Rosenhain and Göpel Tetrads in PG(3,2

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by Steven H. Cullinane on March 17, 2013 Hudson's 1905 classic Kummer's Quartic Surface discusses the 80 Rosenhain odd tetrads and the 60 Göpel even tetrads.

The 140 Rosenhain and Göpel tetrads occur naturally in the diamond theorem model of the 35 lines of the Galois projective 3-space PG(3,2):

As in the proof of the diamond theorem, each 4x4 array above has a set of three line diagrams. Arrays containing the Rosenhain odd tetrads (turquoise or white) have either 3 or 1 unidirectional line diagrams (all-horizontal or all-vertical lines). Arrays containing the Göpel even tetrads (yellow or gold) have either 2 or 0 unidirectional line diagrams.

The Göpel tetrads appear in my "Inscapes" notes and in "Picturing the Smallest Projective 3-Space" (April 1986). SeeInscapes and Notes on Groups and Geometry, 1978-1986.

More recently, they have appeared in "Birational Automorphisms of Quartic Hessian Surfaces," by Igor Dolgachev and JongHae Keum, in Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, Volume 354, Number 8, pages 3031-3057 (published online on April 3, 2002). Dolgachev and Keum represent the Göpel tetrads as occuring in a set of 16 points that they identify with the empty set plus the fifteen 2-element subsets of a 6-set (p. 3037). For an earlier version of this representation, see "The 2-subsets of a 6-set are the points of a PG(3,2)" (May 1986). That note also presents the Göpel tetrads as they relate to theMiracle Octad Generator of R. T. Curtis and to its underlying Moore correspondence.

Last updated on September 4, 2013.

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