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LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products
© Ascom 2009. All rights reserved. TEMS is a trademark of Ascom. All other trademarks are the property of their respective holders. No part of this document may be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the copyright holder. The contents of this document are subject to revision without notice due to continued progress in methodology, design and manufacturing. Ascom shall have no liability for any error or damage of any kind resulting from the use of this document.
LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products
1. 2. Overview ......................................................................1 Achieving High Bit Rates ...........................................1
2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. Shannon’s Channel Capacity Limit .........................................1 Using Higher-order Modulation ...............................................3 Using Higher Bandwidths........................................................3 Improving C/I ..........................................................................3 Spatial Multiplexing .................................................................4 Bit Rate Increase Using Some LTE Techniques......................5 Other Considerations ..............................................................6
The LTE Radio Access Technology ..........................7
3.1. Downlink Radio Access: OFDMA............................................7
3.1.1. Time-domain Structure of OFDMA .........................................................7 3.1.2. Keeping Symbols Apart: The Cyclic Prefix .............................................9 3.1.3. Signaling Overhead in the Downlink.......................................................9
3.2. Uplink Radio Access: SC-FDMA ...........................................10
3.2.1. Signaling Overhead in the Uplink .........................................................11
3.3. Multi-antenna Technologies .................................................. 11
3.3.1. 3.3.2. 3.3.3. 3.3.4. Pre-coding.............................................................................................12 Feedback of Channel State Information ...............................................13 Open-loop vs. Closed-loop Spatial Multiplexing ...................................14 The Bottom Line....................................................................................14
3.4. Bandwidth Flexibility .............................................................16
3.4.1. Terminal Capabilities ............................................................................17
3.5. FDD and TDD Harmonization ...............................................17 3.6. Scheduling ............................................................................18
General Comments on LTE Radio Network Planning.....................................................................19
4.1. Antenna Configuration ..........................................................19 4.2. Power....................................................................................19 4.3. Signal-to-interference Ratio ..................................................19
Using the TEMS CellPlanner LTE Module for Accurate Radio Network Planning ..........................21
5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 5.5. 5.6. Load-based Downlink Predictions.........................................21 Traffic-based Predictions ......................................................23 Statistics................................................................................24 Cell Capacity.........................................................................25 Inter-cell Interference Coordination.......................................26 Other Aspects .......................................................................26
.....27 Conclusion ......29 References........................................28 Abbreviations and Acronyms ..........................................29 Public ..... 9...........................................................................................................LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 2009-03-18 6.............. Using TEMS Investigation for LTE Radio Network Tuning ................. 7. 8...
the maximum theoretically achievable bit rate under certain conditions for an additive white noise communication channel is: bit rate = bandwidth ⋅ log 2 (1 + C ) I (1) This is also known as the channel capacity. and LTE radio network tuning using TEMS Investigation. 2. rather. Achieving High Bit Rates This chapter discusses some fundamental performance limitations of wireless communication. TEMS products have had a solid track record of industry-leading solutions across all global wireless standards. below. ). Rev A 1(29) . This is not a full treatment of the LTE technology. as well as techniques for boosting bit rates to bring them closer to the theoretical limits. Already. Among the many factors driving the development of LTE is the need to push bit rates even higher than what can be achieved with today’s established technologies. To fully appreciate what LTE brings to this scenario. as well as techniques for boosting bit rates to bring them closer to these theoretical limits. and 6. and TEMS relies on its experience to support operators moving into this exciting next phase of wireless communication. it is a survey focusing particularly on those aspects that are relevant for LTE radio network planning using TEMS CellPlanner.1. Chapter 3 provides details on the LTE radio access technology more specifically. LTE is the next big step beyond HSPA in the development of 3GPP technologies. The aim here is to give a clearer appreciation of the challenges any new radio access technology has to address if the target is to deliver higher bit rates than today’s established technologies. 5. A discussion of these technical issues can be found in chapter 2. The LTE functionality in those products is discussed in more detail in chapters 4.2009-03-18 LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 1. with planning capabilities in TEMS CellPlanner and tuning support in the globally renowned TEMS Investigation. we are among the first to market with LTE functionality. The TEMS Products portfolio from Ascom is leading the way with tools for this new technology. it is helpful to have an understanding of the fundamental performance limitations inherent in wireless communication. 2. Overview This document describes briefly the radio access technology behind LTE/eUTRAN and the support that TEMS provides for planning and tuning of mobile packet data networks based on LTE (Long Term Evolution) technology. Shannon’s Channel Capacity Limit As is well known from Shannon’s famous formula (ref. For nearly two decades.
the options below exist: • Use higher-order modulation (for bit rates larger than the bandwidth). a. 1 Although “C” in fact means “carrier”. • Use larger bandwidths • Improve C/I. it is here used simply to represent the useful signal. for example by the following means: − TX/RX diversity − Beam-forming − Interference reduction techniques.a. which include: More complex receivers. It follows that in order to increase the bit rate. such as OFDMA/SC-FDMA. reducing self-interference New radio access technologies. C/I is linear and not logarithmic (as it is most commonly presented). linear C/I 20000 18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 C/I (linear) Figure 1.k. which reduce self-interference (to a near-zero level) • Make smarter use of C/I (spatial multiplexing. MIMO). such as GRAKEs. Theoretical maximum Shannon bit rates (no margins or overheads) for a bandwidth corresponding to 3. Note that in this formula.LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 2009-03-18 The maximum achievable bit rate is thus proportional to the bandwidth and logarithmically dependent on the signal-to-interference ratio (C/I 1 ). 2(29) Bit rate (kbit/s) Public .84 Mcps. This relationship is illustrated in Figure 1 below: Shannon bit rate vs.
