refined, is often faint and dim because it is
deepest seated in the mind among the eternal verities. Empirical science is apt to cloud the sight,
and, by the very knowledge of functions and processes, to bereave the student of the manly
contemplation of the whole. The savant becomes unpoetic. But the best read naturalist who lends
an entire and devout attention to truth, will see that there remains much to learn of his relation to
the world, and that it is not to be learned by any addition or subtraction or other comparison of
known quantities, but is arrived at by untaught sallies of the spirit, by a continual self-recovery, and
by entire humility. He will perceive that there are far more excellent qualities in the student than
preciseness and infallibility; that a guess is often more fruitful than an indisputable affirmation, and
that a dream may let us deeper into the secret of nature than a hundred concerted experiments.
For, the problems to be solved are precisely those which the physiologist and the naturalist omit to
state. It is not so pertinent to man to know all the individuals of the animal kingdom, as it is to
know whence and whereto is this tyrannizing unity in his constitution, which evermore separates
and classifies things, endeavoring to reduce the most diverse to one form. When I behold a rich
landscape, it is less to my purpose to recite correctly the order and superposition of the strata, than
to know why all thought of multitude is lost in a tranquil sense of unity. I cannot greatly honor
minuteness in details, so long as there is no hint to explain the relation between things and
thoughts; no ray upon the metaphysics of conchology, of botany, of the arts, to show the relation of
the forms of flowers, shells, animals, architecture, to the mind, and build science upon ideas. In a
cabinet of natural history, we become sensible of a certain occult recognition and sympathy in
regard to the most unwieldly and eccentric forms of beast, fish, and insect. The American who has
been confined, in his own country, to the sight of buildings designed after foreign models, is
surprised on entering York Minster or St. Peter's at Rome, by the feeling that these structures are
imitations also, -- faint copies of an invisible archetype. Nor has science sufficient humanity, so
long as the naturalist overlooks that wonderful congruity which subsists between man and the
world; of which he is lord, not because he is the most subtile inhabitant, but because he is its head
and heart, and finds something of himself in every great and small thing, in every mountain
stratum, in every new law of color, fact of astronomy, or atmospheric influence which observation
or analysis lay open. A perception of this mystery inspires the muse of George Herbert, the
beautiful psalmist of the seventeenth century. The following lines are part of his little poem on
Man.
"Man is all symmetry, Full of proportions, one limb to another, And to all the world besides. Each
part may call the farthest, brother; For head with foot hath private amity, And both with moons and
tides. "Nothing hath got so far But man hath caught and kept it as his prey; His eyes dismount the
highest star; He is in little all the sphere. Herbs gladly cure our flesh, because that they Find their
acquaintance there. "For us, the winds do blow, The earth doth rest, heaven move, and fountains
flow; Nothing we see, but means our good, As our delight, or as our treasure; The whole is either
our cupboard of food, Or cabinet of pleasure. "The stars have us to bed: Night draws the curtain;
which the sun withdraws. Music and light attend our head. All things unto our flesh are kind, In
their descent and being; to our mind, In their ascent and cause. "More servants wait on man Than
he'll take notice of. In every path, He treads down that which doth befriend him When sickness
makes him pale and wan. Oh mighty love! Man is one world, and hath Another to attend him."
The perception of this class of truths makes the attraction which draws men to science, but the end
is lost sight of in attention to the means. In view of this half-sight of science, we accept the
sentence of Plato, that, "poetry comes nearer to vital truth than history." Every surmise and
vaticination of the mind is entitled to a certain respect, and we learn to prefer imperfect theories,
and sentences, which contain glimpses of truth, to digested systems which have no one valuable
suggestion. A wise writer will feel that the ends of study and composition are best answered by
announcing undiscovered regions of thought, and so communicating, through hope, new activity to
the torpid spirit.
I shall therefore conclude this essay with some traditions of man and nature, which a certain poet
sang to me; and which, as they have always been in the world, and perhaps reappear to every bard,
may be both history and prophecy.
`The foundations of man are not in matter, but in spirit. But the element of spirit is eternity. To it,
therefore, the longest series of events, the oldest chronologies are young and recent. In the cycle of
the universal man, from whom the known individuals proceed, centuries are points, and all history
is but the epoch of one degradation.
`We distrust and deny inwardly our sympathy with nature. We own and disown our relation to it,
by turns. We are, like Nebuchadnezzar, dethroned, bereft of reason, and eating grass like an ox. But
who can set limits to the remedial force of spirit?
`A man is a god in ruins. When men are innocent, life shall be longer, and shall pass into the
immortal, as gently as we awake from dreams. Now, the world would be insane and rabid, if these
disorganizations should last for hundreds of years. It is kept in check by death and infancy. Infancy
is the perpetual Messiah, which comes into the arms of fallen men, and pleads with them to return
to paradise.
`Man is the dwarf of himself. Once he was permeated and dissolved by spirit. He filled nature with
his overflowing currents. Out from him sprang the sun and moon; from man, the sun; from woman,
the moon. The laws of his mind, the periods of his actions externized themselves into day and
night, into the year and the seasons. But, having made for himself this huge shell, his waters retired;
he no longer fills the veins and veinlets; he is shrunk to a drop. He sees, that the structure still fits
him, but fits him colossally. Say, rather, once it fitted him, now it corresponds to him from far and
on high. He adores timidly his own work. Now is man the follower of the sun, and woman the
follower of the moon. Yet sometimes he starts in his slumber, and wonders at himself and his
house, and muses strangely at the resemblance betwixt him and it. He perceives that if his law is
still paramount, if still he have elemental power, if his word is sterling yet in nature, it is not
conscious power, it is not inferior but superior to his will. It is Instinct.' Thus my Orphic poet sang.
At present, man applies to nature but half his force. He works on the world with his understanding
alone. He lives in it, and masters it by a penny-wisdom; and he that works most in it, is but a half-
man, and whilst his arms are strong and his digestion good, his mind is imbruted, and he is a selfish
savage. His relation to nature, his power over it, is through the understanding; as by manure; the
economic use of fire, wind, water, and the mariner's needle; steam, coal, chemical agriculture; the
repairs of the human body by the dentist and the surgeon. This is such a resumption of power, as if
a banished king should buy his territories inch by inch, instead of vaulting at once into his throne.
Meantime, in the thick darkness, there are not wanting gleams of a better light, -- occasional
examples of the action of man upon nature with his entire force, -- with reason as well as
understanding. Such examples are; the traditions of miracles in the earliest antiquity of all nations;
the history of Jesus Christ; the achievements of a principle, as in religious and political revolutions,
and in the abolition of the Slave-trade; the miracles of enthusiasm, as those reported of
Swedenborg, Hohenlohe, and the Shakers; many obscure and yet contested facts, now arranged
under the name of Animal Magnetism; prayer; eloquence; self-healing; and the wisdom of children.
These are examples of Reason's momentary grasp of the sceptre; the exertions of a power which
exists not in time or space, but an instantaneous in-streaming causing power. The difference
between the actual and the ideal force of man is happily figured by the schoolmen, in saying, that
the knowledge of man is an evening knowledge, vespertina cognitio, but that of God is a morning
knowledge, matutina cognitio.
The problem of restoring to the world original and eternal beauty, is solved by the redemption of
the soul. The ruin or the blank, that we see when we look at nature, is in our own eye. The axis of
vision is not coincident with the axis of things, and so they appear not transparent but opake. The
reason why the world lacks unity, and lies broken and in heaps, is, because man is disunited with
himself. He cannot be a naturalist, until he satisfies all the demands of the spirit. Love is as much
its demand, as perception. Indeed, neither can be perfect without the other. In the uttermost
meaning of the words, thought is devout, and devotion is thought. Deep calls unto deep. But in
actual life, the marriage is not celebrated. There are innocent men who worship God after the
tradition of their fathers, but their sense of duty has not yet extended to the use of all their faculties.
And there are patient naturalists, but they freeze their subject under the wintry light of the
understanding. Is not prayer also a study of truth, -- a sally of the soul into the unfound infinite? No
man ever prayed heartily, without learning something. But when a faithful thinker, resolute to
detach every object from personal relations, and see it in the light of thought, shall, at the same
time, kindle science with the fire of the holiest affections, then will God go forth anew into the
creation.
It will not need, when the mind is prepared for study, to search for objects. The invariable mark of
wisdom is to see the miraculous in the common. What is a day? What is a year? What is summer?
What is woman? What is a child? What is sleep? To our blindness, these things seem unaffecting.
We make fables to hide the baldness of the fact and conform it, as we say, to the higher law of the
mind. But when the fact is seen under the light of an idea, the gaudy fable fades and shrivels. We
behold the real higher law. To the wise, therefore, a fact is true poetry, and the most beautiful of
fables. These wonders are brought to our own door. You also are a man. Man and woman, and their
social life, poverty, labor, sleep, fear, fortune, are known to you. Learn that none of these things is
superficial, but that each phenomenon has its roots in the faculties and affections of the mind.
Whilst the abstract question occupies your intellect, nature brings it in the concrete to be solved by
your hands. It were a wise inquiry for the closet, to compare, point by point, especially at
remarkable crises in life, our daily history, with the rise and progress of ideas in the mind.
So shall we come to look at the world with new eyes. It shall answer the endless inquiry of the
intellect, -- What is truth? and of the affections, -- What is good? by yielding itself passive to the
educated Will. Then shall come to pass what my poet said; `Nature is not fixed but fluid. Spirit
alters, moulds, makes it. The immobility or bruteness of nature, is the absence of spirit; to pure
spirit, it is fluid, it is volatile, it is obedient. Every spirit builds itself a house; and beyond its house
a world; and beyond its world, a heaven. Know then, that the world exists for you. For you is the
phenomenon perfect. What we are, that only can we see. All that Adam had, all that Caesar could,
you have and can do. Adam called his house, heaven and earth; Caesar called his house, Rome; you
perhaps call yours, a cobler's trade; a hundred acres of ploughed land; or a scholar's garret. Yet line
for line and point for point, your dominion is as great as theirs, though without fine names. Build,
therefore, your own world. As fast as you conform your life to the pure idea in your mind, that will
unfold its great proportions. A correspondent revolution in things will attend the influx of the spirit.
So fast will disagreeable appearances, swine, spiders, snakes, pests, madhouses, prisons, enemies,
vanish; they are temporary and shall be no more seen. The sordor and filths of nature, the sun shall
dry up, and the wind exhale. As when the summer comes from the south; the snow-banks melt, and
the face of the earth becomes green before it, so shall the advancing spirit create its ornaments
along its path, and carry with it the beauty it visits, and the song which enchants it; it shall draw
beautiful faces, warm hearts, wise discourse, and heroic acts, around its way, until evil is no more
seen. The kingdom of man over nature, which cometh not with observation, -- a dominion such as
now is beyond his dream of God, -- he shall enter without more wonder than the blind man feels
who is gradually restored to perfect sight.'
THE END

