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Study of Electric Motors by Experiment

Study of Electric Motors by Experiment

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R. E. Hopkins


PUBLISHER JOHN COPYRIGHT." "Wireless Telegraphy for Amateurs and Students.. Etc. ST. ST. Motors . 1910. Author of "Fun with Electricity. together ivith and Explanation of Electric Much Helpful Information upon the Experimental c/lpparatus Required Operation By THOMAS M. Met." "Things a Boy Should Know About Electricity.The Study of Electric Motors by Experiment CONTAINING Sixty Experiments that Bear Directly upon the Construction. ST. JOHN . E. BY THOMAS M. JOHN." Etc. New York THOMAS M." "The Study of Elementary Electricity and Magnetism by Experiment." "Electrical Handicraft.

postpaid. A Text-book for amateurs. ratus for Fancy Bubbles and Films. R41 R51 ELECTRIC SHOOTING GAME. Price. FUN WITH PUZZLES. (Taniai L Rl R2 R3 R4 FUN WITH MAGNETISM. patented. shoots animals by electricity. Price.00. Postpaid. $1. key. postpaid. Price. together with complete directions for performing numerous experiments on wireless Second edition. cloth. N. Price. R5 FUN WITH SHADOWS. St. Postpaid. With dry battery. sounder and wires. . Pantomimes. 180 RS4 REAL ELECTRIC TOY-MAKING FOR BOYS Over 100 contains complete R5S WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY FOR AMATEURS AND STUDENTS directions for making and using a large number of electrical toys. A book and complete outfit of apparatus for Shadow Pictures. 172 telegraphy with simple. edition. postage extra. postage extra. 252 pages. $1. things a Fourth edition. and others who wish to take up a systematic course of experjments at home or in school. 5 cts. operation and explanation of electric motors. $1.BY THE SAME AUTHOR List No. 50 cts. Price. including various devices and outfits for experimental New R57 drawings. $1. Y. 25 cts. Cloth. $1. A book and complete outfit for Four Hundred Puzzles.00. A book and complete outfit of apparatus for Sixty Experiments. 50 cts. THE STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT tains ideas. home-made apparatus. THEIR OWN ELECTRICAL APPAHOW TWO BOYS MADE R52 THE STUDY OF ELEMENTARY ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM BY EXPERIMENT. TWO. 10 cts. 50 cts. R6 R7 FUN* WITH* PHOTOGRAPHY. helpful information upon apparatus required. cloth. cloth. 25 cts. 50 cts. R56 ELECTRICAL HANDICRAFT purposes. 220 pages.25. 105 pieces. book. 50 cts.. Second original drawings. 25 cts. Postpaid. Puzzles and Educational Amusements Catalogue \7pon Application THOMAS M. postage . This book with complete apparatus. Postpaid. 848 Ninth Ave. 15 cts. postage extra. a practical learner's outfit.. . With two dry batteries. Fifth Edition. cloth. Price. 25 cts. $1. FUN WITH SOAP-BUBBLES.00. together with much 100 Over the pages. A book and complete outfit of apparatus for Amateur Work. FUN WITH ELECTRICITY. Nicely mounted and very loud. Postpaid. but no waste of current. $5...00. Fascinating and absolutely original. 250 consixty experiments that bear directly upon the construction. postage extra. Postpaid. postage extra. For regular line work. by exoress. postpaid. pages. inexpensive supplies. Stationer. or Toy Dealer for our Books. Price. patented. A book and complete outfit of apparatus R8 R9 FUN WITH TELEGRAPHY. things he should know. postage extra. JOHN. pages. A book and complete outfit of apparatus for Sixty-One Experiments..00. Third edition. for Forty-One Experiments. contains complete directions for making and using nearly one hundred and fifty pieces of electrical apparatus. 5 cts. $1. contains theoretical and practical information. 141 pages. cloth. students. book containing complete directions for making all kinds of apparatus for the study of electricity. Ask Your Bookseller. Price.60 RATUS.-'140 pages..00. uses dry batteries. FUN WITH CHEMISTRY. 200 experiments. Postpaid. cloth. postpaid. A book and complete outfit of appa. postpaid. SO cts. Etc. 10 cts. Games. things about electricity. 65 cts. 75 cts. can "call A Price. Price. TELEGRAPHY NUMBER up" at any time. diagrams and full-page plates. has ingenious switch. A R53 THINGS A BOY SHOULD plains in simple language KNOW ABOUT ELECTRICITY ex- many boy wants to know.

Magnetic field with armature in place. 4. Style B. To see what is meant by the north pole of a magnet. Exp. To the horseshoe magnet. Exp.s THE STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE CHAPTER Materials of Construction Laboratory Motors and Dynamos. Exp. To study the effect of a continuous pieces. 2. Electromagnets. Exp. 7. Magnetism. To find whether soft iron will permanently retain magnetism. Permanent Magnetism 12 study the horseshoe magnet. 3. Exp. 11. Materials of ConIron. Exp. 5. Strap Key. IS. Exp. Strap Key. Exp. To study combinations of polepole-pieces. About polarization and Exp. Exp. Exp. I. To find through what substances magnetism will act. Making magnets from a magnet. Permanent Magnets. 20. About induced magnetism. Lines of force and airgaps. Exp. 6. About residual magnetism. Exp. 14. To see if we can make more than two poles in a bar magnet. Hard steel and soft steel. study the magnetic field of Exp. CHAPTER III. pole-piece. To Study a certain combination of two magnets. Exp. Experimental Apparatus Experimental Apparatus. 17. Exp. Attractions To and repulsions of magnets. 1. Exp. Hollow Armatures. 16. 19. struction. 10. Exp. To see what ordinary things are acted upon by a magnet. 9 CHAPTER Exp. Strap Key with Side Switch. 9. Style A. II. Exp. 8. Copper. To study the theory of magnetism. Double- 28 . 12. 18. 13.

31. 23. 35. 22. Exp. Taking Motor No. The Field-Magnets. Magnetic figure of 38 two like poles. Methods of Winding. 25. The Brushes. V. Motion with two electromagnets. Exp. Exp. To test the lifting-power of the field-magnets when the armature is in place. To test the poles of the field-magExp. Magnetic figure of electromagnets. Motion produced with a hollow coil of wire and a piece of soft iron. About horseshoe electromagnets." 50 CHAPTER Apart.VI TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Current-Reverser. Exp. Electric Motors in General Simple Action of Motors. 39. Exp. Polarity of coils. 40. Exp. Exp. Exp. Motion with an electromagnet and a bar magnet. 26. 38. 55 1 Exp. 41. 27. Key CHAPTER IV. Motion produced with an electromagnet and a piece of iron. Magnetism from hollow coils of wire. 46 CHAPTER VI. 1. Reversing the current in the detector. Motion produced with a hollow coil of wire and a bar magnet. VII. CHAPTER Motion and Currents Exp. Reversing Motors. Motor No. Armatures. 36. 30. Rotary motion with a permanent magnet and an electromagnet. Exp. Exp. Simple Current Detector. Coils in ^'Series. Magnetic figure of single electromagnets. 24. How this Reverser Works. Small Motors. Exp. Commutators. . Motion with an electromagnet and a horseshoe magnet. . 37. 28. Exp. ." Coils in "Shunt. Regarding the joining of electromagnets. To test the lifting-power of the field-magnets. Rheostats. coils of wire Exp. To test for residual magnetism in the pole-pieces. Electric current and magnetic needle. Rotary motion with a hollow coil and a permanent magnet. Exp. Exp. Two-Point Switch. 29. 33. 21. Five-Point Rheostat. 32. Electromagnetism Exp. Eleven-Point Rheostat. About with cores. Handy Current Detector. Current Detectors. Exp. 42. nets. 34. Practical Experiments with Motors. Exp. Exp.

Speed Regulation and Direction of 64 Attractions and Re- Direction of Rotation. Special Motors. Starting-Boxes. Exp. Load on Motors. Regu86 lamps in parallel. 50. shunt-wound.Wound Motors. shunt-wound and reversible. 43. 1 with the current-reverser. 44. 1. 1. Exp. Making permanent magnets with Exp. Exp. 59. CHAPTER Various Electric Motors Small Motors and Large Motors. tors. 110. A One-Eighth Horse-Power Motor. Exp. shunt-wound and reversible. Exp. To study the magnetic field of the field-magnets with the armature in place. 48. Controlling speed and direction of rotation of Motor No. Motors. netism.Volt Motors.TABLE OF CONTENTS Exp. pulsions in Motor No. 58. lation of speed with which direction Exp. 57. Exp. 2. Series-Wound 1. 45. Motor No. Counter-Electromotive force of motors. Exp. Motor No. Dynamo-Motor No.Wound Mo- Regulation of Field-Magnetism. Backward motion for Motor No. Regulation of speed for Motor No. 46. Motors for Intermittent Duty. 60. Compound. 1 by a second method. 52. Motor No. Shunt and ComMotors. 1. Differentially. with speed control by regulation of field-magnetism. 1. Exp. 1. Reversing Motor No. coils in series. 47. Direct-Current Shunt. Protection of Motors. A OneIX. Comparison of Series.Electro- motive force. Motors. 3. 110-Volt Laboratory Motors.Wound pound Motors. VIII. shunt-wound and reversible. Alternating-Current Railway Motors. To test the magnetic field of the field-magnets with the armature VII PAGE removed. 1. 49. . poles. 51. Motor No. 53. the motor. together with starting-box. Exp. 1. 56. Exp. Exp. with one method of speed regulation. Reversing Motor No. To test the armature for magExp. Motor No. To show in the counter-current flows in a motor. To test the armature-magnets for CHAPTER Rotation Exp. series-wound. Exp. 54. Exp. Counter. with a second method of speed control. 55.

. 101 Various Methods. Running Small Motors from Small Dynamos. Battery Regulator for 110.. CHAPTER X.. Storage-Batteries. Another One-Seventh Horse-Power Motor. Forcing Dry Batteries.Volt Currents. Electric Current for Running Motors.Vlll TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Seventh Horse-Power Motor. Arrangement of Cells. Battery Currents. A One-Quarter Horse-Power A One-Tenth Horse-Power Motor. ^lotor. Bank of Lamps.

When the stu- dent gets to the point where he begins his experiments with motors. it isn't worth anything to use in the laboratory. book is that they will do all that other motors will and much besides. and a motor that will merely go around is a very poor sort of a thing for the student. Laboratory Motors and Dynamos. he feels that he is doing something. for things begin to move and he can see that he is pro- There are many ducing results right from the start. in fact. As the main features and parts of small dynamos and motors are the same in fact. most small dynamos can . What the is a motor that can be taken apart and used for experiments. one that is so constructed that it shows how the big machines work.THE STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT CHAPTER I MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION 1. things that can be done with a properly-constructed motor. and one that is under perfect control. The advantage of the laboratory motors described in this do. for they are designed especially for those who want to use them for experimental pur- poses as a part of the general study of electricity. Motors should be easily controlled student needs as to speed. as well as to the direction of rotation.

such as carbon. if we had only the absolutely pure iron. nickelplating. there are other things on them. an element. when doing the experiments. Materials of Construction. etc. 3. he will see why these special experiments and explanations have been given. We iron is used in the construction of these wonderful elec- . These impurities. we could not have steel and other forms of iron that are really shall see how more important than the pure iron. is far from being pure. but see pure iron. but these are there chiefly for looks and for keeping the iron and copper in place so that they can do see. About all of the iron we use that is sold in the market for wagons. for. There must be some reason for this choice of materials and for this simplicity of construction. phosphorus.. machinery. but when you examine them on the contrary. from a chemical standpoint. iron and copper. It would seem that big motors or dynamos should be built of many different things and be very complicated in order to be able to do what you is expected of them. sulphur. such as insulating materials. The student will find it to his advantage to perform the experiments that are herein suggested. and that is what we want to find out by experiment. unless he has already done so. we seldom and bridges. for it will make things clear as he goes along. Of course. etc. If the student will keep these two things in mind. silicon.10 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT be used as motors we ments that will aid in shall first take up a few experiunderstanding both machines. Iron is etc. that they are very simple and that they are made up chiefly of but two metals. 2. are the very things that make it possible to so modify the iron that it becomes suitable for electrical purposes. as it contains other things.. as the chemist calls them. too. in construction their proper work.

we try to get it as pure as pos- The copper used for the wire and other parts of motors and dynamos must be pure. The experiments that follow will show how the copper wire and iron act together to make the motor or dynamo a success. we could not have motors and dynamos. and it is these with which we shall spend most of our time in the experiments. The horseshoe magnet is a permanent magnet. . if handled properly. If it were not for the electromagnets. 5. but electricity took a long time before the connection between and magnetism . and find out why certain kinds of iron are better than others for the purpose. but in this case sible. 4. for it holds its magit netism for years 6.was discovered. and a great deal of care is used in making it for these purposes. think of Permanent Magnets. About the first thing we when the magnet is suggested. which are made with iron and copper. These have been made for centuries. Copper is also an element used in electrical ma- chines.MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION II trical machines. is the ordinary horseshoe magnet. Electromagnets are those produced with the aid of the electric current.

he should not fail to follow out the suggested experimental work. Directions. Discussion. 8." Electromagnets have poles. 7." they are repeated herein because they have a direct bearing upon motors and dynamos. To study the horseshoe magnet. 9. "poles.CHAPTER II PERMANENT MAGNETISM TWENTY EXPERIMENTS IN PERMANENT MAGNETISM THAT BEAR DIRECTLY UPON THE CONSTRUCTION AND EXPLANATION OF MOTORS AND DYNAMOS. Note. A review of these will aid the student. While most of the twenty above-mentioned experiments will be found in Part I of "The Study of Elementary Electricity and Magnetism by Experiment. as you will find doing its part of the by one of the future experiments. and. if he has never actually performed experiments along this line himself. EXPERIMENT 1. . There does not seem to be any pull upon the small piece of iron at the curved part of the magnet. you will find that the attraction for the armature is greatest at the ends of the magnet. but this part is silently work just the same. also." The ends of the magnet are called its and the central part that seems to have no magnetism is called the "equator. If you remove the soft iron "armature" or "keeper" from the end of the horseshoe magnet and then move it about over the whole magnet. and the location of these poles becomes quite an important matter in dealing with motors and dynamos.

tin. zinc. when placed near a magnet. 12. do not seem to pay the slightest attention to the magnet. and it is this property that makes it possible for the horseshoe magnet to hold its magnetism at all. With your horseshoe magnet. but it does not need to be discussed here. Magnetism is that queer something or other that magnets have and give out freely to surrounding bodies. has the property of holding quite a little of the magnetism when removed from the magnet. and when removed from the magnet they do the case of iron and steel. To see what ordinary things are acted upon by a magnet. take some- thing from the magnet. even if they do not hold the mag- netism afterwards . For the student who is working with motors and dynamos. Experiment 2 . Steel. Most bodies. and any other things you have at hand. copper." we shall find that the space about filled with "magnetic lines of force" and that objects placed in this field are bathed with invisible power of some sort called magnetism. 10. which is a modified form of iron. When we the "magnetic the magnet is take up the subject of "lines of force" and field. to see which are affected by the magnet. This matter has been taken up in some of the author's other books. it isn't necessary to stop and think about the etherwhirls and other theoretical discussions. Discussion. wood. in certain cases. try all of the different metals that you can find. Try iron. however not seem to have taken any magnetism with them. Substances that are attracted by a magnet are called "magnetic" substances. In and a few other things might be mentioned we have substances that are really affected and which. but a magnetic body is not necessarily a magnet.PERMANENT MAGNETISM 13 EXPERIMENT 2. Directions. 11. lead. glass.

which is nothing more than sheet iron covered with tin. is held back. what becomes of the magnetism acts like a "screen" to We shall see. As it will be impossible to give herein all of the elementary experiments on magnetism in connection with the work on motors. or most of it. wood and the other things through which magnetism can act are "transparent to magnetism. 3. if you try a sheet of tin in place of the paper. and various other things. Discussion. Now. or a little heap of iron filings upon a sheet of stiff paper EXPERIMENT and then move your horseshoe magnet about immediately under the paper. almost no magnetism will get through to attract the iron. as the covering on the copper wires used on motors and dynamos is either cotton or silk. the magnetism. If you put a small piece of iron wire 13. say that paper. and if he is not thor- . glass." for the power of the magnet can We pass through them. you will find that the magnetism is not so strong as in the case of the other things and that. you will see that the paper does not hold the magnetism back. Directions. you will also see that these are like- wise unable to keep the magnetism from reaching the iron. and this is a good thing. silk cloth is 15. if the tin be thick enough. To find through what substances magnetism will act. really In the case of the tin. for we must have some inactive parts in the motors and dynamos. Note. and why iron and magnetism. If you try thin pieces of wood. 14. the student is referred to any good text-book on the subject. further on. act through cotton The fact that magnetism can a very important one. cardboard.14 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT proved that all substances are not affected by this queer bath.

Directions. To see what is meant by the north pole of a magnet. as the little also called the "north-seeking" magnet has the power to point. erly EXPERIMENT 17. Making magnets from a magnet. After you have made a small bar magnet with a needle. The student should be provided with a small magnetic needle for testing the poles of his motors and dynamos. he should take up the subject and get at the bottom of it. or you can use your compass instead. EXPERIMENT 6. we The "magnetic needle" it has "pointing-power. we shall have a small straight magnet.PERMANENT MAGNETISM 1$ oughly familiar with such experiments. Directions. which also becomes a magnet. The steel has the power of holding the magnetism." and the other end is is its "south pole. the north when it of a magnet that points to floated or otherwise suspended is called its "north pole. you should experiment with them to find out the laws of magnetism." The north pole pole. and it can even pass some of it along to other pieces of steel. Attractions and repulsions of say that magnets.'' It is an easy matter to float this small bar magnet upon a cork in a dish of water to see if it will turn to any particular direction." and the "compass" work upon this principle and depend upon a small pivoted bar magnet for their action. EXPERIMENT 4. 5. 18. and this is called a "bar magnet. the north. 16. When a piece of steel is rubbed prop- upon a horseshoe magnet. If we rub a sewing-needle upon one of the poles of a permanent magnet. 19. One end The end is of it will always turn to Discussion. magnetism is given to the steel. Directions. and. If you try to touch the north pole .

Now if you dip the needle into iron filings you will find that you have made three poles. 20. Discussion. The attractions and repulsions of these magnets are strong enough to move a freelysuspended magnet. 7. and that we can make them north or south as we desire. finally. that is. the head of the needle with the south pole again. EXPERIMENT 21t Directions. to the end of the little floating bar that points to the north. and. It seems rather strange that we can magnet with three or more poles. finger while you touch its point with the south pole of your magnet. and hold it down with your Place a sewing-needle upon the table. which should be marked with a line or with an N. . They will be studied again when we take up experiments with the motor. for the filings will stick to it in three places. As will be seen when we come to the experiments upon little electromagnets. touch the middle part with the north pole. You should test these three places with your compass to find out whether the poles are north or south. Such poles are called "consequent poles. it is this action of attraction or repulsion that causes the armature of the electric motor to revolve. and we can have as many poles as there are "have a bar places touched with the magnet. Discussion. If you try the opposite poles. 22. you will find that they magnet attract each other. To see if we can make more than two poles in a bar magnet. but such is the case." and they are made use of in the construction of motors and dynamos.l6 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT of the horseshoe magnet. and to show that real motion can be produced by the action of one magnet upon the other. a north with a south. you will find that they actually repel each other. Lift the magnet straight from the needle.

and it is supposed that these molecules have the power to turn upon their axes when the magnet is rubbed over the steel. like the compass-needle. we draw one end of a bar magnet through the filings. If we place a little pile of iron filings upon a piece of paper and then draw a pencil or other unmagnetized thing lightly over it. Discussion. if. but the experiment with the filings should aid in understanding how they act under the influence of the magnet. as explained above. Now. and there will be nothing else that can be seen. We shall we can magnetize a piece of steel by using . 23. Whenever a magnet acts by contact upon the pile of filings. Each little piece of iron has been magnetized. in place of the pencil. To study the theory of magnetism. later. which are called molecules. ments that show that the pile of filings becomes magnetized and gets poles like any piece of iron. we shall see that something has happened besides the making of the grooves. that has been "saturated" with magnetism. Directions. we find that the filings have been brought into line and that they Most of the particles of point in the same direction. the pile of filings takes the place of the piece of steel. and. we say that the steel see. to watch the magnet disappear. Of course they are too small to be seen. When as many as possible of the particles of a piece of steel have been brought into line. filings have been made to change their first positions and take up new lines. 24. we shall find that the pencil has made some little furrows through the filings. In this case. while each piece of There are experifiling takes the place of a molecule. although it could not follow the magnet bodily. Every bar of steel is composed of very small particles. it has at least turned upon a pivot.PERMANENT MAGNETISM If EXPERIMENT 8.

we it find that this holds will lift quite a load magnetism very filings. Hard steel and soft steel. however. EXPERIMENT 9. Rub a short length of soft annealed upon your horseshoe magnet to magnetize it as you did the needle. and then test it by seeing how many iron filings it will lift. Discussion. 26. and that of the This power to retain the magnetism tivity. oughly magnetized. EXPERIMENT 27." is called "reten- or "coercive force. does not carry the magnet. .l8 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT the electric current instead of a permanent magnet. Each little molecule of the steel is supposed to be a very small magnet. and can understand be better than the other for certain elec- The fact that soft iron loses most of purposes. Directions. although the soft iron it wire is strongly attracted by the magnet. 25. Testing it again. you will find that it has very little magnetism. then place it upon a piece of iron and hammer it several times to jar its molecules out of line. 10. well. even before we try to bring it into line. away much magnetism when removed from In the case of the the steel. Try a needle again and compare iron wire the strength of this with that of the wire. To find whether soft iron will point in the permanently retain magnetism. We find that. magnetism as soon as it is removed from the action of a magnet makes it suitable for many electrical machines in which it is absolutely necessary to have it act in this way. Take a needle that has been thor- test its lifting-power with filings." From this we see the differ- how one might trical its ence between iron and steel at once. so that all that is really necessary is to have the magnet or the electricity all swing the molecules around so that they will same direction. Directions.

