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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILlTY, VOL. 37, NO. 3, AUGUST 1995
Calculation of Fault Rates of Overhead Power Distribution Lines Due to Lightning-Induced Voltages Including the Effect of Ground Conductivity
Victor F. Hermosillo, Member, ZEEE, and Vernon Cooray
Abstract-Fault rates in power distribution l n s are estimated ie from probability distributions for induced voltages, obtained through a Monte Carlo simulation of lightning, striking in the proximity of a line over a finitely conductive ground. Waveshapes are presented for various locations relative to the point of interest along the line. The effects of line height, ground conductivity, and return stroke current risetime are analyzed. R s l s show eut that the expected number of faults increases for lower ground conductivities.
I. INTRODUCTION NFORMATION on the probability and expected number of times an induced voltage exceeds the lightning insulation level of a system is valuable in assessing the expected performance of power distribution networks. A complete analysis of lightning related faults in medium and low voltage systems should include both direct and induced effects of lightning flashes. Induced overvoltages are caused by the return stroke phase of a cloud to ground flash, striking in the vicinity of the overhead line. Theoretical frequency distributions of induced voltage magnitudes and flashover rates of distribution lines due to this phenomenon have been obtained before by [l], , considering a perfectly conductive ground plane. The model presented herein includes the effect of a finitely conductive ground plane. The surface impedance concept is introduced for the calculation of the horizontal electric field due to finite ground conductivity at close distances from the strike point . Induced voltages are computed, according to Agrawal' s formulation , from incident vertical and horizontal electric fields resulting from a modified version  of the transmission line model for the lightning retum stroke . Propagation effects on the traveling surges due to the ground are included, applying complex image theory.
Fig. 1. Geometry used for lightning electromagnetic field calculations.
path has been created between the cloud and ground. It involves the transfer to earth of charge distributed along the channel and charge volumes available in the cloud. The return stroke model consists in the definition of the temporal and spatial distribution of charge along the channel, according to the geometry defined in Fig. 1. Lightning electromagnetic fields (LEMF) generated by the return stroke are calculated using a modified version of the transmission line model [ 5 ] . In the model the current at the base of the channel is represented by
17 = e - T l l T 2 b l T 2 / T l ~ 1 f n
11. RETURN STROKE FIELD CALCULATIONS The return stroke phase of a lightning flash is initiated as the propagation of the stepped leader is complete and a conductive
Manuscript received August 23, 1993; revised May 4, 1995. This paper was supported in part, to Mr. Hermosillo, by the Comision Federal de Electricidad and in part to Dr. Cooray by the Swedish Institute through a grant from the Swedish Natural Science Research Council (NFR grant E-EG1448-301). V. F. Hermosillo is with the Comision Federal de Electricidad, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. V. Cooray is with the Institute of High Voltage Research, Uppsala University, Husbyhorg 752 28 Uppsala, Sweden. IEEE Log Number 9413152.
and n = 10, 6 = 0.55. This function is a slight variation of the function introduced by Heidler  to represent the return stroke current at the base of the channel. In the original function as published by Heidler  6 = 0. With the above modification (i.e., 6 = 0.55) the current waveform rises from zero to 99% of its peak value in time 71. The parameter 7 2 is equal to the time interval between the peak of the current waveform and the instant when the current has reached to about 36% of its peak value. The risetime of the current waveform can be changed by changing the value of 71. Note that the amplitude of the current waveform at t = 0 is not identically zero. But the amplitude at t = 0 is less than about
0018-9375/95$04.00 0 1995 IEEE
HERMOSLLLO AND COORAY: CALCULATION OF FAULT RATES OF OVERHEAD POWER DISTRIBUTION LINES
0.01% of the peak value and for all practical purposes can be considered to be identical to zero. In the model, the current waveform is assumed to propagate up along the return stroke channel with decreasing amplitude. The velocity of the current waveform along the channel, w , is assumed to be constant with a value of 1.5 x 108 m/s and the channel height is 3 km.The current waveform at height z' as a function of time, t , is given by
I ( z ' , t) = 0 for t' < 0 where t' = t - z'/v
. (0.3e-Z'/100+ 0.7e-"'/3000) for t' > 0. (4)
As shown in ,electric and magnetic fields obtained from this model reproduce typical measured waveshapes. The LEMF resulting from the return stroke model is obtained by decomposing the channel into vertical elementary dipoles. The contribution of each dipole and its image below a perfectly conductive plane is integrated over the channel height, ztot. Expressions for LEMF in cylindrical coordinates ( p , z , 4) for a perfectly conductive ground plane were obtained from [SI, following a similar procedure as . The vertical electric field E,(p, z , t ) , is given by
J,' i ( z ' , t'
and the horizontal magnetic flux density B+(r, , t ) , is given z by
i(z', t -
di r',t - -
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 37, NO. 3, AUGUST 1995
where subscripts e, i, T denote the electrostatic, induction, and radiation terms and c : velocity of light. R, : [? (z - z ’ ) ~ ] ~ / ~ .
