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Components of Petroleum System

There are five components of Petroleum System. These all components are required in an given area for oil & gas

• • • • •

Source Rock Reservoir rock Cap Trap Migration Path

**Seismic technique and Hydrocarbon traps
**

The most common and important use of seismic method is to reveal information about the reservoir. The following information can be obtained using the seismic exploration technique • The dip of the reservoir rock; • The presence of trapping faults • Three-dimensional picture of the reservoir body.

Anticlinal Structure Trap

**Seismic technique and Hydrocarbon traps
**

The great successes of seismic method in the past have been in the search for structural traps. To a smaller extent, and with much less certainty, seismic tecjnique is now contributing to the search for stratigraphic traps.

Stratigraphic Trap

Basic Concepts

Acoustic Impedance Seismic exploration technique uses sound waves to investigate subsurface geological information. Mostly seismic reflections are used in oil & gas exploration. The basic physical property that governs the reflections is acoustic impedance.

**Acoustic impedance= Interval velocity*density
**

Reflections are created at the surfaces/boundaries where we have acoustic impedance contrast. Usually we find this contrast at the boundaries of different lithologies.

Basic concept

Acoustic Impedance: If there is no acoustic impedance contrast at the boundaries of different lithologies, we would not be able to detect the change in lithology by using using seismic reflection. Exercise Can we detect the boundary of two lithologies using seismic technique having upper layer with density=2.3 g/cm3 and velocity 2300 m/s and lower layer density=2.5 g/cm3 and velocity 2116 m/s

Basic concepts

Reflection strength As the acoustic impedance contrast increases more prominent is the reflection on seismic section. Reflection strength is defined by reflection coefficient (RC) RC=V2D2-V1D1/V2D2+V1D1 V2 = Velocity of layer 2 V1 =Velocity of layer 1 D1&D2 =density of layer 1 &2 Frequency of wave Number of time wave is repeated per second is called frequency

• EX 3.7 a Problems in Exploration Seismology and their solutions EX 3 ChapterNo.3 (Gadallah & Fisher) A P-wave that is propagating in a medium having velocity 2000 m/s is incident on a medium having velocity of 2500 m/s at an angle of 15 degrees from normal to interface. Determine the angles at which all resulting waves propogate.

Basic concepts

The effect of depth • Acoustic impedance of different rocks increases with depth. The direct result of this phenomena is less acoustic impedance contrast between different lithologies. Therefore it is sometimes difficult to resolve geological information at greater depth. • Weaker seismic signal with depth. Because seismic signal losses strength with depth • Higher frequencies are observed at greater rate as compared to lower frequencies. At greater depth we are left with only larger wavelength waves. Hence this makes poorer resolution with depth

Basic concepts

Vertical Resolution This determines how thick geological unit can be resolved on seismic section. If the wavelength is less than ¼ of the unit we cannot resolve the unit. This is called limit of separability.

Basic concepts

Horizontal Resolution In reality for seismic study we are dealing with seismic waves not seismic rays. Before applying migration reflection signals are from a zone rather than single point. This zone is called Fresenel zone. The radius of Feresenal zone is expressed as

Radius of zone= Average Velocity/2*(SQRT (Two Way travel Time/dominant frequency)

Basic Concepts

Phase & Polarity There are number of type of seismic pulses, for simplification and for interpretation purposes we can divide in two groups. Minimum phase and zero phase. Minimum phase signal has energy concentrated at its front, while in zero phase energy is distributed symmetrically.

**Well to Seismic Tie
**

Tying well and seismic data is very important step to begin the seismic interpretation. In this process we have to analyze the well data. One of the important steps in interpretation seismic data is to establish relationship between seismic reflectors and stratigraphy. The relationship can be established by using Synthetic Seismogram. The process of generation of Synthetic Seismogram is called forward modeling

**Well to Seismic Tie
**

Forward modeling

Forward modeling is the operation that takes a geological model and constructs the seismic response.

1. The first step in this synthesis is based on the synthetic seismogram We consider a stack of horizontal geological layers, and a vertical seismic ray reflected from them. We multiply the sonic & density logs(well data) to get acoustic impedance log. The next step is to convert the acoustic impedance log (which is in depth domain) in Two way travel time using sonic, which is inverse of velocity. This velocity can be utilized to convert well data to time domain.

2.

3.