There are times where it is necessary to use soft steel or cast iron in order to get a medium retentivity. try the same thing with this and you will find that you can hammer out part of the magnetism . Again. which determines the hardness of the 11. Discussion. Now try again. The principal thing for the student to remember now is that it is important. that is. and. About residual magnetism. its retentivity is less than that of steel. Directions." and it is this magnetism that is made use of in the dynamo to start the production of electricity. before you strike it with the hammer. there is a slight tendency towards retentivity. When we wire and then pounded it it lost all of its magnetism. as it is this element when combined with the iron steel.PERMANENT MAGNETISM 19 is Now is take an ordinary wire nail. does it really hold net. It should now be clear that. Discussion. EXPERIMENT 29. as will be explained later. that some of the magnetism after it has been taken from the magnet? 30.and dynamos depends largely upon the amount of "carbon" in it. for wire has almost no retentivity. want hard to we make a permanent magnet. see lift a few iron filings. we should use good has the proper retentivity. when steel that places where we do not want magnetism to last. we should use the softest of iron. or practically all of it. and that. which made of what called soft steel. Even soft iron will show some indications of magnetism when it is first taken from the magif magnetized the soft iron with a hammer. in the case of . even if it does lose the greater part of it when pounded. we found that the magnetized wire will is. This magnetism that iron holds is called "residual mag- netism. try the same thing with a piece of soft iron wire and you will find that the 28. The choice of iron for making motors. and.

Test the needle for magnetism by seeing if it will lift any filings. also. swinging needle test the end of the wire for poles. 32. About induced magnetism. for some magnetism to remain in the iron after dynamo has been stopped. then move your horseshoe magnet around under the paper. Place an unmagnetized sewing-needle upon a piece of stiff paper. This needle is said to have been "magnetized by induction" that is. telegraph instruments and numberless other electrical machines depend upon this simple thing for their action and usefulness. and so we expected that the needle would move around by the pulling-effect of the magnet. About polarization and pole- 33. This effect is brought into play in every electromagnet when it is through the through the that energized by the electric current flowing coil of wire. without actual contact. We learned in Experiment 3 that magnetism will pass through paper. even touching it directly with a magnet. you will find that the end of the wire will lift filings. motors. 13. it held the magnetism very well and was the strong enough to lift almost as many filings as it did when it We was magnetized directly upon the magnet. Directions. EXPERIMENT 12. see from this that we can magnetize steel without . EXPERIMENT pieces. Discussion. If you place a soft iron wire about an inch long upon one pole of your horseshoe magnet so that it will point away from the magnet. it was magnetized at a distance. As the steel of the needle has considerable retentivity. many of the effects we now get would be impossible. With your when . Induction-coils. This is certainly one practical use of residual magnetism. dynamos.20 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT dynamos. If magnetism did not act air and at a distance. Directions. 31.

2. i. posite poles. as suggested in Fig. they are near enough to If you now hammer the wires a little to remove the residual magnetism and then place them upon the opfilings. when it was magnetized lift through the paper. becomes magnetized by induction. Try the same thing with a piece of paper between the magnet and the wire. pole-pieces are used on most every machine of this kind to lead the lines of force where they are most needed. The effect is A the same that as for the needle. when placed upon the pole of a magnet. as in Fig. and. we know it had poles at the end. you will find that both of the lower ends of the wires will lift filings and that they are of the same polar- 35. If you put two short lengths of soft upon the same pole of a magnet. . piece of iron. This wire is said to have been "polarized. Discussion. if you can lift 34. Directions. EXPERIMENT 14. they will still be able to lift but they will attract each other when near enough. By means of the compass-needle we find that the pole at the lower end of the wire is the same as that of the magnet to which it is attached. if This will be evident. if the wire hangs upon the north pole of the magnet. as they will repel each other act. to see filings." As will be seen look more thoroughly into the construcmotors and dynamos. To study combinations of poletion of when we pieces. iron wire ity. the lower end of the wire will also be a north pole. that is.PERMANENT MAGNETISM 21 placed upon the north and then upon the south pole of the magnet. even if it does not touch the magnet at the end. as the wire could iron." and the pieces of iron which take up these poles by being in contact with a magnet are called "pole-pieces.

and that there must be a pull upon the poles of the regular horseshoe magnet in their attempt to get nearer each other to shorten the distance the lines of force have to travel in getting from one pole to the other. Directions. 2 EXPERIMENT tinuous pole-piece. as indicated. 3. 13. a consebe made at the bend and we shall be small pieces of iron. place the two ends upon the poles of the magnet. This shows the necessity of having rigid polepieces on motors and dynamos so that they will keep the proper distance apart. If the wire be bent a little more. From the latter part of this experi- ment we see that the two movable poles tend to rush toward each other. Discussion. Discussion. showing If is that there was no pole at the bend of the wire.22 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT This might be expected from the information derived from Experiment 36. Experiment 14. i. In this continuous pole-piece there 38. we that can understand that it its poles are at the ends and has no power to attract near its equator. bend one piece as shown in Fig. 15. then test the curved part for magnetism to see if it will lift any filings.) 4. To study the effect of a con- In place of the two wires used in 37. small horseshoe magnet that we consider the wire a magnetized by induction. was no tendency to lift iron. Fig. lift quent pole will able to (Exp. as in Fig. .

many small motors. 3 Fig. 3." and we shall . you will find that this is more delicate than the filings and that the "magnetic field" reaches out into space on all sides of the magnet. you 40. then sprinkle some fine iron filings upon the paper. will see that they arrange themselves in lines and curves about the poles of the magnet. as did the bent wire of Fig. Directions. and that this is neces- We dynamo. as in the case of Fig. The picture made by the filings is called a "magnetic figure. ticles Tap the paper gently to assist the parof filings as they try to swing around. lines of force on their way from one pole to the other pass through certain coils of wire. To study the magnetic field of the horseshoe magnet. sary to produce motion in the motor or electricity in the Whenever the poles are joined by a metal strip. we want the lines of force to pass in great quantities between the poles or pole-pieces. and that they indicate roughly how far out the force of the magnet reaches. place the magnet upon a table. 4 EXPERIMENT 16.PERMANENT MAGNETISM 23 In the case of motors and dynamos with two poles. so we do not want the shall see that the pole-pieces to touch each other. put a piece stiff paper over it. 39. Discussion. If you have the proper filings. Remove the armature of the horseof shoe magnet. this strip is made of brass and not of iron. for iron would sidetrack some of the lines of force. If you place your compass-needle in various positions about the magnet.

high resistance. for convenience. 17. They seem strongest near the poles. Directions. they get into the same lines see We about in the as those taken by the compass-needle when it is moved field. and that. they are only too glad to hide themselves in the iron as they . by induction. when they are assisted by the tapping. 41. There were no well-marked curves directly over the armature. .24 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT fields use these to study the magnetic scribed in this book. we agree that they start from the north pole of the magnet and pass through the air to the south pole. and. many of them leak out of the sides of the poles and get past the armature but the greater part of them take the easy path through iron instead of the path through the air. Discussion. From this it is evident that the lines of force go through the iron armature instead of passing out through the air. but with soft-iron armature in place upon the poles. which offers a . of the motors de- filings from this experiment that the little particles of become magnets. swiftly pass around and around the circuit. The magnetism travels from one pole to the other in curved lines. Magnetic field with armature Lay the horseshoe its magnet upon the table as before. 42. and from the magnetic figures we see that there is quite a space about the ends of the magnet from which these to get to the south pole. then make its magnetic figure with the Study the space near the poles and armature and filings. Of course. lines pour in their wild rush EXPERIMENT in place. note whether the lines of force are as strong as the armature when was removed. and this indicates that at this point the lines of force do not leak out into the air on the contrary.

as before. and if airgaps have to be left. we can fill the space with soft iron. Lay the horseshoe the matches. The iron ring in this experiment acts . 44. and then put the armature so that it will press against the matches while trying to get to the poles. the air-gaps are made as small as practicable. was no This experiment should now make it clear why there pull upon the armature when it was placed at magnet in Experiment I. Directions. magnet upon the table. Make the magnetic figure of this arrangement and note especially what the filings do over the spaces occupied by 18. Discussion. Place the horseshoe magnet upon the table again. Directions. indistinct? Do they seem prominent. thus making 19.PERMANENT MAGNETISM 25. 5. EXPERIMENT 43. as in the case of the armatures of motors and dynamos. or are they few and 46. Sprinkle iron filings upon the paper placed over this arrangement and note especially how the lines of force act over the hole in the ring. EXPERIMENT 45. the resistance to the lines of force as small as possible. Wherever there age of lines of force we have poles. but this time lay an iron ring against the An ordinary iron washer will do for experiment. If we want to carry the mag- of their way netism across any space without losing very much in power. Discussion. this Hollow armatures. as in Fig. poles. do not get poles and a pulling-effect unless the lines of force come out into the air on their way from the the equator of the horseshoe We north pole to the south pole. is a leak- Lines of force and air-gaps. place a couple of matches against its poles. Magnetic lines of force will go out to get to a piece of iron on their way around the circuit between the poles if the distance to travel in the air is thus shortened.

might seem to the student that the of force should pass around through the curved parts of the magnets and not rush across the air-space at the middle of the combination. In large machines it is important to have the rapidly revolving armatures hollow to give them the required ventilation and to allow the proper wiring.26 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT very much like the regular armature. 6 also made hollow. It 48. Place two horseshoe magnets upon the table with their like poles together. The field seems to be particularly weak over the hole in the ring. here. Directions. Note especially whether the lines of force pass across the space between the poles or whether the field seems weak lines there. and this indicates that the lines of force bend around the hole to follow the iron. which are We Fig. 20. EXPERIMENT tion of 47. as indicated in Fig. To study a certain combina- two magnets. have. on large machines. 5 Fig. Discussion. 6. inasmuch as it seems to take most of the lines of force and to make an easy path for them. then make the magnetic figure of the combination as described before. and so they do not leak out into the air to attract the filings. the same thing on a small scale as in the round armatures of dynamos and motors. a solid armature would be too heavy. Besides. But if you consider the fact that these lines are streaming out of both north .

Diagrams will be given later to show somewhat two the route of the lines of force in such combinations. .PERMANENT MAGNETISM 2/ poles in their endeavor to get to the south poles. you can see why they are only too willing to rush across the short air-gap to the desired pole. Many of the larger motors and dynamos are similar in construction to the plan given in these magnets.

variety is given so that the student can more easily find out what he wants for Do A his special work. a short discussion of them will be given herein." experiments can be purchased in case the student does wishes to make his not wish to make it. he is referred to the author's book on "ElecAll of the apparatus needed for the trical Handicraft. 50. a dry battery being shown at the 28 . 49. While it is taken for granted that the student is familiar with all of the simple apparatus that is required for doing experiments with motors and dynamos. 7 illustrates the use of a simple strap key. own apparatus for these and other experiments. Style A. as some of the pieces used by In case the reader the author are of special design.CHAPTER III EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS EXPLAINING APPARATUS USED IN CONNECTION WITH MOTOR AND DYNAMO EXPERIMENTS.) not get the idea from the numerous pieces described that all of them are needed. Fig. (See list at the back of this book. however. Strap Key. Experimental Apparatus.

Fig. which is made of nickel-plated brass straps. 9 piece. 8 is a top view of a very handy strap key. the spring of the strap separates the two parts and the circuit is broken again. The whole is to be screwed to the table or to the wall by wood screws that are to pass . holes at the right and left are eyelet holes. all The being mounted upon a narrow. as Fig. 8 soon as the pressure is removed. the eyelets also being nickel-plated. the current can flow. and. bright red base. because two of the metal parts are forced together.EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS right 29 and an electromagnet at the left. with black finger- Q Fig. When the fingerpiece of the key is depressed.

and then. 52. 84 in "Electrical Handicraft") made with nickel-plated brass straps. Fig. 51. you would like to have the current flow for some time without holding the key down. 10 shows a form of key with which this can be done. black finger-piece. Wire having red SW connects the underside of the nickel-plated screw binding- . The current enters the key at I and leaves at O.30 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT through the two holes. the wires from the battery or small dynamo being fastened under the heads of the screws. The screw-head shown at the center is the head of the adjusting-screw. Strap Key. In some experiments you want to send intermittent currents. Strap Key. 10 of key (Apparatus No. and spring binding-posts. 9 shows a different form Fig. Style B. Fig. when the key-strap is depressed. with Side Switch. perhaps. which is used to adjust the height of the brass key-strap above the lower contact. This has no side switch. all mounted upon a black base cleats at the bottom and nickel-plated corner nails.

it is a very handy form for Double-Key Current-Reverser. and black finger-pieces. which is suggested is very useful in motor experiments. and beis so constructed that is it can be used in many of nickel-plated brass straps. 128 here as cause it it in "Electrical Handicraft"). rest with the underside of the pivot of the small Now. I. upon the CP. This little reverser is so made that it can be used also for a key. current will pass out through O. push-button. . when the switch is turned so as to contact-point. This reverser made red cleats. In Fig. all being mounted upon a dead-black base with bright ways. even if the key does not touch the lower This is the sort of key that is used in telegraph strap. 3! switch-arm. have the top view experiments. nickel-plated screw binding-posts.EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS post. work. and two-point switch. It really consists is of two or three pieces of apparatus. ii No. we of a current-reverser (Apparatus many n Fig. and 53. Both of the key-straps press up against the upper strap unless depressed to touch the lower strap marked I. and extremely handy.

32 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT 54. 13 shows the full-size top view of a two-point switch (Apparatus No. now and out through It will cell. shall see that with the aid of this reverser and We with motors of the proper design. bon of the be- Fig. dry cell is shown at the right of the figure. How this reverser works. 55. the current will pass 2 be pressed far enough to strike the lower along Key 2. Two-Point Switch. with this piece of A wires leading from it to the two binding-posts C and Z of the reverser.. the switch-arm . which does not 4. which still enters the reverser at C. will pass to 3 and out at Y. 12 shows how apparatus can be used to reverse the direction of the current in an electromagnet or other coil of wire. that by this simple arrangement the cur3 is When Key rent can be made to pass through the coil in either di- rection by pressing the proper key. then pass from 3 to and back to 4. Fig. we can reverse motors and do various interesting experiments. and then back to the pressed. the current. When it the current comes from the carI. C standing for the carbon and Z for the zinc of the cell. 12 If Key touch strap. 62 in "Electrical Handicraft") that can be used to advantage in some of the motor experiments. It is evident. then. X to the coil the reverser at Y. can go no farther than Strap cause the other straps are above it. Fig. The five holes show the location of the nickel-plated eyelets. cell.

14 current enters the switch at Q. the battery being replaced by the dynamo. the Fig. and these connect the two eyelets at the ends with those upon which the WA WB switch-arm is turned. Connections are made by means of screws put into the two end eyelets and the middle Fig. for example. Rheostats are adjustable resistances that are so arranged that different lengths of resistance-wire can be thrown into the circuit by merely turning a switch-arm to the desired point. from which it will pass to the desired instrument by turning the switch-arm to the proper contact-point. This may also be used to switch the current from a small dynamo. when Fig. Numerous kinds of rheostats are . a bell or motor. the wires being held under the screw-heads the switch is screwed to the table. 14 shows one use for this switch.EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS being 33 at the middle. In either case. 56. Dotted lines and represent wires under the bright-red base. 13 one. in which the current from a dry cell may be turned to either of two things as.

34 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT made. 15 reached than to have no such changes. 124 in "Electrical Handicraft"). 57. Some of the small made that they so gradually increase or decrease the speed of a motor that there are no distinct changes or jumps. Five. but the ones herein described have been designed for students' use. and it is more fun to have the motor sing a different tune as each distinct speed and This is the plan used on trolley-cars commercial power-plants.Point Rheostat. Fig. vary the brilliancy of the electric lamps and do a number of things. in other a neat and useful five-point rheostat. This instrument can be placed in the battery or small dynamo circuit by . With these rheostats we can regulate the speed of motors. It is much more interesting to have rheostats are so the motor leap ahead a little as each contact-point is i i \ 1*2Fig. and that is why this sort of rheostat is used in these experiments. 15 shows the top of is reached. the resistance-wires under the base being shown by dotted lines (Apparatus No.

about one-half of the resistance will have been cut out.EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS 35 posts joining the wires to the nickel-plated screw bindingand Y. two parts of the resistance-wire will be cut out of the circuit. By moving K K to contact-point 3. W it can leave If we now move to the second nickel-plated contactpoint 2. it will be obliged to pass through the entire length of the re- Fig. thus reducing the resistance. and when K rests upon contact-point 5. 16 sistance-wire and out through wire before the instrument by way of binding-post Y. the current will pass from X to Y with almost no re- . If the current enters at when the X X switch-arm is in the position shown in the figure.

and we shall see how the general action of most rheostats. The fiveregulate the current from two dry when stat" should be used. 17 No. 59. In conin nection with small lighting-plants run on the current from small dynamos. as. 125 this in "Electrical Handicraft"). 16. the "St." When current is derived from small dynamos. Eleven-Point Rheostat. Current Detectors. as cells The resistance of more than that of the has been designed to work with three dry quite a little connection with small motors and for experimental work with miniature incandescent lamps. the "Eleven-point Rheo- They are mounted upon appearance. as the contact-points and other parts are nickel-plated. the two kinds described herein can be used in the experiments.36 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT This is sistance. We shall see by the experi- . Motor No. for example. the is the same (Apparatus Fig. this rheostat can be used to regulate the brilliancy of the lamps. is Fig. is rheostat built in a way that a little different Although this from general principle of the two that used for the five-point rheostat just described. is instrument it other. and it is also useful in protecting lamps and other apparatus current. J. 58. dead-black bases and have a point rheostat cells is fine designed to they are used to run small motors. i. from too much This instrument looks very well when mounted upon a switchboard.