other-system interference • Nth = thermal noise 2 The linear attenuation gk is related to the path loss Lp as Lp = −10 log10(gk). Using Higher-order Modulation In addition to 16-QAM and QPSK.4. LTE supports 64-QAM modulation. How this works will be dealt with in describing the LTE radio access technology. k is an index labeling an individual mobile phone and the parameters specific to it. Using Higher Bandwidths Bandwidth allocation in LTE is highly flexible. The latter method encodes six (= log2 64) bits in each transmitted symbol.2. 2. see section 3. 2. Improving C/I With some degree of simplification.e. given by PTOT = Pcch + ∑ Pk .2009-03-18 LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products LTE/eUTRAN uses nearly all of the above strategies and technologies. Rev A 3(29) .7 as well as in chapter 3.2−2. k =1 M i.4. e.3.g. the C/I experienced by a mobile phone can be calculated as follows: Pk ⋅ g k ⎛C ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ I ⎠ k α k ⋅ PTOT ⋅ g k + (I k other + I if + N th ) (2) Here. They are elaborated on in subsections 2. 2. the sum of the power allocated to common control channels and the powers allocated to each individual connection • Ikother = other-cell interference • Iif = any other interference. provided that the same reference points are used. The quantities involved are: • Pk = base station transmit power allocated to this mobile’s connection • gk = linear attenuation along the signal path from base station to mobile 2 • αk = coefficient modeling the amount of self-interference • PTOT = total base station power consumption.
2. Indeed. To circumvent this limitation. If the (linear) C/I is doubled from 10 to 20. For more information on OFDMA. In order to address this.) The default case with a single stream of data transmitted is represented by the blue curve.5. and it becomes easier to achieve high signal-to-interference ratios without the need for complex receivers. also known as MIMO: “multiple input. This means that for limited path losses the C/I becomes limited by other-cell interference (Ikother in equation (2)). linear C/I 50000 45000 40000 35000 Bit rate (kbit/s) 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 5 10 15 C/I (linear) 20 25 30 1x1 2x2 4x4 Figure 2. It is illustrated in Figure 2. Spatial Multiplexing As Figure 1 indicates. more advanced receivers (such as GRAKEs) are needed.LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 2009-03-18 When a technology such as HSPA is used and the path loss is not excessive. the achievable C/I is typically limited by self-interference caused by multipath propagation (modeled in equation (2) by the term including αk). the maximum achievable bit rate becomes 20 Mbit/s (with two transmit antennas) or 27 4(29) Public . one can use spatial multiplexing. on the other hand. Boosting bit rates with spatial multiplexing (MIMO).1. (No margins and overheads taken into account. see section 3. then with the total C/I remaining at 10. OFDMA. if the C/I is already high. the LTE downlink can make do with less complex receivers. compared to HSPA. the maximum achievable bit rate increases no more than 30%. raising the C/I further does not pay off very well in terms of achievable bit rate. due to the logarithmic nature of the bit rate vs. On the other hand. each transmitting its own stream of the data. from 13 Mbit/s to 17 Mbit/s. reduces self-interference almost to zero. if the available C/I is split on two or more antennas. multiple output”. Shannon bit rate vs. C/I relationship.
Thanks to this property. 2. the corresponding bit rates become 27 Mbit/s and 40 Mbit/s – an increase of 35% and 50% respectively. C/I is plotted in dB. If the total C/I is doubled to 20.2009-03-18 LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products Mbit/s (with four transmit antennas).6. which is more practical when the range of C/I values is large. Naturally.3 takes a closer look at how they are employed. (This time. spatial multiplexing techniques are becoming increasingly important as a means of achieving high bit rates in favorable radio conditions. The reason that the spatial multiplexing yields an improvement is the fact that C /I C /I ) < 4 ⋅ log 2 (1 + ) 2 4 (3) log 2 (1 + C / I ) < 2 ⋅ log 2 (1 + or more generally C /I C /I ) < n log 2 (1 + ). Spatial multiplexing techniques are built into the LTE standard from the beginning. Bit Rate Increase Using Some LTE Techniques Figure 3 below illustrates the impact of bandwidth allocation and spatial multiplexing on the expected maximum achievable bit rates in LTE. Compare equation (1). the task of separating multiple data streams presents a challenge to the receiver. a minimum requirement is for the terminal to be equipped with at least as many antennas as there are parallel data streams. Section 3. dividing the data into several streams makes the maximum achievable total bit rate larger. m n (4) m log 2 (1 + that is to say. 1 ≤ m < n .) Rev A 5(29) .
This is because the most commonly used internet protocol. Even though the C/I-to-bit rate mappings given here are exaggerated (since no attempt is made to model the properties and effects of the radio channel. meaning that the sender buffers sent packets until it gets an acknowledgement from the receiver. The maximum bit rate is thus limited solely by the channel rate. There are also practical limitations on the bit rate that can be offered to the end-user. Theoretical maximum LTE bit rates as functions of C/I. this chapter has been dealing with fundamental performance limits. As the buffer size is limited. Other Considerations So far. the sender may be forced to stop sending until acknowledgements have been received and the corresponding buffered data can be removed. In fact. to minimize delays between network elements. The round-trip time also affects the achievable application-level throughput in less obvious ways. such as protocol overheads and latencies (delays). However. It is important to keep the round-trip time short. as this directly improves the performance of time-critical activities. a fixed (25%) overhead is assumed. not on simulations. 2. is interactive. with no margins whatsoever and no inter-stream interference. the diagram shows the importance of bandwidth as well as the potential improvements obtainable with spatial multiplexing techniques. and since no exact overheads are calculated).LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 2009-03-18 Shannon bit rate vs. Figure 3 shows that for high C/I values the bit rate becomes channel rate limited if multiple stream transmission is not used. TCP. Application throughput depends on the behavior of the involved higher-layer protocols. the less likely this is to happen. Note that this is still based on Shannon. the shorter the round-trip time. and a reduced round-trip time typically improves the application bit rate. that is.7. linear C/I 350000 300000 Bit rate (kbit/s) 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 –10 0 10 C/I (dB) 20 30 5 MHz 5 MHz MIMO 2x2 5 MHz MIMO 4x4 20 MHz 20 MHz MIMO 2x2 20 MHz MIMO 4x4 Figure 3. 6(29) Public .