thousand years, how would men believe and adore; and preserve for many generations the remembrance of the city of God which had been shown! But every night come out these envoys of beauty, and light the universe with their admonishing smile. The stars awaken a certain reverence, because though always present, they are inaccessible; but all natural objects make a kindred impression, when the mind is open to their influence. Nature never wears a mean appearance. Neither does the wisest man extort her secret, and lose his curiosity by finding out all her perfection. Nature never became a toy to a wise spirit. The flowers, the animals, the mountains, reflected the wisdom of his best hour, as much as they had delighted the simplicity of his childhood. When we speak of nature in this manner, we have a distinct but most poetical sense in the mind. We mean the integrity of impression made by manifold natural objects. It is this which distinguishes the stick of timber of the wood-cutter, from the tree of the poet. The charming landscape which I saw this morning is indubitably made up of some twenty or thirty farms. Miller owns this field, Locke that, and Manning the woodland beyond. But none of them owns the landscape. There is a property in the horizon which no man has but he whose eye can integrate all the parts, that is, the poet. This is the best part of these men's farms, yet to this their warranty-deeds give no title. To speak truly, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing. The sun illuminates only the eye of the man, but shines into the eye and the heart of the child. The lover of nature is he whose inward and outward senses are still truly adjusted to each other; who has retained the spirit of infancy even into the era of manhood. His intercourse with heaven and earth becomes part of his daily food. In the presence of nature, a wild delight runs through the man, in spite of real sorrows. Nature says, -- he is my creature, and maugre all his impertinent griefs, he shall be glad with me. Not the sun or the summer alone, but every hour and season yields its tribute of delight; for every hour and change corresponds to and authorizes a different state of the mind, from breathless noon to grimmest midnight. Nature is a setting that fits equally well a comic or a mourning piece. In good health, the air is a cordial of incredible virtue. Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. I am glad to the brink of fear. In the woods too, a man casts off his years, as the snake his slough, and at what period soever of life, is always a child. In the woods, is perpetual youth. Within these plantations of God, a decorum and sanctity reign, a perennial festival is dressed, and the guest sees not how he should tire of them in a thousand years. In the woods, we return to reason and faith. There I feel that nothing can befall me in life, -- no disgrace, no calamity, (leaving me my eyes,) which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground, -- my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space, -- all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of God. The name of the nearest friend sounds then foreign and accidental: to be brothers, to be acquaintances, -- master or servant, is then a trifle and a disturbance. I am the lover of uncontained and immortal beauty. In the wilderness, I find something more dear and connate than in streets or villages. In the tranquil landscape, and especially in the distant line of the horizon, man beholds somewhat as beautiful as his own nature. The greatest delight which the fields and woods minister, is the suggestion of an occult relation between man and the vegetable. I am not alone and unacknowledged. They nod to me, and I to them. The waving of the boughs in the storm is new to me and old. It takes me by surprise, and yet is not unknown. Its effect is like that of a higher thought or a better emotion coming over me, when I deemed I was thinking justly or doing right. Yet it is certain that the power to produce this delight, does not reside in nature, but in man, or in a harmony of both. It is necessary to use these pleasures with great temperance. For, nature is not always tricked in holiday attire, but the same scene which yesterday breathed perfume and glittered as for the frolic of the nymphs, is overspread with melancholy today. Nature always wears the colors of the spirit. To a man laboring under calamity, the heat of his own fire hath sadness in it. Then, there is a kind of contempt of the landscape felt by

not that he may be fed. when we explore the steady and prodigal provision that has been made for his support and delight on this green ball which floats him through the heavens. the sun evaporates the sea. Under the general name of Commodity. Chapter II COMMODITY Whoever considers the final cause of the world. the plant feeds the animal. The catalogue is endless. water. What angels invented these splendid ornaments. The sky is less grand as it shuts down over less worth in the population. and the human race go forth every morning. This. of course. Beauty. But there is no need of specifying particulars in this class of uses. ships. built for him. and. like its service to the soul. "More servants wait on man Than he'll take notice of. for him. with the general remark. his work-yard. and shovel out the snow. To diminish friction. canals. and cut a path for him. from town to town. but by means of steam. to the book-shop. will discern a multitude of uses that result. but that he may work. They all admit of being thrown into one of the following classes. he darts through the country. this firmament of earth between? this zodiac of lights. condenses rain on this. bridges.him who has just lost by death a dear friend. He no longer waits for favoring gales. and the examples so obvious. The ancient Greeks called the world {kosmos}. his play-ground. and is the only use of nature which all men apprehend. and Discipline. on the other side of the planet. this ocean of air above. his garden. By the aggregate of these aids. He goes to the post-office. The field is at once his floor. fire. the wind blows the vapor to the field. in its ministry to man. Chapter III BEAUTY A nobler want of man is served by nature. Commodity. Language. The misery of man appears like childish petulance. is not only the material. is a benefit which is temporary and mediate. and his bed. Such is the constitution of all things. it is perfect in its kind. namely. and corn serve him. these rich conveniences. he realizes the fable of Aeolus's bag. He sets his house upon the road. All the parts incessantly work into each other's hands for the profit of man. and the human race read and write of all that happens. this tent of dropping clouds. A man is fed. of the same natural benefactors. and the human race run on his errands. and merchandise behind him. The useful arts are reproductions or new combinations by the wit of man. that the primary forms. animals. I rank all those advantages which our senses owe to nature. that I shall leave them to the reader's reflection. the animal. that this mercenary benefit is one which has respect to a farther good. Yet although low. and carries the two and thirty winds in the boiler of his boat. he paves the road with iron bars. The wind sows the seed. and thus the endless circulations of the divine charity nourish man. the rain feeds the plant." -----Nature. this fourfold year? Beasts. mounting a coach with a ship-load of men. the mountain. like an eagle or a swallow through the air. the love of Beauty. the ice. this ocean of water beneath. from the era of Noah to that of Napoleon! The private poor man hath cities. stones. how is the face of the world changed. not ultimate. or such the plastic power of the human eye. this striped coat of climates. the tree. give us a delight . to the court-house. but is also the process and the result. and nations repair his wrongs. beauty. as the sky.