Screws are used to fasten the detector to the table. The coil is mounted upon a Fig. of narrow spring steel and is The needle is made pivoted at the center. (For the construction of galvanoscopes and delicate de- tectors see Chap.EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS ments upon acts like a this 37 subject that an ordinary coil of wire electricity passes magnet when a current of through and that the electromagnetism produced by the coil acts upon the pivoted needle-magnet and causes it to move. when the current is turned on. Fig. 18 shows a handy form of detector that has the coil and nickel-plated spring binding.") . 22 in "Electrical Handicraft"). the circuit-wires being held under the heads of the screws. as it does not have to be screwed to the table. and it is very inexpensive. This can be set anywhere. 18 narrow base. 17 shows a form of current detector that will do for many experiments. 3 in "Electrical Handicraft. Uses for these detectors will be given under the proper experiit. Simple Current Detector. ments. as shown. the ends of the wire being fastened to eyelets which also act as binding-posts. We really have two magnets acting upon each other.posts mounted upon a black base (Apparatus No. Handy Current Detector. Fig. 61. 60.

will find that the needle of the detector will will 38 you go back to close the circuit at its you swing rapthe key. and one of the current detectors OC. 63. and that its north pole always pointed in the direction in which the lines of force pass on their way from the north to the south pole of the magnet. we saw that a magnetic needle was affected.CHAPTER IV ELECTROMAGNETISM TEN EXPERIMENTS ON ELECTROMAGNETISM THAT AID IN UNDERSTANDING THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF MOTORS AND DYNAMOS. 21. that is EXPERIMENT needle. In Experiment 16. Electric current and magnetic circuit similar to If you make up a that shown in Fig. We must now try some experiments that will show how magnetism and electricity work together in motors and dynamos. a key. 19 consisting of a battery DC. and that you original position as soon as . Directions. 62. idly each time it just described. Electromagnetism is the name given to magnetism produced by electricity. when placed in the field of a permanent magnet.

you can . reverser. have. wire as shown. here the two magnetic fields acting upon each other like the two fields of two permanent magnets. 65. you will be. just the opposite way from 23. is pressed. Directions. able to reverse the current in the coil at will. Magnetism from hollow If Fig.ELECTROMAGNETISM 39 open the circuit again. in this simple coil of wire on the detector. magnetism is built up in it in that in which it is built when coils the current flows in the opposite direction. The needle. 67. then. 64. we shall find that the needle will turn in a direction de- pending upon the particular lever that 66. 22. with your compass-needle a short distance away. Discussion. 21. and a hollow coil of you arrange a battery. as suggested in Fig. of course. and if this coil be placed in an east and west line. Reversing the current in the put a current-reverser in If we now the circuit in place of the key. Directions. best of all. Discussion. 20 EXPERIMENT detector. From this we see that the coil of the detector becomes a small electromagnet the instant the current passes through it and that. We Fig. it loses its have magnetism as soon as the circuit is opened. the coil should be placed in a north and south line. EXPERIMENT of wire. 20. that is. should be directly under the coil when it is at rest. If the current passes through We the coil in one direction. a plan by which we can tell the direction of the current.



study the change of magnetism in the coil as it reverses. See how far from the coil the needle will be
68. Discussion.

Here we have merely a

per wire without any iron, and


coil of copget poles with

and repulsions for the compass-needle every time the current passes. It is this property that coils of wire have that makes them so valuable in all electrical


Fig. 21

Fig. 22



coils of

wire with cores.



Slip an iron core through the hollow in the last experiment and see whether the


upon the compass-needle

more or


than be-

70. Discussion.

When we

place an iron core through

we get what magnet, and we find that
a coil of wire,



an electro-

the core adds greatly to the

strength of the magnet. have already seen that air does not readily conduct the lines of force, and so we may expect that when the


lines of force

have to push


way through long


spaces, the strength of the



Soft iron

a splendid conductor of these lines of force, so when the core is in place the "magnetic flux," as these lines are also called, can rush through the core on their way from



the south to the north pole of the electromagnet. This reduces the air-trip about one-half and thus greatly increases the strength of the electromagnet.



Polarity of coils.
notice the direction of the cur-




passes around the coil to see whether it goes in the same direction as that taken by the hands of a
rent as

clock or in the opposite direction,


shall find that


Fig. 23

certain direction of current always produces a certain If you take the trouble to follow this up, as sugpole.

gested in Fig. 22, you will find that when the current passes in a right-handed manner, as in the figure, the
left-hand end of the coil will be a south pole. If you face the right-hand end of the coil, the current is seen
(see direction of the arrows) to pass around it in an anti-clockwise direction, and this produces a north pole.


shall want to know what pole we are expected to when we experiment with the electromagnets on
fix this rule

motors, so the student should his mind.

thoroughly in



About horseshoe electromag-



you have a pair of electromagnets-



already wound and joined, test the poles with a compassneedle to see if one pole is north and the other south.

Also note the way
the magnets.


which the current enters each of

73. Discussion. Fig. 23 shows a side view of two electromagnets with the wires properly joined to get the best results; that is, they are so wound that one will be

north and the other south


the current passes, as

shown by

(See "Electrical Handicraft" for details for making different kinds of electromagthe arrow.


Fig. 24


you notice the way the

coils are

wound, and

also the

the current enters the coils, you will find that when looking down upon them, as in Fig. 24, a north pole is produced when the current flows through the wire in an


anti-clockwise direction, and that the pole will be south when it flows in a clockwise direction. This was men-

tioned in one of the previous experiments.



Regarding the joining of


If you have an experimental electro74. Directions. magnet of the right design, you can try the strength of the two when arranged as suggested in Fig. 23, and then

again with a piece of iron joined to the lower ends of is there such a difthe cores, as shown in Fig. 25. ference in the strength?


the combination would be much weaker. This fact is considered in the construction of motors and field dynamos. 25 full size. lines of force find it much easier to travel through iron than through the air. making the Fig. shows a useful size for experimental magnets. as we shall soon see. thus making a good contact. Fig. 25 75. If it were not for the yoke. At this point the lines and of force pass out into the air on all sides of the magnet find their way to the south pole near by. 25 of force very strong between the poles." makes a complete path for the magnetic flux as it passes from the south pole to the north pole. A careful study of ordinary electromagnets will aid you in seeing how things work when you take up the motors. Discussion. called a "yoke. The yokes should be made of soft iron. 26 (Apparatus No. 115 in "Electrical Handicraft"). so this iron. 27 shows a larger pair of mounted magnets arranged esFig. and these. are shown mounted in Fig.ELECTROMAGNETISM 43 The strips of iron shown in Fig. and for students' use the author prefers yokes that are made up of a number of strips. are held firmly between the base and the ends of the You have seen that cores. .

provided you have any kind of a current. tromagnet. a key and a single magnet placed on its side. Directions. EXPERIMENT 28. it. arrange a sheet of glass over the poles by laying it upon books then sprinkle iron filings upon the glass and tap . 26 Fig. and that you have perfect control of this field by the use of a key placed anywhere in the circuit. and how the lines of force had in the case of the appear the instant you close the circuit. you will be able to make an interest- ing magnetic figure. 27 permanent horseshoe magnet. Notice how you can make the field disappear when you open the circuit. Magnetic figure of single will elec- If you arrange your apparatus as suggested in Fig. Discussion. 116 in "Electrical Handicraft"). or dynamo. EXPERIMENT 29. 28. 77. You will find that there this is a much stronger field between the poles of magnet than you Fig. to give the current.44 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT pecially for experimental work (Apparatus No. as previously explained. Directions. nets. 76. which includes a battery. 78. like those Magnetic figure of electromag- If you have a pair of electromagnets shown and discussed in the last experiment. .

27). the each other. then make the magnetic figure of this combination and see whether the field is strong or weak between the is. current will pass around them in the same direction that will . Do so that they will both be north or south poles. poles. lines of force repel When not adapted for use in motors and dynamos. the two poles are the same. The stronger the field between the poles on a motor. 45 field is Discussion. this. as there we want as strong a field as is possible. . we get a figure much like that produced by a straight bar magnet. EXPERIMENT poles. the stronger the attractions and repulsions of the armature-magnets for the poles. Directions. If you compare this figure with that of the pair of electromagnets. This arrangement is 81. If you have a pair of mounted electromagnets so arranged that you can change the wiring Fig. Discussion. without polepieces or other additional parts. 29 pay you to join them up so that the (Fig. This shows us that the strong at the poles of the electromagnet and that. thus weakening the attraction for outside pieces of iron. you will see what part the yoke plays 30.ELECTROMAGNETISM 79. in saving the resistance to the lines of force. Magnetic figure of two like 80. 28 it Fig.

as retentivity.CHAPTER V MOTION AND CURRENTS EIGHT EXPERIMENTS SHOWING HOW MOTION CAN BE DUCED BY ELECTRIC CURRENTS. as shown in Fig. EXPERIMENT tracted strongly by this simple the electromagnetism of the coil. Try both poles. Even by 84. then suspend a short length of soft iron wire by means of a piece of thread directly in front of the opening. Directions. and which. 21. In place of the iron wire of the last experiment. Directions. Close the circuit for an instant and see what happens to the wire. EXPERIMENT 32. Discussion. iron wire as soon as the current flows then. Motion produced with a hollow coil of wire and a bar magnet. use a magnetized sewing-needle and see the effect when the poles are brought near the hole in the coil. 83. has been explained. has but 46 little The fact . because the magnetic field of the small permanent magnet is stronger than that of the 85. as soon as the wire gets poles. 82. Arrange a hollow coil of wire. have a stronger effect than in the case of the iron wire. I'RO- low 31. We have here what might be called a sucking effect. it becomes a magnet and is atcoil of . We wire. Discussion. Motion produced with a holwire and a piece of soft iron. arrangement we can produce motion. which was magnetized by induction. for the iron wire will be drawn into the We have a polarizing effect upon the coil instantly.

shows that the coil has a particular pole at the end used. We have. both atin in tractions and repulsions shows what takes place rapid succession. you can get some interesting results. Directions. 29 suggests a method of supporting your electromagnet H. 89. The attractions . Fig. in this experiment. and this the motor. Motion produced with an electromagnet and a horseshoe magnet. and the other parts. Discussion. Motion produced with an electromagnet and a piece of iron. 30 shows an arrangement by which. with the reverser. EXPERIMENT 33. EXPERIMENT 35. EXPERIMENT 34. try a good permanent magnet. Try the effect of turning the current on and off at the key. the last experiment. Try reversing the current in the coil until you get the best results. 88. Directions. 30 piece of iron.MOTION AND CURRENTS that one end of the needle is 47 re- attracted and the other pelled by the coil. Fig. See if you can show both attractions and repulsions. which should be held a short distance from H. 1C represents a Fig. Directions. 86. the wires IE and OE being connected to a key and battery. Motion produced with an tromagnet and a bar magnet. elec- In place of the piece of iron used in 87.

holding E in the hand. Discussion. nets. Directions. we have the see dynamo. We In the case of the two electromagmain parts of an electric motor or from this that we can get an attrac- depending upon the poles that is exactly what happens in the motor. Rotary motion produced with tion or a repulsion at will. as in the experiment. 31 we have two in one of them being supported electromagsuch a manner that will swing easily. EXPERIMENT 37. are near each other. again. 91. EXPERIMENT electromagnets. nets. and this a hollow coil and a permanent magnet. The current that comes from the and B. 21 you in motion you can get rotary the magnetic needle by properly turning on will find that by this plan and off the current at the reverser. . Try this in different ways. it 36. 90.40 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT and repulsions follow each other very rapidly in the revolving armatures. Fig. so as to magnetize both battery branches at coils at the same time. Motion produced with two In Fig. Directions. If you will now refer to 92. with the poles of A E and H alike and unlike. The only thing lacking here is some plan by which we can automatically turn the current on and off. but of course the motion is always in one direction instead of in opposite directions.

we can get rotary motion and regulate it pretty well by turning on the current at the right time. 32 and a compass-needle. Discussion. and have a key. Fig. We might say that we have in this apparatus a very small motor. we arrange our apparatus as suggested in Fig. but in this we really have a rotary motion. 49 In chapter we produced and all of the other experiments in this motion. but it still lacks the one important feature of being able to regulate rent. its own cur- . battery a permanent magnet If 94. Discussion. Directions.MOTION AND CURRENTS 93. it is this that we want in the regular motor. a small nail wound with insulated wire will do for the electromagnet. EXPERIMENT 38. 32. Rotary motion produced with and an electromagnet. 95.

that motion can be produced in many ways by the attractions and repulsions of magnets no matter whether they be permanent magnets or electromagnets. We have seen. depending upon the design of the machine.CHAPTER VI ELECTRIC MOTORS IN GENERAL 96. move. as they are generally a part of the base of the There are many forms in which these field- magnets are made. these become strong electromagnets and they either attract or repel the electromagnets produced in . we need a current nets can be of electricity to energize the coils of wire. In this way we can get powerful magnets. The Field-Magnets on all ordinary motors do not machine. and with the aid of polepieces point. their magnetism being under perfect control. in the numerous experiments that have been suggested. Now that we have mentioned the broad principle upon which motors work. Simple Action of Motors. When a current passes through the coils of the fieldmagnets. we really the whole thing. including the cores. let us take up the parts of a simple motor in detail to learn just how they do work. it is evident that to get the best results. 97. mean When we speak of field-magnets. by a plan to regulate the poles. As electromagmade much stronger than permanent magnets. we can lead the magnetism to just the proper Then. and still they are very similar to each other after all. \ve can get either attractions or repulsions to produce a constant rotary motion. the coils and the pole-pieces.

F for the field (where the lines of force pass through the armature when it is in place). kinds of windings. and although the second looks different from the first. 33. used. coils of wire magnetize the cores. however. but tipped upon its side. 35. for convenience. 33 Fig. R the coils. Armatures are made in many ways with as many . 34 Fig. 98. from the south pole through the two yokes Y to the This form of field is like that discussed in Experiment 20. In Fig. and Y for the yokes. and in this way we magnets. S for the space between the ends of the poles. Figs. In these drawings all parts are omitted for clearness. in which two horseshoe magnets were Fig. we have a different form. but the general principle is the same that is. in which the lines of force have two paths to travel on their way north pole. P for the pole-pieces. 34 and 35 show three shapes of field-magnets that are commonly used on small motors.ELECTRIC MOTORS IN GENERAL 51 the armature by the same current or by a part of the same supplied current. except the field-magnets. In the three illustrations the lettering has been made the same. get electromagnets that attract and repel the fieldThe coils of wire must be well insulated from . several coils and pole-pieces being used. it is really the same as the first. in which C stands for the coil and L for the ends of of wire. 35 and it is a common form for the field-magnets of large motors and dynamos.

We shall take up one or two special forms of armatures when we discuss the special motors. but so fastened that they will turn with the shaft. but they should not press too hard upon it. current entering the motor through one brush and leaving by the other. but. Most of wound by the series method. Commutators are devices for changing the direc- tion of the current in the armature-coils as they revolve.52 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT and the connections must be the iron of the armature. made proper way to give the desired poles. this device is necessary. The brushes which feed all of the commutator bars as they revolve. smaller motors that are described in this book are . as this would retard the motion qf small motors on account of too much friction. The Brushes lead the current to the coils. commutator bars and thus to the are stationary and gently press upon the commutator as it revolves with the shaft. These consist of bars of copper. The brushes should make a firm con- tact with the commutator. but some of those The that are a little larger are shunt-wound. called commutator bars. The ends of the armature-coils are joined to the commutator bars in such a manner as to allow the current from one bar and leave it by way of one If the armature did not revolve. it would be an easy matter to get the current in and out of the coils. there are two principal ways in which small motors are wound. and these are called the "series" the smaller motors are and the "shunt" windings. so that the desired poles will be made. which are insulated from each other and from the shaft of the machine. Methods of Winding. in the 99. Most small machines have but two brushes. tion. 100. as we must have a constant rotary moto enter a coil of the other bars. As we shall see in some of the experiments that follow. 101.

Wherever we have an attraction with direction. we get a repulsion where we previously had an attraction. for example. It would seem. of course. Reversing Motors.) 102. This requires some form of reverser. and this is a great advantage to the stu- when it comes to really understanding how things work. without reversing it in the armature. 103. When two or more . and so we have the same effects of attractions and repulsions as before. in fact. that if we reverse the current entering a small motor. When we reverse the current in one part and not in the other. direction. This with all of the ordinary small motors designed so that they can be reversed and when we reverse the current we change all of the poles in both just the trouble for they are not the armature and field-magnets. upon first dent thought. (See experiments for discussions of these two methods.ELECTRIC MOTORS IN GENERAL 53 so designed that they can be used either series-wound or shunt-wound. we say that these coils are in series. these motors have been arranged in this way by the author for the special use of students." (See experiments with Motor No. as we shall see when we is take up one of the small motors in detail. This is not the case. we must have them so constructed that we can reverse the current in the field. we again get an reversed. the motor should reverse at once. however. and in this way the motor has to turn in the opposite direction. 37 so that the current which passes through one of them has to also go on through the other before it can return to the battery. the current flowing in one attraction with the current and this makes a constant rotation in the one To get the motors to reverse. so connected with the motor that all of this can be done.) If we have two coils of wire arranged as indicated in Fig. Coils in "Series. I.

" or shunt that one of them is a "shunt" of the other. 38 we have two coils so arranged that the current coming from any source branches into two different parts at C. all the resistance of that of any of the branches alone. Coils in "Shunt. of the branches together is less than When the branches are all carrying current. We A is. for the same current has to go through all of coils are In Fig. the electricity has more than one path. 37 Fig. a branch. 38 coil F. one part return- them. in other words. and the other part through coil say that these two coils are in "parallel. each branch gets a part of the current and really. carry . or. 104." F Fig. one after the other. and when a wire branches into two or more parts. there is more copper to it. ing to Z through A.54 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT arranged in series. the resistance of all of them taken together is equal to the sum of their separate resistances.

(See Chap. All of the motors described herein are made of the best materials by skilled workmen. After considerable 55 . 9. for he then really has two machines in one. There are many good motors upon the market. it has been thought best to give them numbers and to refer to them by these numbers. 39) is designed for students and others who want a small motor for ex- perimental purposes. the author has sary. and this is a great advantage for the student. for it is not enough to have a motor that will simply go around. but space will not permit of a description of all of them. some of the motors being those already upon the market. and w here special dey signs have been given.CHAPTER VII PRACTICAL EXPERIMENTS WITH MOTORS 105. 1. As the motors used for these experiments differ somewhat in shape and construction. we have something that will do all that ordinary motors will do. Some of the motors can be used as dynamos. as well as for all of the regular work that any small motor can do. Small Motors. so many details will not be necesIn the experiments which follow. when it comes to experimental work. chosen small motors that seem to him to be best adapted to the use of students. This motor (Fig. and as the general principles are the same in all of them. thus giving us something upon which we can depend. and as we shall have to refer to them frequently.) 106. and more besides. and some being of special design to make them more useful to the student. Motor No.

besides. but it will be found best. As it has a three-pole armature. This change of direction and regulation of speed is of the greatest value when you want to run small toys and The four nickel-plated bindmounted upon the framework of the motor. and he believes that it can be used in more ways than any other motor of equal cost. etc. so that the motor itself can be removed from the base and various mechanical effects. etc. and not upon the wooden base. One cell of battery will run this motor at high speed. thus making it possible to regulate the direction of rotation and. With it are furnished one long and two short nickel-plated brass connectingstraps. ing-posts are used in different ways. One of the special features of this motor is that it is so designed that it can be used on a circuit with a current-reverser. It is an efficient motor for its size. and it is well made and strong. rheostat. the author decided that this would be the form and construction for an all-around small motor. especially where you want to run toys or the fan.. thus reducing the strain on the cells and in- creasing their life i Motor No.56 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT best experimenting.) stands three and one-half inches high. remounting this it upon toys. and it is so arranged that a fan can be put on without removing the pulley. (See Chap. to arrange the batteries according to the requirements. . to control the speed while running in either direction. In way it will still retain the ability to reverse. it will start promptly as soon as the current is turned on. as is usually the case. is considerably. It enamel with nickel-plated trimmings. with which various connections can be convefinished in black niently made for the experiments. and it gives a very good idea of the general construction and action of large motors. 10. The armature-shaft carries a pulley.

and it may even hit upon the field-magnets as it turns. the current coming . 39 be very careful not to bend the brushes and to so center the armature when putting in the screws that it will turn freely. 5/ Taking Motor No. 40. Directions. i and arrange it in circuit with a reverser and a dry battery. remove the armature of Motor No. Fig. Following the directions in paragraph 107. all 1 Apart. This must be done with care or the armature can not revolve as it should. this being called the back bearing-strap. being careful to have your connections as shown. Carefully pull the place so as not to lose them. is In order to make a study of this motor. EXPERIMENT magnets. To test for poles of the field- 108. as in Fig. armature . armature out and put the screws back in In replacing the armature. 39. necessary is to remove the and to do this simply take out the two small that screws that hold the strap-bearing at the pulley-end of the shaft. As previously explained.PRACTICAL EXPERIMENTS WITH MOTORS 107.