DL: Adaptive OFDM – Channel-dependent scheduling and link adaptation in time and frequency domains Tim e Frequency UL: SC-FDMA. Figure 4 presents some key aspects of the LTE radio access technology as standardized by 3GPP. TR and RX diversity. The LTE Radio Access Technology In January 2008. Time-domain Structure of OFDMA The fundamentals of the OFDMA time-domain structure appear from Figure 5: Rev A 7(29) . both RBS and terminal – MIMO.1. dynamic bandwidth (pre-coded OFDM) – Low PAPR ¨ higher power efficiency – Reduced UL interference (enables intra-cell orthogonality) Tim e Frequency Multi-antennas.1. 3. The 3GPP March 2009 release. 3.4 MHz to 20 MHz 1. including change requests. interference rejection – High bit rates and high capacity TX RX Flexible bandwidth – Possible to deploy in bandwidths from 1. leading to their inclusion in the forthcoming 3GPP Release 8. Each of these will be dealt with in this chapter. 3GPP confirmed that the LTE specifications had been approved and had been placed under change control. Key aspects of the LTE radio access technology.2009-03-18 LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 3. is estimated to include the minimum needed for commercial launch.4 MHz 20 MHz Harmonized FDD and TDD concept – Maximum commonality between FDD and TDD Figure 4. Downlink Radio Access: OFDMA The access technology used in the LTE downlink is called orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA).1.
At the point of transmission there is no interference 3 between subcarriers. The overhead is close to 7% in the shown configuration.2. whether they are used or not. 4 provided that the RB in question is not used by any of the neighboring cells. etc. However. It follows that the channel symbol rate per RB is 168 ksps (12 × 14). the allocation to a single user is always an integer number of blocks consisting of 12 consecutive subcarriers. 4 There may be some interference from reference symbols and other overhead symbols (to be discussed in section 3.5 ms slot is called a resource block (RB) and has a bandwidth of 180 kHz. seemingly allowing for 15 symbols per subframe. even if there is no traffic 8(29) Public . see section 3. for practical reasons. However. 3 This is due to the fact that the symbol length is set equal to 1/(subcarrier spacing) and that the subcarrier frequency is chosen such that an integer number of wavelengths fit into the symbol time. and subcarriers can therefore in principle be allocated freely to users.5 ms) TCP Tu Time domain structure: – – – 10 ms frame consisting of 10 subframes of length 1 ms Each subframe consisting of 2 slots of length 0. The probability of an RB being interfered by other cells thus depends on the average downlink load in the network.3). OFDMA time-domain structure. it can generally (with some exceptions) be assumed that the total RBS power available is shared equally across all RBs. Subcarriers in OFDMA are spaced 15 kHz apart. data in OFDMA is transmitted on many subcarriers in parallel. as shown in Figure 5.LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 2009-03-18 One frame (10 ms) One resource element One resource block = 12 × 7 = 84 resource elements One subframe (1 ms) 12 subcarriers One slot (0.1. synchronization symbols. As Figure 4 and Figure 5 both illustrate. and the overhead in terms of reference symbols. Note that for a given resource block there is little or no inter-cell interference. used to guarantee orthogonality in time-dispersive environments. This discrepancy is explained by the addition of a “cyclic prefix”.1. the number of RBs allocated. the choice of antenna transmission scheme (use or non-use of MIMO). In practice.5 ms Each slot consisting of 7 OFDM symbols (6 symbols in case of extended CP) 1 resource block consists of 12 subcarriers during one slot Assigned to user in pairs: 2 consecutive resource blocks = 1 scheduling block Resource blocks: – – Figure 5. Such a block allocated in one 0. there are typically 14 OFDM symbols per millisecond. The maximum bit rate depends on the choice of modulation scheme.
2009-03-18 LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 3. radio environments the use of the cyclic prefix yields a gain in spectrum efficiency (capacity). The resulting inter-symbol interference is a kind of selfinterference. the prefix appears at either end of the symbol. The impulse response of the channel is graphed at the top. Keeping Symbols Apart: The Cyclic Prefix Due to multipath propagation. Channel profile Channel profile τ Time τ Time CP CP τ RX window CP L RX window Figure 6. If no special action is taken.2. but also various control bits and signaling are mapped on the downlink physical resource.3. a delayed symbol copy will not intrude upon the following symbol. These include: Rev A 9(29) . Minimizing self-interference serves to increase the probability of a high signal-tointerference ratio. dashed) intrudes into the RX window. a cyclic prefix is added to the end of each symbol. parts of a contiguous symbol (green. when a cyclic prefix of length L ≥ τ (red. Still. as shown in the right-hand part of Figure 6. in most. In order to prevent inter-symbol interference. Without a cyclic prefix. With the cyclic prefix in place. dashed) is used. with cyclic prefix (right). as long as the length L of the cyclic prefix is at least equal to the time dispersion τ of the channel.1. Signaling Overhead in the Downlink Not only the downlink shared channel. On the other hand. though not all. no inter-symbol interference will occur. Multipath propagation: without cyclic prefix (left). delayed copies of the transmitted signal will arrive at the receiver. Therefore. the tail of a time-delayed copy of a symbol will overlap with the beginning of a less-delayed copy of the next symbol.1. unless the difference in delay exceeds the length of the cyclic prefix. and there is no interference from a different symbol within the RX window. and the bottom part shows successive time-delayed and attenuated copies of the transmitted signal. The cyclic prefix consists of the last few samples of the symbol inserted before the symbol starts. but it clearly comes at a price: the cyclic prefix increases the overhead. as illustrated in Figure 6 (left). 3.
