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1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The topic is to show the effectiveness of communication during construction and how it helps the construction industry to enhance production and completion of projects within the stipulated period. Communication is defined below to make it easier to know about its meaning, purpose and effects. Communication is a means by which operatives and other members of the building team are linked (considering construction) in order to achieve the central goal. In construction, communication could also be achieved through letters, drawings, symbols, signs, posters and word through which members of an organization sends and receives information and also sends information to the public at large. Communication in the large sense of it is used to express facts, ideas, opinion and emotions between two or more people and through communication exchange of thought, information is also a good tool for human relation.
Considering the above definition of communication, it is observed that everybody in an organization is responsible for communication irrespective of the role of the person being the originator or the receiver of the information. In all aspects of human professions, communication is seen as a vital central organ especially through the use of language. Humans have transferred culture, record history and document occurrences to a good deal with the use of language from one generation to another. The organ called communication has helped man to build societies and other social groups which has contributed immensely to the growth of man’s life 3 enjoyable. Through effective communication, the workers especially in construction firms find it easy and highly productive to work together. Instruction and order are given and they are carried out as expected once they are well understood and acted upon rightly. The working day of every personnel is filled with communication in different ways and forms through orders, directives, information, conversation, requests and rumors.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Effective communication has not been given enough attention in construction firms thereby creating many loop holes in information dissemination. As a result of this poor attitude in the industry, it is found necessary to create solution to such problems through this research as to improve productivity in construction firms. 1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY AIM The aim of this research is basically to identify the problem caused by ineffective communication in the construction industry. OBJECTIVES The objectives of the research are: • To identify the major factors that causes ineffective communication in the construction industry. • To identify the problem caused by these factors.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY From the information that will be gathered, the importance of effective communication on execution and delivery process will be made known to all involved at the supervisory level of construction work. This research work will also show how ineffective communication negatively affect productivity based on the facts gathered. This research work will also be useful to the management of construction companies and their professional status. 1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS The following questions will be answered so as to improve on duration and productivity. 1. Can poor leadership cause ineffective communication? 2. Can lack of experience about construction work hinder
communication on site? 3. Will good administration enhance effective communication? 4. What role will incentives play in disseminating order and information? 5. Will the introduction of seminars, workshops, postal and handbills improve communication on site?
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS The study is actually intended to examine the effectiveness of communication as an aid to construction project delivery in Nigeria but with a special attention given to a few construction sites within the Lagos metropolis because it houses the most large and medium construction firms in Nigeria.
CHAPTER 2 2.0 LITERATTURE REVIEW 2.1 INTRODUCTION Communication can be analyzed as a two way process as information is not only sent but also received, understood and implemented (Adeleke, 2004) When we have the line of communication we mean the channel through which information is transmitted within a construction site or organization from one person to the other. Machinery need to be in place for further communication to take place, either downward communication (from superior to sub-ordinate), horizontal (between colleagues of the same level) or upward communication (from subordinate to superior). Careful attention must be paid to these means and machinery of communication because internal communication is vital for high productivity, as an aid to construction project delivery in the construction site and it is a more difficult process now than it was decades ago. The principal reason for this is that there has been changes in the attitude of workers to their employers and in the present site environment and in the site environment there has been a move away from old concepts of unquestionable obedience, proper provision must be made for upward
communication to avoid misconceptions of information otherwise a superior personnel like Architect, Project manager, Engineer or supervisor may generate a bad feeling and may also end up making decisions in a vacuum and such decision may not be accepted by the junior staffs and personnel like the labourers and gang men. The basic questions which readily comes to the mind of the workers are of two major categories as stated below: 1. What, where, when, why, and how does my employer expects me to perform. 2. What, where, when, why, and how does my employer benefit from my work. 2.2 COMMUNICATION IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Communication is said to be effective within the working group in the industry only when the transmitted ideas achieve their desired action or reaction, as the operation involved in the construction industry is a team effort, embracing the client, quantity surveyor, architect, consulting engineer, specialists and the contractor’s organization with the main objective of getting things done through human beings. The operational procedures and other management activities associated with the design, construction and subsequent performance of a building rely a
great deal on how information is being transmitted between the various participants of the building team and for this reason, method of communication should not only clarify issues but must also attempt to bring harmony to the entire work process and also foster co-operation between the parties to ensure maximum contribution from members. Although there is no clear cut division of communication system within the industry, the general of communication are classified as follows: 1. Communication between client and the consultants 2. Communication between the consultants 3. Communication between the consultants and the contractor. 4. Communication on site. 2.2.1 MEANS OF COMMUNICATION Adeleke, (2004), explains the various means by which information can be transmitted in the construction industry for the successful execution of any project as the success of such project relies largely on the establishment of a clearly defined framework or communication. He further states that information can be transmitted formally or informally, in some cases construction contracts may state the form which communication must take e.g. a written order for variation. The usual means of communication as stated by Adeleke (2004), are as follows
1. The print media • Newspapers • Bulletins • Handbills • Magazines 2. Drawn and visual materials • Drawings • Programmes and charts • Photographs 3. Verbal • Face to face 4. Written materials • Specification • Schedules • Bill of quantities • Tender document • Certificate of payment • Reports
• Letters 5. Notice board 6. Models and samples 7. Computers 18.104.22.168 THE PRINT MEDIA
Olu (2007) describes print as Newspaper and magazines that help in the transmission of information in the industry by advertising materials, vacancies for labour requirements and more relevantly, invitation to tender. Information about the proposed project is conveyed to various contractors especially when the project is being contracted under open tendering basis. This is the first means in which the details of pre qualification to tender are conveyed to the contractors in public. 22.214.171.124 DRAWN MATERIALS
Drawing of many types provide the main means of communication between all the members of the building team. They are instrumental in the communication of the designer’s intention concerning the structure that he has convened and designed. Adeleke (2004) explains that Drawings required for the project can be sub divided into two viz:
1. Design Drawings: These communicate the form of a building in
terms of colour, shape and texture.