**Well to Seismic Tie
**

Forward modeling (continued..) There are two issues with sonic log i) absence of sonic log in shallower part, usually sonic is run in deeper reservoir part. ii) Miscalibration of sonic tool, which tend to accumulate over entire log In order to overcome these two problems related with sonic log, we have to use some direct measurements of Time & Depth to calibrate the Time-Depth relationship obtained from sonic log.

**Well to Seismic Tie
**

Forward Modeling

Diagram showing steps of Synthetic generation

**Well to Seismic Tie
**

Forward Modeling A reflectivity curve is calculated using the following formula RC=V2D2-V1D1/V2D2+V1D1 Velocity and densities can be obtained from log curves density & sonic Then wavelet is convolved with Reflectivity series.The choice of the wavelet can make considerable difference to appearance of synthetic traces. There are many possible approaches for the selection of the wavelet.

**Well to Seismic Tie
**

The most important two ways of selecting the wavelets are • To make synthetics using theoretical wavelet of zero or minimum phase • To extract the most optimum wavelet from the seismic data. The goodness of fit can be matched by cross correlation.

**Well to Seismic Tie
**

Forward modeling This synthetic is one dimensional and it is good approximation with the acquired seismic data. However we need to remember some points in this regard.

**• we are working at normal incidence, but there must be a major mismatch of amplitude introduced by geometrical divergence.
**

• we think of the synthetic as being 1-D, representing the reflections occurring at points along a vertical raypath, we know that reflections actually occur over a reflection zone whose size increases with depth.

**Interpretation of seismic section
**

After establishing the relationship of seismic reflections and well data, it is required to mark the extents of different geological formations on available seismic data. The purpose of interpretation is to reveal the geological information. In the following section some examples are discussed to understand the interpretation of geological information using seismic section.

**Interpretation of seismic section
**

Normal seismic section has time as vertical axis and horizontal axis is labeled with shot points, indicating the positions of seismic shots.

Figure: Example of seismic section

**Interpretation of seismic section
**

Sedimentary Layers Seismic section indicates the continuity or discontinuity of the subsurface deposited sediments. Geological Message in both of these section is same i.e. stability of geological layers and depositional surface was horizontal and not disturbed by post depositional tectonics.

**Interpretation of seismic section
**

Sedimentary Layers In this (Fig.) we have a good continuity at the top and at the bottom But in the middle we see a poor zone of continuity. This situation shows a different type of sediment deposition at the top, bottom and then at the middle.

**Interpretation of seismic section
**

Sedimentary Layers The Fig shows that there is a slight deformation forming anticline

Interpretation of seismic section

Sedimentary Layers In this example figure ( ) shows that the sediments between the two strongly picked reflections were being deposited during the uplift by the tectonic forces.

**Interpretation of seismic section
**

Sedimentary Layers There can be other reasons for the thinning of the reflection intervals, for example, in this figure the thinning is associated with the limited supply of sediments. The sediments source is clearly to the right.

**Interpretation of seismic section
**

Unconformities This figure is a good example of an unconfirmity. There was an ancient rock mass. As the erosion starts at the top left corner of the section, sediments were transported to the downdip direction until they came to rest.

**Interpretation of seismic section
**

Faults Faults are discontinuity in geological features. These can be identify on seismic sections.The age of the faulting may be specified in terms of the age of upper layers, by noting at what level the fault is no longer apparent.

**Interpretation of seismic section
**

Faults The two faults in the figure has in fact developed a graben structure. The two faults appears to be of the same age.

**Interpretation of seismic section
**

Faults Sometimes the faults tells us about the brittleness of the rock. A material is said to brittle if it is subjected to fracture when put under the Stress. Where as a material is said to be plastic if it remains deformed under the stresses only, and return to original state once the stresses are removed.

**Interpretation of seismic section
**

Faults Fault type identification on seismic section reveals the tectonic history of the area. Normal faults are because of extension tectonics, while reverse faults are due to compression.

Seismic contouring

Contour maps are representation of threedimensional surface in two dimension.

Seismic contouring

Procedures of Contouring • Mark the reflectors and faults on seismic section. • Digitizing and posting of the values on location map • Before posting the picked values, we correct the misties as far as we are able. • After posting the values on the map join equal values. Now a days there are different computer aided algorithms are available.