a pleasure arising from outline. is so needful to man. so that where the particular objects are mean and unaffecting. But in other hours. and swarms with yellow butterflies in continual motion. of what character soever. last evening. a picture which was never seen before. the landscape which they compose. And the stimulus it affords to the sense. and the air had so much life and sweetness. from day-break to sun-rise. as a shore. By the mutual action of its structure and of the laws of light. Art cannot rival this pomp of purple and gold. Not less excellent. the serpent. The influence of the forms and actions in nature. which makes the silent clock by which time tells the summer hours. The western clouds divided and subdivided themselves into pink flakes modulated with tints of unspeakable softness. In their eternal calm. The tribes of birds and insects. For better consideration. and without any mixture of corporeal benefit. make all matter gay. By water-courses. But besides this general grace diffused over nature. buds. will make even the divisions of the day sensible to a keen observer. First. it seems to lie on the confines of commodity and beauty. that it was a pain to come within doors. I look out into that silent sea. And as the eye is the best composer. We are never tired. and which Homer or Shakespeare could not reform for me in words? The leafless trees become spires of flame in the sunset. The long slender bars of cloud float like fishes in the sea of crimson light. and I dilate and conspire with the morning wind. The succession of native plants in the pastures and roadsides. and every withered stem and stubble rimed with frost. The health of the eye seems to demand a horizon. and which shall never be seen again. and in the same field. nature is medicinal and restores their tone. The inhabitants of cities suppose that the country landscape is pleasant only half the year. so long as we can see far enough. This seems partly owing to the eye itself. the attorney comes out of the din and craft of the street. with the blue east for their back-ground. which integrates every mass of objects. the grape. and boasts each month a new ornament. follow each other. so light is the first of painters.in and for themselves. To the body and mind which have been cramped by noxious work or company. broad noon shall be my England of the senses and the understanding. he finds himself. the night shall be my Germany of mystic philosophy and dreams. almost all the individual forms are agreeable to the eye. as the palm. and the year has room for all. the egg. contribute something to the mute music. each moment of the year has its own beauty. and sees the sky and the woods. To the attentive eye. the butterfly. There is no object so foul that intense light will not make beautiful. as the acorn. Nature satisfies by its loveliness. like space and time. with emotions which an angel might share. Indeed the river is a perpetual gala. flames. Even the corpse has its own beauty. leaves. and a sort of infinitude which it hath. How does Nature deify us with a few and cheap elements! Give me health and a day. perspective is produced. the sun-set and moon-rise my Paphos. The state of the crop in the surrounding farms alters the expression of the earth from week to week. What was it that nature would say? Was there no meaning in the live repose of the valley behind the mill. is round and symmetrical. the lion's claw. the blue pontederia or pickerel-weed blooms in large beds in the shallow parts of our pleasant river. the wings and forms of most birds. and unimaginable realms of faerie. The dawn is my Assyria. clouds. the pine-cone. like the plants punctual to their time. the simple perception of natural forms is a delight. of a January sunset. From the earth. as is proved by our endless imitations of some of them. the variety is greater. and is a man again. except for our less susceptibility in the afternoon. and I will make the pomp of emperors ridiculous. was the charm. and the stars of the dead calices of flowers. and grouping. the wheat-ear. that. color. In July. I please myself with the graces of the winter scenery. motion. The eye is the best of artists. I see the spectacle of morning from the hill-top over against my house. sea-shells. 1. in its lowest functions. I seem to partake its rapid transformations: the active enchantment reaches my dust. The tradesman. into a well colored and shaded globe. and reflect their glory or gloom on the plains beneath. . we may distribute the aspects of Beauty in a threefold manner. it beholds. every hour. and believe that we are as much touched by it as by the genial influences of summer. and the forms of many trees. The heavens change every moment.

"You never sate on so glorious a seat. He may divest himself of it." In private places. as the champion of the English laws. fleeing out of all their huts of cane. and envelope great actions. each prepares and will be followed by the other. The beauty of nature reforms itself in the mind. of the active power. and the purple mountains of the Indian Archipelago around. only let his thoughts be of equal greatness. There is something unfriendly in each to the other. whoever could clutch it? Go forth to find it. they have a relation to thought. 3. and it is gone: 'tis only a mirage as you look from the windows of diligence. if he will. and nature became ancillary to a man. Every rational creature has all nature for his dowry and estate. A virtuous man is in unison with her works. and without the colors of affection. And in common life. if too eagerly hunted." So are the sun and moon and all the stars of heaven. and abdicate his kingdom. moonlight." Charles II. All good is eternally reproductive. We are taught by great actions that the universe is the property of every individual in it. to suffer death. The intellectual and the active powers seem to succeed each other. the sun as its candle. and the day. on his way to the scaffold. gathers in his side a sheaf of Austrian spears to break the line for his comrades. Socrates. generates the exclusive activity of the other. can we separate the man from the living picture? Does not the New World clothe his form with her palm-groves and savannahs as fit drapery? Ever does natural beauty steal in like air. one of the multitude cried out to him.. "the multitude imagined they saw liberty and virtue sitting by his side. under the shadow of the avalanche. are not these heroes entitled to add the beauty of the scene to the beauty of the deed? When the bark of Columbus nears the shore of America. Therefore does beauty. orchards in blossom. when Leonidas and his three hundred martyrs consume one day in dying. The high and divine beauty which can be loved without effeminacy is that which is found in combination with the human will. and’t is mere tinsel. . and the exclusive activity of the one. The intellect searches out the absolute order of things as they stand in the mind of God. The shows of day. -. obey virtue. and the like. whosoever has seen a person of powerful character and happy genius. he may creep into a corner. it will not please as when its light shines upon your necessary journey. caused the patriot Lord Russel to be drawn in an open coach. build. 2." his biographer says. Pindar.But this beauty of Nature which is seen and felt as beauty is the least part. the beach lined with savages.before it. which. When a noble act is done. "The winds and waves. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. Homer. the rainbow. Beside the relation of things to virtue." said Gibbon. The beauty that shimmers in the yellow afternoons of October. The visible heavens and earth sympathize with Jesus. and comes because it is unsought. and makes the central figure of the visible sphere. as most men do. and mock us with their unreality. when Arnold Winkelried. . Beauty is the mark God sets upon virtue. an act of truth or heroism seems at once to draw to itself the sky as its temple. stars. but they are like the alternate periods of feeding and working in animals. "But. "All those things for which men plough. but he is entitled to the world by his constitution. to intimidate the citizens of London. and the sun and moon come each and look at them once in the steep defile of Thermopylae. of the spiritual element is essential to its perfection. through the principal streets of the city. among sordid objects. Phocion. Every heroic act is also decent.perchance in a scene of great natural beauty. in relation to actions. "are always on the side of the ablest navigators. There is still another aspect under which the beauty of the world may be viewed. and bend her lines of grandeur and grace to the decoration of her darling child. and the frame will suit the picture. and causes the place and the bystanders to shine." said Sallust. the sea behind. sitting on a sled. associate themselves fitly in our memory with the geography and climate of Greece. namely. comes unsought. mountains. the dewy morning. namely. he takes up the world into himself. shadows in still water. Every natural action is graceful. Willingly does she follow his steps with the rose and the violet. and then again. It is his. in the high Alps. In proportion to the energy of his thought and will. and not for barren contemplation. When Sir Harry Vane was dragged up the Tower-hill. as we have seen. as it become s an object of the intellect.the persons. Go out of the house to see the moon. The presence of a higher. the opinions. -. in its turn. will have remarked how easily he took all things along with him. Nothing divine dies. Nature stretcheth out her arms to embrace man. or sail. but for new creation. remain for the apprehension and pursuit of the intellect. become shows merely.

An enraged man is a lion. the raising of the eyebrow. transgression. wrong means twisted. the musician. Words are signs of natural facts. and now appropriated to spiritual nature. and threefold degree. flowers express to us the delicate affections. does nature work through the will of a man filled with the beauty of her first works. 1. -. 3. a landscape. A work of art is an abstract or epitome of the world. if traced to its root. Particular natural facts are symbols of particular spiritual facts. the architect. Children and savages use only nouns or names of things. Thus in art. in its largest and profoundest sense. 2. We say the heart to express emotion. a nature passed through the alembic of man. supercilious. not content with admiring.that perfectness and harmony.All men are in some degree impressed by the face of the world. although the works of nature are innumerable and all different. is hidden from us in the remote time when language was framed. is found to be borrowed from some material appearance.is our least debt to nature. The poet. and that state of the mind can only be described by presenting that natural appearance as its picture. -. is beauty. Most of the process by which this transformation is made. Beauty. Every appearance in nature corresponds to some state of the mind. in miniature. the painter. that. No reason can be asked or given why the soul seeks beauty. make an analogous impression on the mind. -. Thus is Art. and apply to analogous mental acts. It is not words only that are emblematic. and each in his several work to satisfy the love of beauty which stimulates him to produce. are but different faces of the same All. which they convert into verbs. it is things which are emblematic. For. the sculptor. is one expression for the universe. seek each to concentrate this radiance of the world on one point. The standard of beauty is the entire circuit of natural forms. The world thus exists to the soul to satisfy the desire of beauty. a learned man is a torch. The creation of beauty is Art. to give us language for the beings and changes of the inward creation. Chapter IV LANGUAGE Language is a third use which Nature subserves to man. the crossing of a line. and beauty. 2. God is the all-fair. they seek to embody it in new forms. It is the result or expression of nature." Nothing is quite beautiful alone: nothing but is beautiful in the whole. Nature is the vehble. Nature is a sea of forms radically alike and even unique. It must stand as a part. Others have the same love in such excess. Right means straight.so conspicuous a fact in the history of language. the result or the expression of them all is similar and single. But this origin of all words that convey a spiritual import. -. and not as yet the last or highest expression of the final cause of Nature. a snake is subtle spite. some men even to delight. A leaf. Every word which is used to express a moral or intellectual fact.the totality of nature. But beauty in nature is not ultimate. This love of beauty is Taste. What is common to them all. a sun-beam. A lamb is innocence. This element I call an ultimate end. and is not alone a solid and satisfactory good. Words are signs of natural facts. Spirit primarily means wind. a cunning man is a fox. Light and darkness are our . but the same tendency may be daily observed in children. A single object is only so far beautiful as it suggests this universal grace. and thought and emotion are words borrowed from sensible things. The use of natural history is to give us aid in supernatural history: the use of the outer creation. Every natural fact is a symbol of some spiritual fact. Truth. the head to denote thought. and goodness. 1. The production of a work of art throws a light upon the mystery of humanity. It is the herald of inward and eternal beauty. the ocean. Nature is the symbol of spirit. a firm man is a rock. which the Italians expressed by defining beauty "il piu nell' uno.