Drawings: These communicate the technical,
physical and economic aspect of the building which are associated with its construction, subsequent use and maintenance. Both categories will portray dimensions materials and other information necessary for the estimation of the cost of the project. The information conveyed on both drawings (design and production) are generally supplemented by reports, schedules, samples, models and discussion. Design drawings are of two types: 1. Preliminary Investigation and drawing 2. Design solution drawing Both of these drawings are produced at the design stage of the project. 126.96.36.199 PROGRAMME OFWORK
The programme of work and construction of a building project is a common reference for predicting and qualifying communication performance. It involves the co-ordination of many complex human and material resources to ensure economy and efficiency. The more detailed the programme communicate information, the less likely with unforeseen circumstances upset either the intentions of a project thereby reducing the chances of frustration and delay. The main areas requiring detailed programme in construction project are:
1. Design programme: this can take the form of a bar chart and it is
referred to as pre-contrend programme. They are prepared by the design team in order to establish how long it would take from the beginning of the design to the start of the project on site. Precisely, the programme will provide information to the client particularly when complicated negotiations are required for the release of funds for the project.
2. Tendering programme: the principal designer on behalf of the client
can ask all those tendering for the project to submit on outline or tender programme. This can also be a bar chart indicating the appropriate period of time required for each major construction activities and the total period indicated for the major construction activities and the total period indicated for the proposed project, this provides a major means of assessment of the organizational ability of a builder or contractor. 188.8.131.52. WRITTEN MATERIALS There are many forms of written materials and they are designed to convey information within the construction industry. Some of them are listed by Ayeni (1986) and are listed below; 1. Schedule
2. Tender documents 3. Standard form of contract 4. Reports and letters 5. Certificate of payment 6. Maintenance manual. 184.108.40.206. SCHEDULES: Much of the information to be given by specification can be provided in the form of schedule. It is a good practice to convey information for item such as window or re-inforcement by means of schedule. They provide a means of conveying the architect’s wishes to the persons concerned, particularly to the quantity surveyor and later to the builder in a form which has the advantages of simplified checking of errors of omission or duplication. 220.127.116.11. TENDER DOCUMENTS: Production drawings, specifications and bills of quantity together form the initial contract document which is submitted to the construction for pricing. The pricing for the project can be negotiated tender, competitive tender ,design, and build, cost reimbursement scheme target contract or when tender document are fully ready, the price of the project can be determined by the any of the following techniques;
i. ii. iii. iv. 18.104.22.168
By schedule of rates By bills Two stages tendering procedure Serial tendering.
These are mainly informative statements usually written to the supervisor. It should be written in such a way that the receiver should understand the meaning of the report. A report should be small, precise and without vague words or distortion. In any project there is need for all particulars to be reported to the person (s) concerned and this could be done in any of the 2 forms below.
Tender report: the quantity surveyor will report to the architect and the client the situation of the tender returned by the tenderers. After critical examination , some of the things the report will contain; a. The names of the tenderers. b. The tenderers’ sum in ascending order c. The completion period d. Remarks of the quantity surveyor
Routine technical report: this may be given on specific subjects for instance on the laboratory testing of concrete, soil e.t.c or a earth work or bituminous construction. At times, this report is accompanied with graph and statistical analysis.