uplink scheduling grants. constitute overhead that will occupy some of the available downlink resources and reduce the effective maximum bit rate (compare Figure 3). however. Furthermore. the overhead from the reference symbols alone is approximately 4. The reference symbol mapping in the case of one antenna is shown in Figure 7. important to minimize the peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR) in order to reduce power amplifier complexity. however.2. as well as the control signaling.8%. and power commands) • Primary and secondary synchronization signals (used for cell search) • Broadcast channel and paging channel The reference signal is of particular significance. but receiver complexity is not as critical in the radio base station as in the terminal. Figure 7. and the amount of overhead from various sources. 3. since it corresponds to some extent to the common pilot channel (CPICH) in WCDMA.LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 2009-03-18 • Cell-specific reference signals (used for channel estimation. In practice one can operate at the same channel rate per RB of 168 ksps (12 × 14) as in the downlink. In the configuration shown in Figure 7. just as for the downlink. the available power per RB will go down. a pre-coding is performed in the uplink whereby subcarriers are “spread out” to form a single (broader) carrier. Uplink Radio Access: SC-FDMA From a radio network planning perspective. These reference signals. while adding some complexity in the receiver. Reference signal mapping (one transmit antenna). the maximum payload rate depends on the modulation scheme. so when the bandwidth use is increased. and mobility measurements) • Layer 1/Layer 2 control signaling (used for downlink scheduling. It is. Since the PAPR becomes quite high with so many subcarriers being modulated independently. the number of RBs allocated. 10(29) Public . one can treat the uplink as if it used the same resource block structure as the downlink. that in the uplink the terminal can allocate all its available power to the resource blocks it is using. HARQ info. CQI measurements. It should be noted. This reduces the PAPR.
coverage.3. Rev A 11(29) . we may state the following (see also Figure 9): • For improved coverage. Reference signal used for uplink channel estimation. use beam-forming and multi-layer transmission in combination. the uplink physical resources are used not only for the uplink shared channel but also for various kinds of signaling and control channels. Different solutions are called for depending on the precise nature of the targets and how they are prioritized. and ACK/NACK of downlink shared channel data The uplink reference symbol corresponds to the embedded pilot in the WCDMA uplink.2.5 ms) User #2 On e sub -fra me (1 ms ) Data Reference signal Figure 8. use multi-layer transmission (spatial multiplexing). Multi-antenna Technologies To meet the extreme performance targets of LTE in terms of peak data rates. 3. and capacity. The overhead consumed by the uplink reference signal alone in this configuration is thus always 1/7 of the total resources available. • For higher peak data rates. • For higher capacity. such as: • Uplink reference signals for uplink channel estimation • Sounding signals for timing and channel quality (CQ) estimates for the scheduler (in case of zero transmission and/or to obtain CQ across the whole frequency band) • Uplink control signals: downlink CQI. scheduling requests.1. The mapping is shown in Figure 8: User #1 On e sl ot ( 0. advanced multi-antenna solutions are crucial. use beam-forming and/or diversity techniques. Signaling Overhead in the Uplink Just as in the downlink.2009-03-18 LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 3. In broad outline.
Multi-antenna support is mandatory for LTE terminals. By varying the pre-coding. beam-forming 5 or spatial multiplexing. good coverage. and combinations thereof. Many of them also provide benefits in more than one respect.LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 2009-03-18 Improve link budget Track channel and obtain array gain Know nothing – go for robustness Increase bit rate Utilize “excess” C/I in a clever way Directivity Antenna/beam-forming gain Diversity Fading reduction Spatial multiplexing Data rate multiplication S/P Delay Channel knowledge (average/instant) Transmit signal in best direction Transmit signal in all directions Transmit several signals in different directions Figure 9. small cells. 5 In this document. etc. The transmission mode is controlled by the antenna setup as well as by the set of pre-coding matrices chosen.3. high peak data rates vs. It should be noted that these technologies make different assumptions about channel knowledge at the receiver and transmitter. it also depends on what type of feedback the terminal provides. Multi-antenna technologies.).1. six of which are multi-antenna related. any transmission mode compatible with the given number of antennas can be selected. The size of the improvements achieved depends on the properties of the channel (including antennas and antenna spacing) as well as on interference conditions. See Figure 10. such as TX diversity. adaptable to a wide range of scenarios and prioritization schemes (large vs. In the 3GPP specifications seven different semi-statically configured downlink transmission modes are described. 12(29) Public . In order to address the diverse needs that may arise. LTE employs a generic antenna concept. therefore. Pre-coding Pre-coding is a generic framework for mapping symbols to antenna ports. These transmission modes include (but are not limited to): • TX diversity • Open-loop spatial multiplexing • Closed-loop spatial multiplexing 3. no distinction is made between “classical” beam-forming (with highly correlated antennas) and “non-classical” beam-forming.