as the FATHER. applied to the illustration of a fact in intellectual philosophy. Freedom. As we go back in history. more or less luminous."It is sown a natural body. that it never sleeps. and a ray of relation passes from every other being to him. This universal soul. until its infancy. and of praise.and duplicity and falsehood take place of simplicity and truth. become sublime. all Linnaeus' and Buffon's volumes. like a single sex. we are its property and men. of power. and the year. but are barren. Spirit hath life in itself. And as this is the first language. and is not reminded of the flux of all things? Throw a stone into the stream. in all discourse. which all men relish. and full of everlasting orbs. arise and shine. and the circles that propagate themselves are the beautiful type of all influence. the sky with its eternal calm. if he watch his intellectual processes. Truth. Who looks upon a river in a meditative hour. namely. Love. the fraud is manifest. -. upon his love of truth. but the moment a ray of relation is seen to extend from it to man. he calls Reason: it is not mine. is in a degree lost. or all spiritual facts are represented by natural symbols. in any way associated to human nature. new imagery ceases to be created. Because of this radical correspondence between visible things and human thoughts. but the most trivial of these facts. wherein. who for a short time believe. Spirit is the Creator. or noise of an insect. but we are its. and old words are perverted to stand for things which are not. And the blue sky in which the private earth is buried. converse in figures. The corruption of man is followed by the corruption of language. that the idioms of all languages approach each other in passages of the greatest eloquence and power. -. it clothes itself in images. that is. That which. When simplicity of character and the sovereignty of ideas is broken up by the prevalence of secondary desires. savages. But wise men pierce this rotten diction and fasten words again to visible things. and heat for love. Hundreds of writers may be found in every long-civilized nation. here and there. but man is an analogist. But is there no intent of an analogy between man's life and the seasons? And do the seasons gain no grandeur or pathos from that analogy? The instincts of the ant are very unimportant. language becomes more picturesque. that they see and utter truths. And man in all ages and countries. as in a firmament. even that said to be recently observed. are dry catalogues of facts. depends on the simplicity of his character. when there is no bullion in the vaults. this conversion of an outward phenomenon into a type of somewhat in human life. In due time. The moment our discourse rises above the ground line of familiar facts.familiar expression for knowledge and ignorance. but that they are constant. or his. He is placed in the centre of beings. Man is conscious of a universal soul within or behind his individual life." The motion of the earth round its axis. of pleasure. and pervade nature. All the facts in natural history taken by themselves. so that picturesque language is at once a commanding certificate that he who employs it. These are certain amounts of brute light and heat. The same symbols are found to make the original elements of all languages. intellectually considered. when it is all poetry. This immediate dependence of language upon nature. These are not the dreams of a few poets. A man conversing in earnest. arises in his mind. but who feed unconsciously on the language created by the primary writers of the country. Whole Floras. makes the day. considered in relation to nature. is a man in alliance with truth and God. The seed of a plant. and make others believe. It is this which gives that piquancy to the conversation of a strong-natured farmer or back-woodsman. is that little fruit made use of. have no value. or. up to the voice of Paul. and is inflamed with passion or exalted by thought. who calls the human corpse a seed. the desire of riches. or work. those. and his desire to communicate it without loss. But marry it to human history. will find that a material image. . A man's power to connect his thought with its proper symbol. considered as the ant's. who hold primarily on nature. the habit of a plant. and it is full of life. and round the sun. cotemporaneous with every thought. the organs. nor these objects without man. which furnishes the vestment of the thought. a little body with a mighty heart. the power over nature as an interpreter of the will.to what affecting analogies in the nature of man. And neither can man be understood without these objects. the natures of Justice. so is it the last. then all its habits. we call Spirit. or thine. we call Reason. never loses its power to affect us. it is raised a spiritual body. Visible distance behind and before us. -. and so to utter it. and words lose all power to stimulate the understanding or the affections. is respectively our image of memory and hope. It is easily seen that there is nothing lucky or capricious in these analogies. a paper currency is employed. and the little drudge is seen to be a monitor. It has moreover been observed. and studies relations in all objects. who do not of themselves clothe one thought in its natural garment. affects us in the most lively and agreeable manner. who have only what is necessary. embodies it in his language. is the type of Reason.

It appears to men. no significance but what we consciously give them. and from age to age. the keys of power are put into his hands. but we repeat them for the value of their analogical import. when we employ them as emblems of our thoughts? The world is emblematic. bred in the woods. the difference of weight being compensated by time. the river rolls and shines. and the light of higher laws than its own. In their primary sense these are trivial facts. Have mountains. But how great a language to convey such pepper-corn informations! Did it need such noble races of creatures. It is the standing problem which has exercised the wonder and the study of every fine genius since the world began. and allegories. We are thus assisted by natural objects in the expression of particular meanings. The last ounce broke the camel's back. At the call of a noble sentiment. 'T is hard to carry a full cup even. This imagery is spontaneous. It is the working of the Original Cause through the instruments he has already made." The axioms of physics translate the laws of ethics. -----. river and storm. in the roar of cities or the broil of politics. and waves. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. the memorable words of history. and the proverbs of nations. the wise man doubts. will beat a racer in the wrong. What is true of proverbs." "the smallest weight may be made to lift the greatest. and the cattle low upon the mountains. There sits the Sphinx at the road-side. good writing and brilliant discourse are perpetual allegories. as each prophet comes by. -. It is proper creation.shall not lose their lesson altogether. And overcome us like a summer's cloud. We are like travellers using the cinders of a volcano to roast their eggs. at all other times." and many the like propositions. "The visible world and the relation of its parts. of Swedenborg. again the woods wave.and the like. neither are able. and day and night. The poet. as fit symbols and words of the thoughts which the passing events shall awaken. Make hay while the sun shines. from the era of the Egyptians and the Brahmins. this profusion of forms.these solemn images shall reappear in their morning lustre. Its light flows into the mind evermore." "reaction is equal to action. acid and alkali. the spells of persuasion. amidst agitation and terror in national councils. over the artificial and curtailed life of cities. Vinegar is the son of wine. And with these forms. preexist in necessary Ideas in the mind of God. of Leibnitz. is the dial plate of the invisible. than when confined to technical use. whether the characters are not significant of themselves. he is not blind and deaf. -. and skies.in the hour of revolution. It is the blending of experience with the present action of the mind. without design and without heed. selected as a picture or parable of a moral truth. There seems to be a necessity in spirit to manifest itself in material forms. beast and bird. of Bacon. year after year. he tries his fortune at reading her riddle. We know more from nature than we can at will communicate. consist usually of a natural fact.Hence. "the whole is greater than its part. Parts of speech are metaphors. and we forget its presence. and . 3. or it does not appear. When in fortunate hours we ponder this miracle. These propositions have a much more extensive and universal sense when applied to human life. parables. the pines murmur. because the whole of nature is a metaphor of the human mind. Thus. shines through it. of Plato. A cripple in the right way. These facts may suggest the advantage which the countrylife possesses for a powerful mind. which have an ethical as well as physical sense. This relation between the mind and matter is not fancied by some poet. to that of Pythagoras. Long hereafter."Can these things be. The laws of moral nature answer to those of matter as face to face in a glass. as he saw and heard them in his infancy. Thus. to furnish man with the dictionary and grammar of his municipal speech? Whilst we use this grand cipher to expedite the affairs of our pot and kettle. we cannot avoid the question. -. is true of all fables. In like manner. but stands in the will of God. A rolling stone gathers no moss. the orator. Without our special wonder?" for the universe becomes transparent. Whilst we see that it always stands ready to clothe what we would say. and so is free to be known by all men. this host of orbs in heaven. -. Long-lived trees make roots first. whose senses have been nourished by their fair and appeasing changes. if. we feel that we have not yet put it to its use.

locomotion. unless they be executed!" The same good office is performed by Property and its filial systems of debt and credit. society. that nature is a discipline. a part of the domain of knowledge. -. measures.a new weapon in the magazine of power. as parts of itself." "mirror. What tedious training. -. of ascent from particular to general. Nature is a discipline of the understanding in intellectual truths. grinding debt..are what they are by virtue of preceding affections. is the extreme care with which its tuition is provided." "scoriae. combines. what reckonings of interest. is a preceptor whose lessons cannot be forgone. day by day. Debt. under the view now suggested. and the sons of genius fear and hate. -. Our dealing with sensible objects is a constant exercise in the necessary lessons of difference." This doctrine is abstruse. we arrive at once at a new fact. day after day. its inertia. "are necessarily kinds of scoriae of the substantial thoughts of the Creator. property. By degrees we may come to know the primitive sense of the permanent objects of nature. what disputing of prices. climate. divides. give us sincerest lessons. whose meaning is unlimited. by perceiving the analogy that marries Matter and Mind. its divisibility.and all to form the Hand of the mind. so that the world shall be to us an open book. . whilst.is the fundamental law of criticism. food. A Fact is the end or last issue of spirit. and every form significant of its hidden life and final cause.its solidity or resistance. which must always preserve an exact relation to their first origin. unlocks a new faculty of the soul. what continual reproduction of annoyances. time. dilemmas. becomes." That which was unconscious truth. the orphan. when interpreted and defined in an object. and is needed most by those who suffer from it most. A new interest surprises us. which consumes so much time." said a French philosopher. of likeness." &c. -. They educate both the Understanding and the Reason.debt. of order. Every property of matter is a school for the understanding. Proportioned to the importance of the organ to be formed. inconveniences. A life in harmony with nature. Moreover. which so cripples and disheartens a great spirit with cares that seem so base. what rejoicing over us of little men. the animals. and though the images of "garment. whose iron face the widow. "Material objects. This use of the world includes the preceding uses. its figure. Space. -. labor.to instruct us that "good thoughts are no better than good dreams. will purge the eyes to understand her text. -.a care pretermitted in no single case. to form the common sense. the love of truth and of virtue. the mechanical forces. since "every object rightly seen. in other words. visible nature must have a spiritual and moral side. never ending. The understanding adds. we must summon the aid of subtler and more vital expositors to make it plain. we contemplate the fearful extent and multitude of objects. Meantime. its extension."if it fall level to-day. and finds nutriment and room for its activity in this worthy scene. The visible creation is the terminus or the circumference of the invisible world. of being and seeming. of combination to one end of manifold forces. which has been well compared to snow. Reason transfers all these lessons into its own world of thought. -. Chapter V DISCIPLINE In view of the significance of nature. year after year. of progressive arrangement. may stimulate the fancy. "Every scripture is to be interpreted by the same spirit which gave it forth." -. 1. in the world of spirit.