EXPERIMENT 40. magnetism without passing any current through the coil. The student should note that when the current enters the left-hand binding-post it passes through the coil in a clockwise direction as you face the left-hand end of the coil. From the results a comparison made with Experiment 25. We have here a good example of pole-pieces. 110. Discussion. and note which pole-piece attracts the north pole of the compass-needle. if this were not the case. which lead the lines of force up from the ends of the coil to a place where they can stream through the armature-core when in the pole-pieces. To test for residual magnetism Having performed Experiment 39.58 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT from the carbon of the cell cannot get beyond the reverser until one of the keys is pressed. as is shown by this experiment in fact. 40 tion should be when you reverse it. repeat the experiment and press the right-hand key of the reverser. This will be taken up more fully in "The Study of Dyna. the dynamo could not start to generate a current as soon as it is revolved. test the poles for it is in place. 109." . Hold a compass-needle near one of the pole-pieces and then near the other as you press the left-hand key of the reverser for a moment. Directions. Discussion. 111. mos by Experiment. The iron used in the construction of motors and dynamos holds some of the magnetism after the current ceases to flow. When you have decided which pole-piece is a north pole. and in an anti-clockwise direc- Fig.

is in place evident that is when the lifting-power small. and again test the Fig. see if you press one of the keys of the reverser. comparing it with the results of Experi- ment 41. Directions. moment 42. so as not to overwork test the lifting-power of is in place. Directions. study the magnetic field of the field-magnets with the armature in place. EXPERIMENT To In this way the pole-pieces can be used to hold a piece of cardboard in a horizontal position. pieces of iron. 112. With the armature removed. holding the base of the motor in a small vise. It is 114. letting the only. EXPERIMENT the field-magnets 113. 41 ing power. we come to the conclusion that there are not so many lines of force leaking into the air now as there were when the armature was out of the field. and as you can lift the armature when shown in Fig. Discussion. To test the lifting-power of the field-magnets.PRACTICAL EXPERIMENTS WITH MOTORS 59 EXPERIMENT 41. Let us study this more fully in the next experiment. Directions. Arrange your apparatus as shown in Fig. 42. To when the armature Slip the armature back into place lift- without screwing on the bearing. and all can be held . Try other current pass for a the cell. 43. 41. as in the above experiments. the armature and from the pre- vious discussions. 115.

the lines of force merely have to jump across the small air-gaps. when the armature is there. Discussion. following the the armature is revolving and the . 117. because the lines of force pass through the iron of the armature more easily than through the air. and.60 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT firmly if the two little screws that usually fasten the bearing-strap be put through small holes in the cardboard and screwed into place. to keep the filings from falling through. the but with the armature removed. To test the magnetic field of the field-magnets with the armature removed. Arrange as for the last experiment. of a pair of fieldis more evident when When through the iron core. EXPERIMENT 116. A small piece of paper can be pasted over the slot when the cardboard is in place. 42 Fig. Directions. Make Fig. and the bearing-strap may be turned out of the the magnetic figure of the field with iron filings. When the armature stands still. way. tapping the cardboard as previously explained. the lines of force pass nearly straight easiest path. small slit will be necessary to allow the cardboard to be pushed beyond the shaft be- A tween the pulley and the nickel-plated bearing-strap. and again netic figure with filings. I the armature is removed. is make magit From the last field two experiments evident that the magnetic magnets like that on Motor No. 43 44.

test the armature for magof Remove the armature Motor pulley-end of the shaft into the hole in the front bearing-strap. With i No. not generate a current. From this it is evident that the electromagnets produced by a current passing through the armature-coils are quite strong. The chief thing to keep in mind is that the thousands of lines of force are threading through the armature and its coils when case the motor they revolve. Making permanent magnets With the field-magnets you can small permanent magnets out of pieces of steel. leaving it on but for a moment each time to save the battery. and with the other hand touch the remaining wire to the other two bars in succession to see if the electromagnets of the armature can lift iron. if you allow the current to pass through the coil. Directions. etc. make Various other experiments can be done with these electromagnets. 119. EXPERIMENT 46. these lines of force are changed in their course. as shown in Fig. Discussion. and that if this were not the would not revolve and the dynamo would 45.PRACTICAL EXPERIMENTS WITH MOTORS 6l motor slightly is running regularly. 118. Directions. EXPERIMENT with the motor. To netism. 43. and that they are capable It must of creating a decided pull upon pieces of iron. the armature being removed. . 120. Hold one of the wires from a battery upon one of the commutator bars.. needles. but this need not be taken into account in these small motors. but some sort of a key should be in the circuit so that the current can be regulated. and slip the books or blocks build up a little platform under the core of the armature so that you can place nails or other small pieces of iron near the core.

greater. This should be done for convenience. and so on around. Part Turn a diagram and mark your results.62 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT if x also be evident that the field-magnets are properly still magnetized. so that the pole con- Fig. following the current in your mind. as the screw will act as a guide and enable you is to keep the facts clear. will enter the by way of wire C. the wire from the zinc being marked Z and that from the carbon C. and return to the cell through the right bar. 44 taining the small screw will be on top. the pull will be EXPERIMENT 47. marked R. which gives merely the end view. marked T. as shown in Fig. which will bring pole I over to Test the former position of pole 2. remembering that the current does not pass around all of the cores in a clockwise direction. Directions. Make 2. the armature to the right through one- third of a revolution. and see if the law given in Experiment 25 holds true. make the little plat- form poles. In this a battery shown to the right. 44. but instead of trying to lift iron when the current is turned on. tall enough to hold your compass-needle near the Part 1. Place the armature. test the armature-magnets Arrange your apparatus as directed for the above experiment. To for poles. called the posicommutator bar at the top. The current coming from the tive cell wire. . 121. Test each pole of the armature.

although the relative positions of the north and south poles have remained the same. . when it is running under ordinary conditions.PRACTICAL EXPERIMENTS WITH MOTORS again. As the current is supposed to pass through the motor in one direction. Make a diagram of the new poles and 4. Repeat Part one-third of a revolution. If the student will take the trouble do the above experiment carefully and fix the results in his mind. it must be clear that while the polepieces of the field-magnets have constant polarity. reversing the current that from Z touch the top bar. 2. still touching wire C to the top bar. let C Repeat the above. and note that changes have been made in two of the poles. . the wire compare the to results with those above. 122. Part 3. the three poles of the armature are rapidly changing. again turning the armature the Do same relative positions remain ? Part is. i. he will have no chance to forget the general principles upon which the current reverses each half revolution through the coils of the little armature of Motor No. 63. and that from the right bar. Discussion.

Directions. Part 1. being careful not to bend the brushes and to have the armature run easily without hitting the field-magnets.to or a match. 64 the long connecting-strap join the leftto the right-hand post of the 45. You may even omit the reverser and touch the wire from the carbon to the right-hand binding-post of the field. and it is best to put a small drop of machine. with the wire from the zinc to the other post on the field. With hand post of the field across armature. EXPERIMENT 123. oil on each bearing. Part 2. but without connecting the field-coils to those of the armature. This is important. 45 allow the current to enter the coil at the right end that is. press the right-hand key of the reverser . but before you turn on .CHAPTER VIII SPEED REGULATION AND DIRECTION OF ROTATION Direction of rotation. wise direction as you look at it from the right. With the apparatus arranged as in Fig. placing it with a toothpick 48. Assemble the motor again. 40. allow the current to pass through the coil in a clock.. as shown in Fig. Fig. Test the pole again and satisfy yourself with the compass-needle that the right-hand pole is south.

The previous is. if you were right by trying with in Keeping mind the fact that the right-hand pole-piece of the field should be south. and the motor will turn forwards that is. We repulsion by considering. from which it would go field-coil to L. across to B. and so will the top poleThe poles being the same. thence through the armature-coils to and back to the battery. with certain connections. Attractions and Repulsions in Motor No. but one pole of the armature. When should let through the A you have decided. as in Experiment 47. for convenience. we have a south pole at the right of the motor and also a south pole at the top of the armature. there will be a repulsion between these two parts. as we shall do if we simply change the wires leading from the battery. away from the brushes. making the top pole-piece of the armature also south. The student must not get the idea from this that we have arrived at the conclusions about the only repulsions. We will have already mentioned the fact that the motor run in the same direction as before if we reverse the current in the whole motor. 124.SPEED REGULATION AND DIRECTION OF ROTATION 65 the current. we get a repulsion as before. In Experiment 47 we found that the two side poles of the armature were north when the top . that piece of the armature. Part I. The reason should now be clear. We have just shown that. north. and that as the current enters the top commutator bar. 125. try to figure out which way the motor should run if the wire from the carbon (the positive wire) the current in at R. see the current. thus causing a repulsion. giving it an anti-clockwise . experiments showed that the poles are reversed when the current reverses. 1. Discussion. for in this case the right pole of the field will be north. direction when you face the armature.

the of course. the top pole is repelled by the right field-pole. pulsions. if same during the the poles of the armature remained entire revolution. you will see that this change is made just as the right pole of the armature reaches the middle point of the south field-piece. and so we have quite a number of attractions and repulsions.66 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT pole was south. and both are attracted by the With the numerous attractions and reright field-pole. . the left and right poles of the armature are repelled by the left pole of the field. we get a steady pull and push in the same di- of the armature is at the rection. 46 greatest attraction for the poles of the field. for the lower brush then slides from The above the right commutator bar to the left one. by reversing the current as the brushes change to other commutator bars. thus keeping up the motion. Now. As will be seen by referring to Fig. of course. the armature would in soon find a position which its poles would have the Fig. and there it would remain. you will see that all of the changes are made at this point. when the experiment is performed as described above. and it same time attracted by the left field-pole. Again. If you slowly turn the armature and watch for this. 46. This instantly changes the attraction to a repulsion. applies. If you look carefully at the commutator-end of the armature. Here is where the commutator does its work.

47. Experiment 48 that is. Motor Put on one of the short connectingwill join binding-posts R and B. so that it . Press the rightand see if the motor turns in the same . current-reverser. 127. in this case. easily We have. Directions. as rather unhandy. anti-clockwise. straps. as shown in Fig. 50. 49. 129. CS. a method of accomplishing the results shown in the previous . Discussion. Fig. so we make use of the current-reverser to do this for us. from a batten' to L and the negative wire to A.SPEED REGULATION AND DIRECTION OF ROTATION Backward motion for 67 EXPERIMENT No. This plan of reversing the motor is 126. we have reversed the current in the field without reversing it in the armature. and this makes the motor revolve in a clockwise direction. Directions. 48. then press the left-hand key for a moment to direction as in see if the motor reverses. as hand key first Arrange the motor. as it is directed below. Reversing Motor No. 1 with the current-reverser. a battery and a shown in Fig. 1. then connect the positive wire. EXPERIMENT 128. 48 not convenient to change the wiring every time we want to reverse the motor. The current will now pass through the field in the opposite and through the armature in the same direction as in the last experiment that is. Discussion. Follow the current in your mind to make sure that this is correct.

then try the points on the rheostat. Regulation of speed for Motor coils in series. Directions. which the reversing will take place in the armature-coils. rheostat and batspeed at various shown in Fig. and this explains the general method used. Discussion. versing it in the other. Directions. in 130. we see that the cur133. 51. 1. Reversing Motor No. EXPERIMENT second method. Now that we have succeeded in changing the direction of rotation of this speed. 49. 1 by a Arrange the wiring as shown in Fig. See if you still get the same reversing as before. even in large motors. connecting the field-coil up as you did the Fig. batteries. the field-coil. The main point to be remembered that in reversing the motor we have to reverse the current in either the field or the armature without reis. 50. In this case. so we say that we have a series-wound necting-strap. rent goes through the rheostat. 49 armature in the previous experiment. 131. . teries. the con- back to the and then through the armature-coils and There are no branches here to divide the current. see from this that the motor re- We verses by this plan as well as by the other. 52. Discussion. little motor. as Arrange the motor. 132. let us see how we can regulate its EXPERIMENT No.68 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT experiment.

These instruments are de- EXPERIMENT tion of rotation of 134. Although the motor has no outside work to do in this case. 51 series. and that we can change the speed of the motor when it is running in either direction. for it must overcome the friction of its bearings and the resistance of the air to its rapidly revolving armature. stat.wound. shows how to connect the reverser with the other things used in the last experiment. Discussion. Be sure that you get the connections right and Fig. it really has something to do. Directions. even one for running toys. (See Sec. Fig. we say that it has no load. 50 then try to vary the speed with the rheostat and the direction of rotation with the reverser. or the rheostat with three batteries.) 135. Controlling speed and direc1. Motor No. AND DIRECTION OF ROTATION we can 69 In this experiment use the five-point rheoeleven-point as shown with two batteries. This arrangement is a very handy still in series. (See the author's "Real Electric Toy-Making for Boys" for various toys that are to be run with small motors.SPEED REGULATION motor. as we have the motor under perfect control.) 136. When a motor is running with- out doing work and simply has to turn itself. it As soon as we attach to some machine and make it . Load on Motors. scribed in Chapter 3. 53. 137 on Series-wound Motors. It will if be seen here that the coils are the reverser be used.

11.) pulleys. . however. 12. winding- Series-Wound Motors. and still faster is when the load is entirely thrown off. for full direc- Fig. or to "race. etc. 51 tions for making drums. shafting. places. 137. serieswound motors are not generally used. we say that the motor is running with a load. or where a variable speed is not wanted. Making For Boys. In places where it might be possible for the belts to break or come thus allowing a series-wound motor to race." Chaps. bearings.. and it would seem perfectly natural for a motor to slow down a little when its load is increased. for small motors. From this we to be increased to should also expect that the current would have keep up the proper speed with the at larger load. where a variable speed is really wanted. In the case of the series-wound motor. it As has just been men- tioned. for these motors have a tendency to keep on running faster and faster. and other to get to the proper speed (See "Real Electric Toy10. speed under no load. and so we have for toys to gear them down things.7O STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT do outside work. There are many off. Small motors do not run well slow speed. this would become a serious thing if it were not watched and its speed regulated." as it is called. and such motors have been known to actually tear themselves to pieces by the excessive. natural to expect that a motor should run faster as soon as its load is decreased.

the magnetic flux of the field is increased.. the load race. the operator is on hand periments. if you remove the fan and let them run. so when the strength of current in either of these two parts is changed. and under the control of a rheostat placed in the main circuit. the same current passes through both armature and field. They will race. if we increase the load on the motor. Every change in load makes a corresponding change in the strength of the field and in the pressure of the counter-electromotive force. very strong pulling power or "torque" when they start. as mentioned above. . as in one of the previous exFor work like this. as Series-wound motors have a be explained below. and so the motor has to slow down. and we should expect that more power would be the result but. by saying that the strength of the field is not constant in series-wound motors. In series-wound motors. the armature will naturally slow down a little. the field also feels the effect of this increased current. in a general way. will and this is an advantage in starting electric cars and other machinery for which they are adapted. and there is and so many of these motors are series-wound. This will allow more current to pass through the armature. we know that the resistance of the armature will be decreased. it is also changed in the other part. however. For example. and example. pumps. . and from the experiments on counter-electromotive force. This trouble is overcome in shunt-wound motors. tric fans. speed is in these cases the to attend to the rheostat. on electric cars.I SPEED REGULATION as. example. The thing may be summed up. hoists. The counterelectromotive force in the armature increases with_ the additional magnetic flux. for In the case of ordinary elec- no chance for the fan to is constant. for AND DIRECTION OF ROTATION ?! etc.

the reverser. EXPERIMENT 55. While Motor it works enough Some of the larger motors to be described later are so wound that they really work better as shunt-wound motors than they would if connected up as series-wound motors. for the current can go this way without producing motion in If care be used. then hold the ends of the wires from a battery against the straps to see if the motor will turn. for experimental purposes. care must be taken not to short-cir- through the armature and rheostat. from this. with 140. in Chapter 3. 52. part of it going through the field-coil and the rest through the armaturecoils to strap 2 and back to the battery. Fig. Directions.72 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT EXPERIMENT 138. reversible. By this method of wiring. there will be no trouble the motor. 1. With this wiring. 54. 1. shunt-wound. the current which passes to strap i will divide. and the eleven-point rheostat. as shown in Fig. Place the two short connecting-straps upon the motor. Directions. 53 shows one way to wire your . but it is best to put a one-point switch in cuit the batteries . shunt-wound and one method of speed regulation. and at the same time to have them reversible and under control as to speed. Discussion. 139. apparatus to get the results secured in large motors that is. In diagram are shown the motor without any connecta three-cell battery. Motor No. well I is not wired for a shunt-wound motor. to have them shunt-wound. Motor No. all of which have been described this ing-straps. No.

The keys of the . . careful and not to want The other field-coil as tion of this part of the current will rush through the soon as one of the keys is pressed. although there are certain disThe student should thoroughly fix in his advantages. at which point it can not go farther unless the switch-arm be moved to one of the contact-points. reverser will prevent a short circuit through the fieldas the current can not pass unless one of the keys is pressed. 141. as shown. part of it ply going through wire 2. The above arrangement is what we may have in large motors. Discussion. Fig. If we follow the diagram. through the armature-coils to the rheostat. the direcpart depending upon which key is used but . From the rheostat it returns This shows why it is necessary to be to the batteries. In regular work. we shall see that when the current gets from the carbon of the batteries or from one of the small dynamos if that be used to furnish the supit divides at C. let this current pass when you do not run the motor.SPEED REGULATION wire AND DIRECTION OF ROTATION 73 i and to open this every time the motor is to be stopped and the switch-arm of the rheostat should be turned to the dead-point. Work out the diagram in your mind before doing the actual experiment. 53 mind that we are reversing on the field and regulating the speed by means of resistance in the armature-circuit. coil. the current should be turned through the field before it is admitted to the armature.

EXPERIMENT and it 56. shunt-wound of speed control.74 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT in either case. and finally turning the arm of the rheostat to different positions. method shows this 1. with a second Fig. con- trary to of the other experiments. K. The rheostat. and the rheostat noted that in this case we have Fig. this part will leave the reverser at Z and return to the batteries through wire 7. then closing switch K. takes the part of the usual "starting-box. 54 Motor No. will be second plan." which allows the current to enter the armature through resistance until it gets a speed and is capable of protecting itself with the current it makes while running. Discussion. 142. in this arrangement. Directions. in the above experiment. the motor runs .54 placed in the field-shunt and that we also reverse the current in the same shunt. hut take particular notice whether it runs faster with much or little resistance put into the field-circuit. You will find that you can reverse the motor and regulate its speed. reversible. we must look out for so as not to shortbatteries. If the proper connections be made 143. The armature-current will be one that circuit it. if as this would soon weaken the The it one-point switch. be Try the effect of pressing one of the keys of the re- verser. will protect the batteries opened as soon as you want to stop the motor. the student all will find that.