Seismic contouring

Digitizing and posting This is the process of write the values at selected locations and label these.

Seismic contouring

Contouring by computer There are possible two methods for computer contouring • Gridding • Triangulation

Seismic contouring

Gridding The Contouring program that uses gridding approach, performs the operation to replace line data into regular spaced grid data before contouring.

Seismic contouring

Gridding One of the important parameters of gridding is grid interval The distance between two grid points is called grid interval. This can be different in X and Y direction. The following points should be kept in mind. • This should be appropriate to the available data and geological structure • Grid interval should be at-least half of the size of the structure to be contoured • If the data is too sparse, Grid interval should be of greater size. • If the data is dense, the grid interval should be small

Seismic contouring

Gridding There is significant effect of grid interval on contouring of the data. Contours are smooth in case of larger grid interval as compared to small grid interval.

Coarser Grid interval

Fine Grid interval

Seismic contouring

Triangulation This method is similar to the manual contouring. This involves just joining of equal values.

Misties

Mismatch of seismic data at one tie point is called mistie

Location Map

Line-A Line-A

Mistie

Line-B

Line-B

Tie-Point Showing the Mistie

Types of Mistie

• Unsystematic: Causes of Unsystematic misties Static Correction error, noise, processing sequence difference from line to line within one survey (e.g stacking velocity difference ) • Systematic: Datum correction difference on different surveys, Display polarity difference on different lines

Solution of Mistie

The first approach merely accepts the sections as they are, and attempts to find a simple time correction for each vintage/Survey The second approach involves reprocessing the older data according to the new survey’s parameters

**Time to depth conversion
**

We interpret on time sections and it is followed by preparation of time structure map. This time structure map is required to be converted in depth domain before suggesting the well position. This time domain information can be converted into depth domain by using velocity information.

**Time to depth conversion
**

Average Velocity The average seismic velocity is the distance traveled by a seismic wave from the source location to some point on or within the earth divided by the recorded travel time.

t= one-way traveltime, and T = twoway traveltime

**Time to depth conversion
**

Interval Velocity Interval velocity, Vi, is defined as the thickness of a particular layer divided by the time it takes to travel from the top of the layer to its base. The interval velocity is the thickness of a stratigraphic layer, divided by the time it takes to travel from the top of the layer to its base. The equation for interval velocity is:

**Time to depth conversion
**

As indicated by the name of interval velocity of different layers is discrete function, while average velocity is continuous function. The graphical display of the two types of velocities is shown in Figure

**Time to depth conversion
**

Root Mean Square Velocity (RMS) The root-mean-square (RMS) velocity is a weighted average. We use a weighting process where the amount of weighting is determined by the value of the interval velocities. The weighting is accomplished by squaring the interval velocity values.

**Time to depth conversion
**

Well velocities There are different types of velocity surveys conducted in wells. We can get velocity information by using. • Sonic log • Check shot survey • VSP survey

**Time to depth conversion
**

Sonic log Sonic log is delay time, it is reciprocal of velocity. Checkshot Survey In this method, a geophone or geophone array is lowered into the borehole source is located at the top at some offset of the well.

**Time to depth conversion
**

Vertical seismic profile VSP, is checkshot survey that not only records the first break, but the reflected events as well. A VSP survey produces a narrow seismic section that is indicative of the subsurface in the vicinity of the borehole

**Time to depth conversion
**

Difference between VSP and checkshot survey • VSPs have the ability to "look" beyond the total depth of the well. VSP survey records reflections from interfaces below the borehole. • In a VSP survey, we record data at smaller intervals than we do in a checkshot survey. • Checkshot records are short in duration while VSP records are longer and record a full waveform. • Checkshot only records first break, while in VSP we record full signal.

**Time depth conversion Methods
**

Constant Function Method The constant function or constant velocity function method is a simple, two-dimensional time-depth relationship. This relationship may be based on data from any one or more of the following: an integrated sonic log, a checkshot survey, a VSP, and seismic processing velocities, This uses one single function for the conversion. This method is only used in simple geological condition having less variation in geology, we cannot apply this technique in complicated geology having more tectonic disturbances and fault movement.