" Open any recent journal of science. wool to wear. that he can reduce under his will. The whole character and fortune of the individual are affected by the least inequalities in the culture of the understanding. nay the whole series of events. Geology.) teach that nature's dice are always loaded. "What we know. what good heed. like the index on the face of a clock.the double of the man. until the world becomes. It is made to serve. What is not good they call the worst. and so conform all facts to his character. It offers all its kingdoms to man as the raw material which he may mould into what is useful. and the sailor take. and in their boundless changes have an unceasing reference to spiritual nature. experience in profounder laws. nor coal eaten." -. and feels by knowledge the privilege to BE! His insight refines him. but suppose every man is as every other man. and judge whether the interest of natural science is likely to be soon exhausted. Therefore is Space. Electricity. nor water spun. Her yea is yea. it is hiving in the foresight of the spirit. Astronomy. we must not omit to specify two. and the universe less.is the surface action of internal machinery. in the perception of differences. that man may know that things are not huddled and lumped. 2. The foolish have no range in their scale. and what is not hateful. they call the best. The exercise of the Will or the lesson of power is taught in every event. Magnetism. He forges the subtle and delicate air into wise and melodious words. The first steps in Agriculture. but wool cannot be drunk. because Time and Space relations vanish as laws are known. One after another.it will be blown into drifts to-morrow. is a point to what we do not know. Here again we are impressed and even daunted by the immense Universe to be explored. nature forms in us! She pardons no mistakes. -. (those first steps which the farmer. and her nay. for example. The wise man shows his wisdom in separation. Heat. the hunter. Sensible objects conform to the premonitions of Reason and reflect the conscience. nay. Whilst now it is the gymnastics of the understanding. Water is good to drink. Zoology. The beauty of nature shines in his own breast. but great classes. It receives the dominion of man as meekly as the ass on which the Saviour rode. coal to burn. Physiology. Man is never weary of working it up. in gradation. and gives them wing as angels of persuasion and command. and neither can do the office of the other. only a realized will. at last. Man is greater that he can see this. In like manner. that in her heaps and rubbish are concealed sure and useful results. How calmly and genially the mind apprehends one after another the laws of physics! What noble emotions dilate the mortal as he enters into the counsels of the creation. Therefore is . his victorious thought comes up with and reduces all things. From the child's successive possession of his several senses up to the hour when he saith. Nature is thoroughly mediate. and therefore Time. and his scale of creatures and of merits is as wide as nature. and weigh the problems suggested concerning Light. A bell and a plough have each their use. All things are moral. Passing by many particulars of the discipline of nature. "Thy will be done!" he is learning the secret. but sundered and individual. not only particular events.

this is its public and universal function. but also in objects wherein there is great superficial unlikeness. All the endless variety of things make an identical impression. Therefore is nature ever the ally of Religion: lends all her pomp and riches to the religious sentiment. This ethical character so penetrates the bone and marrow of nature. insects. over whose unspotted deeps the winds forevermore drive flocks of stormy clouds." Michael Angelo maintained. preach to us.it is a sacred emblem from the first furrow of spring to the last stack which the snow of winter overtakes in the fields. In God. The moral influence of nature upon every individual is that amount of truth which it illustrates to him. is our inevitable and hated training in values and wants. and echo the Ten Commandments. The moral law lies at the centre of nature and radiates to the circumference. It has already been illustrated. and leave no wrinkle or stain? how much industry and providence and affection we have caught from the pantomime of brutes? What a searching preacher of self-command is the varying phenomenon of Health! Herein is especially apprehended the unity of Nature. as to seem the end for which it was made. shall hint or thunder to man the laws of right and wrong. every end is converted into a new means. and motion. have each an experience precisely parallel. and impregnates the waters of the world. "A Gothic church. a moment of time is related to the whole. to an architect. weeds and plants. It is the pith and marrow of every substance. A leaf. that a conspiring of parts and efforts to the production of an end. Isaiah. rain. a knowledge of anatomy is essential. that a thing is good only so far as it serves. Nor can it be doubted that this moral sentiment which thus scents the air. the merchant. Each particle is a microcosm. He was weary of seeing the same entity in the tedious variety of forms.which meets us everywhere. sun. and leading to the same conclusion: because all organizations are radically alike. as. to the tropical forest and antediluvian coal-mine. in corn and meat. What is a farm but a mute gospel? The chaff and the wheat. a crystal. and partakes of the perfection of the whole. and the . All things with which we deal.the unity in variety. that every natural process is a version of a moral sentence. Who can estimate this? Who can guess how much firmness the sea-beaten rock has taught the fisherman? how much tranquillity has been reflected to man from the azure sky. that. it is wholly new for an ulterior service. every chemical change from the rudest crystal up to the laws of life. In Haydn's oratorios. is essential to any being. is caught by man and sinks into his soul." by De Stael and Goethe. all things hastened back to Unity. Prophet and priest. color. every animal function from the sponge up to Hercules. every relation.nature glorious with form. namely. a drop. But the sailor. Xenophanes complained in his old age. every change of vegetation from the first principle of growth in the eye of a leaf. Nothing in nature is exhausted in its first use. as when we detect the type of the human hand in the flipper of the fossil saurus. that. the notes present to the imagination not only motions. of the snake. "is a petrified religion. The first and gross manifestation of this truth. the miner. -. the shepherd. Whatever private purpose is answered by any member or part. that every globe in the remotest heaven. regarded by itself. Not only resemblances exist in things whose analogy is obvious. and faithfully renders the likeness of the world. Jesus. Vitruvius thought an architect should be a musician. The fable of Proteus has a cordial truth. -. grows in the grain. and every process. is mean and squalid. When a thing has served an end to the uttermost. -. in their several resorts. and is never omitted. have drawn deeply from this source." said Coleridge. Thus the use of commodity. David. But it is to the mind an education in the doctrine of Use. look where he would. blight. the stag. Thus architecture is called "frozen music.

and their radical law is one and the same. A right action seems to fill the eye. of which all other organizations appear to be degradations. An action is the perfection and publication of thought. and these are incomparably the richest informations of the power and order that lie at the heart of things. that we can mend or even analyze them. Words are finite organs of the infinite mind. is converted in the mind into solid and sweet wisdom. holds true throughout nature. and to be related to all nature. but colors also. may be drawn. as the green grass. or. the light resembles the heat which rides with it through Space. The river. and betrays its source in Universal Spirit. Every such truth is the absolute Ens seen from one side. become an object of thought. It were a pleasant inquiry to follow into detail their ministry to our education. -. It is like a great circle on a sphere. of all organizations. -. whom we lack power to put at such focal distance from us. when he has. Nevertheless. whilst his character retains all its unconscious effect. it can speak again. answering each to a certain affection of the soul. he sees the likeness of all which is done rightly. For. Each creature is only a modification of the other. it pervades Thought also. the spirit prefers it to all others. does all.is always accompanied by these forms. A rule of one art. comprising all possible circles. resembles the air that flows over it. The central Unity is still more conspicuous in actions. which. in such as this. I will speak to it.it is a sign to us that his office is closing. are coextensive with our idea. far different from the deaf and dumb nature around them. that. They cannot cover the dimensions of what is in truth. and. who. `From such as this. the eye. who." Words and actions are not the attributes of brute nature. it lies under the undermost garment of nature. it can yield me thought already formed and alive. -. however. Unfortunately. these all rest like fountain-pipes on the unfathomed sea of thought and virtue whereto they alone. in the one thing he does rightly. When this appears among so many that surround it. It says. and comprise it. male and female. the likeness in them is more than the difference. as it flows. have I drawn joy and knowledge. like skies and waters. "The wise man. We cannot choose but love them. are the entrances. satisfy our desire on that side.elephant. in like manner. and impoverish it. moreover. The granite is differenced in its laws only by the more or less of heat. They introduce us to the human form. They break. Chapter VI IDEALISM . When much intercourse with a friend has supplied us with a standard of excellence. implies or supposes every other truth. The law of harmonic sounds reappears in the harmonic colors. So intimate is this Unity. is marred and superficially defective. but where would it stop? We are associated in adolescent and adult life with some friends. Omne verum vero consonat.the mind. Every universal truth which we express in words. or a law of one organization. But it has innumerable sides.' In fact. chop. the air resembles the light which traverses it with more subtile currents. and he is commonly withdrawn from our sight in a short time. it is easily seen. have I found and beheld myself. in doing one thing. every one of them bears the marks as of some injury. from the river that wears it away. and has increased our respect for the resources of God who thus sends a real person to outgo our ideal.