R1 : [? + ( Z + z ’ ) ~ ] ~ / ~ . z’ : height of dipole over Earth’s surface. Yo : tan-’[(z - z’)/p]. t : time. P1 : tdn-l[(z z’)/p]. i : electric current.
In the calculations, we assumed that the vertical electric field and the horizontal magnetic field do not change significantly over the line height, i.e.,
E,(P,z , t ) = E,(P, 0, t ) = E,(P, t ) for < h
t ) = B d p , 0, t ) = B d p , t ) , for < h
a similar approximation has also been used in [lo]. When the ground is finitely conducting, the vertical elect tric field, EZU(r,) and the horizontal magnetic flux density B4u(r,z , t ) , are given by the following [ll], :
EZu(p,t) =&,(p,t)’+EZi(p,t) +
Fig. 2. Line configuration and geometry used in the induced voltage calculation.
where C = 0 g / 2 ~ , ~ 7 - g ,I,(&) and I I ( & )are modified Bessel functions of zero and first orders and
l E Z r ( p , ~ ) w ( t -d7 ) ~
B ~ O ( P =B+i(p,t) ,~) +
B+r(P,T)w(t T ) d r -
111. INDUCTION MECHANISM The line configuration was simplified to a single horizontal conductor, suspended at a height, h over a ground plane with finite conductivity, extending far away in both directions, as shown in Fig. 2. Consideration of a single conductor is based on the assumption that all conductors in the transmission line react in common mode to the excitation caused by the incoming lightning electromagnetic field, LEMF. This is valid for phase conductors separated by distances much smaller than the distance to the lightning strike point . Height differences between them are neglected, and only line designs without shielding wires are included. Due to the proximity of the lightning flash to the line, the LEMF is treated as cylindrical fronts reaching the overhead line. Each front is separated by a time step in the digital simulation. The interaction between the incident LEMF and the line is described by two transmission line differential equations with a driving function, acting on the equation related to the series parameters of the line. In frequency domain
In the above equations, og and E , ~are the conductivity and relative dielectric constant of the ground. The horizontal electric field at line height Epu(p,h, t ) , is calculated by adding the horizontal electric field calculated at ground level for a finitely conducting ground Epu(p, t ) to 0, the horizontal electric field at line height, when the ground is perfectly conductive from (9)
= E,(h h, t ) + 4 u ( P , 0, t ) .
E,,(p,O,t) is obtained by applying the concept of surface
impedance, as described in . This method allows one to calculate this field at very close distances from the line, where the wavetilt approximation can lead to large errors .