If the effects of the radio channels. consider Figure 10: w1 h1 s h2 y = (h1w1 + h2w2)s + e w2 Figure 10.2009-03-18 LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products As a simple example. Rev A 13(29) . The signal to transmit is s. the UE feeds back channel state information (CSI) to assist link adaptation and scheduling. w 2 = h2 h1 2 + h2 2 . For closed-loop spatial multiplexing. 3. The terminal reports both a rank indicator. then in principle the pre-coding vectors w1 and w2 that maximize the signal-to-noise ratio can be determined. The optimal pre-coding vectors (weights) can be shown to be * w 1 = h1 2 (5) h1 + h2 2 * . are known.3. one or several precoder matrix indicators (PMIs) are also reported. RI (recommends how many different data streams in parallel the UE should be able to receive) and one or several channel quality indicators. Pre-coding. Feedback of Channel State Information As Figure 11 illustrates. CQIs (which indicate the recommended transport format given a certain BLER). the received signal then becomes 2 2 (6) y = h1 + h2 s + e 2 2 and the achieved signal-to-noise ratio becomes proportional to h1 + h2 .2. h1 and h2.
If the transmission rank is one (i. This mode targets scenarios with inaccurate CSI at the eNode-B. Closed-loop Spatial Multiplexing To enable a better intuitive understanding of the various options. This mode is intended for scenarios with accurate CSI available at the eNode-B. the goal is to adapt the spatial properties of the transmission to match the current channel conditions and/or increase the signal-to-interference ratio by striving for coherent addition of the transmitted signals at the receiver. 3. Figure 12 below compares the performance of some of the options.3. typically corresponding to terminals with high mobility. a high-level comparison of open-loop and closed-loop spatial multiplexing is carried out below. or in other words that the mobility is low. The aim is to track channel characteristics in time as well as in frequency.1.3. the pre-coder may be said to focus its transmission in “strong” directions towards the UE.3.3.4. It is assumed that four antennas are available both to the base station and to the UE. 14(29) Public . 3. Closed-loop Spatial Multiplexing Mode Simply put.3.3.e. the pre-coder matrix is selected from a finite codebook. Open-loop Spatial Multiplexing Mode In this mode the transmission takes place “in all directions”. and a sequence of four different pre-coders is cycled through during the transmission of a single subframe. The Bottom Line At the end of the day. normally requiring that the terminal is moving slowly. only one data stream is sent).3. Open-loop vs.LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 2009-03-18 Coding & Modulation Serial/ Parallel Coding & Modulation Mapping to Layer & Precoding Receiver CSI feedback Figure 11. Feedback mechanism for channel state information. transmit diversity is utilized. 3. in this mode.2. 3.
using one antenna. but using four TX antennas in order to “focus” the transmission. 4x2 Single layer. 1x2 Single layer + beam-forming. 4×2: Two data streams are transmitted. Different downlink antenna solutions imply different capacity/coverage trade-offs. In practice. 1×1 corresponds to the traditional downlink configuration with one TX and one RX antenna. In practice. again allowing a doubling of the bit rate if the C/I is good (low path loss). 2x2 Two layers + beam-forming. In this way coverage can be substantially extended. 4×2: A single data stream is transmitted. (Compare the pairing of Single layer 2×2 and Two layers 2×2 discussed above. 4x2 Single-layer. • Two layers.2009-03-18 LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products Throughput Two layers. 2×2: Two data streams are transmitted.) Rev A 15(29) . 1×2: One data stream is transmitted. which further improves coverage. improving coverage compared to the Single layer 1×1 case. we may combine this configuration with the preceding one. • Two layers + beam-forming. • Single layer. • Single layer. Throughout the diagram. but the receiver has two receive antennas. • Single layer + beam-forming. we can switch to Single layer 2×2 at the point where the two curves intersect in order to increase robustness in difficult radio conditions. • Single layer. 2×2: One data stream is transmitted. using two antennas also for transmission. 1x1 Coverage Figure 12. thus operating at the envelope of the two curves and switching between the two configurations as dictated by the radio conditions. The number of “layers” is the number of parallel data streams. potentially doubling the bit rate in areas with good C/I (low path loss) but providing poorer coverage in areas with poor C/I. N×M means N transmit antennas and M receive antennas. 2x2 Single layer.
LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 2009-03-18 3. This diagram illustrates only transmission of user data. assumes use of 64-QAM) × 4 (assumes that 4×4 MIMO is possible) = 403. the bit rate scales linearly 6 with the bandwidth. As an example. Resource block 16(29) Public .1. the downlink transmission can take place in any subset of RBs within the transmission bandwidth. Bandwidth Flexibility LTE supports a variety of different channel bandwidths. since the percentage of overhead goes down when the bandwidth increases. As seen in section 2. the six center RBs are always used for some of the control channels. take the channel bandwidth 20 MHz corresponding to a transmission bandwidth configuration of 100 RBs. The maximum channel rate is then: 100 (RBs) × 12 (subcarriers/RB) × 14 (symbols/ms) × 6 (bits/symbol. Note that at any instant in time.101 and 3GPP TS 36.104 at present.4. Channel bandwidth (MHz) Transmission bandwidth configuration NRB 1. 6 In reality the relationship is not exactly linear. except that to conform to single-carrier properties. Channel bandwidths with RF requirements supported by 3GPP TS 36. The maximum channel rate for any channel bandwidth can easily be calculated.4 6 3 15 5 25 10 50 15 75 20 100 Channel bandwidth (MHz) Transmission bandwidth configuration (RB) Transmission bandwidth (RB) Figure 13. In the uplink the same is true. the RB allocation has to be contiguous.2 Mbit/s. Figure 13 tabulates the bandwidths supported by current 3GPP specifications.200 kbit/s = 403.