but to lead us to regard nature as a phenomenon. and shows us nature aloof. These proceed from imagination and affection. and whether nature outwardly exists. whether Orion is up there in heaven. which binds us to nature as if we were a part of it. that God will teach a human mind. To the senses and the unrenewed understanding. what is the difference. It is the uniform effect of culture on the human mind. To this one end of Discipline. and they never look beyond their sphere. in every object of sense. without relations of time and space. -. it is ideal to me.Thus is the unspeakable but intelligible and practicable meaning of the world conveyed to man. The presence of Reason mars this faith. We are not built like a ship to be tossed. it is alike useful and alike venerable to me. the animal eye sees. and will not compromise the end of nature. The wheels and springs of man are all set to the hypothesis of the permanence of nature. whether this end be not the Final Cause of the Universe. that. which we call sun and moon. the same appearances are inscribed in the constant faith of man? Whether nature enjoy a substantial existence without. and so makes it the receiver of a certain number of congruent sensations. not to shake our faith in the stability of particular phenomena. -. not a substance. as if its consequences were burlesque. or is only in the apocalypse of the mind. so long as the active powers predominate over the reflective. If the Reason be stimulated to more earnest vision. The frivolous make themselves merry with the Ideal theory. azote. as of heat. we resist with indignation any hint that nature is more short-lived or mutable than spirit. The best moments of life are these delicious awakenings of the higher powers. to know whether the impressions they make on me correspond with outlying objects. belongs a sort of instinctive belif in the absolute existence of nature. as if it affected the stability of nature. Until this higher agency intervened. The first effort of thought tends to relax this despotism of the senses. causes and spirits are seen through them. In my utter impotence to test the authenticity of the report of my senses. so long as I cannot try the accuracy of my senses. the wheelwright. Things are ultimates. to esteem nature as an accident and an effect. with wonderful accuracy. When the eye of Reason opens. grace and expression. all parts of nature conspire.deep yawning under deep. house and trade. or some god paints the image in the firmament of the soul? The relations of parts and the end of the whole remaining the same.or. It is a natural consequence of this structure. sharp outlines and colored surfaces. the immortal pupil. and galaxy balancing galaxy. what difference does it make. the toll-man. Any distrust of the permanence of laws. water. as it were. Their permanence is sacredly respected. But whilst we acquiesce entirely in the permanence of natural laws. and abate somewhat of the angular distinctness of objects. The broker. A noble doubt perpetually suggests itself. to attribute necessary existence to spirit. man and woman. would paralyze the faculties of man. the question of the absolute existence of nature still remains open. man and nature are indissolubly joined. Be it what it may. throughout absolute space. and his faith therein is perfect. whether. and. and the reverential withdrawing of nature before its God. but like a house to stand. outlines and surfaces become transparent. the carpenter. to outline and surface are at once added. by permitting any inconsequence in its procession. and are no longer seen. and worlds revolve and intermingle without number or end. afloat. whether land and sea interact. God never jests with us. In their view. It is a sufficient account of that Appearance we call the World. . It surely does not. are much displeased at the intimation.

Hence arises a pleasure mixed with awe. though you have seen it any time these twenty years! In these cases. a small alteration in our local position apprizes us of a dualism. fighting.) please us most. the butcher's cart. running. No. A crow which flies in heaven's sweetest air. in his sonnets. gives the whole world a pictorial air. and the figure of one of our own family amuse us. are unrealized at once. not substantial beings. the mountain. 2. is his chest. and disposes them anew. he uses matter as symbols of it. and all objects shrink and expand to serve the passion of the poet. the lays of birds. probably. Turn the eyes upside down. the use which the Reason makes of the material world. The sensual man conforms thoughts to things. The ornament of beauty is Suspect. a low degree of the sublime is felt from the fact. makes them revolve around the axis of his primary thought. and seen as apparent. the hero. he finds to be the shadow of his beloved. Our first institution in the Ideal philosophy is a hint from nature herself. 1. and uses it to embody any caprice of thought that is upper-most in his mind. but only lifted from the ground and afloat before the eye. it was builded far from accident. as fluid. is her ornament. is suggested the difference between the observer and the spectacle. by looking at the landscape through your legs. bartering. and how agreeable is the picture. the lounger. as on air. that man is hereby apprized. A man who seldom rides. it swells. or. needs only to get into a coach and traverse his own town. by mechanical means. in the rapid movement of the rail-road car! Nay.the earnest mechanic. at least. the camp. -. the women. to a city. the poet communicates the same pleasure. as he speaks. the city. Possessed himself by a heroic passion. the other.between man and nature. What new thoughts are suggested by seeing a face of country quite familiar. The least change in our point of view. the sun. the scents and dyes of flowers. To him. not different from what we know them. In a camera obscura. beyond all poets. and makes them the words of the Reason. -. By a few strokes he delineates. Nature is made to conspire with spirit to emancipate us. the refractory world is ductile and flexible. So a portrait of a well-known face gratifies us. something in himself is stable. -. He unfixes the land and the sea. the maiden. Thus. by a subtle spiritual connection. the suspicion she has awakened. the beggar. The one esteems nature as rooted and fast. from a balloon. His imperial muse tosses the creation like a bauble from hand to hand. that. We are made aware that magnitude of material things is relative. The Imagination may be defined to be. or through the tints of an unusual sky. . wholly detached from all relation to the observer. the dogs. We are strangely affected by seeing the shore from a moving ship. the boys. The men. whilst the world is a spectacle. I may say. to turn the street into a puppet-show. which keeps her from him. or a state. he invests dust and stones with humanity. the most wonted objects. time.Let us proceed to indicate the effects of culture. His passion is not the fruit of chance. the poet conforms things to his thoughts. and the farthest sundered things are brought together. In a higher manner. The remotest spaces of nature are visited. and impresses his being thereon.talking. (make a very slight change in the point of vision. Certain mechanical changes. Shakspeare possesses the power of subordinating nature for the purposes of expression.

the Pyramids seem to him recent and transitory. Prospero calls for music to soothe the frantic Alonzo.this power which he exerts to dwarf the great. and his companions. In the strength of his constancy. The wild beauty of this hyperbole. and the best comforter To an unsettled fancy. Again. And those eyes. This transfiguration which all material objects undergo through the passion of the poet. And. I may say. Take those lips away Which so sweetly were forsworn. That works on leases of short numbered hours. I have before me the Tempest. Melting the darkness. The strong based promontory Have I made shake. -.the break of day. The charm dissolves apace. -. cure thy brains Now useless. Lights that do mislead the morn. But all alone stands hugely politic. to magnify the small. that heretic. as the morning steals upon the night. -. It fears not policy.It suffers not in smiling pomp. and will cite only these few lines. ARIEL. so their rising senses .might be illustrated by a thousand examples from his Plays. it would not be easy to match in literature. The freshness of youth and love dazzles him with its resemblance to morning. and by the spurs plucked up The pine and cedar. boiled within thy skull. A solemn air. in passing. nor falls Under the brow of thralling discontent.

he differs from the philosopher only herein. and a truth. But the philosopher. of ideal affinities. and carries centuries of observation in a single formula. we feel that the outward circumstance is a dream and a shade. the material is degraded before the spiritual." had already transferred nature into the mind. Their understanding Begins to swell: and the approaching tide Will shortly fill the reasonable shores That now lie foul and muddy. and left matter like an outcast corpse. Its beauty is infinite. yet is true. that a spiritual life has been imparted to nature. rely on their irrefragable analysis. for all that exists conditionally. and in their presence. is the aim of both. and recognised itself in their harmony." It proceeds on the faith that a law determines all phenomena. which being known." It fastens the attention upon immortal necessary uncreated natures. when this is attained. in both cases. Then they were by him. which is truth. to find a ground unconditioned and absolute. Turgot said. That law. Intellectual science has been observed to beget invariably a doubt of the existence of matter. and disdain the results of observation. upon Ideas. that the solid seeming block of matter has been pervaded and dissolved by a thought. they were there. may be assured he has no aptitude for metaphysical inquiries. and a beauty. The sublime remark of Euler on his law of arches. strictly like that of the Antigone of Sophocles? It is.Begin to chase the ignorant fumes that mantle Their clearer reason. when in the mind. 4. and to assert the predominance of the soul. seized their law. "This will be found contrary to all experience. In physics. not less than the poet. 3.) enables the poet thus to make free with the most imposing forms and phenomena of the world. when he established the clouds above. Is not the charm of one of Plato's or Aristotle's definitions. as one brought up with him. the geometer. that this feeble human being has penetrated the vast masses of nature with an informing soul. or ever the earth was. The perception of real affinities between events. we think of nature as an appendix to the soul. postpones the apparent order and relations of things to the empire of thought. the phenomena can be predicted. The true philosopher and the true poet are one. Whilst thus the poet animates nature with his own thoughts. When he prepared the heavens. that is. from the beginning. that is. which is beauty." . that the one proposes Beauty as his main end. We ascend into their region. "The problem of philosophy. and know that these are the thoughts of the Supreme Being. (that is to say. for those only are real. "is. the other Truth. the memory disburthens itself of its cumbrous catalogues of particulars. "These are they who were set up from everlasting. "He that has never doubted the existence of matter. Thus even in physics. Of them took he counsel." according to Plato. is an idea. The astronomer. Whilst we wait in this Olympus of gods. when he strengthened the fountains of the deep.