The clerk of works sends an eye witness report of what is going on site to the architect or the client. At times, it will be required of the quantity surveyor to do this. 22.214.171.124 LETTERS:
This is the most commonly used means of communication of information between the client and the consultants, between the consultants and the contractors. As has been mentioned in the report writing, the writer must make sure that the receiver will understand whatever he is trying to put across, be concise and friendly. Olu (2007). The letter should be presented with the conventional layout required for proper business letters. Since letters could be said to be an ambassador of a firm, its presentation and grammar should be carefully noted. 126.96.36.199 COMPUTERS
With the advent of e-mails and other internet facilities information could be sent from long distances within the shortest time and the receiver will get the exact message at almost the same time. This also enables the use of fax
messages in which other messages could be sent to far distinction and will be received at that instant. 188.8.131.52 PHOTOGRAPHS: Photographs are used to send pictorial messages in the construction industry especially where difficulties have occurred. Coloured photographs are preferred to black and white. The cleaner the details the more information it would be. Photograph records very useful information if any alterations or extension are carried out in the future and they also be of considerable value as evidence in legal action.
These should be given in a manner that reflects efficiency and enthusiasm. The speech should be clear, calm and yet commanding as explained by Olu (2007). It is the most effective means of communication in construction site and it should be given directly to the person(s) concerned otherwise the message will become distorted with passing on. By verbal communication, it is easier to know whether the receiver understanding the message passed since the conversation could be either by; I face-to-face II telephone
184.108.40.206 MODELS AND SAMPLE: Models are more significantly used for the benefit of a lay man. Models are prepared during the process of construction of after it, but it is more essential during the design stage to assist the client to visualize the completed building and thereby help him or her to appreciate the design or make amends if need be. This in effect reduces variation during construction. Samples and valuables to the architect when preparing drawing an specifications. 220.127.116.11 NOTICE BOARDS Notice boards are to be used as a communication channel, it is sited where it would be seen by a large number of persons and it has to be big and very attractive to draw the attention of workers. 2.3 PATTERNS OF COMMUNICATION AMONG MEMBERS OF THE DESIGN AND CONSRUCTION TEAM 2.3.1 CLIENT-CONSULTANT COMMUNICATION Communication between these parties is a continuous process from the inception of the project to the final completion. The client is the initiator and the financier and more so, the project must be executed to suit his taste. To this effect, professional advisers i.e. architects,
quantity surveyors and engineers are to obtain first hand information on daily development of the project. (Ayeni , 1986). Under his heading occurs the very big step towards communication in the construction industry which is the client statement of requirements. The information will include the size of the building, nature of the building, fund available, function of the building and time limitation of the project. The architect or quantity surveyor after carrying out feasibility studies with other consultants who have been appointed to establish that the project is feasible, functionally, technically and financially, prepares a general outline of client requirements and communicate it to the rest of the members of the design team for collective action. The development of the client’s brief is a collective effort of all the consultants who in the course of granting approval for such work, communicates any alterations, and modifications he wants effected in the project to the consultants. This procedure continues until the design of the project is completed and the consultants jointly present their design report to the client to confirm that it is a clear translation of his brief. The design report must be detailed to conclude all relevant information required and presented in a manner to be understood by the client. (Ayeni,1986).
As soon as the client approval is obtained on the report , the architect and engineers start preparing the working drawings, schedules and specification and at the same time seeking the opinion of the quantity surveyor who sees to the cost implication of the project to see if the project design is still within the approved budget. 2.3.2 COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE CONSULTANTS This involves effective exchange of ideas and information the professionals within the design team as to advice the client on smooth running of the project. The architect, quantity surveyor, or engineer by the nature of their position in any construction project is expected to establish links between consultants and coordinate the activities for successful execution of a project. Regular meetings to review problems and clarify details especially in a very complex project forms a means of effective communication which in turns aid construction project delivery of that team. In order to speed up various processes involved in the administration of the project, telephone is used to communicate urgent matters which could be followed up by letters to consultants involved. Basically, consultants transfer information
through drawings, schedules and specification notes. (Seeley,1995)
There is need for architectural, structural and service drawings to be required by the quantity surveyors. The specifications must be clear, definite and concise so that when read with the drawings, set out the quality of materials and the workmanship or standard required in the project to enable the quantity surveyor prepare his bill of quantities. During the progress of the work, all architect or engineer’s instruction intending to alter the original scheme of work are sent up to the quantity surveyor and must be detailed enough to enable him establish the cost implication of the project and give professional advice. 2.3.3 COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE CONSULTANTS AND THE CONTRACTOR All emphasis has been laid on consultants planning, carrying out studies into areas that might affect the success of the proposed project and exchanging information between the planning team and the client. Under this heading, the communication network has been extended to a very important member of the construction industry, the contractor who translates all the effort of other consultant into practical reality which should be seen to correspond with the client’s requirement.