dVS(x, ) w
+ Z(w)I(x,w)= EJX,h , w )
+ jwCVS(x, ) = 0 w
0, t ) = L t B d p , 7 ) z S ( t- T ) d~
zs(t)= F-l[Zs(jw)] =
e-ct[I1(Ct) - 10(Ct)]
where Vs(x, ) is the voltage scattered by the line, Ez(x,h, t) w is the projection of E,,(p, h, t ) in the direction of the overhead conductor. The series impedance of the line includes the internal impedance of the conductor Z i ( w ) and the frequency dependent series inductance per unit length j w L ’ ( w ) , with a correction term derived by applying complex image theory
HERMOSILLO AND COORAY: CALCULATION OF FAULT RA”OF OVERHEADPOWER DISTRIBUTION LINES
, . C is the shunt capacitance per unit length. The resulting propagation constant is
: I -
y = &i(W)
+j W L ’ ( W ) ] j W C
ug = 0.01 Slm
where 7-h = /laugh2 and rr = pcucr~,rc the conductor is radius p, its permittivity and 0, its conductivity. The transmission line (28) and (29) predict that the incident LEMF excites freely propagation waves at each conductor segment. Consider a small element dx located at point x, on the line. The voltage induced at this element due to the incident LEMF is given by
ug = 0.002 S/m
where E Z ( x , h,w) is the projection of E,,(p, h,w) in the direction of the overhead conductor. The voltage induced at a conductor segment gives rise to two traveling wave propagations in opposite directions. The contribution from this small element to the total scattered voltage at a distance d is
dwS(xo d , w ) = Ez(xo>w) dx
ag = 0.001 Slm
where d / c is the time delay, c is the velocity of light. The scattered voltage in time domain at the point of interest on the line is given by the following convolution integral
(t) is obtained from the equation
Fig. 3. Three-dimensionalsurfaces for the absolute maximum values for the voltage induced at the point of interest on the overhead line, for I , = 10 kA, 1.2-ps risetime, h = 10 m, (a) ug = 0.01 S/m, (b) cg = 0.002 S/m, and (c) ug = 0.001 S/m.
and f2(t) from
IV. INDUCED VOLTAGE CALCULATIONS (37) Numerical integration is performed up to w = lo8 s-’. The , voltage scattered by the line V s ( x t) results from adding the voltage scattered in each conductor segment by the horizontal electric field, including propagation effects and the time delay according to the distance they travel on the overhead conductor. The total induced voltage at the point of interest V T ( x t) , results from adding the integral of the incident vertical electric field at the point of interest over the line height and the scattered voltage Three-dimensional surfaces for the absolute values of peak induced voltage amplitudes for a 10 kA return stroke current and ground conductivities of 0.01,0.002, and 0.001 S/m are included in Fig. 3. Fig. 4 shows contour maps corresponding to these surfaces. The Cartesian coordinate system is determined by the location of the lightning strike point relative to the point of interest or measuring point. Coordinate z is taken along the line direction, coordinate y is taken perpendicular to the line. A negative return stroke was assumed in the calculations. Current risetime was kept constant at 1.2 ps, with time to half value in the tail of 50 ps. The line is represented as an aluminium conductor with diameter of 0.01 m suspended at 10 m height. The absolute amplitude of the induced voltages decreases as the strike point moves away from the line, and increases as
V T ( xt ) = V s ( z t ), ,
E z ( x ,z , t ) dz.
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 37, NO. 3, AUGUST 1995
O 0 . . . . . . . .5.0 0 . . . . , . ,1.0 0 0 F ,.
Dlzlaoce aloog IIoe (m)
Fig. 5. Absolute magnitudes of the induced voltages for y = 100 m, as the strike point is moved from I = 0 to I = 2000 m. Assuming I , = 10 kA, 1.2-ps risetime, ug = 0.001 S/m and h = 10 m.
, , , ,
, , , , ag = 0.002 s/m Induced voltagein kV
ag 0.001 slm
Induced volmge in kV
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 lo00
x: distance along line (m) (C)
Fig. 4. Contour maps for the absolute maximum values for the voltage induced at the point of interest on the overhead line i kV, for I , = 10 n kA, 1.2-ps risetime, h = 10 m, (a) ug = 0.01 S/m, (b) ug = 0.002 S/m, and (c) ug = 0.001 S/m.