5. taken from ref. Max UL mod. modulation. one for FDD and one for TDD. from a network planning perspective. the only major difference is the different timing for Layer 1/Layer 2 control. Rev A 17(29) . : Category DL peak rate UL peak rate Max DL mod. The physical layer and procedures are essentially the same. FDD and TDD are quite different. LTE terminal categories. See Figure 15. Since terminals supporting four antennas are not expected to be available at the launch of early LTE networks. FDD fDL fULDL fUL TDD Figure 15. so these can be seen as two different modes within the same technology. FDD and TDD harmonization.1 for more details). it may also be limited by the terminal capabilities. the C/I. it can be gathered from the table that initially the maximum downlink bit rate in LTE will be 150 Mbit/s and the maximum uplink bit rate 50 Mbit/s. the maximum achievable bit rate in 20 MHz becomes approximately 300 Mbit/s. but the frame and subframe lengths are the same. Layers for spat. and sequences.4. Two frame structures are defined. Terminal Capabilities The bit rate may be limited not only by the channel rate. 3. Of course. 3. including coding. Figure 14 gives a list of LTE terminal categories.1.2009-03-18 LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products Assuming a typical DL overhead of around 25% (see section 3. multiplexing 1 10 5 2 50 25 3 100 50 64-QAM 16-QAM 4 150 50 5 300 75 64-QAM 2 4 1 Figure 14.1. and the antenna configuration. FDD and TDD Harmonization LTE supports both Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD).
Time-frequency fading. data4 user 2 data1 User 1 scheduled User 2 scheduled 1m s Tim e 180 kHz c Frequen Figure 16. user 1 data2 Time-frequency data3 fading. the scheduler can optimize the resource block allocation so as to achieve the best possible utilization of the resources. Assuming the absence of other constraints. This means that if frequency-dependent channel quality information is available (from CQI reporting). Consider Figure 16. 3.6. Scheduling in time and frequency domains. at the beginning of the time interval the yellow terminal has the best channel in RBs 2 and 5. Scheduling The scheduler in LTE has access to both the time domain and the frequency domain. the difference being that the allocation must be contiguous in order to preserve the single-carrier properties. 5 and 6. y Similar principles can be used for the allocation of uplink resources to the terminals. 18(29) Public . whereas at the end of the interval the best allocation is to give the yellow terminal RBs 2. so the earliest time is represented by the RBs closest to the Frequency axis).LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 2009-03-18 3. (In this diagram the RBs are seen as traveling from left to right along the Time axis.
and this is indeed one of the more critical activities during radio network planning. because they determine the coverage and capacity properties as well as the maximum achievable bit rates. since LTE is a 1:1 re-use system and some overlap must exist for mobility reasons. while the other-cell k interference term ( Iother ) is the sum of all other transmissions that interfere with the wanted signal. It is clear that the C/I is maximized if the other-cell interference can be kept to a minimum. and the thermal noise in that case is the thermal noise integrated over 180 kHz (168 ksps).2009-03-18 LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 4. the signal-to-interference ratio achievable in OFDMA for an individual terminal at position k is given by P ⋅g ⎛C ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = k k k ⎝ I ⎠ k Iother + Nth (7) In this expression. but open-loop TX diversity can still be used if the base station has two transmit antennas. calculations can be done per RB. 7 The wanted signal is dependent on the path gain ( g k ) as well as on the available power ( Pk ). 8 7 Since sub-carriers are orthogonal. dualstream (MIMO) transmission is not possible. Rev A 19(29) . Signal-to-interference Ratio In the absence of inter-system interferers. RX diversity gain is still available even if the base station does not support two transmit antennas. the C/I itself does not change if more power is allocated. The thermal noise level is given by Nth . 4. For example. because the interferers also grow proportionately stronger. if the terminal has two RX antennas. Of course. Antenna Configuration The antenna configurations in terminal and base station are both important. the more power that is available to share across the resource blocks. with a single RX antenna in the terminal. the greater the improvement in coverage and/or capacity. in some situations. 8 Of course.1.2. General Comments on LTE Radio Network Planning From the foregoing it should be clear that the following aspects are of key importance for the performance of LTE: 4. Power Generally speaking. On the other hand. 4. but in general more power means better performance. some inter-cell interference must always exist.3. zero self-interference is assumed.
but in chapter 5. signal-to-interference ratio distributions can be obtained with propagation models (for example homogenous Okumura-Hata type models). which in turn depends on the environment. Of course. 20(29) Public .LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 2009-03-18 A similar expression for the signal-to-interference ratio applies to the uplink. Since this distribution depends heavily on the signal attenuation. only the use of a radio network planning tool such as TEMS CellPlanner is discussed. for dimensioning purposes. it is best computed using a radio network planning tool. but there the sum is naturally to be taken over all interfering terminals. The most important aspect of estimating the performance of an LTE system about to be deployed is to obtain good estimates of the signal-to-interference ratio distribution. This is the subject of chapter 5.