that it presents the world in precisely that view which is most desirable to the mind. Like a new soul. In short. which he has called into time. the world always is phenomenal. they renew the body. -. -. Finally. or a virtuous will. of country and religion. for we learn that time and space are relations of matter. which it uses to call visionary. They both put nature under foot. this faith will as surely arise on the mind as did the first. religion and ethics. is. atom after atom. that. It is. nor soil my gentle nest. They distrusted in themselves any looking back to these flesh-pots of Egypt. We become physically nimble and lightsome. which philosophy does for Berkeley and Viasa. from God. Ethics does not. that is. The belief that it appears only. of man's connection with nature. are temporal. physical and intellectual science. and brings the mind to call that apparent. Plotinus was ashamed of his body. as the ground which to attain is the object of human life. seek the realities of religion. The uniform language that may be heard in the churches of the most ignorant sects. It . unrealities. philosophy and virtue. The advantage of the ideal theory over the popular faith. which it uses to call real. We apprehend the absolute. and religion. seen in the light of thought. Idealism sees the world in God. shadows. for he is transported out of the district of change.------"Contemn the unsubstantial shows of the world.Their influence is proportionate. they are accessible to few men. not as painfully accumulated. that all culture tends to imbue us with idealism. but a child's love to it. Religion includes the personality of God. but as one vast picture. which may be fitly called. Whilst we behold unveiled the nature of Justice and Truth. It does that for the unschooled." It appears that motion. dreams. all tend to affect our convictions of the reality of the external world. Therefore the soul holds itself off from a too trivial and microscopic study of the universal tablet. We become immortal. we tread on air. or the introduction of ideas into life. I have no hostility to nature. Let us speak her fair. is an afterthought. believe in the external world. both speculative and practical.have an analogous effect with all lower culture. Culture inverts the vulgar views of nature. As objects of science. into their region. for the first time. the things that are unseen. all right education tends. "it is the frail and weary weed. Children. in fact. No man fears age or misfortune or death. But I own there is something ungrateful in expanding too curiously the particulars of the general proposition. I only wish to indicate the true position of nature in regard to man. Some theosophists have arrived at a certain hostility and indignation towards matter. are eternal. they have no affinity. Yet all men are capable of being raised by piety or by passion. Ethics and religion differ herein. and that real. For. the other. I expand and live in the warm day like corn and melons. They are one to our present design. what Michael Angelo said of external beauty. without becoming. himself divine. It beholds the whole circle of persons and things. in some degree." The devotee flouts nature. the view which Reason. we exist. of actions and events. in an aged creeping Past. with a perception of truth. it is true. life is no longer irksome. act after act. The first and last lesson of religion is. wherein to establish man. and virtue subordinates it to the mind. in degrading nature and suggesting its dependence on spirit. that is." It puts an affront upon nature. which God paints on the instant eternity. but with culture. I do not wish to fling stones at my beautiful mother. "The things that are seen. for the contemplation of the soul. And no man touches these divine natures. poetry. they are vanities. and we think it will never be so. take. in which God dresses the soul.the practice of ideas. is this. they might all say of matter. in their serene company. we learn the difference between the absolute and the conditional or relative. as the Manichean and Plotinus. 5. As it were. that the one is the system of human duties commencing from man.

the mind is a part of the nature of things. the ideal theory answers. When we consider Spirit. distant phenomena of matter. than the scandals of ecclesiastical history. as it finds it. he that thinks most. . we see that the views already presented do not include the whole circumference of man. and the evidence of the world's being. from which we may presently awake to the glories and certainties of day. It is not hot and passionate at the appearance of what it calls its own good or bad fortune. And all the uses of nature admit of being summed in one. and in every particular. It sees something more important in Christianity. and hands folded upon the breast. Nature is so pervaded with human life. and wherein all his faculties find appropriate and endless exercise. Like the figure of Jesus. but when man has worshipped him intellectually. which yields the activity of man an infinite scope. it does not satisfy the demands of the spirit. and we are as helpless as fools and savages. only that it may the better watch. Yet. and. It is a great shadow pointing always to the sun behind us. the world is a divine dream. It always speaks of Spirit. that there is something of humanity in all. or the niceties of criticism. But this theory makes nature foreign to me. Of that ineffable essence which we call Spirit. and. and it is a doer. What is matter? Whence is it? and Whereto? The first of these questions only. and not at all disturbed by chasms of historical evidence. to immerse itself in the means. Then the heart resists it. to the suburbs and outskirts of things. It is a watcher more than a doer. and does not account for that consanguinity which we acknowledge to it. it is faithful to the cause whence it had its origin. It accepts whatsoever befalls. The aspect of nature is devout. The happiest man is he who learns from nature the lesson of worship. and strives to lead back the individual to it. at the union or opposition of other persons. The one is perfect. Idealism saith: matter is a phenomenon. Through all its kingdoms. It leaves me in the splendid labyrinth of my perceptions. as part of its lesson. cannot be all that is true of this brave lodging wherein man is harbored. as the pure and awful form of religion in the world. Idealism is a hypothesis to account for nature by other principles than those of carpentry and chemistry. she stands with bended head. We must add some related thoughts. it accepts from God the phenomenon. if it only deny the existence of matter. incapable of any assurance. not a substance. will say least. that it should contain somewhat progressive. It leaves God out of me. It suggests the absolute. both language and thought desert us. Three problems are put by nature to the mind. the other. the noblest ministry of nature is to stand as the apparition of God. as it were. to wander without end. That essence refuses to be recorded in propositions. and facts that end in the statement. No man is its enemy.respects the end too much. but when we try to define and describe himself. because it balks the affections in denying substantive being to men and women. It is the organ through which the universal spirit speaks to the individual. Idealism acquaints us with the total disparity between the evidence of our own being. very incurious concerning persons or miracles. It is a perpetual effect. We can foresee God in the coarse. Uses that are exhausted or that may be. Chapter VII SPIRIT It is essential to a true theory of nature and of man.

until he is out of the sight of men. This view. does not build up nature around us. like that. the Supreme Being. throughout nature. it does not act upon us from without. the present expositor of the divine mind. Is not the landscape. It is a fixed point whereby we may measure our departure. The poet finds something ridiculous in his delight. we come to inquire. It is a remoter and inferior incarnation of God. every glimpse of which hath a grandeur. But it differs from the body in one important respect. then. Empirical science is apt to cloud the sight. and that by which they are. the contrast between us and our house is more evident. We are as much strangers in nature. As we degenerate. that is." carries upon its face the highest certificate of truth. the bear and tiger rend us. inexhaustible power. or through ourselves: therefore. that is. but spiritually. in space and time. We do not know the uses of more than a few plants. and points to virtue as to "The golden key Which opens the palace of eternity. We do not understand the notes of birds. the highest reason is always the truest. as we are aliens from God. That which seems faintly possible -. But when. at his need. and each entirely. that spirit. but all in one. as corn and the apple. therefore. Its serene order is inviolable by us. merely as a useful introductory hypothesis. or love. in the present state of our knowledge. and draws. The fox and the deer run away from us. spirit is present. for you cannot freely admire a noble landscape. Chapter VIII PROSPECTS In inquiries respecting the laws of the world and the frame of things. being admitted to behold the absolute natures of justice and truth. As a plant upon the earth. which admonishes me where the sources of wisdom and power lie.it is so refined. one and not compound. but puts it forth through us. if laborers are digging in the field hard by. to us. Whence is matter? and Whereto? many truths arise to us out of the recesses of consciousness. The savant becomes unpoetic. or beauty. because it animates me to create my own world through the purification of my soul. and. But the best read naturalist who lends . a face of him? Yet this may show us what discord is between man and nature. he is nourished by unfailing fountains. a projection of God in the unconscious. It is. or power. the potato and the vine. to bereave the student of the manly contemplation of the whole. is that for which all things exist. so a man rests upon the bosom of God. now subjected to the human will. that the dread universal essence.Let it stand. following the invisible steps of thought. as the life of the tree puts forth new branches and leaves through the pores of the old. We learn that the highest is present to the soul of man. It is not. is often faint and dim because it is deepest seated in the mind among the eternal verities. is himself the creator in the finite. serving to apprize us of the eternal distinction between the soul and the world. and we learn that man has access to the entire mind of the Creator. that spirit creates. which is not wisdom. by the very knowledge of functions and processes. The world proceeds from the same spirit as the body of man. that behind nature. Who can set bounds to the possibilities of man? Once inhale the upper air.