it gets closer to the measuring point. A maximum is obtained at the closest point to the origin. In , a model considering an infinitely conductive ground is applied to the estimation of flashover rates of overhead distribution lines, calculating induced voltages for x from -100-100 m (just in front of the point of interest). It is clear from Figs. 3(a) and 4(a), that for high ground conductivities, the area in the neighborhood of the origin provides the most relevant information on events causing faults. For lower conductivities [Fig. 3(b), (c), and Fig. 4(b) and (c)] the increasing contribution of the horizontal component
of the electric field, related to ground conductivity, causes an increase in the induced voltage magnitudes close to the origin. It also results in higher induced voltage magnitudes as we move away from the origin close to the line. Propagation effects on surges induced from strike points in this area act as a limiting factor, preventing the continuous increase in their magnitudes beyond x = 2000 m (refer to Fig. 5) for og = 0.001 S/m. The effect of the location of the strike point on the induced voltage waveforms is shown in Fig. 6. For x = 0 in Fig. 6(a), induced voltages have a pulse shape with magnitudes decreasing rapidly and slower fronts as one moves away from the line. In Fig. 6(b), for x = 500 m, waveshapes for distances close to the line present an initial negative pulse with very fast rise and decay times, followed by a polarity reversal and a slower decay to zero. As the strike point is moved away from the line, pulses become unipolar with slower risetimes. All results may be scaled depending on the current amplitude. The shape of the induced voltages does not vary radically for different values of og (refer to Fig. 7). For lower conductivity their magnitude increases and the initial pulse width increases for the bipolar surges. Induced voltages calculated for h = 10, 15, and 20 m are included in Fig. 8. The magnitude of the induced voltage is proportional to the line height for strike points in the vicinity of the measuring point and for areas away from the line. For strike points close to the line and away from the measuring point, line height has a small effect on the short initial pulse, but the magnitude of the surge after the polarity reversal is again proportional to line height. A longer return stroke current risetime results in smaller magnitudes of induced voltages for strike points close to the point of interest (see Fig. 9). The short initial pulse present in bipolar surges tends to disappear for long risetimes.
V. MONTE CARLOSIMULATION
Probability distributions for the induced voltage magnitudes are obtained by simulating a large number of lightning events. Each event is defined by a set of coordinates relative to the point of interest along the line, a negative return stroke current amplitude and risetime. The lightning strike point is determined through a random generation of Cartesian X - Y coordinates, with origin at the line termination, and according
HERMOSELO AND COORAY: CALCULATION OF FAULT RATES OF OVERHEAD POWER DISTRIBUTION LINES
Fig. 8. Induced voltage waveshapes at the measuring point for line height h = 10, 15, and 20 m, for strike points with coordinates (r,y) = (0, 100) m (solid line) and (I, y) = (1O00, 100) m (dashed line). Assuming I, = 10 kA, 1.2-ps risetime and ug = 0.001 S/m.
Fig. 6. Induced voltage waveshapes at the measuring point for strike points with coordinates y = 100-500 m, (a) I = 0 m and (b) I = IO00 m. Assuming I, = 10 kA, 1.2-ps risetime, ng = 0.001 S/m and h = 10 m.
Fig. 9. Induced voltage waveshapes at the measuring point for return stroke current with risetimes of 1.2, 2, 5, and 10 p s , for strike points with coordinates (I, y) = (0, 100) m (solid line) and (z, y) = (1O00, 100) m (dashed line). Assuming I, = 10 kA, ng = 0.001 S/m and h = 10 m. TABLE I LOG-NORMAL DISTRIBUTIONSINDUCED FOR VOLTAGE MAGNITUDES
. . .l l.l . . . . l.l l. . .
Fig. 7. Induced voltage waveshapes at the measuring point for ng = 0.01, 0.002, and 0.001 S/m, for strike points with coordinates (z. y) = (0, 100) m (solid line) and (z, y) = (1O00, 100) m (dashed line). Assuming I, = 10 kA, 1.2-ps risetime and h = 10 m.
to a uniform probability distribution. In the Monte Carlo simulation, the negative first return stroke current for cloud to ground flashes follows a log-normal distribution, and its risetime is assumed to have a normal distribution . The peak current and the risetime of the current for each event is obtained by following the procedure described in detailed in ~71. The Monte Carlo simulation involves 10000 events taking place over a surface covering 2000 m along the line and 1000 m away from it. The closest distance from the return stroke to the line depends on the current magnitude ymin =
[T: - (T: - h2)]0.5, with T , = 81,0.65,where T , is the striking distance . Results are converted into frequency distributions for the maximum amplitudes of the induced voltages. These can be approximated by log-normal distributions. Table I includes the mean and standard deviation for all cases studied. To calculate the expected number of times lightning induced voltages exceed the lightning insulation level, the area covered in this simulation should be considered, including symmetry over the z and y axes. Curves shown in Fig. 10 were obtained for a ground lightning density of one flash/km2 year. A comparison with flashover rates calculated by other authors is included in Fig. 11.