This is all accomplished by the "starting-box. the resistance of the armature-coils is small in comparison to that of the field in fact. This will not make any trouble in the little experi- mental motors. The series-wound motors." the connections of which are designed to do this. even if the load be changed. As will be explained in another section. and see how these motors are regulated as to direction of rotation and speed. shunt-wound motor current is is started. motor. a well-made shunt-wound motor will run at almost a constant speed. when we have chine. as well as with the previous shunt-wound ar- rangement. motors. for it is evident that the whole force of the current is allowed to pass into the armature when it is standing still. tend to "run away" when the load is removed. it is veiy important to . the less the resistance. the more the speed." so. in fact. provided it In these receives a direct current of constant voltage. and this trouble the shunt-wound motors overcome . Direct-Current Shunt-Wound Motors. as explained in the last section.. when a large . the whole force of the turned through the field-coils to create a strong magnetic field before any is allowed to enter the armature. as In all of the experiments with the series-wound usual. but it would be a serious thing in the motors used for regular work. We have already seen what is meant by coils in "shunt. we say that we have a shunt-wound ma- whether it be a motor or a dynamo.SPEED REGULATION AND DIRECTION OF ROTATION slower as 75 we cut out resistance in the field-shunt by turn- ing the rheostat-arm around in a clockwise direction. as you will see by the wiring that lets the current to the armature. 144. the field-coil and the armature-coils arranged in this manner. We still have some troubles to overcome. In some of the experiments we have practical wiring on the small motors.

the the regular current back.76 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT have the armature come up to speed gradually to give it a chance to generate current like a dynamo to hold If it were not for this. without too turns of wire. thus reducing the counter-electromotive force in the armature. Now. so care must be taken to keep the full force of the current from entering it until it gets . thus giving it enough resistance to allow the full force of the current. wound with many time. at least. as compared with that of the field-coils. as in these there is not so much ture. for a much heating. we do not have the counter-electromotive force in the armature affected to any great exthis tent by the magnetic flux of the the load is it field. then. and we have very effect from the field. As just sugtwo circuits of regular shuntwound motors are very different. as this has remained practically it constant in strength. when motor and increased on a shunt-wound tends to slow down. the field of shunt-wound motors isof constant strength. for the path is easier than before. this coil will stand this current until the armature gets under way. armature could not stand the heavy current. Generally speaking. The armature has a small resistance. ture brings little This increased current through the armaback to speed at once. Small motors are not quite so selfregulating as the large ones. The field-magnet is 145. in rushes more current through the armature. no matter what is happening to the current in the armature. difference in resistance between the field and arma- gested. the resistances of the Regulation of Field-Magnetism. for the field-coils are connected to the mains leading the current to the motor. In winding. and then the whirling of the armature fans the field-coils and tends to keep them cool.

of course. EXPERIMENT 57. say up to and including one-sixth horse-power. may be started In Experiment 55 we regulated the speed by placing the rheostat in the armature-circuit. we shall have to waste power in the form of heat that is lost at field is regulated to conbut a small part of the whole current to handle in the field-rheostat. but this wastes much power. Motor No. the armature will take current and we shall Fig. being so designed that they with full current. is lost. of letting the current into the armature slowly. for experimental purposes. and so it does not When the magnetism of the trol the speed. a small rheostat being placed in the arma- . together with starting-box. shunt-wound and with speed control by regulation of fieldmagnetism. This applies to large motors. and so. 146. Fig. As the armature-resistance is much smaller than most of the have to arrange to handle all of In this arrangement. reversible. the small ones. The connections are about the same as for Ex- periment 56. this current through the rheostat. if we want the that of the field-coil. 55 shows a method. Directions. the rheostat has to be large to stand the heating effects when the current is held back. we have make so much difference if a part of this 1. 55 motor a great deal of the rheostat: to run at only half speed.SPEED REGULATION almost to AND DIRECTION OF ROTATION 7/ full speed.

is so arranged with the lever at the right-hand side that no current can pass through it. and that the is placed as shown. then bring the other parts to the original starting-points. speed gradually increasing as the resistance is cut out by turning the starting-box lever to the left. the rheostat in the armaturecircuit." 148. The switch-arm of the field-rheostat all resistance cut out. K. 147. To get more speed. then turn the lever of the starting-box to the left upon the first contact-point. If we wish to use a it. have here a very good example In the armature we get in the field- more speed by cutting out resistance. Discussion. After you have made the desired connections. open the main switch first. takes "main switch" on regular motors. In stopping the motor. with Close the main switch. and this should be opened when the motor is to be stopped. we have a much easier thing to accomplish As the than the numerous requirements just studied. thus wasting the the place of the batteries. press the left-hand key of the reverser. that is. shunt-wound motor is the one generally used for such motor for and if the speed for which it . ture-circuit./3 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT shown. We of the two effects of resistance. see that the starting-box. regular work and do not care to reverse motor is simply to run at a certain was designed. as The one-point switch. to make sure that no current passes through the armature when the motor is not running. while magnet coils we add resistance to get more will speed. turn the arm on the field-rheostat to the left so as to add resistance and lessen the strength of the field-magnet. Starting-Boxes. motor should its start up slowly with the three-cell battery. This be spoken of again under Section 151 on "counterelectromotive force.

and because the armature takes most of the current. We have already discussed the relative resistances in the field..SPEED REGULATION AND DIRECTION OF ROTATION 79 work. the parts are shown in the position taken before the motor is started. part of it going through an electromagnet. and so on through the field and out at the main switch. This can all be done with one instrument. The drawing shows that the motor under consideration is a plain shunt-wound motor. called a starting-box. and have seen the necessity of letting the current into the armature slowly. a simple plan of which is shown in Fig. The other part goes through all of the resist- and then through the armature. resistance will be cut out of the armature-circuit. If the switch-arm be now turned to the second and ance-coils third contact-points. In this.and armature-coils. 56. it will only be necessary to explain this special motor here. etc. If Fig. M. you will see that the current can pass along in the direction shown by the arrow to the pivot of the switch-arm and then through the arm to the contact-point. thus allowing it to come up to speed gradually. 56 you imagine this arm turned to the first contact-point. at which place it divides. The wires leading to the armature are represented as being large to show that this resistance is small in comparison to that of the field. the switch-arm resting upon a dead-point. thus allowing more current to go .

where it will be attracted so long as the current flows like the field. The coils in the usual first. go of the switch-arm before it reaches the release-magnet. take too much current if it were not for this extra resistance to be overcome as it gains . By this simple plan. and which would. magnet" is a splendid thing. we have seen. as a is running. the arm will fly back again and open the circuit. has very little resistance. while the armature is getting up to speed. then. as it keeps the full current from rushing through the armature when they turn the current on again at the central station. Here is where the counter-electromotive force helps for the armature generates a current of higher and higher voltage as it goes faster and faster. for the current can not be left partly on. as they are designed to carry the current for a few seconds The only. and as this magnet can no longer hold the switch-arm. M. When all of the resistance has been cut out of the it armature and is getting the full force of the current switch-arm has reached a point at which an iron plate on it touches the poles of the electromagnet. in speed. spring that pulls the switch-arm back really protects the If you let coils. starting-box are not large enough to take the full current for any length of time without too much heating. and so we can let in more and more current and still not burn out the armature. therefore. which. the field-magnet is energized and then the current is gradually increased in the armature as the speeM increases.8O STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT through the armature. the and the motor pulls. as it increases in speed. As the . the motor will stop. is The arm is really under two net. it is quickly tion for This "releasepulled back to the starting-point again. trying to pull it away from the magIn case the current is shut off at the central sta- spring any purpose.

as shown in Fig. Press the key to allow the current to start the motor St Fig.SPEED REGULATION AND DIRECTION OF ROTATION 8l magnet lets go of the arm as soon as there it is is no current in the line. if we neglect the change in resistance due to its change in brilliancy. Discussion." 58. gradually stop it by holding the armatureshaft. leaving very for the lamp. Directions. We have in this arrangement two paths for the current as it leaves the batteries and reaches the lamp at L. i. When sistance the motor is is held so that it can not turn. 57 and note the action of the lamp. 150. its remerely that of the wires in its coils. watching the lamp. motor is series-wound and the lamp forms a shunt to the motor-circuit. called a "no-voltage release. As will be seen by the wiring. and as is this resistance small. and a three and one-half volt electric lamp. Counter-electromotive force of three-cell battery. the little motor takes most of the cr-- rent. one path being along wire 2 through the motor and back to the batteries through wire 3. the No. From this it will be seen that the lamp is a shunt of fairly uniform resistance. 149. EXPERIMENT motors. 57. and that the motor is a resistance that changes with the speed. Arrange a Motor a key. . The other part goes through the lamp and then through wires 4 and 3 to the batteries. When the motor has its full speed.

This represents a current flowing in the opposite direction to that which makes the motor go. the other shunt has to carry more current. motor should genIn "The Study of Dynamos by Experiment" we shall see what generthis way we can easily see that the if erate a current.82 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT As soon as the motor gains speed. thus ment showed Counter-Electromotive Force. If a motor be well made. The last experithat a motor has a much greater resistance when running than when still. As mentioned. In the case of the motor just used. water-power. but would burn out at once on large motors if the whole current were allowed to pass through its coils of small resistance. ates this current. the little coils of resistance-wire hold the full force of the current back until the speed is such as force. The armature-resistance is the one that is affected by the increasing speed. the electrical energy supplied by the batteries If we look at it in the batteries represent the engine. it generates a counter-electromotive force which holds back the battery cur- know from adding resistance to that of the wires. for example. . have already mentioned the fact that motors will to create the counter-electromotive We generate a current if rapidly turned by a steam-engine or by some other power as. We previous experiments that when we increase the resistance of one shunt. even run by electricity. and 151. The field can that take care of itself on account of the armature its high resistance. it will generate a current having a voltage that is nearly as high as that of the . which brightens as the motor goes faster and faster. the motor was run by that is. is why it is necessary to put a starting-box in the armature-circuit of shunt-wound motors. when speaking of the starting-box. rent. and this is made clear by the lamp.

Place the motor about its three feet from the detector so that will not magnetic needle The be affected by the electromagnets of the motor. There is a constant struggle between the applied electromotive force and the counter-electromotive force. the current that enters it from the supply must be of a greater voltage than that of the counter-electromotive force. motor may be at one end of the table. i. when this it is what it would get if running at full speed. If it were not for this forcing back of the counter-current. away from the other apparatus. and a current detector arranged so that the detector will EXPERIMENT be a shunt of the motor.SPEED REGULATION AND DIRECTION OF ROTATION 83 This current which enters the armature and runs it. a key. From we see that. shows that the armature gets very little current from the supply. the motor would not go any more than a water-wheel would turn without sure of the water against the resisting buckets. and it is just this struggle in overcoming the counterelectromotive force which changes the electrical energy supplied to the motor to the mechanical energy which Fig. 58 the motor has as it turns. in order to make the motor go. 152. In Fig. at the same time noting which direction the north pole of the compass-needle . the pres- 59. compared with the armature stood still. To show in which direction the counter-current flows in a motor. 58 we have Motor No. Press the key for a in moment. Directions.

60. must have passed through wire 2 in the shown by the dotted arrow. and quickly touch wire 5 to wire 3 or to the contact on the key that is attached to wire 3. as the needle the second part of the experiis deflected in the same Fig. Discussion. experiment must be done quickly and before the motor has slowed down much. Directions. Note that the detector-needle fore. Now disconnect wire 5. as discussed in some of the other sections. 59 way as before. the motor will not turn rapidly. 154. From ment we see that. the current It is wire 4 again.84 turns in STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT when wire 4. lamps lamps in parallel. it followed the direction through wire 2 shown by the full-line arrow. is deflected in the same direction as be- 153. current will enter the detector through wire shown by deflection of the north pole. Regulation of speed with EXPERIMENT in parallel. the full-line arrow. the figure. placing the "bank . press the key to allow the motor to get a high speed. 59. as Arrange six three and one-half volt shown in Fig. evident that must enter the detector from when the current came from the batteries. K. and that when the counter-current came from the motor to deflect the needle. If arranged as 5 touches the key. raise the key to disconnect the batteries. causing a certain and as this detector-shunt is of low resistance. This shows that it direction the coun- ter-electromotive force pushes against the applied curThis rent.

155.SPEED REGULATION AND DIRECTION OF ROTATION 85 of lamps" in series with Motor No. . Discussion. motor slowly. a three-cell battery and a key. and it will be seen that these light up let some current through from wire that. two lamps will run the used. Try the effect on the speed of the motor of turning on more or less lamps. As these lamps are so joined that several each can it I to wire 2. the greater the counter-electromotive force and the less each lamp has to carry. more current will pass than when one or two are If the cells are strong. The faster the motor runs. lamps are screwed in. i. is evident when brighter than when more are used.

in the same way. useful classification would be to put the motors that are to be run with batteries and other small currents together and call them low-voltage motors. that is. This point of classiamount to much. We can. by proper apparatus (see Chap. we should ruin the motor by burning out its coils and doing other damage. 10).CHAPTER IX VARIOUS ELECTRIC MOTORS 156. if we were to do this without modifying the current. but. All that need be said here is that motors intended for use with battery currents and currents from low-voltage dynamos are so wired that their resistance is low. when we consider that a small motor may be so wound as to take a large current. Small Motors and Large Motors are names that do not mean as much as they seem to at first. Highresistance motors teries would hold the current from a few batback to such an extent that there would not be enough electromagnetism produced to turn the armature. In discussing the series-wound machine. a large motor may A more be so arranged as to need a current of small voltage. 86 we saw that the coils of the field . and. then the ones that are to be run from the no.or ii5-volt currents would be fication does not called high-voltage motors. Chapter 10 will give information upon this part of the subject. it might be serious for the motor. 157. run lowvoltage motors upon high-voltage currents. Compound-Wound Motors. although it might prove to be a serious thing to try to run a low-voltage motor upon a high-voltage circuit .

Fig. that is. as the field is provided with a series-coil and a shunt-coil. and how the starting-box is placed in the circuits to allow the motor to start up slowly so as not to burn out the armature. In the compound-wound motor we have a cross between these two methods. each taking a part of the current. so that both coils aid each other . 60 gives an idea as to how this is arranged.VARIOUS ELECTRIC MOTORS and armature were in series. The two coils on the field are wound so that the current which flows through them magnetizes the field in the same direction. and that in the shunt-wound machine the coils are in parallel.

the increasing counter-electromotive force will decrease the current supplied to the armature. Alternating-Current Motors are made in many ways. hence the name. the large sizes being able to run at almost constant speed. The smaller sizes of this variety are not so self-regulating as the large ones.88 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT The speed of series-wound motors varies greatly with the load. and when the load is entirely thrown off. The student will not meet this winding under ordinary circumstances. ternating currents is a large one in fact. Differentially- Wound Motors. this branch of the work The subject of alwill be omitted. provided the load is within the capacity of the machine. In this case but the two are so we have a series-coil and a shuntwound that they work against field is each other. except coils that are placed on the coil. besides. no matter whether the load be large or small. it is too large to be considered in this small book of experiments. Shunt-wound motors are more or less self-regulating.wound motor. A motor of this winding will run at a very constant speed. 159. This is similar to the in compound. and as the average student will not have a chance to take up this part of the subject experimentally. as just described. and so their speed will vary slightly with the load. they will race unless proper resistance be thrown into the circuit. . but the shunt-wound motor will give a speed that is constant enough. the arrangement of the two field. . 160. By this plan the strength of the due to the difference in the magnetizing effects of the two coils. and. differential. as soon as the speed begins to increase. there are some drawbacks to the differential winding in case the motor is overloaded. They will not race. and this keeps the speed within limits. for.

As an electric motor is care should be given to it as to any machine in fact. this class of work are made in special for special purposes and have to be very strong and well protected to stand the constant pounding and abuse Motors used for ways given them. Special Motors. the power needed to get it under way is many times that needed to keep it in motion when once started. Controllers are used for starting and regulating the speed. especially if the car is stopped on a grade. Electric motors are used for so that many book it would take a very large mention even a small part of the various applications of these wonderful machines. with or with- When out resistance. We have already mentioned the series-wound motors as being adapted for use on electric cars on account of the powerful starting-torque.VARIOUS ELECTRIC MOTORS 161. made motor runs so quietly and makes so little fuss in doing its work that we are liable to get the idea that it A \ . and these may be so arranged that the two motors on the car can be joined in series or in parallel. and we find motors working silently in all kinds of places and for all kinds of power. much wellthey are very apt to be abused with overloads. The shapes and sizes have been ingeniously adapted to the numerous requirements. as a machine. and so the direct-current series-wound motors are most commonly used for this purpose. 162. 163. These motors are easily regulated as to speed and load. Large manufacturers of motors will design special motors for special purposes and arrange their various parts to do the work things nowadays to required. Protection of Motors. even more care should be given to electric motors than is given to most machines. at least as . a loaded car is started. 89 Railway Motors.

rent as it As soon resistance of the armature as the counter-electromotive force decreases. i. 148). This pro. 2205. is given by using fuses in the circuit that will melt at some stated number of amperes. however. be had as a plain series-wound motor. In order to do the experimental work that can be done with Motor No. it is larger and stronger r than No. 2 is similar in Motor No. In either winding the binding-posts for the field are mounted upon the wooden base. with the changes made for experimental work. This motor. As has been stated in the various discussions. and the brushes are adjustable while running at full speed.-90 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT its has no limit to powers and that it can do no end of work. a motor takes more curits load is increased and its speed decreased. 61. so must be evident that.00. 2206 and costs $2. This feature is valuable. Motors larger than one-sixth horse-power should be protected with a starting-box having a "no-voltage release" (see Sec. as it is necessary to get . While Motor No. it has to be provided with four binding-posts and some changes have to be made in the wiring in order that it may be run as either a series-wound or a shunt-wound motor. construction to Motor No. a great mistake. the is so small that we get more it current through would be melted tection than if it can carry and so the wires they were not protected. the motor will turn very slowly. this style being listed as No. i. if the load be increased sufficiently. 2. is listed as No.25. as show n in Fig. the price being $2. or by other au- tomatic devices that will open the circuit before the current gets near the danger point. or even stop. and so all motors to be used on regular commercial circuits should be well prois This tected with fuses or other safety devices. It may I. and it is furnished in either of two windings. 164.

62.VARIOUS ELECTRIC MOTORS the proper pressure of the brushes for best results. This machine is also fur- nished to students in two styles of winding in order to exactly to the requirements. 61 Fig. this dynamomotor may be purchased with an extra attachment which gives the machine four binding-posts. In this form it may be connected to the rheostat. plenty of iron being used in finished in black their construction. current reverser. Fig. and it is shown in Fig. adapt dynamo-motor Fig. With the extra binding-posts and other attachments not found upon any other small dynamos. this machine is especially adapted .. Price. It Motor No. etc. $3. and the field-magnets are strong. it 3. Dynamo-Motor No. i. this style being advised when it is to be used as a plain motor or dynamo. ex- plained in connection with Motor No. 2209. 165. 62 no changes being needed in direction of rotation. in running certain toys. This winding is listed as No. 2 stands four and one-half inches is enamel with nickeled trimmings.75. 91 upon the commutator high. 62 shows the as plain shunt-wound. When as. it is necessary to change the direction of rotation for example.

Small motors. are properly wound to take the commercial current. which will generate current for the other machine to run as a motor. $4. Oil cups. in fact. Two No. all kinds of experimental work.000 r. will start off very .p. and is listed as No. and they develop a counter-electromotive force sufficient to protect the armature sizes up to when it gets up to speed. black enamel When run at 3. power motor. plating outfits. grooved for a small round belt.00. bank of lamps explained 166. 3 dynamo-motors make a complete electrical power plant if you have some method of turning the dynamo. Price. i and Xo. The pulley. gives good current If run as a Safe maximum load. from 4 to 6 volts give the best results.. construction of this machine is mechanical. 6 volts 4 amperes. For the small and including the one-sixth horse-power a is starting-box sons. form-wound and con- nected in multiple. not generally used except for special reaif well made.92 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT and general purposes. that is. The very best way to run this as a dynamo is to use a one-eighth horse-power motor in connection with the is finish. inminiature lighting outfits.m. it is laminated. 2210. you can furnish current for bells. including duction-coils. with six slots. It can be used shunt-wound motor and as a shuntwound dynamo. Motors No. the coils being The field is cast solid. 2 run well on the current from one of these mafor experimental as a series-wound or chines . one and three-fourths inches in diameter. etc. one inch in diameter. telephone lines. The brushes are adjustable. Motors. electric cars. built up of punchings. The charging storage batteries. it will run with the current from batteries or with the current generated by a twin machine turned by some power. 110-Volt in Section 180. as has been explained. As a motor. The armature is of the drum type.

motors may be furnished with either brass wire gauze or solid iron enclosures. ratings are based on condition that the motors are so placed as to receive free circulation of air. the ratings for enclosed motors are somewhat lower than for open motors. Machines of I horse-power and above will carry 25 per cent overload for two hours with rise of 55 degrees Cent. motors have such intermittent duty that there is little or . for all parts except commutator. for all parts except commutator.the coils unless the load be few sizes are illustrated to give the student excessive. on the commutator. For use in places where they require protection from dust and dirt. or protection from mechanical injury. and 45 degrees Cent. and 60 degrees Cent. on the com- mutator. but of course the heat must not get too great. The small motors shown in the following cuts are of the standard ventilated protected type. and as this heat is not radiated as rapidly in closed as in open motors. 167. Machines up to i horse-power will carry 25 per cent overload for one hour with temperature rise not to exceed 55 degrees Cent. such as the running of elevators and hoists. All motors heat up when they are running under a load. and as all motors generate heat w-hile running. flying particles. and 60 degrees Cent. on the commutator. A an idea as to their construction and appearance. chips. Machines are not guaranteed to carry continuAll types of these machines will carry 50 These per cent overload momentarily without injury. For many classes of service.VARIOUS ELECTRIC MOTORS 93 quickly without endangering. and are guaranteed to carry their full rated load continuously without attaining a temperature greater than 40 degrees Cent. ous overloads. Motors for Intermittent Duty. in ex- cess of that of the surrounding air in all parts except commutator.