not because he is the most subtile inhabitant. His eyes dismount the highest star. brother. "Nothing hath got so far But man hath caught and kept it as his prey. is surprised on entering York Minster or St. of the arts. Nothing we see. which evermore separates and classifies things. and insect. to digested systems which have no one valuable . A perception of this mystery inspires the muse of George Herbert. but the end is lost sight of in attention to the means. In a cabinet of natural history.faint copies of an invisible archetype. Nor has science sufficient humanity. because that they Find their acquaintance there. and we learn to prefer imperfect theories. In every path. of botany. In their ascent and cause. in every new law of color. It is not so pertinent to man to know all the individuals of the animal kingdom. we accept the sentence of Plato. so long as the naturalist overlooks that wonderful congruity which subsists between man and the world. or atmospheric influence which observation or analysis lay open. In view of this half-sight of science. animals. and finds something of himself in every great and small thing. the problems to be solved are precisely those which the physiologist and the naturalist omit to state. Full of proportions. For." The perception of this class of truths makes the attraction which draws men to science. that a guess is often more fruitful than an indisputable affirmation. the beautiful psalmist of the seventeenth century. shells. For head with foot hath private amity. heaven move. and by entire humility. it is less to my purpose to recite correctly the order and superposition of the strata. fish. Music and light attend our head. fact of astronomy. the winds do blow. we become sensible of a certain occult recognition and sympathy in regard to the most unwieldly and eccentric forms of beast. to the sight of buildings designed after foreign models. and fountains flow. And both with moons and tides. which the sun withdraws. and build science upon ideas. in his own country.an entire and devout attention to truth. to our mind. but means our good. And to all the world besides. that. Herbs gladly cure our flesh. As our delight. than to know why all thought of multitude is lost in a tranquil sense of unity. no ray upon the metaphysics of conchology. as it is to know whence and whereto is this tyrannizing unity in his constitution. The whole is either our cupboard of food. All things unto our flesh are kind. In their descent and being. The earth doth rest. "For us. by a continual self-recovery. will see that there remains much to learn of his relation to the world. of which he is lord. Peter's at Rome. When I behold a rich landscape. or as our treasure. which contain glimpses of truth. "The stars have us to bed: Night draws the curtain. -. and that a dream may let us deeper into the secret of nature than a hundred concerted experiments. He is in little all the sphere. and hath Another to attend him. Or cabinet of pleasure. The following lines are part of his little poem on Man. "poetry comes nearer to vital truth than history. and sentences. "More servants wait on man Than he'll take notice of. I cannot greatly honor minuteness in details. He will perceive that there are far more excellent qualities in the student than preciseness and infallibility. and that it is not to be learned by any addition or subtraction or other comparison of known quantities. Each part may call the farthest. one limb to another. He treads down that which doth befriend him When sickness makes him pale and wan. but because he is its head and heart. by the feeling that these structures are imitations also." Every surmise and vaticination of the mind is entitled to a certain respect. architecture. endeavoring to reduce the most diverse to one form. to show the relation of the forms of flowers. to the mind. "Man is all symmetry. in every mountain stratum. so long as there is no hint to explain the relation between things and thoughts. Oh mighty love! Man is one world. The American who has been confined. but is arrived at by untaught sallies of the spirit.

chemical agriculture. the achievements of a principle. as if a banished king should buy his territories inch by inch. he is shrunk to a drop. It is Instinct. from whom the known individuals proceed. his power over it. instead of vaulting at once into his throne. A wise writer will feel that the ends of study and composition are best answered by announcing undiscovered regions of thought. He adores timidly his own work. coal.suggestion. and muses strangely at the resemblance betwixt him and it. He works on the world with his understanding alone. and he that works most in it. -. there are not wanting gleams of a better light. Now. and masters it by a penny-wisdom. like Nebuchadnezzar. He perceives that if his law is still paramount. He filled nature with his overflowing currents. Now is man the follower of the sun. but fits him colossally. it is not inferior but superior to his will. the longest series of events. Once he was permeated and dissolved by spirit. and the mariner's needle. To it. Out from him sprang the sun and moon. `Man is the dwarf of himself. But. and wonders at himself and his house. water. once it fitted him. dethroned.' Thus my Orphic poet sang. he no longer fills the veins and veinlets. He lives in it. rather. steam. may be both history and prophecy. that the structure still fits him. his mind is imbruted. . if these disorganizations should last for hundreds of years. which comes into the arms of fallen men. new activity to the torpid spirit. from man. through hope. and eating grass like an ox. man applies to nature but half his force. if still he have elemental power. At present. This is such a resumption of power. Such examples are. the repairs of the human body by the dentist and the surgeon. as in religious and political revolutions. if his word is sterling yet in nature. Meantime. the traditions of miracles in the earliest antiquity of all nations. Infancy is the perpetual Messiah. But who can set limits to the remedial force of spirit? `A man is a god in ruins. He sees. -. `We distrust and deny inwardly our sympathy with nature. life shall be longer. and so communicating. `The foundations of man are not in matter. Yet sometimes he starts in his slumber. and perhaps reappear to every bard. the sun. When men are innocent. the history of Jesus Christ. it is not conscious power. as they have always been in the world. the oldest chronologies are young and recent. but in spirit. as by manure. and which. therefore.occasional examples of the action of man upon nature with his entire force. into the year and the seasons. His relation to nature. now it corresponds to him from far and on high. and whilst his arms are strong and his digestion good. the moon. bereft of reason. in the thick darkness. from woman. We own and disown our relation to it. as gently as we awake from dreams. the periods of his actions externized themselves into day and night. It is kept in check by death and infancy. Say. by turns. But the element of spirit is eternity. I shall therefore conclude this essay with some traditions of man and nature. and pleads with them to return to paradise. is but a halfman. and all history is but the epoch of one degradation. The laws of his mind.with reason as well as understanding. the economic use of fire. having made for himself this huge shell. and woman the follower of the moon. the world would be insane and rabid. We are. In the cycle of the universal man. his waters retired. which a certain poet sang to me. wind. and he is a selfish savage. is through the understanding. and shall pass into the immortal. centuries are points.

now arranged under the name of Animal Magnetism. and see it in the light of thought. sleep. It were a wise inquiry for the closet.a sally of the soul into the unfound infinite? No man ever prayed heartily. therefore. point by point. It will not need. as we say. You also are a man. We behold the real higher law. Deep calls unto deep. to search for objects. a heaven. and the wisdom of children. with the rise and progress of ideas in the mind. that only can we see. but that each phenomenon has its roots in the faculties and affections of the mind. Learn that none of these things is superficial. But when a faithful thinker. is. the marriage is not celebrated. The ruin or the blank. and devotion is thought. without learning something. There are innocent men who worship God after the tradition of their fathers. the miracles of enthusiasm. So shall we come to look at the world with new eyes. the exertions of a power which exists not in time or space. but they freeze their subject under the wintry light of the understanding. And there are patient naturalists. as those reported of Swedenborg. kindle science with the fire of the holiest affections. a fact is true poetry.and in the abolition of the Slave-trade. neither can be perfect without the other. at the same time. many obscure and yet contested facts. is solved by the redemption of the soul. fortune. in saying. until he satisfies all the demands of the spirit. He cannot be a naturalist. the gaudy fable fades and shrivels. makes it. and their social life. and beyond its world. poverty. eloquence. it is fluid. is in our own eye. What is a day? What is a year? What is summer? What is woman? What is a child? What is sleep? To our blindness. you have and can do. Love is as much its demand. that the knowledge of man is an evening knowledge. In the uttermost meaning of the words. matutina cognitio. and the Shakers. These are examples of Reason's momentary grasp of the sceptre. Know then. Then shall come to pass what my poet said. Hohenlohe. to pure spirit. but their sense of duty has not yet extended to the use of all their faculties. The difference between the actual and the ideal force of man is happily figured by the schoolmen. labor. then will God go forth anew into the creation. as perception. self-healing. Adam called his house.What is truth? and of the affections. Caesar called his house. and lies broken and in heaps. is the absence of spirit. that we see when we look at nature. prayer. It shall answer the endless inquiry of the intellect. The problem of restoring to the world original and eternal beauty. The immobility or bruteness of nature. are known to you. Whilst the abstract question occupies your intellect. you . Indeed. all that Caesar could. because man is disunited with himself. vespertina cognitio. Man and woman.What is good? by yielding itself passive to the educated Will. `Nature is not fixed but fluid. For you is the phenomenon perfect. but an instantaneous in-streaming causing power. -. thought is devout. and the most beautiful of fables. To the wise. resolute to detach every object from personal relations. Spirit alters. But in actual life. Rome. The reason why the world lacks unity. especially at remarkable crises in life. heaven and earth. What we are. and so they appear not transparent but opake. moulds. to compare. our daily history. Every spirit builds itself a house. These wonders are brought to our own door. it is volatile. when the mind is prepared for study. nature brings it in the concrete to be solved by your hands. but that of God is a morning knowledge. The axis of vision is not coincident with the axis of things. to the higher law of the mind. it is obedient. that the world exists for you. and beyond its house a world. -. these things seem unaffecting. fear. Is not prayer also a study of truth. shall. -. But when the fact is seen under the light of an idea. We make fables to hide the baldness of the fact and conform it. All that Adam had. The invariable mark of wisdom is to see the miraculous in the common.

wise discourse. pests. swine. and heroic acts. though without fine names. they are temporary and shall be no more seen. your own world. vanish. which cometh not with observation. so shall the advancing spirit create its ornaments along its path. and carry with it the beauty it visits. prisons. -. As when the summer comes from the south. or a scholar's garret. it shall draw beautiful faces. Yet line for line and point for point.' THE END . your dominion is as great as theirs. As fast as you conform your life to the pure idea in your mind. and the wind exhale. therefore. spiders. until evil is no more seen. enemies. and the song which enchants it. A correspondent revolution in things will attend the influx of the spirit. So fast will disagreeable appearances. The kingdom of man over nature. The sordor and filths of nature. the snow-banks melt.a dominion such as now is beyond his dream of God. around its way. warm hearts.perhaps call yours. a cobler's trade. a hundred acres of ploughed land. that will unfold its great proportions. Build. -. madhouses. and the face of the earth becomes green before it. snakes.he shall enter without more wonder than the blind man feels who is gradually restored to perfect sight. the sun shall dry up.

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