1. earth curvature. This means that the average probability of a given RB being utilized is 50%. estimating the signal-to-interference ratio is critically important for making good LTE performance predictions. TEMS CellPlanner plot showing downlink signal-to-interference ratio plot for an average load of 50%. or put differently. Using the TEMS CellPlanner LTE Module for Accurate Radio Network Planning Ascom already has the know-how to make accurate LTE performance predictions. Figure 17. If a building database exists. 5. and other relevant factors.1). Rev A 21(29) .2009-03-18 LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 5. land usage (“clutter”). even more accurate predictions become available. Figure 17 shows the C/I distribution from a prediction where the average load is set to 0.5. This chapter presents some of the vital LTE functionality offered by TEMS CellPlanner. Load-based Downlink Predictions As mentioned earlier. the impact of the interference is 3 dB lower than its maximum. TEMS CellPlanner uses highly accurate macro cell propagation models taking into account topography. as well as a tool for computing them (TEMS CellPlanner 8.
These predictions are designed for fast computation. It is up to the radio network planner to shrink the areas of low C/I as far as possible. Figure 18. These mappings take symbol overhead into account. no users are present and the traffic profile is not used. that is. 22(29) Public . assuming 2×2 MIMO configuration. the level of traffic is specified simply in terms of average load. Rather. and different mappings exist for different channel models and different assumptions about antenna configurations. yet they provide a good understanding of potential performance under a specified load condition. where the impact of inter-cell interference is at its worst. can be clearly seen in this snapshot. or at least to try to place them where traffic is scarce. Of course. these predictions are very fast to do. 10 MHz bandwidth. The bit rate distribution below (Figure 18) was obtained from the C/I distribution in Figure 17. TEMS CellPlanner uses C/I-to-bit-rate mappings based on the latest research data. changing the load assumptions gives a different C/I distribution. and a Pedestrian A type of channel model with low terminal speed. since no modeling of the traffic is involved.LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 2009-03-18 The sector joints. A bit rate distribution can be derived from the C/I prediction. They are not Monte Carlo based. MIMO 2×2. and hence also a different bit rate distribution. Pedestrian A). Again. TEMS CellPlanner plot of downlink bit rate distribution (10 MHz.
However. Traffic-based Predictions In certain situations. TEMS CellPlanner plot showing maximum uplink C/I. for example addition of more sites. One can then proceed to more sophisticated predictions which simulate traffic from individual mobile phones.) Close to the site. Figure 19. Figure 19 shows the average of the maximum uplink C/I predicted by ten Monte Carlo simulations. There are two main reasons to undertake such traffic-based calculations. Hence.1 are not sufficient. may be called for.2. If the result is unsatisfactory. First is the fact that the uplink performance is very sensitive to where the terminals are positioned. the terminal is already achieving a C/I corresponding to the maximum bit rate and hence is in “power regulation mode”. the uplink interference depends on the UE transmit power and the position of the terminal with respect to neighboring base stations. (Thanks to parallel processing. A large number of simulations are usually performed in order to make the prediction statistically significant. further out the Rev A 23(29) . MonteCarlo simulations are necessary to be able to spread these terminals in a pseudorandom manner (“pseudo” because the probability that a terminal at a given location is trying to connect typically depends on land-use/clutter). load-based predictions such as the ones described in section 5. then modification of the network. Also.2009-03-18 LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 5. The second reason is that realistic modeling of terminals and traffic demand (which of course does require good input data) also makes it possible to obtain statistics on blocking (served traffic versus non-served traffic). these simulations execute very fast.
3. All the data in this spreadsheet can alternatively be displayed in plots. We note that there is no blocking in this relatively lightly loaded scenario. and the C/I can therefore be said to be path loss limited. In Figure 21 are collected some uplink statistics from Monte Carlo simulations for a number of cells. Note that the inter-cell interference comes from the terminals spread out across other cells and depends heavily on the amount of data they are trying to upload. 5. Statistics Once the simulations are complete. TEMS CellPlanner plot showing achievable uplink bit rate given a certain traffic demand. The number of users connected is shown as well as served traffic versus non-served traffic.LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 2009-03-18 terminal would need to transmit at full power in order to achieve the C/I displayed in the figure. Figure 20 shows the corresponding uplink bit rate plot: Figure 20. 24(29) Public . statistics can be generated and presented in spreadsheets and plots.
5. In a future release of TEMS CellPlanner. the actual terminal positions from the Monte Carlo simulations are not taken into account. Notice that the uplink and downlink figures are slightly different. for instance by the addition of more sites. Note. This approach is fast. TEMS CellPlanner: Downlink statistics from Monte Carlo simulations.2009-03-18 LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products Figure 21. in other words. that this estimate depends on the assumption that the neighboring cells have the load they received from this particular traffic distribution. If it will not. the explanation is that the uplink statistics come from the Monte Carlo simulations.4. Here. The reason in this case is not that the uplink and downlink traffic demands are different (although typically they are). TEMS CellPlanner: Uplink statistics from Monte Carlo simulations. there is no blocking. that is to say. Figure 22. whereas the downlink statistics are generated directly from the traffic density map itself. the offered and served traffic are the same. Rev A 25(29) . Rather. From the numbers in section 5. For the downlink a similar set of statistics can be obtained. however.3 one can estimate the cell capacity as served rate divided by utilization. as shown in Figure 22. the network design must be improved. it will be possible to use terminal distributions from Monte Carlo simulations for the downlink statistics as well. The actual cell capacity would of course be lower if all surrounding cells had 100% load. since it allows generation of downlink statistics without doing Monte Carlo simulations. since it determines whether or not the network will be able to handle the forecasted traffic. Cell Capacity The cell capacity (average bit rate) is an important output from the radio network planning.