169. such as jigsaws and other small things. for they explain the special points of each motor illustrated. 168. The author does not wish the term "laboratory motors" to be He has chosen the name simply because misleading. you will find that a small motor will be of the greatest help in running small dynamos and other things. the load-limit no trouble from the accumulation of in these cases being reached when sparking at the brushes becomes serious. and they are herein reproduced for the guidance of those who are interested in the matter. from one-eighth horse-power to and including one-quarter horse-power. and even run light machinery. If you have the i lo-volt current in your laboratory. great deal. this size will For the be large amateur and student a motor of . Motors for strictly intermittent service are therefore rated higher than for constant service. The following descriptions of motors are taken from the manufacturer's catalogues.Volt Laboratory Motors. as explained in Section 180.94 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT heat. windings are advised for these A One-Eighth Horse-Power Motor. having personally used all of the illustrated sizes for various purposes. 110. The sizes. If these motors are run in connection with a bank of lamps. Such descriptions are instructive. and they are suggested because the author is familiar with them. The motors described below are all commercial motors intended for hard work. Compound small motors. will be as large as are usually found for experimental A one-eighth horse-power motor will do a purposes. these motors are so useful and so well adapted for laboratory purposes. the speed will be under perfect control and there will be no danger of burning out any fuses in the house even if you happen to get a short circuit while experimenting.

A shows this size. It is especially adapted for use in positions it where the motor is in easy reach of the operator. One-Seventh Horse-Power Motor. Fig.m.p. It will run that are shown.000 'revolutions per minute (2. this motor will meet more severe conditions of service than 170. an improvement having been made in the brush-holder. vided with a 2-inch grooved pulley. A motor of this size weighs about 16 pounds and is proparts. while being well ventilated. 63 The author has used a number of these motors and has found them very satisfactory. run jig-saws and machinery. 63 shows a one-eighth horse- power motor. enough to the small dynamos other light do most of the work needed.000 r. These motors run at 2.VARIOUS ELECTRIC MOTORS 95. called "Frame 40. The latest design of the one-eighth horse-power motors differs slightly from that shown in the cut. . as avoids the possibility of touching moving or electrified Fig. Fig. as it will stand constant hard usage.) with full load. 64 and although there does not seem to be much difference between the fractions y$ and 1-7. It is of handsome and artistic outline. and. it is perfectly protected and satisfies the requirements of a motor having no external currentcarrying parts." that is well suited for laboratory work.

is very useful and styled Another One-Seventh Horse-Power Motor that This is efficient is shown in Fig. using the same frame.e. stands more overand can be wound for higher speeds than the for- Weight. "Frame i/7-P. are extreme durability.m. 65.300 rather high. but it illustrates how the speed and power can be varied at will by changing the wiring of a motor. that it will give one-sixth is This speed horse-power at 2. The frame of this motor is about the same size as that for the one-eighth motor. powerful starting-torque. runs at 2. 18 pounds . however.000 r. for laboratory Fig. cipal qualities. over the shaft and pulley nience and ease of its installation. noiselessness.96 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT the one just described. 171. These qualities have .p. ability to run for long periods locked up in the instrument case without attention.. mechanically. which especially fit it for this class of service. small dimensions in the direction where space is usually limited and the general convei. but it is heavier and load." and it was designed specially for Its prin- driving automatic-playing musical instruments.m. cleanliness. this motor can be so mer.p. To wound r. 64 purposes. more solid. illustrate what can be done in changing these motors.

as the motors will run cooler without the Fig. This feature is often very valuable in a motor desired for driving automatic-playing musical instruments. and although designed for a piano motor. as it allows the belt to be kept at the sity proper tension without the neces- of cutting and resplicing it.VARIOUS ELECTRIC MOTORS been found valuable in 97 many other kinds of service. the enclosure being recommended only where necessary for the protection of the working parts of the motor. . 65 Whether with or cover. The frame No. it is finding extended sale outside of the musical instrument trade. This frame will be furnished with sliding base when ordered.P is furnished either with or without enclosing covers. without covers. Sliding bases can not be furnished with any other of the small motor frames. especially under heavy loads. the motors are ventilated by perforations in the lower halves of the heads. 1/7.

Each Fig. The author has used them for running very large static machines. like those used by doctors for medical purposes. the motor itself is much larger and heavier than the others. 173. and do a great deal of work. A One-Tenth Horse-Power Motor. it A motor of this will size will run quite a little light machinery. the speed is under perfect control. 66 shows a very practical design for a motor of this power. it This is anlist other small motor that should be added to the above to make struction. This is of the ventilated protected type with bi-polar frame. 66 motor is furnished with sliding base with belt-tightening attachment and with a starting-box having a no-voltage release. . and with a proper rheoA motor of this stat. and although the illustration is about the same size as that for the other motors shown. as shown. complete and to show another kind of conThis is shown in Fig. a powerful motor. really. A One-Quarter Horse-Power Motor.98 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT 172. rating is. and these are generally shunt-wound with flat pulley. 67 and can be made to run on alternating current as well as upon direct current. Fig.

When supplied for direct current. but of course it is not so powerful as the one-eighth.500. their diameters being three-quarters. oneone-sixteenth or one-tenth horse-power. and the motor weighs four and one-half pounds. according to the speed required. 2.000. which are compound-wound. thus adapting it for a fairly uniform load. 1. It should be stated.000 and 3. however.000 r. nine-sixteenths and seven-sixteenths inches. that while this little motor .VARIOUS ELECTRIC MOTORS This 99 is a practical small motor costing a little less than the one-eighth. These small motors are made run for long periods without attention and are just the thing when adapted to the work they have to do. which. The relative speeds for The winding can be arranged twentieth. For laboratory work they are not so good as the one-eighth.p. the field-cores are cast solid. When furnished for running on alternating current. will not run on the alter- nating current. 67 these powers are 1. the field-cores are laminated. but where alternating current is supplied they can be used instead of the other forms described above. however. Fig. to give one-thirtieth. These motors are furnished with three grooved pulleys. One such a motor to point the student must consider when thinking of is that it is series-wound.m.

The author can recom- mend Motor No. he will need a one-eighth horse- power alternating-current motor. . 2254 for this purpose. it is not strong enough to properly run Dynamo-Motor No. If the student has only alternating current in his laboratory and wants to run one of these dynamo-motors.IOO will STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT run well on either direct or alternating current where little but power is required. 3 up to speed for generating a good current.

The current needed to run 174. Various Methods. your motors will be determined by the particular motors you have, for the current should be of the proper voltage
required to get the best results.
laboratory purposes will be from dynamos. In the latter case, the dynamos may be in the room and under control of the student or they may be at the power-house where the commercial current is generated. The following sections will give suggestions as to the various methods that may be used to run the motors described in this book. 175. Battery Currents are sufficient for all of the experiments given, and where it is not possible to generate your own current or get it from the street, this will be the plan to adopt. There are many kinds of batteries on the market, some being adapted for long runs and others being sufficient where short runs for experimental work only are required. For the usual work required in the laboratory, ordinary dry batteries of good quality do very nicely. They are comparatively cheap and there are no dangers from acids or fumes besides, they can be readily replaced when they get too weak.






batteries or



Forcing Dry Batteries


a very poor plan, as

very rapidly. A dry battery is really intended for intermittent work, and if run too long at a time or forced too hard, it will not give the best reshortens their


best plan


to use

two or

three times as




cells as are needed to get the desired voltage, arranging them as suggested below to increase the amperes. 177. Arrangement of Cells. Fig. 68 shows three cells

arranged in series, this combination giving about four and one-half volts. This three-cell set will light small lamps and run Motor No. i at a high rate of speed, and should be used when combined with the eleven-point
rheostat and other things mentioned in the experiments. Fig. 69 shows two sets of three cells each, the two

being joined in multiple; that


the whole



"multiple series."


this plan

the voltage of the

c ^

Fig. 68

Fig. 69



remains the same

as that of the three

while the amperes are doubled in quantity.


other words, by this plan we have more quantity to draw upon at the same pressure as before, so each cell does

not get the




otherwise would.

you wish to run your motors

time for fans or other purposes,
the batteries as






any length of pay you to arrange plan, you will be able

to get much more out of them before they give out. 178. Storage-Batteries are very satisfactory for run-

ning motors and for other laboratory purposes, especially This can if you have means of charging them yourself.



be done very easily if you have the no-volt direct current, using a bank of lamps. Even if you do not have a complete bank of lamps, as explained in Section 180, you can get the proper attachments at small expense for this work. For running induction-coils and other things that need

a strong current, good storage batteries are fine ; for they give results that dry batteries can not duplicate. Storage batteries can be bought for $1.00, $2.00, etc., per cell, ac-

cording to


Running Small Motors from Small Dynamos.
will generate the right cur-

you have a dynamo that

Fig. 70

rent for your small motors and some way of turning the dynamo, you have a complete electric plant. There are
several methods of operating the dynamo: by handpower, by means of a steam- or a gas-engine, by waterpower, by an electric motor, etc. For those who have

water-power, this is a very satisfactory method, although it would not pay to arrange a water-power plant for run-

ning one of the small dynamos

like the

No. 3 described


his country laboratory the author has a fine

water-power running a 3-k.w. dynamo which furnishes current for all lighting and experimental work, and so
the matter of running small dynamos is a very simple one, as it is in the city where the commercial no-volt




be had.

71 shows such a plan.1O4 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT Fig. the dynamo can be made to deliver all voltages within its current is to capacity. 165). The only thing that happens when a short circuit is made in the circuit leading from the lamps. and this causes trouble by blowing out the fuses in the house. to make short circuits by accident." 180. 3 (Sec. This is a very useful piece of laboratory apparatus. the current from the small dynamo being passed to switches or to a switch-board. one is apt safety of things. This will do for short runs for experimental purposes. if arranged as in Fig. Bank of Lamps. By putting a fuse-plug in place of one of the lamps. Fig. the full current will be passed through the bank of lamps and then the fuses will blow if a short circuit be made. of course.volt direct run a one-eighth horse-power motor through a bank of lamps to regulate the speed. especially as it adds greatly to the In all experimental work. as the speed is so easily controlled. The best way for those who have the no. as has been mentioned. By this plan. 70 shows a handy form of hand-power for running the Dynamo-Motor No. This matter of switch-boards and handling the current from the dynamos for small plants will be taken up in "The Study of Dynamos by Experiment. . and then belt the dynamo to this. 71. is that the lights will come up to full candle-power.

For a sixlamp bank. lamp. costs 72 shows a method of regulating the no-volt current so it can be used for running small motors. etc. but they are decidedly unpleasant to handle. the slate base should be from 20 inches to 2 feet long. mounted upon a about $5. In charging storage batteries. lamp passes one-quarter ampere. and other light machinery. By using assorted lamps of 8. etc. 181. hold the screws for the various parts. not including the lamps. Each 16 c. with apparatus.ELECTRIC CURRENT FOR RUNNING MOTORS IO5 One should be very careful to think out what will take place in the circuit before closing any switches volt currents. you can get just what you need. allows one-half an ampere of current to pass through the c. screwed in. ( cords. there is nothing better. switch. mounting them on slate painted dead black.00. Fig. It can be attached to any socket.p. in fact. Battery Regulator for 110-Volt Currents. one ampere.. and he finds them very useful for regulating the speed of no-volt motors that are used for running jig-saws. they should be on a slate base to comply with the regulations of the National Board of Fire Underwriters. 16 and 32 candle-power. receptacles. The .p. small dynamos. and. Holes must be drilled and plugged with lead tubing to fully arranged. 8 or 9 inches wide and about I inch thick. Such an outfit. The author that has used lead plates in sulphuric acid for this purpose. for regulating the current. slate base.p. By proper combinations. and a 32 flexible The 8 c. without danger and without too much sparking. to say nothing of the troubles that come if they tip over. The author has made a number of these for general purposes with six lamps. fuses. a very fine adjustment can be made. on no- These lamps should be thoroughly insulated and careand if they are to be used in the city..

the number depending upon the work to be done. the current passes from the bank of lamps through the batteries and back the wires leading to shown your apparatus being connected that is. as in the case of charging storage batteries. the current you use . As will be seen by referring to Fig. is as merely a shunt of the high-voltage current. 72. Tie a knot in this wire to it. Test the wires leading from the bank of lamps by putting them in a tumbler of water into which you have dissolved a little ordinary salt. The negative wire will give off large quantities mark lator of hydrogen bubbles. . to the batteries. 72 storage batteries that are being charged. connect this to the zinc end of the battery regu- and the other wire to the carbon end . These can be joined in multiple so as to get the desired number of amperes. is to use dry batteries. that they should be considered as Fig. you can get all of the variations in current that will be needed. that is. The batteries should be properly joined to the is.106 STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT method now employed and the cleanest method. With proper switches so that you can vary the num- ber of batteries and by using more or less lamps on your bank of lamps. place negative to negative and positive to positive. com- mercial current.

No.Condensed Price-List of Apparatus Described in This Book NOTE We List cannot accept orders for less than $oc. .

together with a complete set of apparatus for performing 61 fascinating It will give you some new ideas about magnetism and start experiments. the price would De much higher. Amusing Experiments. and in no outfit When you think has he succeeded better than in Fun with Electricity.. The The Naval Battle. Lightning Goes Ov r a Bridge. And 40 Others. with a 55-page book of instructions with 38 drawings. ConLong-Legs. with 45 illustrations. The Dog-fight. conduction and induction. $0. An ideal present for a boy. If sent by mail. The MerryThe Tight-rope Walker. thus giving a practical knowledge of the subject. Don't fail to get these. The thousands upon thousands that have been sold in all parts of the world have furnished fun and science for people of all ages. R2. The Runaway. simple and cheap. A Magnetic Windmill. with floating magnets. There isn't an outfit anywhere at any price that gives better value for the money. postage extra FUN WITH ELECTRICITY The author of this Fun with Science series has spent a great deal of time and money in experimenting to devise apparatus that will do the proper work and be.. The Jersey Mosquito. and the mere fact that they are listed by the New York Board of Educato the pupils and teachers of the New York public and recommend tion. at the same time. Jumping Sally. ElecCat. The Baby Thunderstorm. Electricity Plays Leap-Frog. you will understand why the sales of this outfit have been enormous. An A Funny Piece of Paper. Think what that means to start right 1 The book contajns experiments with the horseshoe magnet.fore the public. Were it not for the fact that these are made in such large quantities and sold by stores. of an outfit retailing for 50c. postage extra . Complete outfit "Fun with Electricity" 1. you at the right place in your study of electricity. etc. The Busy Ant-hill. A Compass Upsidedown. etc. The Merry Pendulum. The Magnetic Bridge. and covering the whole subject of "Static Electricity. As the subject is presented in a fascinating way and not as mere dry science-^-every one likes to do the experiments. The Magic Finger. with bar magnets. A Whirligig.50 No. densed Lightning. And 43 Others. An ElecWhirligig. An Electric There is Fun in these Experiments: A Race with Electricity. A String of Fish. A Magnetic Gun. Very Shocking. Fun With Magnetism and Fun With Electricity have started more young men upon electrical careers than any other scientific outfits ever placed be- FUN WITH MAGNETISM This outfit contains a 32-page book of instructions. is important. The Magnetic Acrobat. Complete outfit "Fun with Magnetism" $0. tric Frog Pond. and it is all done in such an interesting way that one can't Every experiment clinches some fact and every fact help remembering it. and a complete set of apparatus of 20 articles for performing these 60 experiments. A Joke on the Family Electric Ferry-Boat." giving 60 scientific experiments upon its production. They have a national reputation. Daddy An Electric Kite. and Repulsions. No wonder these sets are highly praised by parents and educators in every part of the country! Chain Lightning. Top Upsidedown. No.Round. Something for Nervous People to Try. tricity Carries a Lantern. The Stampede. agents and mail-order houses. An Electric Fly-Trap.25 05 If sent by mail. A Magnetic Motor Using Attractions go. Rl. and private schools is a guarantee of their value. An Electric Ding-Dong.

25 OS If sent by mail. (9) Hidden and Concealed Words. No. 80 pages. Gardens." This outfit gives the best possible amusement for Complete sent outfit "Fun with Soap-Bubbles" by mail. (8) Dissected Puzzles. Complete outfit "Fun with Puzzles" $0. (5) Word Diamonds. Bubble Bellows. If you can't do any particular puzzle you will measures 5x7 1 2 inches. Bubble Bottle. is old and young. postage extra / FUN WITH SOAP-BUBBLES easily blown without special apparatus. Bubble Basket. Prose and Rhyme. Crosses. Squares. If you want find its solution in the "key. (3) Dropped Letter Squares. you will find this book a of four hundred puzzles regular school of puzzles that will give you a thorough training for this kind of work. (11) Bicycle and Boat Puzzles. If nothing more beautiful than the airy-fairy soap-bubble with nging colors. (7) Jumbled Writing and Magic Proverbs. Fish-net Film. R3. Triangles.25 07 10 . to give a "Fun Contents of Book: Twenty-one Illustrations. Supported Bubbles. which is bound with the book. Hexagons. Bubble Lamp Chimney. for it is amusing. Bubbles Bubbles Blown with Straws. to win prizes by doing the puzzles in the magazines.FUN WITH PUZZLES Here is an outfit that every boy and girl should have. and this book contains some real brain-teasers that will make you The book contains 15 chapters. Outfit. The Soap Mixture. Bubble Shade. Bubble Cluster. Circles. (2) Magic Triangles. (4) Mixed Proverbs. Bubbles Blown witl Pipes. etc. Blown with Electricity. To Draw a Bubble Through a Ring. post paid $0. etc.TOW Film. Bubble Dome. Secret Writing is explained in this book. and think. The book alone is well worth the price. Floating Bubbles. Soap-Bubble Parties using these real sensations. A Bubble Within a Bubble. A Smoking Bubble. counters. Bubble Lenses. Double Bubble Dome. friends. (14) Combination Puzzles. (12) Various Word and Letter Puzzles. (IS) Mazes and Labyrinths. Rectangles. Fancy Bubbles and Films are not person. Another Way. Turtle-back Bubbles. Bow and A. (13) Puzzles with Counters. and 128 illustrations. Bubble Acorn. etc. and even with the proper outfit one must "kno ow how. (6) Numerical Enigmas. Pies. Contents of Book: Chapter (1) Secret Writing. Bubble Hammock. Suspended Bubbles. Useful Hints. The Colors of Soap-Bubbles. Pyramid Bubbles. Bubbles. enjoyment. It is real fun to do puzzles and to puzzle your instructive and educational. and Dropped Word Puzzles. R4." That's why we furnish a 16-page book with every set to show just how to do it. There No. Dancing Bubbles. Wrestling Bubbles. postage extra Three extra packages of Prepared Soap. Soap-Bubbles and Frictional Introduction. Farms. and Rhomboids. With the aid of the 21 illustrations and the directions you can produce remarkable will results that surprise and entertain your A child can do it as well as a grown friends. (10) Divided Cakes. Smoke Bubbles. to say nothing of the outfit of numbers. The Tennis Racket Film. Bubble Games. pictures. and it shows how you can write letters to your friends and be sure that no one can read them unless they are also in the secret. This one thing alone will give you a great deal of Get this outfit and have some fun. Soap Films. outfits create Why not be the first in your town with Soap-Bubbles Party?" Just write and ask about the price for any special number of them say six or a dozen. Panshaped Film. Bombshell the Horn. Baby Bubbles.