The idea of tender for a project is first communicated to contractors through public adverts or invitation letters depending on the tender procedures adopted as stated by Ayeni (1986) Contractors are requested through this medium to collect contract documents comprising of contract drawings, specification, bill of quantities and condition of contract. The quantity surveyor examines the bill of quantities and communicates his findings and recommended actions to the client through a tender report for the purpose of selecting the most suitable contractor. The same procedure is used to select specialist sub-contractors. Apart from using architectural or engineering drawings which must contain necessary information and details, so that when read with definite and concise specification will set out the quality and quantity of materials and standard of workmanship required in a project, to communicate to the selected contractor the clients requirements, supervision is also used by these consultants as a means of follow up to their communicated information to ensure that the contract provision are applied. Interim valuation is an exchange of information between the contractor, quantity surveyor and the architect, claiming payment for work properly done during the specified period. There is a great reason for the quantity surveyor’s valuation to contain the total breakdown of the work and the
amount involved instead of using a “lump sum” to help in the settlement of final account and enable the client to understand each valuation. Variation orders are also forms of communication between the architect or engineer and the contractor giving notice of intended alterations to the original design. Ayorinde,(1990). The architect prepares interim certificates, final certificates, and certificate of practical completion e.t.c. to communicate to the contractor the amount due to him or her to confirm that the contractor has completed the project. 2.4 COMMUNICATION AT THE DESIGN OFFICE Before any useful information can be passed in the design office or drawing office, the consent of the client must have been won as to what he wants. The brief from the client to the architect/ designer/ engineer (depending on the nature of the job) will be the genesis or origin of the design. The designer passes the mind, taste and request to the drawing table and brings out every detail inform of line diagram. This first information will be communicated to the pioneer of the design for latest development. After all corrections and amendments, the final drawing will be passed to the designer who goes through them to ensure conforment to all necessary information, specification, dimension and building regulations and then sends the negatives for printing. A set should be shown to the client, who
will give approval for the next stage which will be the required number of set for approval at the town planning authority. 2.5 COMMUNICATION ON SITE The construction site is the place where the whole effort made by the design team in visualizing the client’s requirements will be put into practical and the client’s dream will be made reality and as such communication on site involves all parties to the project. Apart from the formal communication between the contractor and the consultants in form of drawing, specification and schedules and bill of quantities which shoes the extent of the work to be done, the contractor is also in close contact with consultants during site meetings. Generally, site meetings are the regular meetings held on the construction site to discuss the progress of the project to date, difficulties and delays arising from the project at hand. This offers the contractor and his principal sub-contractors good opportunities to sort out problem with the design team. The first site meeting is expected to formally establish a good link between all the parties involved and as well give a clear indication of the way the project is to be administered. (Fergusson, 1989)
Architect and engineer also supervise as a means of following up information passed by them to the contractor and ensure that the client’s requirements are met. During site visits, architect or engineer give instruction and this must be noted, anyone amounting to variations should be ideally confirmed in writing and subsequently communicated to the quantity surveyor who will analyze and advise. Other methods of communication on site include weekly reports, which is a complete record summarizing dialing happening on site for the week as recorded by the clerk of works or resident engineer giving the overall progress in relation to the programme of work. Weekly reports are a valuable document for the architect or engineer in keeping them informed of daily activities on site. It also serves as a reference when dispute arises at a later date. Communication within the contractor’s organization includes connection within work areas, control points, and storage areas. The most common of these is that between the storage area and the working area. This is the communication link between manpower and materials and also involves the transportation of materials from storage points to point of use sometimes using mechanical plants. This aspect of communication is of paramount importance as the work force is an essential part of the industry; this is
because unless labour receives regular flow of materials and also be informed of what to do with them, work will definitely stop no matter how good the management is. Another communication route is that between control points and work area where managers and supervisors are in close contact with the work men via verbal or written information. The project manager at the inception of the construction work uses a programme of work to determine his resource requirement, he allocates materials, defines and apportion responsibilities to the general foremen and gangers while using a simplified programme of work to supervise the actions of the workmen, give orders to the general foreman who is directly responsible to the project manager. The operational foreman and charge hand also form a channel of communication for their workmen and keep them informed on site progress. As follow up, the project manager uses the programme of work to monitor progress and evaluate the effect of change that may be imposed by varying productivity, by mistakes, by weather or by clients. Also within the contractors organization memoranda are used to inform members of the news of contracts that have been awarded to the company and the notice boards are used to communicate to this effect.