This causes a small delay in the handover process. a number of different schemes have been studied which do not utilize signaling between base stations across the X2 interface. To reduce such operational costs for LTE radio access networks. but once the detected neighbor is defined. but it does allow engineers to focus more of their attention on end-to-end performance during the tuning and optimization phases. for most operators. Other Aspects In chapter 4. neighbor cell optimization has been a major activity undertaken by tuning and optimization teams. All these schemes will be possible to model in future versions of TEMS CellPlanner (the current version does not yet support them). 5. “automated” neighboring cell relations are available from some vendors. Historically. and the downlink modeling in today’s TEMS CellPlanner is already exceptional in its accuracy. power amplifier power.5. the downlink is the primary concern. 26(29) Public . These too can be modeled with TEMS CellPlanner: choice of antenna configuration.LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 2009-03-18 5.6. As part of that concept. TEMS CellPlanner furthermore enables the user to explicitly compare different LTE configurations in order to make the most cost-efficient choice for a particular network and environment. operators have compiled a set of requirements called Selforganization Network (SON). However. Inter-cell Interference Coordination Inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) is a method that promises to improve the uplink performance in many traffic scenarios and therefore constitutes an important aspect of the LTE uplink. Within 3GPP. This means that a neighbor which is detected by a terminal but has not yet been defined as such is “automatically” added as a neighbor. The SON concept does not eliminate the need to study neighbor cell relations. it will of course be available to other terminals without any further handover delays being caused. and others. a number of factors impacting LTE performance were discussed. bandwidth.
1 introduces LTE drive test support by allowing connection of a DRT4301A+ LTE MISO scanner. to minimize cell overlap and overshooting (minimize “pilot pollution” in the WCDMA terminology) but at the same time provide enough overlap to ensure good mobility. including the following bar chart for monitoring RSRQ: Rev A 27(29) . such as tilting and changing of azimuths. TEMS Investigation 9. unless coverage-limited cells are discussed. and hence the same RF tuning practices can be adhered to as for WCDMA radio networks: that is. These elements can be presented in map. RSRP is similar to RSCP (Received Signal Code Power) measured on the WCDMA common pilot. Indeed. Therefore (although the details differ slightly between the technologies) it can be said generally that RSRP measurements tell whether the cell is interference or coverage limited. the signal-tointerference ratio is limited by inter-cell interference. Drive tests measuring the above parameters are essential after infrastructure installation to enable the necessary antenna adjustments. Using TEMS Investigation for LTE Radio Network Tuning As has been discussed in previous chapters. Such drive tests can now be done with TEMS Investigation. chart and status windows of the user’s choice. A number of predefined LTE presentation windows are also provided. where N is the number of resource blocks across which RSSI was measured Comparing with WCDMA. while RSRQ is similar to WCDMA Ec/N0.2009-03-18 LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 6. while RSRQ measurements give indications of excess interference in unloaded or loaded cells. In the TEMS Investigation application. the LTE data is extracted to information elements just like other data. Some key RF measurements captured with this scanner are: • RSRP: Reference Signal Received Power • RSSI: Received Signal Strength Indicator • RSRQ: Reference Signal Receive Quality. the signal-to-interference ratio distribution is of vital importance for the performance of an LTE-based radio access network. Defined as N × RSRP / RSSI.
With a full understanding of this need. Conclusion The development of LTE technology is being driven to a large degree by the need to push bit rates ever higher. and so on. TEMS Investigation: Bar chart showing snapshot of Reference Signal Es/Io (i.LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 2009-03-18 Figure 23. Naturally. TEMS Investigation will add support for connecting such terminals. as well as other aims including bringing down latency and reducing complexity. 28(29) Public . The TEMS Products portfolio from Ascom is wellpositioned to fulfill this need. it is easier to understand the need for LTE technology. 7.e. and for the tools that will make LTE implementation successful. The x-axis is labeled with the Physical Cell Identity of each channel scanned. Other TEMS products will include LTE support as this exciting new technology matures. enabling service testing. optimization of handover parameters. Current releases of TEMS CellPlanner and TEMS Investigation are already available with LTE functionality for the preliminary stages of the LTE lifecycle. as user terminals for LTE become available. RSRQ).
ISBN 0-471-06259-6. and Thomas.k. 1991.306.2009-03-18 LTE Technology and TEMS™ Products 8. 3GPP BLER CFO CINR CPICH CQI CR CSI DL eUTRAN FDD GRAKE HARQ ksps LTE Mcps MIMO MISO OFDMA PCI PCIG PMI P-SCH QAM RB RF RS RSRP RSRQ RSSI SC-FDMA SCH S-SCH TCP TDD UL Abbreviations and Acronyms 3rd Generation Partnership Project Block Error Rate Carrier Frequency Offset Carrier to Interference-plus-Noise Ratio Common Pilot Channel Channel Quality Indicator Change Request Channel State Information Downlink Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Frequency Division Duplex Generalized RAKE receiver. such as Cover. Joy A.  References Any standard text on information theory will contain a discussion of this topic. Thomas M.a. 3GPP 36. a. Advanced Receiver Type 2 Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request Kilosymbols per second Long Term Evolution Megachips per second Multiple Input Multiple Output Multiple Input Single Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Physical layer Cell Identity Physical layer Cell Identity Group Precoder Matrix Indicator Primary Synchronization Channel Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Resource Block Radio Frequency Reference Signal Reference Signal Received Power Reference Signal Received Quality Received Signal Strength Indicator Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access Synchronization Channel Secondary Synchronization Channel Transaction Control Protocol Time Division Duplex Uplink 9.. User Equipment (UE) radio access capabilities.  Rev A 29(29) . Elements of Information Theory. Wiley.