VI. CONCLUSION The shape of the induced voltage depends on the location of the lightning strike relative to the measuring point on the line. Three different types of waveshapes were obtained Short impulses with fast risetime and decay-time, impulses with
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 37, NO. 3, AUGUST 1995
-4........! .........b.........! .........! ......... Z O 300
Ba8ie l o s u l a t l o ~L.r.1
Fig. 10. Expected number of times an induced voltage at the line will exceed the insulation level of power systems with different rated voltages. A cloud to ground lightning flash density of one flash/km2 year is assumed, and line height is 10 m.
A recent theoretical comparison between the coupling model described in [l] and  concludes that [l] predicts correct results when the lightning channel is perpendicular to the ground plane . Fault rates calculated by Rusck follow the trend of those obtained considering finite ground conductivity, and are in good agreement with experimental observations H81. Because of the short duration of waveshapes obtained for lightning strike points close to the line, induced voltages with magnitudes slightly higher than the rated lightning impulse level of the insulators along the line may not result in flashover at points along the line , . This reduces the number of faults occurring along the line, but would allow surges above the line BIL to propagate until reaching the line termination. The frequency content of these initial pulses reaches the range of 50-250 kHz. These frequencies have been reported to cause resonance in transformers  and suggest that induced voltages may be a source of failure.
The authors wish to offer their sincere appreciation to Prof. V. Scuka for all the means made available at the Institute of High Voltage Research, Uppsala University. They also wish to thank Prof. C. Nucci and Dr. F. Heidler for valuable comments.
. *. ...................................... ibo zbo 3b0 rbo
B a a l a Inaulatlon 1 . r L
Fig. 11. Comparison with fault rates obtained by Rusck [ 11 and Chowdhuri  for a perfectly conducting ground plane.
long fronts and bipolar surges consisting of a short pulse followed by polarity reversal and a slower decay (refer to Fig. 6). These shapes have been observed in measurements of induced voltages performed on full-scale experimental lines [lo], P81, [191, POI. Magnitudes of simulated lightning induced voltages for an infinitely long line increase for lower ground conductivities due to the effect of this parameter on the horizontal electric field coupling with the line. The expected number of faults due to these overvoltages increases for lines located over low conductivity grounds. This effect has been observed when comparing measurements of induced voltages in various sites PI]. The assumption that the expected number of faults caused by induced voltages is proportional to height remains valid and can be applied to scale the results presented in Fig. 10. These results assume a uniform ground flash density over the entire line route and would approach average fault rates after a long period of observation. Fault rates obtained by Rusck [l] and Chowdhuri  considering a perfectly conductive ground plane are included in Fig. 11. It has been shown that the coupling model applied in  a source is missing in the description of electromagnetic field coupling between the incident field and the line .
S. Rusck, “Induced lightning over-voltageson power transmission lines with special reference to the overvoltage protection of low-voltage networks,” Trans. Chalmers Univ. Technol., no. 188, Gothenburg, Sweden, 1957. P.Chowdhuri, “Estimation of flashover rates of overhead power distribution lines by lightning strokes to nearby ground,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1985-1989, July 1989. V. Cooray, “Horizontal fields generated by return strokes,” Rad. Sci., vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 529-537, July/Aug. 1992. A. K. Agrawal, H. J. Price, and S. H. Gurbaxani, “Transient response of multiconductor transmission lines excited by a non-uniform electromagnetic field,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol. EMC-22, pp. 119-129, May 1980. V. Cooray and R. E. Orville, “The effects of variation of current amplitude, current risetime and return stroke velocity along the return stroke channel on the electromagnetic fields generated by return strokes,” J. Geophys. Res., vol. 95, no. D11, pp. 18, 617-18, 630, Oct. 1990. M. A. Uman and D. K. McLain, “Magnetic field of lightning retum stroke,” J. Geophys. Res., vol. 74, pp. 68994910, 1969. F. Heidler, “Analytische Blitzstromfunktion Zur LEMP-Berechnung,” presented