2.6 BARRIERS IN COMMUNICATION The following are the barriers to communication in the construction industry as explained by Adeleke (2004) I. Lack of detailed drawings, these may not give full description of the mind of the designer. II. Inexperience of the site agents or clerk of works will lead to misinterpretation which can cause a lot of damages and changes to the original design.
Poor and horrible writing or lettering can mislead the clerk of works or the other operative.
Geographical location where communication can not be easily passed.
Poor recording of bills of quantities and omission of items or rates.
Fear of the authority especially the senior staff can cause one of the junior staffs to make mistakes during a face-to face communication.
Inferiority complex of artisans and operatives can also lead to misinterpretation of information.
Telephone message wrongly received is also a barrier.
Nervousness is also a barrier. Mistakes can also occur if the one delivering the message is not composed.
Complexity of the job can also be a barrier if the job is not fully understood.
Availability and level of technology can as well be a barrier if the job needs a sort of specialist to carry it out.
2.7 OVERCOMING THE BARRIERS Adeleke (2004) also explained that in order to overcome barriers of communication within the construction industry, management tends to concentrate on doing so at a personal level while effort may be geared up in site level. The ways which Adeleke (2004) suggested are as follows - USING FEEDBACK Using feedback is the process of obtaining information on performance in order to take collective actions where necessary (Wells, 1978). He also stated that it entails the communication ensuring that his message is well understood by the receiver and action is taken. - USING REINFORCEMENT OR BACKUP
As stated by Adeleke (2004), certain information can be communicated in more than one pattern. For example information may be passed verbally and also backed up by a written letter. - USING A DIRECT SAMPLE LANGUAGE This is the most efficient way of eradicating barriers of effective communication. When one speaks or gives orders in a plan and simple language then the other party easily understands. The use of ambiguous words will be eradicated.
COMMUNICATION The major problem facing the construction industry is that ineffective communication as explained by Oyekunle (1996). Many a time’s communication ineffectiveness has caused delays in the delivery of projects. Extension of time will be necessary and the contractor equally will charge for this. Provided the delay was not is fault. On the other hand the client may claim liquidated and ascertained damages if the contractor was responsible. Other problems that may arise are dispute and arbitration, termination of contract and in some cases complete abandonment. All these have negated effect on the cost of construction and the economy at large.
2.9 CAUSES OF INEFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION 1. POOR PICTORAL REPRESENTATION Many a time jobs are described by sketchy, incomplete, inaccurate and not well correlated drawing and charts, thus they are much more difficult to be priced and be constructed. 2. POOR WRITTEN MEDIA Badly written reports, letters, specification, schedules and bill of quantities most times makes it difficult for such projects to be completed on time and without disputes. 3. INADEQUATE COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENTS The problem ranges from bad telecommunication networks to ineffective postal service. The ineffective power supply is also not helping issues. The telecommunication networks are bad and messages received via telephone are most times mis-conceived and e-mails cannot be sent when there is power outage. 4. SEMANTIC PROBLEM The same word may mean different things to different people and this is because the meanings are people not words. For example if a foreman tells one of his gagmen to get something done “as soon as possible” the gang man
may not get it done until after 2hours and he will give the excuse of doing it “as soon as it is possible for him to get done”. 5. EDUCATION AND TRAINING A number of site operatives cannot speak or understand English language and it makes their mother tongue to work with them or send information to them because they are not well educated, also some are not trained enough to read drawings and therefore cannot do anything without verbal explanation. 6. INCOMPACTIBILITY Individuals have diverse cultures, small groups, large groups through which they assimilate and interpretes differently. 7. MOTIVATION When the motivations on certain jobs are not there then the individuals will relent on carrying out orders or passing information on to the next person. 8. FAILURE TO DISCUSS This is due to positive effect of point up imaginary words of silence that prevents healthy dialogue and group problem solving. 9. JARGON Different people in different department or sections of an organization speak in different languages although they are actually speaking English.
10. PERCEPTION ABOUT THE INFORMATION Not only does the receiver evaluate what he hears in terms of his own background but also takes the senders into account. 2.10 BENEFITS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Effective communication in the construction industry will enhance the rate of productivity i.e safe material wastage, safety to operatives and gives room for continuity of contract between the client and the contractor in the ways explained below by Carter (2003) as listed
If working drawings are well prepared, detailed and handled with utmost seriousness and by an experienced clerk of works, site agent, there will be no problem during setting out , excavation and setting of blocks using the actual dimensions and shapes. And since there will be no alteration or demolition, performance will be increased.
Artisans will have free hand to perform the duties as expected. There will be no repetition of materials usage therefore reducing waste.
There will be a good relationship between client and workers.
Duration of completion of the project will be reduced thereby giving no room for liquidated and ascertained damages or any extra costs for both parties.
