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THRESHOLD

STARS LIGHT UP
Before stars existed, the Universe was relatively cool and uniform. The first stars formed within huge clouds of gas that were the building blocks of galaxies, galaxy clusters, and superclusters. Stars were an important new form of complexity because they introduced long-lasting hot spots where even more complex things could develop.

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4.60 4.55 4.50 4.45 4.40 4.35 4.30

ron
of a second 1 thousandth

Lepton

Photon

Dark Ages

The Stelliferous Era stars & galaxies continuously forming and evolving Reionization
Millions of years after the Big Bang Billions of years after the Big Bang
The Stelliferous Era stars & galaxies continuously forming and evolving
Billions of years ago

1 second

1 day

Time after the Big Bang

300 years

32 million years

100

300

500

700

900

1.1

1.3

1.5

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4.65

4.25

THRESHOLD

STARS LIGHT UP
INGREDIENTS
Hydrogen & helium Gravity Strong nuclear force Fusion

GOLDILOCKS CONDITIONS
Tiny variations in the density of matter throughout the Universe
Enabled gravity to pull matter together into denser and denser clouds, which increased in temperature as they formed

COMPLEXITY
Hot spots
Introduced places in the Universe where there was enough energy and matter to create entirely new Goldilocks Conditions

New structures
Stars Galaxies Clusters Superclusters

Temperatures > 10 million degrees Celsius


Hot enough for the strong nuclear force to fuse protons together and release huge amounts of energy