1 Wire Candlestick Holder. and the beauties of art are tools in the_ hands of the amateur If you want to get a start in this up-to-date hobby. Back. Printing Frames. forms.. The Outfit contains everything necessary for making prints together with other articles to be used in vaThe following things are rious ways. 1 Jointed Wire Fish-pole and Line. R6. 1 Shadow Screen... 1 Wire for Oar. Miscellaneous Photographs. 1 Candlestick. 1 Package of "Fixo.50 10 If sent by mail. Negatives and How to Make Them.. Nature Photography. shadow entertainments. Printed Negatives. Initial Pictures. mas. Perforating Leaves. Magic Chapter I. 12 Character Hats. this photographer. Photography.. but to many there is nothing more The magic of sunshine. included: One Illustrated Book of In- "Fun With Photog1 Package of Sensitized raphy". 1 Fish.. The following articles are included: One book of Instructions called "Fun with Shadows". Putting Negatives in Printing Frame. Name Plates. $0. Printing Frame. 07 The FUN WITH PHOTOGRAPHY Popular Pastimes are numerous. 1 Set of Masks for Printing Frame... etc... Complete outfit "Fun with Shadows" ..? devices to aid them. 2 Sheets of Tracing Paper. The Paper. Negatives. postage extra .. Mounting. Paper.. 1 Oar-blade. veloping. 1 Set of Patterns for Fancy Shapes.25 If sent by mail... General Instructions. You will be surprised to see how easily you can make these funny shadows with the aid of the outfit. and that is why they get such wonderful results on the stage. 2 Spring Wire Table Clamps. 1 Cardboard House for Stage Scenery. shadow plays. Fixing. Flowers. called ... 4 Clamps for Screen. Sunshine. Fancy Shapes. Trimming. Magnetic Phofor Negatives. 2 Bent Wire Scenery Holders. Drying. Perforated Negatives.. 1 Boat.... Easter and Birthday Cards.." Contents of Book: Introduction.. pantomimes. Combination Pictures. The Outfit.. Our DePrinting. Ferns and Leaves.. V. 1 Printing Frame.. etc. Do you want to do the same thing right in your own home and You can do it entertain your friends with all kinds of fancy shadows? with this outfit.. Photographing Leaves. Spring. 1 Alphabet Sheet. etc... Ground Glass Negatives. Drying Leaves. 5 Cardboard Plates containing the following printed figures that should be cut out with shears. enjoy the work and be delighted with the beautiful pictures you can make. Paper. 1 Cardboard Frame for Circular Screen. Ferns. Negatives Made from Magazine Pictures. 1 Book of Negatives (Patented) Ready for Use. postage extra structions..FUN WITH SHADOWS No wonder shadow-making has been popular for several centuries! What could give keener delight than comical shadow-pictures... 1 Package of Folding Mounts... 1 Wire Figure Support. for the book contains 100 illustrations and diagrams with directions for using the numerous articles included in the box. IV. Christtographs. 1 Package of Card Mounts.. Outfit contains everything necessary for all ordinary shadow pictures... The Sensitized Paper. will You outfit will help you.. the wonders of fascinating than photography. 6 Sheets of Blank Negative Paper. No.. Aids to Nature Study. Prints. No.. III. 1 Coil of Wire for Movable Figures. 1 Cardboard Plate containing printed parts for making movable figures. en terProfessional shadowists use wires... II. Making Transparent Making the Negatives. Better get one W now and make shadows like a professional. and vari tainments. R5.. nature. Complete outfit "Fun with Photography" $0.. including and Glass. How the Effects are Produced.

Suicide.15 . R7. test-tubes. 12 men. A Chemical Curtain. acids or liquids. filter paper. for then you can more easily appreciate what a splendid outfit this for the money.50 Chemical Fight. of Instructions is more you know about chemistry the more you will enjoy it. The "game-preserve" is neatly printed in and the birds and wild are animals colors. and even if you have taken ad vanced courses in the subject you will find The something new in these experiments. bullets are paper actually shot from the "electric gun" by electricity. The Flame that Committed Chemical Soup. discount for party orders. No. It is so simple that the smallest child can play it and so fasci_ nating that grandpa will want to try it. Complete outfit "Fun with Chemistry" $0. Outfit contains over 20 different artiincluding chemicals. box with game-board. postage extra 10 ELECTRIC SHOOTING GAME Shooting Animals by electricity is certainly a most original game. If sent by mail. litmus paper. postpaid $0." and the "Electric Bullets. The game is patented and copyrighted because it is really a brand-new idea in games and it brings into use that most mysterious something called electricity." together with complete illustrated . The Book is The cles. A Smoke Cascade.. A Baby Skating-Rink. directions. A Magic Milk-Shake. Fun With Chemistry. everything needed for the forty-one experiments. well worth hunting. Complete "Electric Shooting Game. and measures 5x7 J4 inches. Steam. in fact. No. sample. great improvement upon the good old game. fascinating game instantly learned. Through Walls of Flame. of the subject in a most interesting fashion. directions. glass tubing. and it will furnish a vast amount of amusement to all. An Explosion in a Teacup. A Tears.50 NEW IDEA TIT-TAT-TOE Splendid game for two. Fountains of Flame. even in school. Making an Alkali." the "Shooting-Box. or the Phantom Ship. R21 New Idea Tit-Tat-Toe.FUN WITH CHEMISTRY Chemistry is universally considered to be an interesting subject. and it is truly a weird sight to see them shoot through the air impelled by this unseen force. No. it is very active and you will have plenty to laugh at." postpaid $0. or four players. adjustable ring-stand. and you will want to do them for your friends. The Outfit contains the "Game-Preserve. An Artificial Gas Well. from a Flame. The experiments are so enjoyable that Vou will take pleasure in doing them over and over again. Scrambled Chemicals. three. Yellow Smoke Pearls. etc. Each has a fixed value and some of them must not be shot at all Tissueso there is ample chance for skill. While the electricity is perfectly harmless. fully illustrated. Flame Goes Over a Bridge." the "Electric Gun. nothing better for children's parties and progressive birthday parties. A Gas Factory in a TestTube Making Charcoal. there being no batteries. Fun Found Here: From White to Black. and it is certainly an important one in these days of scientific This outfit starts you at the right place and presents the elements progress. A Tiny Whirlwind. And Many Other Experiments. An Ocean of Smoke. A Smoke TobogganSlide. The Wizard's Breath. R41. A Lampblack Factory. Making an Acid. You can have a lot of fun with this set. all placed in a neat box.

John has at last perfected these outfits. called Telegraphy . " Nickel-plated Screw Binding-posts". JOHN. which he can perso and that recommend. The stations be several hundred feet apart. either station may call other at any time. even though the line is kept on "open circuit. as the instruments are very sensitive in " " the operation. Two may be used from room to room. cheap. Insulated Wires for connections. " Fun with " Outfit : Illustrated Book of Instructions. Price. InsuJated Wires for connections. and the time taken to learn it will be well spent to say nothing about the fun. Telegraph "Sounder". " Telegraph Key ". 2 " is designed for regular line work. post-paid. with two dry cells. $1. many plated trimmings. By means of an ingenious switch. for the sounders are designed to work with dry batteries. 848 Ninth Ave.. Special Switch for controlling the batteries. and an adjustable up-stop. called "Telegraphy Number with high-resistance magTwo". although they differ " " sounders" in details." and "binding-posts" are neatly mounted upon ebonized bases with nickel- making and experimenting with about one hundred models.Fun With Telegraphy TWO OUTFITS FOR AMATEURS AND STUDENTS Every boy can make use of telegraphy in one way or another. each being designed for its special work. These outfits simplify the whole subject of amateur telegraphy it a pleasure. The two outfits have the same general construction. Mr. Price. Telegraph Key ". After of which were good. Telegraph "Sounder. which are clean. and perfectly safe. New York . ST. Illustrated Book of Instructions. 5O cts ." There is absolutely no waste of current when the line is not in use. post-paid. and make TELEGRAPHY NO. Spring "Binding-posts".OO " THOMAS M. post-paid. 65 eta. but " No. 75 cents." " " aet. with dry cell. and this is certainly a great advantage over the old fashioned methods which boys have heretofore " may been obliged to Outfit: use. The keys. "FUN WITH TELEGRAPHY " is designed for local use as an ideal " Learners' Outfit " of one instrument. No expensive gravity batteries are needed. 2 " is better for regular line work. St. are original they are now They practical sonally being made in large quantities hence the low price.

. what other systems you have. with its slow-moving telegraph sounders and relays. but two wires should be used for the_ line and the words should be spoken loud and clear directly into the receiving-transmitter. it directs it. The Standard Instrument. The reason? No waste of energy. Semi-Wireless will do every thing we say it will. Everything is economized. power is concentrated and results are No matter absolutely certain. 500 feet this may also be used to telephone. and when once set up all expense ceases. ether-waves are directed. for it telegraphs and telephones. no horse- why so little power gives power needed to to get a flea-power the right spot. and so the messages simply have to go where they are wanted. right into every ear on the line. when used with two or three good guarantee that it will send and receive Semiclear over any properly-built line. it is simpler. no dynamo wanted to get a dry-battery effect. we absolutely Wireless messages loud and ." for one tiny wire must join all of the stations on any line. and To avoid that is such remarkable results. Semi-Wireless is a new system that solves the telegraphic problem for amateurs and students. SEMI-WIRELESS [PATENT APPLIED FOR] A SYSTEM THAT TELEGRAPHS AND TELEPHONES all misunderstandings we wish to state right here in the first sentence that by the name "Semi-Wireless" we do not mean "wireless. No. are to be two or a dozen stations on the line. because it has to radiate in all directions in order to radiate at all. and it is best for hard service over long lines.000 miles in length. for every station can telegraph and telephone to every other station. It is simpler and cheaper than the old-fashioned way. The instruments are strong and well made. J. Semi. and it also includes codes and numerous aids to learning telegraphy. One dry battery will do wonders in over a ten-mile telegraphing Semi.Wireless does not waste energy. say. its heavy linewire and its mess of bluestone batteries. you need a Semi. Wireless telegrams with any dry batteries.Wireless line.Wireless. Think what it means to have these two great things combined in one simple system! In wireless work a great deal of energy is wasted. and so the receiving-station gets only the smallest part of that energy. This illustrated book gives full details for building and operating Semi-Wireless lines. up to 1. 2550. Semi-Wireless is a brand-new system that satisfies. For short lines up to. its tuning-coils and In short. and. The "directing wire" can be strung up in a little while by the method fully explained in the book on telegraphy which is given with each instrument. cheaper and more reliable than wireless with its coils and condensers. is for sending and receiving Semicode. it is the best thing ever invented for students of telegraphy and wireWe guarantee that less. and two wires are still better than one.St. an occasional dry battery being all that will be needed to keep it going. it is the ideal system no matter whether there transformers.

many young men do buy complete wireless outfits and then find. This set is put up in a special stained box with handle and sliding cover. and two batteries. SEMI-WIRELESS. 2556. No. to their surprise. only the telegraph and telephone parts are mounted in separate boxes and not in one large box. includes the Standard Instrument. but rather confine ourselves to things that can be done by anyone having an outfit. No.Continued The _Standard Cabinet. This makes a splendid outfit for those who do not care for the telephone part of the system. provides the same instruments as are furnished in the Portable Outfit. you will understand that for all of the ordinary lines that will be put up by amateurs the results will be more than satisfactory. we are only hinting at the capabilities of this wonderful invention. and another says that messages are readable fifty feet invented.ST. 2554. and the outfit is wired and ready for immediate use. The Standard Cabinet and Transmitter Outfit. all ingeniously mounted in a special stained box with sliding cover. Our Portable Set. 2550. if the operator all. stands over 13 inches high. Learning Wireless. 2552 at any time to make a complete long-distance station for telegraphing and telephoning. 2550 or No. 2554. we would much We could tell you greater things than this about Semi-Wireless.Wireless is the great teacher that will help just such amateurs. so vou need not fear that the line you think of building may be too long. No. One reports that he can hear conversation distinctly six feet from the receivers. 2550. 2552 top of the Portable Set. This transmitter is shown near the No. on the other hand. when sold as No. No. we at that We You can't blame our customers who already have lines for being enthusiastic. and it It includes the standard instrument. 2557. and the loud-talking transmitter. mounted upon a frame-work. transmitter to give perfect satisfaction over all properly-constructed lines lip to 500 miles in length. may be added to either No. The Loud-Talking Long-Distance Transmitter. By having several students on the same line and there can be fifty as well as a dozen and by having one good operator to teach them. you will be astonished at the way these peculiar instruments respond to the slightest whisper. The base of the instrument swings in and out of the box upon pivots. and we guarantee that the two batteries will furnish power enough to telegraph loud and clear over the longest line you will ever want to build. No. sent so fast that it requires a great deal Semi. . J. is making a great hit and no wonder. the whole line can be instructed at the same time and rapid progress can he made by The messages can be sent at any desired speed and. all neatly mounted and ready You can connect your station to any Semi-Wireless line in one for use. the line-wires minute by passing through the eyeletted holes to the bindingWhen you consider that we have here a complete teleposts at the left. have had official tests made of SemiWireless apparatus the hardest tests that any apparatus could have and we stand ready to prove every claim we make. however. No. No. connections being made as shown in the Book of Instructions. graph and telephone station in one you will see its possibilities. 2557. There are thousands of young men and boys who want to learn wireless and general telegraphy and who can not afford to buy the rather expensive outfits that are needed for such work. that they cannot read the messages because they are away. With its ability to telephone and telegraph loud and clear over the same wire and a small cheap wire without the use of dynamos or other expensive current-supply. it is neatly mounted in a separate stained box that can be fastened up just above 'the Standard As we absolutely guarantee this Instrument or the Standard Cabinet. in fact. of practise to make them out. When we tell you that Semi-Wireless messages can be sent loud and clear over lines 1. No. The of this transmitter construction peculiar makes the results very unusual on all ordinary lines. 2552.000 miles in length. and. 2554.

the work As the messages come flying through every receiver on the line they sound just the same as wireless. and where the line isn't over a few miles long. Think what a blessing such instruction will be to those just learning! A skilled operator can be found in almost every town who will be glad to give this instruction at a fixed price per hour. .ST.WIRELESS GOODS LIST No. This system is a great help to students of wireless because it gives just the training that is needed. so what more could be desired? On two. 2557 t0 StUdCnt8 ' MISCELLANEOUS SEMI. J. SemiWireless talks as well as it telegraphs. they can be heard without placing the receivers to the ears. is provided with the leud-talking transmitter. The Greatest Opportunity Ever Offered No. verbal instructions can be given to all at the same time. SEMI-WIRELESS-Om/V can be made most practical. and when several share the expense it will be very little for each.wire or belt lines the "calls" come in so loud that they can be heard all over a large room. talks can be illustrated by actual messages. and to crown the whole thing. You may be getting code one second and talk the next.

atic " Those who visited the electrical exhibition last May cannot have failed to notice on the south gallery a very interesting exhibit. switches. and it was remarkable to see what an ingenious use had been made of old tin tomatocans. The drawings are plain and excellent. was from designs by the author of this clever little book. made by boys of thirteen to fifteen years of age. as it did. bolts. Electro-Magnets. were the instructions given in the book with the above of the most practical little works yet written r. E. so that the student can go right without being diverted from good helpful work that will leaa him to along build useful apparatus and make him understand what he is about. post-paid. Permanent Magnets. IV. 5x7^. We heartily commend the book. VII. Contact Breakers and Current Interrupters. Cells and Batteries. Resistance Coils. III.. and we imagine that the effect of such a book as this falling into juvenile hands must tions in regard to all be highly stimulating and beneficial. red cloth. XXI. and by closely following the instructions given. XII. For schools where a course of elementary science is taught. That such a book tills a longfelt want may be inferred from the number of inquiries we are constantly receiving from persons desiring to make their own induction coils and other apparatus. V." The Great Round World. Price. XIV..HOW TWO Fifth Edition BOYS MADE THEIR ELECTRICAL APPARATUS By THOMAS fl. Electric Belte and Buzzers. JOHN." Electrical Engineer. no better text-book in the first steps in electricity is obtainable. XI. etc. Met. Size. Commutators and Current Reversers. Tools and Materials. telegraph keys and sounders. resistance coils. 1 ) At the electrical show in New York last May one of the most interesting exhibits was that of simple electrical apparatus made by the boys in one of the private schools in the city. 125 illustrations. Apparatus for Static Electricity. IX. X. Wire-Winding Apparatus. comprising electro-magnets. 848 Ninth Ave. Current Detectors and Galvanometers. New York . buzzers. CONTENTS: Chapter I. XIX. and will prove exceedingly helpful to those of our young readers who are fortunate enough to possess themselves of a copy. Electric Motors. " THOriAS M. Moreover. Battery Fluids and Solutions. The little volume is unique. consisting. motors. screws. wire. armatures. XVIII. *i. current detectors. XX. XVII. ST. and has illustrated these directions with admirable diagrams and cuts. The various devices there shown. John has given directions in simple language for making and using these devices. Miscellaneous Apparatus and Methods of Construction. VIII. and an almost endless variety of apparatus were made. XV. " The author of this book is a teacher and writer of great ingenuity. cracker-boxes. with but a limited amount of mechanical knowledge. II. and wood. of electrical apparatus made oy boys. Yokes and Armatures. Induction Coils and Their Attachments. "Electricity. Magnetic Needles and Compasses. XVI. Switches and Cut-Outs. Odds and Ends. VI. It is full of explicit details and instruca great variety of apparatus. and the materials required are within the compass of very modest pocket-money. and directions for making 152 pieces of apparatus. Binding-Posts and Connectors. Telegraph Keys and Sounders. it is systemand entirely without rhetorical frills. Xin. JOHN. coils. OWN ST. In his book Mr. This apparatus.oo This book contains 141 pages. St. almost any electrical device may be made at very small expense. With these simple materials telegraph instruments.

r j .

Wire Tables. Chemical Effects of the Electric Current. XXVI. VIII. Induced Currents. XVII. XV. Induced ElecI.-V. students. IV. XIX. II. Atmospheric Electricity. ' THOMAS 7HIRD EDITION. XII. tromagnetism. is The experiments and If you want to take up a systematic course of experiments experiments that will build a lasting foundation for your electrical knowledgethis book will serve as a valuable guide. . Iron and Steel. Price. E. VII. postpaid.-Index. It will give a practical and experimental knowledge of elementary electricity. XVm. Galvanic and Batteries. Induced Magnetism. Electrification. XIV.25. Conductors trification. IX. XXIV. XX. Miscellaneous Experiments. CONTENTS: nets. netism.. Met. Electromagnets. Current Strength. XXVIII. X. The book contains 220 pages 5x7'/2 in. Static Electricity. Cells This is want to take a text-book for amateurs. ST. Chapter I. Electromotive Force. and thoroughly prepare students for advanced work. Part UI. Condensation of Electrification XI. XXII. XXI. Electrical Resistance.The Study Electricity By of Elementary and Magnetism by Experiment M. Terrestrial MagVI. Magnetism. Full directions are given for home TWO HUNDRED EXPERIMENTS. Electroscopes. $1. Measurement of Resistance. and others who up a systematic course of electrical experiments at or in school. Insulators and Charging and Discharging Conductors. XVI. XXm. The Production of Motion by Currents. XXVIL Applications of Electricity. student discussions are so planned that the always prepared for what follows. Thermoelectricity. Although the experiments may be performed with the apparatus that is usually found in school laboratories. It measures in green cloth. Part III. ElecXXV. Part II. XIII. JOHN. Current Electricity. MagThe Magnetic Field. The Electric Circuit. the author has designed a complete set of apparatus for those who want to have their own outfit. Construction and Use of Apparatus. Apparatus List. and it and 168 is bound illustrations.

being necessary. Experiments contains three main . New York City . Apparatus (B) Text-Book (C) Apparatus List. THOnAS M. as they are the result of years of actual work with students. perhaps. (See Table of Contents. 5: Pieces i to 105. John feels that he is giving a great deal for the money.25 Express charges must be paid by you. Changes have been recently made in some of the pieces. will.) Price. SOME EXTRAORDINARY OFFERS This Cabinet of parts: (A) Electrical . If you want to build a lasting foundation for your electrical studies. which are made up of over three hundred separate articles (see "Condensed List"). These Outfits have been of gradual growth. a few simple adjustments. (B). This set and it is (B) tricity The Text-Book called "The Study of Elementary Elecand Magnetism by Experiment" gives full directions for two hundred experiments. Special Discount. will jc mailed upon application.00 5. pay the greater part of the express charges.60 will be given. and in placing the improved apparatus upon the market Mr. in most cases. St. The outfit is ready for use when received. To those who order the entire outfit at one time (Offer No. 6) the special price of (5. with part (C) No. ST. parts (A).00 6. 848 Ninth Avenue.25. you will find this course of experiments of the greatest value. This discount of 65c. 4: Pieces 51 to 105." which pertains to the above. of apparatus can be used over and over again for years. in every way practical for regular laboratory work. (C) : $1. & " New Special Catalogue.Electrical Apparatus For Sale A COMPLETE ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC CABINET FOR STUDENTS. with part (C) No. which is devoted entirely to this special set of apparatus. Estimates given. I No. (A) The Apparatus consists of one hundred and five pieces.00 4. 6: Complete Cabinet. Offer Offer Offer Offer Pieces I to 50 No. $1. (} The Apparatus List is an illustrated Detail-Book. JOHN. SCHOOLS AND AMATEURS.