Maximum profit will be realized by the contractor and maximum satisfaction will be achieved by the client.
There will be no argument or dispute between the clerk and the artisans between consultants and contractor and between client and contractor.
2.11 CONCLUSION Having identified the steps in communication, types of communication. Barriers in communication, problems caused by these barriers and how to overcome these barriers. It is therefore necessary for any construction organization to handle communication with utmost seriousness and by the time the benefits begin to come; the client would not have to pay for overtime and the contractor will not have to pay liquidated damages and the process of construction project delivery will be timely.
CHAPTER 3 3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 INTRODUCTION The essence of this chapter is of define the entire method adopted in this research work. It describes the procedure followed in realizing the goals and objectives in this research. This involves the adequate description of the research are stressing on the inclusiveness of the chosen area of this
study, the research tools and sampling techniques necessitating the administration of questionnaires and oral interview. Other discussions centered on research design which describes the major procedure followed in carrying out the research the method of data collection and finally, the analysis of data indicating the statistical tool used and suitability of such tools. 3.2: CHARACTERISTICS OF POPULATION OF STUDY This consist ten (10) indigenous Firms are to be assessed. 5 questionnaires was be administered to each of them, totaling 50 questionnaires. The reason for seeking this information is to know the role of effective of
communication in timely delivery of construction projects in Nigeria. The population of the research are Architects, Builders, Structural Engineers, Project Managers and Quantity Surveyors. 3.3: SAMPLING The procedure for sampling in this research is based on simple random sampling method. This entails the use of identical objects on which the entire population is written. The objects are then gathered together with the required number being selected from them, one after the other, using random digit table. 3.4: DETERMINATION OF SAMPLING SIZE The sampling size for this research work will be 5 questionnaires for the five professionals listed above i.e. Architects, Builders, Structural Engineers, Project Managers and Quantity Surveyors. 3.5: QUESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTRATION In order to obtain appropriate and adequate responses from the respondents, a combination of fixed response and open end type of questionnaire was prepared in such a way that the options of the respondents were required on the subject of the dissertation. The questionnaire is divided into two main sections A and B. in the fixed response type of questionnaire design, there are tailored options of answers
from which the respondents must choose while responding or answering each question. The opinions of the respondent were just to tick his or her own approval of available options of answer. 3.6: METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION The questionnaires were distributed to the respondents through direct contact in order to supply the necessary data to be used for the research work. Responses were collected on individual basis and also interviews were conducted with respondents in respect of questionnaires earlier distributed. 3.7: TECHNIQUES FOR DATA ANALYSIS All data collected were collated; organized and relevant answers were adopted in order to ensure a meaningful presentation and analysis of data collected. Secondary data were used as supplements. Theoretical concepts obtained interviews were used to interpret and compare the findings. Analytical tools were basically the descriptive statistical, which includes percentage, tables and charts. 3.8: LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The very fact that most construction companies are sensitive and must be kept confidential, the firms were reserved in disclosing information concerning the past and present experience. In some cases, the difficulties
are that professionals were not available and when available to fill questionnaires and some opted for oral interview and the researcher had to do a lot of writing. In other cases, some professionals collected questionnaires and never fill them till date despite regular visits to their sites which has resulted into time waste. Some professionals actually claim that they cannot find the questionnaires and ask for another copy and still do not fill them. 3.9: STUDY AREA/ CASE STUDY The study area of the research was Lagos state and this is because it houses the most number of indigenous construction firms in Nigeria.
CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS 4.0 INTRODUCTION The information and data collected from the professionals from the ten construction firms now becomes the aim of this chapter. This is very useful in making conclusions and making of which the chapter five of this study is based. 4.1GENERAL PERCENTAGE OF RESPONSE TO QUESTIONNAIRE SECTION Architect Builder Civil Engineer Quantity Surveyor TOTAL PERCENTAGE NO GIVEN OUT 13 13 12 12 50 100% NO OF RESPONSES 11 10 12 9 42 84%
Eighty four percent (84)
of the total questionnaires distributed were
completely filled and returned.
4.2 THE POPULATION OF RESPONDENT The population of respondents is as analyzed below.
Table 1 Professional Architect Builder Civil engineer Quantity surveyor Others Number 11 10 12 9 0 Percentages 26.19 23.81 28.57 21.43 0 Section chart 94.27 85.72 102.86 77.15 0 of pie
Source: field survey From the table and chart above it is noticed that the highest population of respondents are the Civil Engineers, followed by the Builders and then the Architect and lastly the Quantity Surveyors. 4.3 ACADEMIC QUALIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS Table 2 Academic qualification WAEC/GCE Number 0 Percentage 0
Section chart 0
OND HND/BSc. MSc./MBA OTHERS
13 25 4 0
30.95 59.52 9.53 0
111.43 214.29 34.28 0
Source: field survey The table and chart shows that the highest populations of respondents are the HND/B.Sc holders. This is because they are more involved in the medium managerial positions.