at 18th Int. Con$ Lightning Protection lCLP’85, Munich, 1985. M. J. Master and M. A. Uman, “Transient electric and magnetic fields associated with establishinga finite electrostaticdipole,” Amer. J. Phys., no. 51, pp. 118-126, 1982. P. R. Bannister, “Extension of finitely conductive earth image theory results to any range,” NUSC Technical Report 6885, Naval Underwater Systems Center, U. S. Navy, Jan. 1984, pp. 1-33. M. Rubinstein, A. Tzeng, M. A. Uman, P. J. Medelius, and E. M. Thomson, “An experimental test of a theory of lightning induced voltages on an overhead wire,’’ IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 376-383, Nov. 1989. V. Cooray, “Effectsof propagation on the return stroke radiation fields,” Rad. Sei., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 757-768, Sept./Oct. 1987. J. R. Wait, “Transient fields of a vertical dipole over a homogeneous curved ground,” Can. J. Phys., vol. 34, pp. 27-35, 1956. P.Chowdhuri, “Lightning-induced voltages on multiconductor overhead lines,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 5 , no. 2, Apr. 1990. E. D. Sunde, Earth Conduction Effects in Transmission Systems. New York: Dover Publications, 1968, p. 274. V. F. Hermosillo, “Attenuation and distortion of transient surges propagating on a single horizontal overhead line over a finitely conductive
HERMOSILLO AND COORAY: CALCULATION OF FAULT RATES OF OVERHEAD POWER DISTRIBUTION LINES
earth plane,” UURIE:223-89, ISSN 0349-8352, Institute of High Voltage Research, Uppsala University, Sweden, 1989. R. B. Anderson and A. J. Eriksson, “Lightning parameters for engineering applications,” Electra, vol. 69, pp. 65-102, 1980. Hiller and Lieberman, Introduction to Operations Research, 3rd. ed.. San Francisco, C A Holden-Day,l980. A. J. Eriksson, M. F. Stringfellow,and D. V. Meal, “Lightning-induced overvoltageson overhead distributionlines,” IEEE Trans. PAS, vol. 101, no. 4, pp. 960-968, Apr. 1982. S. Yokoyama, K. Miyake, H. Mitani, and N. Yamazaki, “Advanced observations of lightning induced voltage on power distribution lines,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. PWRD-I, no. 2, pp. 129-139, Apr. 1986. F. de la Rosa, R. Valdivia, H. Pkrez, and J. Loza, “Discussion about the inducing effects of lightning in an experimental power distribution line in Mexico,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1080-1089, July 1988. H. Koga, T. Motomitsu, and M. Taguchi, “Lightning surge waves induced in transmission lines,” Rev. Elec. Commun. Lab., vol. 29, no. 7-8, pp. 797-808, JUly/AUg. 1981. C. A. Nucci, F. Rachidi, M. Ianoz, and C. Mazzetti, “Comparison of two coupling models for lightning induced overvoltagecalculations,”in IEEE PES Summer Meet., Vancouver, BC, Canada, 1993, paper 93 SM 424-2 PWDR, B. C. V. Cooray, “Calculating lightning-induced over-voltages in power lines: A comparison of two coupling models,” paper submitted to IEEE Trans. Electromgn. Compat., vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 179-182, 1994. S. Grzybowski and P. B. Jacob, “The steep-front, short duration pulse characteristicsof distributioninsulators with wood,” ZEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1608-1616, July 1990. R. 0. Caldwell and M. Darveniza, “Experimental and analytical studies of the effect of non-standard waveshapes on the impulse strength of extemal insulation,” IEEE Trans. PAS, vol. PAS-92, pp. 1420-1428, 1973.
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Victor F. Hermodlo (S’86-M’90) was bom in Mexico City, Mexico, on January 15, 1962. He received his B.S.E.E. from the Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, in 1984 . In 1987, he graduated with the M.S.E.E. degree from Ohio State University, and in 1990, he was granted the degree of Teck. Lic. Elek. from Uppsala University, Sweden. Since 1990, he has worked for Comision Federal de Electricidad, and lectures at the Graduate School, Faculty of ElectricalEngineering, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.
Vernon Cooray was bom in Colombo, Sri Lanka,
on November 29, 1951. He received the B.Sc. degree in physics (with first class honors) from the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka, in 1976. He obtained the Ph.D. degree in atmospheric electricity from Uppsala University, Sweden, in 1982. He worked as a post-doctoral researcher at the State University of New York, Albany, from 1986-1988. Presently, he is an associate professor at the Institute of High Voltage Research, Uppsala University. D . Cooray is the author and-coauthor of about 60 scientific papers, r published in reviewed journals and international conferences.
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