How Electric Currents are Distributed for Use. XV. things in which the American boy is intensely Interested. !. post-paid. How Electroplating and Electrotyping are Done. Units and Apparatus for Electrical Measurements. in simple. XVI.. The Electric Bell and Some of its Uses. -XVIII. 180 pages. After explaining the simple principles of electricity. Chemical Effects of the Electric Current. XVII. It is free from technical language and rhetorical frills. tells how This book does not contain experiments. How Electricity is Generated by Heat. How Electricity Is Generated by Induction. and How it Sends Messages. IV. VIII. XIV. Switches and Binding-Posts. A Word About Central Stations. things he should know. The Storage Battery and How it Works. VII. About Frictional Electricity. Boats and Automobiles. How Light is Produced by the is Produced by the Incandescent Lamp. X-Rays. many things about electricity. X. and why they work. How Light XXII. II. Cars. Fourth Edition and Magnetism. About Push-Buttons. ABOUT ELECTRICITY. IX. Know About Electricity. About Magnets III. 8T. The Telephone. XXV. V. the best that can be had illusIt is brimful of illustrations trations that are taken directly from apparatus and machinery. things he wants to know.THINGS A BOY SHOULD By THOMAS The book contains 5 KNOW 1C. and How the Bones of the Human Body are Photoand How it Does Work. How Electricity is Generated by Dynamos. How the Induction Coil Works. Arc Lamp. 91. XXVI. XXI. Magnetic Effects of the Electric Current. Met. XI. XIX. it measure! x 7/^ and is bound in cloth.> CONTENTS : Chapter I. it shows how these principles are used and combined to make electricity do every-day work. The Electric Telegraph. VERY APPROPRIATE PRESENT . Various Voltaic Cells. How Electricity is Generated by the Voltaic Cell. XX. straightforward language. and 260 illustrations. JOHN. in. Price. XXIV. our other books do that. Miscellaneous Uses of Electricity.VI. and How it Transmits Speech. XII. XIII. and that show what they are intended to show. How Heat is Produced by the Electric Current. How the Electric Current is Transformed. Everyone Should A. XXIII. Electric Electric Motor The graphed. or tell how to make apparatus. This book explains. but it things work. XXVII.

Every toy was made. the drawings were then made from the perfected models. John definitely decided that he would not fill it with descriptions of complicated. Toys Operated by Solenoids. Toys Operated by Electromagnets. Various Aids to Construction. $1. IX.. machinemade instruments and apparatus. Tools. Met. Electric Motors. VIII. It measures 5 x 7^ in. Making Solenoids for Toys. for there is no guesswork about them. SECOND EDITION Price. changed. XIII. post-paid. Toys Operated by Electric Motors. Belts and Cables. X." for it is just as impossible for most boys to get the parts for such things as it is for them to do the required machine after they have the raw materials. Miscellaneous Electric Toys. and experimented with until it was as simple as possible. Toys Operated by Permanent Magnets. While planning this book. Mr. and GearXI. diagrams. XIV. Making Electromagnets for Toys. Great care has been taken in designing the toys which are described in this book. in order to make them so simple that any boy of average ability can construct them out of ordinary The author can personally guarantee the designs. This book contains 140 pages and over one hundred original drawings. Power. XII. CONTENTS: XV.00 Chapter I. Pulleys and Windinging. Drums. V. CirVI. . Materials. Electric Batteries. XVIII. XVI. under the name of "ToyMaking. XVII. cuits and Connections. the author feels that this book may be truly called " Real Electric Toy-Making for Boys. Toys Operated by Static Electricity. III. ST JOHN. St. and full-page plates. VII.REAL ELECTRIC TOY-MAKING FOR BOYS By THOMAS M. IV. E. Speed. II. work even As the result of the enormous amount of work and experimenting which were required to originate and perfect so many new models. Shafting and Bearings." Every Boy Should Make Electrical Toys. and is bound in cloth. materials.

Wireless Telegraphy
For Amateurs and Students By THOMAS M. ST. JOHN, Met. E.
172 pages and over one hundred and drawings and photographs; it measures 5x7^ in.; bound in cloth.

The book contains


Price, post-paid, $1.00

Early Methods of Wireless Telegraphy. II. Waves in Solids, Liquids, and Gases. III. Wave-motion. IV. Ether. V. Light and Light-waves. VI. Action of Magnetism through Space. VII. Action of Static VIII. Action of Current ElecElectricity through Space. IX. The Induction-coil. X. Electrictricity through Space. waves. XI. Oscillating Currents. XII. Electric Oscillators. XIII. Production of Electric-waves. XIV. Detection of Electric-waves. XV. Experiments with Coherers. XVI. Experiments with Decoherers. XVII. Electric-wave Experiments. XVIII. Home-made Coherers. XIX. Home-made Autocoherers. XX. Anti-coherers and Other Detectors. XXI. Miscellaneous Apparatus. XXII. Home-made Accessories. XXIV. Aerials and XXIII. Induction-coil Experiments. Grounds. XXV. Miscellaneous Aids.



is designed especially for students and others who to get a practical and theoretical knowledge of wireless telegraphy, and for those who want to experiment without being

This book

obliged to buy the expensive apparatus usually required. Full details are given for making, at small cost, nearly everything that will be needed. There is nothing more fascinating than wireless telegraphy for those who are interested in scientific subjects, and the young man or boy who takes it up from an experimental standpoint making the greater part of his own apparatus has a great advantage over those who merely have information from books. Any young man who wants to get at the root of the matter and build up a solid foundation of theoretical and practical information will find this book a great help no matter what other books he may have upon the subject. It tells what to make and how to make it; what to use and how to use it; and besides, it u full of practical experiments, directions,





Containing complete directions for making and using nearly one hundred and fifty pieces of electrical apparatus, including various devices and outfits for experimental purposes.

By THOMAS M. ST. JOHN, Met. E. The book contains 252 pages and over 250 original drawings and diagrams. Size, 5x7 }4 inches; bound in substantial cloth.
Price, post-paid, $1.00.

Contents in Brief: Chapter I. Making Permanent MagII. Magnetic Needles and Compasses. III. Current Detectors and Galvanoscopes. IV. Handling Metals. V. Handling Wood. VI. Binding-posts and Connecting Devices. VII. Switches, Contact-points and Cut-outs. VIII. Push-buttons and Strap Keys. IX. Cores, Yokes and Armatures. X. Machines for Winding Electromagnets. XI. Solenoids and Electromagnets. XII. Horseshoe Electromagnets. XIII. Apparatus for Measuring Resistances. XIV. Resistance-boxes and Rheostats. XV. Current-reyersers and Pole-changing Switches. XVI. Small Electric-light XVII. Small Condensers. XVIII. A "Handicraft" Outfits. Workroom. XIX. Miscellaneous Operations. XX. Tools

Index. Ideas in Apparatus-making. A peculiar system of construction has been invented by the author of "Electrical Handicraft" that gives unusual results and, as this simple plan has been used throughout the whole book, home-made apparatus can now be produced that will be a credit to any laboratory and give new interest in experimental work. Plain Directions. Any one can follow the plain directions, aided by the numerous drawings and diagrams, and make good practical apparatus that is, at the same time, finelooking apparatus; in fact, some who have seen it say that it is home-made apparatus de luxe on account of its elegant appearance and original design. Inexpensive Supplies. The best of it all is this: You can get materials and supplies for making this splendid lot of apparatus for very little money, any single piece costing you but a few cents. Here is the reason: Nearly all of the supplies that are needed for this out-of-the-ordinary apparatus



are made in large quantities by machinery for the author's various outfits and that is why these carefully chosen materials can be furnished at so low a price. They are made as they should be made metal straps nickel-plated, and is a and so the result like if happy combination you punched that satisfies. It is with much pleasure that the author finally places within easy reach of students, amateurs and schools a line of supplies so complete, so substantial and practical and, at the same time, so inexpensive. Send for "Electrical Handicraft" now, so that you can begin this most fascinating and profitable work at once.

had a lot of inquiries about tools new ideas in apparatus making; and as the methods of construction are quite unusual in fact, absolutely original we have decided to make up sets of tools that have been found to be most useful. While ordinary tools are needed for the most part, a few special tools are essential.
to go with these


Time and energy are precious; don't waste either by trying to make apparatus with poor tools or with tools unsuited to the work. You will get the best value if you buy the tools in sets.
Note: can not pay express charges on these sets, owing to the special prices given, but we shall be glad to give you an estimate of the charges to your city upon application.
2. PRICE $2.00. One Steel Punch; polished, flat light Hammer; polished, iron, nickel-plated; hardwood hanIron Clamp; japanned, 2%-in. opening. One Screw-Driver; tempered and polished blade, stained hardwood handle, nickel ferrule. One Vise; full malleable, nicely retinned, lfi-in. jaws, full malleable with screw One File; triangular, good steel. One File Handle; spring. good wood, brass ferrule. One Foot Rule; varnished woor, with English and metric systems. One Soldering Set; contains soldering iron, sol-


One One



resin and directions. One Center-Punch finely tempered steel, and of the proper size. One "St. J." Special Eyelett inn-Tool does fine work and is invaluable. One "St. J." Special Combination HandDrill and Winding-Machine; takes drills up to and including threesixteenths inch; finely nickeled and finished in every way; strong chuck and hollow handle for holding drills.. One Special Threaded Spindle for Winding-Machine. One Three-SIxteenths-Inch Twist Drill. One Drill-Point for small holes. These straight-shank drills are made of the best steel, properly tempered. One Pair of Compasses; for marking circles on wooden bases, etc. This set contains 16 tools.




TOOL SET NO. 2%', PRICE $2.75. This set contains all that is in No. 1J4 set, together with the following: One Pair of Pliers; 6 in. long, bright steel, flat nose, with two wire-cutters; practically unbreakable and very useful. One Pair of Tinner's Shears; cut 2& in., hardened iron, suitable for light work. One Try-Square; 6 in. blued steel One Anvil; polished top with blade, marked in one-eighth-in. spaces. japanned body; very necessary for rivetting and eyeletting. This set contains 20 tools.
This set contains the same TOOL SET NO. 4 ; PRICE, $3.75. of tools as Set No. 2J4, the difference in price being due to the superior quality of five of the tools which replace those in the cheaper set. These five tools are: (1) Soldering Set, (2) Vise, (3) Tinner's The Soldering Set is larger, Shears, (4) Compasses, (5) Hammer. so the soldering iron holds the heat better than the smaller one, and The Vise is much larger and heavier than the this is a great help. tinned vise, and it is of superior quality, with strong polished jaws and steel screw; body nicely japanned. The Tinner's Shears are made of fine steel, properly tempered; cutting-blades polished, thoroughly The ComSteel shears can be sharpened when they get dull. reliable. passes are adjustable with screw and they lock in place; nickel-plated and of superior quality, with pen, pencil and two sharp points. The Hammer is made of cast steel, weight about one pound. 20 tools.



etc. for punching larger holes. etc. One Large Vise. John after considerable experimenting to produce a good tool that would be cheap. this tool was devised by Mr. 3ft.Handicraft Tool Sets (Continued) This set is most complete. One Large Iron Clamp. This special set contains: One "St. St. $1." Special Combination Hand-Drill and Winding-Machine. One Foot Rule." winding-machine to the table. One File Handle. PREPAID. thoroughly reliaOne Try-Square. One Pair of Tinner's Shears. 6-in. One Special Threaded Spindle for winding-machine." One Pair of Compasses.. We will send this set by mail or express. J. polished top as in Set No. simply invaluable. this is the tinned One Special Threaded Spindle. 3 ft. of superior jaws. full malleable screw with spring. very necessary for ri vetting and eyeletting. great help and saves time on some work.. good steel. sometimes called steel "snips. TOOL SET NO. polished. 6 in. machine. finely tempered steel and of the proper size. J.35. the size mostly used for handicraft bases. One Steel Punch. $1. brad-awls. proper weight for punching metal straps. One Drill-Point for small holes. One Ratchet Screw-Driver. nickel-plated. tempered and polished blade. body One File. and it is well worth the price. flat end. good wood. nickel ferrule. One ScrewDriver. Drill. the following outfit will be a great help. long. J. nicely retinned. etc. 4y 4 tools SPECIAL SIX-TOOL SET.One Steel Punch. with adjusting-screw. proper weight for nailing bases.80. J. One Saw. it positively does as good work as an expensive foot-power machine. jaws. One Pair of Pliers. quality for larger work. used in winding threaded cores. useful for sawing off small pieces of wood. marked in one-eighth-in. J. nicely japanned. does fine work and is invaluable One "St. takes drills up to and including three-sixteenths in. opening. etc. One "St. One Pair of Shears for cutting paper and cloth for electromagnets. blued steel ble. for windingvise with li^-in. One Center-Punch. finely nickeled and finished in every way. same as in Set No. takes drills up to and including three-sixteenths in. flat nose. any laboratory or workshop. One Soldering Set.35. strong polished jaws and steel screw. ball pein and of fine quality. winds electromagnets splendidly. the polished hardwood handle holds 10 tools. strong chuck and hollow handle for holding drills. finely nickeled and finished in every way. steel frame. PLEASE SEE DIRECTIONS FOR SENDING MONEY . including gimlet. One Light Hammer. lfi-in.80. japanned. PRICE. polished pteel blade.75. One Iron Clamp. One "St." Special Eyelettlng-Tool. In case you are well supplied with ordinary tools and want only the special needed for this work. . prepaid to any point in the United States for $1. with japanned body. One Drill-Point This special six-tool set will be a splendid addition to for small holes." Special Eyeletting-Tool . varnished wood. full malleable. with English and Metric Systems. with two wire-cutters. stained hardwood handle. hardwood handle. spaces. One Vise for clamping the "St. One Small Vise. PRICE. $4. bright steel. $1. brass ferrule. One Three-Sixteenths-Inch Twist Drill. One Hollow-Handle Tool Set. This set contains 28 tools besides those in the hollow-handle tool set. greatest One Three-Sixteenths-Inch Twist possible help in winding cores. triangular. cutting blades polished." Special Combination Hand-Drill and Winding-Machine. practically unbreakable and very useful. chisel. 2^4 in. containing nearly everything that is in the other sets. One Anvil. polished. same blade. together with a number of very useful tools. One Cast Steel Machinist's Hammer. made of fine steel and properly tempered.

nickel-plated connecting-straps. when used in connection with the other parts of the Motor Outfits. $1. Motor No. and a fan can be added at any time.A MOTOR THAT CAN DO THINGS The "St.00 . J. ments? Why doesn't mean much when not get a motor that has brains and that can do tricks and experiAny good motor will go when you turn on the power. in fact. 1. but that it comes to understanding things. Motor No.15 . this motor toys. thus adapting it for running the are mounted etc. and more cells may be added. It is finished in black enamel with strong and well made. reversers and other apparatus in the outfits. As binding-posts upon the frame. and we know that it can be used in more ways than any other motor of equal cost ever built. Motor No. 1 stands 3% inches high. One cell will give a high speed. 2201) is designed for students and others who want a small motor for experimental purposes as well as for all believe this to be the best of the work that any small motor can do. and if used with the rheostats." If sent No. which are to be used for connecting the No." So much can be done with this motor that it is simply impossible to tell it here. by mail. thing the big motors can do. The shaft carries a pulley. J. postage extra with Wiring-Diagrams. small motor made. 2201 "St. 1" (List No. 2201 and armature in "series" or "shunt. can be taken from the base for remounting and using in many ways. it will give a practical knowledge of motors that no other plan can give. The speed and in circuits with reversers and rheostats for experiments." and. it is used as the basis for a whole book of 60 experiments called "The Study of Electric Motors by Experiment. making it posand so it can be used sible to energize the field or armature separately. direction of rotation can be changed at will. and as it has a three-pole armature it will start promptly in any position. It has four binding-posts. These motors and motor outfits have been highly praised by electrical exThey can do everyperts and educators as being invaluable to students. With it are furnished three nickel-plated trimmings. the student will have a whole motor laborafield tory. according to the work it We has to do.

1728 25 02 One Set of Wires for Connections No. 1340 12 Miniature Electric Lamp." Every electrical laboratory should have one of these sets. No. 1502 Two-Point Switch. in box. 1.. as above $2.25 No. No.50 contains .These outfits have been designed for students and others who want to do real experimental work with motors. 1102. Our Three-Cell Set. 1102. No. not afford to and you can No. be without it.. 15c. costs 25c. but they are not included. costs 35c. Steel. etc. No. No. No. as above. No. 1351 . 2y contains: 2 Motor No. contains: Motor No. be a great help to those who want to do real experimental work with moIt contains 10 chapters. so as to get right down to the bottom of the matter and thoroughly master the foundation principles of the subject.50 If sent by mail. 2201 $1. "St.50 If sent by mail. No. No. J. Operation and Explanation of Electric Motors. Don't simply read about motors.00 One Five-Point Rheostat. . as above. postage extra. No. No. No. lOc. No. bound in cloth. especially if the work be done as fully detailed in "The Study of Electric Motors by Experiment. No. 1728 Handy Current Detector. 2201 Five-Point Rheostat. 1" complete. J. 10 pieces. 1724 25 25 Double-Key Current Reverser. No. 1103. with wiring-diagrams 1. 1501 Two-Point Switch. Motor No. if sold together. 1725 Double-Key Current Reverser. No. No. 1062 Nickel-Plated Strap Key. No. 1724 Eleven-Point Rheostat. 2201 $1. 2121 04 1510 Magnetic Needle. paper cover. R57C The Study of Electric Motors by Experiment. 2. St. No. 1724 25 One Double-Key Current Reverser.00 If sent by mail. 25 Copy of "The Study of Electric Motors by Experiment" No. 2226 Complete Outfit. 1510 Box Iron Filings. and the more you know about motors the more you will appreciate an outfit of this kind. $0. 2224 Complete. Our Two-Cell Set. It is simply astonishing to see how much can be learned with one of these outfits. No. postage extra 25 Two dry batteries should be used with this outfit. $1. No. lOc. postage extra.00 25 35 25 15 05 06 02 02 05 Package of assorted Iron.00 Five-Point Rheostat. No.. tors. but they are not included. We use our Two-Cell Set. No. No. 2226 One One One One One One One One One One One One One One Electric Motor Outfit. No. J. R57P The Study of Electric Motors by Experiment. 2101 05 Miniature Receptacle. postage extra." List No. No. ELECTRIC MOTOR OUTFITS One One One One One One One One One One Electric Motor Outfit. 1062 05 Nickel-Plated Strap Key. No. 1728 10 Simple Current Detector. 1083 06 04 Magnetic Needle. postage extra 20 Two dry batteries should be used with this outfit. No. 110 pages. costing 25c. if sold together. over 70 illustrations and diagrams. postage extra 30 Three dry batteries should be used with this outfit but they are not included. Every experiment will settle an important point in your mind. 1" complete. 2224 Electric Motor Outfit. \y 2 contains: One "St. 2225 Complete Outfit. together with Much Helpful This book will Information upon the Experimental Apparatus Required. 1083 Set of Wires for Connections Box Iron Filings.. get right down to the practical part of it and experiment for yourself. No. No. THE STUDY OF ELECTRIC MOTORS BY EXPERIMENT Sixty Experiments that Bear Directly upon the Construction. No. 1351 02 02 Set of Wires for Connections of "The 25 of Electric Motors Copy Study by Experiment" No. 2225 "St. only $2. J.

. No.. because it is so constructed that it can be used in various ways. 1725. 1724. 1725 Rheostat.RHEOSTATS AND REVERSERS These ingenious rheostats are made in two sizes for experimental purand they are most useful for regulating the speed of motors. mounted a neat all base parts being upon straps. a key. It is much more fun to have the motors leap ahead a little and sing a different tune at each change of speed.35 is This double-key reverser is very useful for experiments with motors. the change the current too gradually. 1728 Double-Key Current Reverser (Postage extra. really. 2209. contact-points. just like the big motors that are used on trolley cars and for power purposes. push-botton. 1728 reverser is made with nickel-plated brass extremely handy. 3c. etc. and also for experimental work with miniaIn connection with our small lighting-plants in ture electric lamp outfits.). 172S Five-Point Rheostat (Postage extra. No. 172-1 No. rilliancy of lamps.) $0. and shows 1 shunt-wound and reversible. 1724. etc. etc. J. No. measures 3^x6j4 in. etc.. so it No. 1728 No. measures 3j4x4j4 in. It is designed to regulate the speed of our "St.25 measuring 2$4x3*/2 in. etc.$0. The Eleven-Point Rheostat. binding-posts... two-point switch and a reverser combined. It has more resistance than No.2S Eleven-Point Rheostat (Postage extra. and it is so designed that it can be used with three cells for our small motors. No. using rheostat and reverser to secure one method of speed control. Motor No. which the current is generated by one of our Dynamo-Motors. No. It is. Coses. Some small rheostats are so made that they No. binding-posts. Motor No. 4c. and they make a splendid addition to any electrical laboratory. 5c.) . 1" when running with two The Five-Point dry batteries. This diagram is one of many contained in the book on motors. . These instruments are made with nickel-plated brass straps. this rheostat is invaluable.


University of California 19 i . CA 90024-1388 Return this material to the library from which it was borrowed. Los Angeles.SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY 405 Hilgard Avenue.

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