4.4 WORK EXPERIENCE OF RESPONDENTS Table 3 Years 1-5 6-10 10-15 Number 25 12 5 Percentage 59.52 28.57 11.91 Section chart 214.29 102.85 42.86 of pie
Source: field survey The table and chart clearly indicates that majority of the people in the medium managerial positions are those whose years of experience falls between 1-5 years. 4.5 THE ANALYSIS TO RESPONSES TO THE QUESTIONNAIRES. 1. Communication is an effective tool of actualization of a project. Table 4 Options 5 4 3 2 1 Number responses 22 20 0 0 0 of Percentage 52.38 47.62 0 0 0
Section of pie chart 188.57 171.43 0 0 0
Source: field survey From the above chart and table all respondents agrees that communication is an effective tool in the actualization of construction project
2. Site meetings are an important channel of communication between the consultants and contractor on site. Table 5 Options 5 4 3 2 1 Number responses 28 12 2 0 0 of Percentage 66.67 28.57 4.76 0 0 Section pie chart 240.00 102.86 17.14 0 0 of
Source: field survey The table and chart above clearly shows that site meetings creates an important avenue for consultants and contractor to exchange ideas and pass on information to on another.
3. Training of operatives is necessary for onsite communication.
Table 6 Options 5 4 3 2 1 Number responses 8 26 7 1 0 of Percentage 19.05 61.91 16.67 2.38 0 Section pie chart 68.57 222.86 60.00 8.57 0 of
Source: field survey Findings shows that when workers are trained, onsite communication is carried out in a more reliable pattern and higher productivity is attained
4. Poor communication often results into delay, increase in cost, abandonment, amongst other problems. Table 7 Options 5 4 3 2 1 Number responses 23 12 4 3 0 of Percentage 54.74 28.56 9.52 7.14 0 Section pie chart 197.14 102.86 34.29 25.71 0 of
Source: field survey This table and chart shows the possible outcome of poor communication as a higher percentage agrees that it causes delay which will in turn cause an increase in the cost of the project.
5. Workshops, handbills and posters will enhance productivity and educate workers. Table 8 Options 5 4 3 2 1 Number responses 17 13 8 3 1 of Percentage 40.46 30.94 19.04 7.14 2.38 Section pie chart 145.71 111.43 68.57 25.71 8.57 of
Source: field survey Findings reveal that the use of posters, handbills and organizing workshop will enhance site productivity and also educate workers.
6. Poor leadership result into poor communication. Table 9 Options 5 4 3 2 1 Number responses 7 13 13 7 2 of Percentage 16.66 30.94 30.94 16.66 4.76 Section pie chart 59.99 111.41 111.41 59.99 17.14 of
Source: field survey Findings reveal that the leadership pattern has a little effect on communication on site.
7. Poor and distorted information will affect the level of work done on site. Table 10 Options 5 4 3 2 1 Number responses 27 11 3 1 0 of Percentage 64.26 26.18 7.14 2.38 0 Section pie chart 231.39 94.27 25.71 8.57 0 of
Source: field survey From table and chart poor and distorted information has an effect on the level of work done on site.
8. Inexperience interpretation of working drawings can cause a failure in building components. Table 11 Options 5 4 3 2 1 Number responses 25 15 1 1 0 of Percentage 59.50 35.70 2.38 2.38 0 Section pie chart 214.25 128.55 8.57 8.57 0 of
Source: field survey The table and chart shows that inexperienced interpretation of working drawings is a major cause of building component failure.
9. Every worker on site is responsible for disseminating information effectively. Table 12 Options 5 4 3 2 1 Number responses 16 15 5 4 2 of Percentage 38.08 35.70 11.90 9.52 4.76 Section pie chart 137.12 128.55 42.85 34.28 17.14 of
Source: field survey From the above, the study shows that every worker on site is responsible for effective dissemination of information.
10.Poor means of communication leads to distorted information on site. Table 13 Options 5 4 3 2 1 Number responses 9 27 4 0 2 of Percentage 21.42 64.26 9.52 0 4.76 Section pie chart 77.13 231.39 34.28 0 17.14 of
Source: field survey This table and chart shows that poor mean of communication is another cause of distorted information on site.