**Time depth conversion methods
**

• Average or interval Velocity Method The average or interval velocity method uses more than one function to convert time to depth. In this method, we generate maps in order to define the average/interval velocity distribution for selected horizons. We then use these average/interval velocity maps to convert seismic times to depth at any chosen location. We can use three different types velocities for this purpose • Well velocity • Apparent velocity • Seismic velocity

**Time to depth conversion
**

Selection of Average or interval velocities Selection of average or interval velocity depends upon the nature of the earth model under consideration. We should consider that either the velocity increases steadily with increase of depth or it has discrete velocities verses depth. Sonic log available from an area can describe about the nature of the subsurface velocity. If the pattern of the sonic log is discrete then it is recommended to use interval velocity for time depth conversion

**Quantitative analysis of Seismic data
**

Till now we have seen the application of seismic exploration technique for detection of the traps either structure or stratigraphic. There are some new approaches to quantify the hydrocarbons and some geological information such as porosity and water saturation from seismic data.

**Quantitative analysis of Seismic data
**

In seismic section there is some reflections which are directly linked with presence of hydrocarbons. However these should be interpreted with care. The fluid properties of gas, oil and water sometimes has significant effect on the seismic amplitude. The amplitude anomalies on seismic section can be categorized in three types • Bright spots • Dim spots • Flat spot

**Quantitative analysis of Seismic data
**

Bright spots The amplitude of the seismic trace is different for different fluids. The presence of gas in sand reservoir often produces detectable changes on seismic section. As the acoustic impedance of gas is less than the oil and gas, we have chance to get high negative amplitudes in gas filled sands. Bright spots always has negative reflection coefficient.

**Quantitative analysis of Seismic data
**

Flat spot Flat spot represent the contact of two fluids, which may be gas/oil, gas/water or oil/water. As name indicates it appears flat on seismic section. Following figure clearly explains the bright and flat spot on seismic section

**Quantitative analysis of Seismic data
**

Dim spots Sometime amplitudes are reduced and approaches to zero because of presence of hydrocarbons. Dim spots appear seismic trace without or low amplitude deflections

**Quantitative analysis of Seismic data
**

Seismic acoustic impedance Inversion There are different new techniques which help us to quantify the useful information of seismic trace. One of the most common used technique is seismic inversion. Seismic inversion is simply defined as the transformation of seismic data into pseudoacoustic impedance logs at every trace.

**Quantitative analysis of Seismic data
**

Why Seismic Inversion Following are main advantages of seismic inversion • A good quality impedance model contains more information than seismic data. It contains all the information in seismic data without the complication factors caused by wavelets and adds essential information from logs. AI volume is result of the integration of data from seismic, well log, and velocity. • AI is rock property, it is product of density and velocity, both of which can be directly measured by well logging. • AI is closely related to porosity, lithology, pore fluids. It is common to establish empirical relationships between AI and these rock properties. • As layer property, AI can make sequence stratigraphic analysis easy.

**Quantitative analysis of Seismic data
**

Frequencies and interpretation • Seismic data is band limited having only a range of frequencies, high frequencies and low frequencies are missing. • Why high frequencies are important: for high resolution. • Low frequencies are also important if quantitative interpretation is required.

Quantitative analysis of Seismic data

Figure Frequency spectrum

Quantitative analysis of Seismic data

Inversion methods incorporate external information to reconstruct the missing information outside the seismic bandwidth Low frequency information can be derived from log data, prestack depth, or time migration velocities. Many of these are very low frequency (0~2 Hz), processing that preserves low frequency is advantageous. High-frequency information can be derived from well control or geostatistical analysis.

Quantitative analysis of Seismic data

Seismic Section

Acoustic impedance Section

**Quantitative analysis of Seismic data
**

Using log data, relationship can be established between AI and known rock properties. Figure shows relationship between gamma ray log and acoustic impedance

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- 03_borehole_acoustic_waves.pdf
- fmev-chap4-borehole.pdf
- definition and terms used in 3d seismic data interpretation
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- RIG COMPONENTS.PPT
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The Basic concept of petroleum system along with the seismic interpretation to determine the subsurface petroleum structure

The Basic concept of petroleum system along with the seismic interpretation to determine the subsurface petroleum structure

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- Calibration of Seismic and Well Data
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- Advanced Practical Seismic Interpretation
- Quantitative Seismic Interpretation
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- Practical Seismic Data Analysis-CUP (2014)
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- Russell - Introduction to Seismic Inversion Methods
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- Seismic Interpretation MNA

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