11.Good relationship between site operatives will lead time wastage and material wastage. Table 14 Options 5 4 3 2 1 Number responses 6 6 3 6 21 of Percentage 14.28 14.28 7.14 14.28 49.98 Section pie chart 51.42 51.42 25.71 51.42 179.97 of
Source: field survey The table and chart shows that there is no correlation between the relationship between operatives and time and material wastage. 12.Lack of interest to perform duties as expected will lead to ineffective communication. Table 15 Options 5 4 3 2 1 Number responses 16 15 7 2 2 of Percentage 38.08 35.70 16.66 4.76 4.76 Section pie chart 137.12 128.55 59.99 17.14 17.14 of
Source: field survey The table and chart shows that the interest a worker put into his work affects the quality of communication he practice. 13.The importance of language used among operatives is very essential for effective communication on site. Table 16 Options 5 4 3 2 1 Number responses 9 26 5 2 0 of Percentage 21.42 61.88 11.90 4.76 0 Section pie chart 77.13 222.82 42.85 17.14 0 of
Source: field survey Findings from the table and chart shows that the anguage used among site operatives is utmost important in practicing effecticve communication
14. Late dissemination of information will affect output on site negatively.
Table 17 Options 5 4 3 2 1 Number responses 17 17 6 2 0 of Percentage 40.46 40.46 14.28 4.76 0 Section pie chart 145.69 145.69 51.42 17.14 0 of
Source: field survey The table and chart shows that late dissemination of information negatively affects output on site.
15.Poorly presented information on site creates a big problem in the timely delivery of construction of projects. Table 18 Options 5 4 3 2 1 Number responses 25 14 2 1 0 of Percentage 59.50 33.32 4.76 2.38 0 Section pie chart 214.25 119.98 17.14 8.57 0 of
Source: field survey The table and chart shows that the presentation of information on site may create a big problem when poorly presented, in the timely delivery of construction projects. 4.6 DEDUCTIONS From the above analysis it could be deduced that the reasons why poor communication occurs in the construction industry are: • Lack of an established communication system in many firms • Irregular site meetings • Inadequate training of operatives on communication skills • Distortion in information • Inexperience interpreting of information on working drawings • Lack of interest to perform duties
• The language used in disseminating information • Late dissemination of information • Poor presentation of information 4.7 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS AND OBSERVATIONS From the research and direct visits to some construction sites coupled with the information gathered through the questionnaire distributed, it was revealed that most indigenous firms are aware of the importance of effective communication as such that qualified personnel were appointed to man some strategic point effectively. In most of these firms, open policy of communication was exhibited as such that no form of organizational barrier exists. The labourer could easily walk up to the site supervisor for instructions without going through anybody. In larger organizations, the means of communication is very effective and advanced equipment like radio messages and walkie talkie are being used on large site.
CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1 CONCLUSION It is not exaggerating to say that a major problem in the Nigerian construction industry is that of setting up meaningful and reasonable communication network despite its urgent need. In any project, good communication, properly timed, will result into cooperation. Poor buildability, poor management of resource and low productivity and some other similar effects are as a result of poor communication in the
industry and usually cause delay in timely project delivery. This also will in turn have an adverse effect of the economy at large. 5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS From the research work carried out on communication process in the Nigerian construction industry using Lagos state as an example, the followings are my recommendations. 1. Provision of adequate communication equipment for speedy transmission of information. 2. The message should be reinforced i.e. it should be presented in a number of ways or means. 3. Firms should have a well established communication system to enhance communication’s effectiveness
4. Written communication should be illegible and readable as possible.
The use of simple, direct language and avoidance of jargons is very essential to avoid destruction. 5. A more efficient post and telecommunication services will contribute in no small measure towards achieving communication effectiveness
6. Superiors should not treat sub-ordinates in such a way that they will
be accessible to them. This will effect in a positive way, the paint up
imaginary wall of silence that prevents healthy dialogue and group problem solving.
Education and training programmes should be organized by firms to meet its obligations by providing well-qualified employees at all levels. It should be designed to include both information about the working and also appreciation of the sources of information. This will enable them to exercise their minds more confidently and capably, and so enable them to become easily aware of the more efficient techniques.
8. Making use of feedback should be encouraged. Feedback is the process of obtaining information and performance in order to take collective actions where necessary. It ensures that the communication get his message back from the receiver which tells him how far understanding has taken place. This is why face to face communication is more effective than written ones.
9. The communicator should adjust to the world of the receiver. Since
his intention is to get the message across, he should try predicting the impact of what he is going to say on the receiver feelings and attitude. He should size up the receiver’s store for background
information, intelligence, level of thinking, reasoning, perception, information image and memory and therefore tailor fit the receivers vocabularies, interest and values. 10.The employers of labour in the industry should give preference to well qualified applicants for employment. 5.3 AREA OF FURTHER STUDIES Further studies could be carried out to evaluate the management system and how it affect the communication on construction sites in Nigeria.
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