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EXERCISE 1.1
 2 3 4 1 2 3
(1) (i) 3 4 5 (ii) 2 4 6
   
 4 5 6 3 6 9
3 5 1
(2) x = 0, y = 7, z = 3 (3) x = 2 , y = 2 , z = 1, w = 2

 −2 − 7 −12 4  4 − 4 4 − 4
(4) (i)   (ii)   (iii)   (iv)  
− 6 10   2 − 12 6 4  6 4 
6 − 1 6 − 1 9 0  0 8 
(v)   (vi)   (vii)   (viii)  
5 2  5 2  14 − 16 18 − 7
2 −1
2  − 2 −5 −1

(6) X = − 2 3 − 3 , Y = − 1 1 3  (8) k = 1
− 2 1 − 3 0 −7 2 
1  9 3
(10) x = 1, − 3 (11) x = 2, − 5 (13) 5   (14) x = 1, y = 4
 − 6 7
EXERCISE 1.2
27
(1) 0 (2) (i) non-singular (ii) singular (3) (i) x = 8 (ii) x = 9

## (4) (i) 0 (ii) 0 (6) a3 + 3a2

EXERCISE 1.3
(3) x = 0, 0, − (a + b + c) (4) (a − b) (b − c) (c − a) (ab + bc + ca)
EXERCISE 2.1
→ → → → → →
(1) AC = a + b , BD = b − a
EXERCISE 2.2
→ → →
(1) 5 i + 5 j + 5 k , 5 3 (2) 185

255
→ → → → → → → →
(3) AB = − 3 i − j − 5 k ; BC = 4 i − 7 j + 7 k ;
→ → → →
CA = − i + 8 j − 2 k
AB = 35 , BC = 114 , CA = 69
→ → → → →
i + 3 j 3 i −7 j +6k
(5) m = 9 (6) 2 (7) ±
94
→ → →
(8) ±
17 i − 3 j − 10 k
398
(12) 2 (→i + →j + →k )
→ → → → −5
(13) PQ = 4 i − 5 j + 11 k ; 
4 11 
, , 
 9 2 9 2 9 2
(16) non-coplanar vectors.
EXERCISE 3.1
1 1 20 13
(1) − 2(x + 1) (2) −
2(x − 1) x−3 x−2
3 7 13
(3) − +
2(x − 1) x−2 2(x − 3)
1 1 1
(4) 9(x + 1) − 9(x + 2) −
3(x + 2)2
−4 4 1
(5) 9(x + 2) + −
9(x − 1) 3(x − 1)2
2 3 2
(6) + −
25(x − 2) 5(x − 2)2 25(x + 3)

−7 1 9
(7) 2x + 2 + 2(x + 2)
x
2 3 9
(8) + −
(x − 2) (x − 2)2
(x − 2)3
1 4x − 8
(9) 5(x + 2) +
5(x2 + 1)

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1 (x − 3)
(10) 2(x + 1) −
2(x2 + 1)
x−5 4
(11) 2 +
x − 2x − 1 3x −2
1 1
(12) 1 − x + 1 +
(x + 1)2
EXERCISE 3.2
(1) 378 (2) 42 (3) 600 (4) 1320 (5) 42840
(6) 512 (7) 153 (8) (i) 27216 (ii) 90000 (9) 5 × 5! (10) 21
(11) 25 (12) 9000 (13) (i) 125 (ii) 60 (14) 25
EXERCISE 3.3
25!
(1) (i) 60 (ii) 2730 (iii) 120 (iv) 5! (v) 15120

(2) 23 (3) 4
(4) 41 (7) 172800 (8) 5040 (9) 60 (10) 93324 (11) 34650
19!
(12) (i) 840 (ii) 20 (13) 9000 (14) 45 (15) (i) 8! (ii) 7! (16) 2

EXERCISE 3.4
(1) (i) 45 (ii) 4950 (iii) 1 (2) 23 (3) 3 (4) 45
(5) (i) 12 (ii) 8 (6) 19 (7) 7

EXERCISE 3.5
(1) 66 (2) 200 (3) 210 (4) 425 (5) (i) 15C11 (ii) 14C10 (iii) 14C11
(6) 780 (7) (i) 40 (ii) 116 (8) 1540 (9) 817190

EXERCISE 3.7
(1) (i) 243a5 + 2025a4b + 6750a3b2 + 11250a2b3 + 9375ab4 + 3125 b5
(ii) a5 − 10a4b + 40a3b2 − 80a2b3 + 80ab4 − 32b5
(iii) 32x5 − 240x6 + 720x7 − 1080x8 + 810x9 − 243x10

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11x10 55x9 165x8 330x7 462x6 462x5 330x4
(iv) x11 + y + y2 + y3 + y4 + y5 + y6 + y7

+ + 9 + 10 + 11
y8 y y y

## (v) x12 + 12x10y3 + 60x8y6 + 160x6y9 + 240x4y12 + 192x2y15 + 64y18

(vi) x4y2 + 4x7/2 y3/2 + 6x3y3 + 4x5/2y7/2 + x2 y4
(2) (i) 58 2 (ii) 152 (iii) 352
3 2
(iv) 128a + 4320a + 9720a + 1458 (v) 5822 3
(3) (i) 1030301 (ii) 970299 (4) 0.9940
16C8 .a8
(5) (i) 8C4 24x12 (ii) 16C8 (iii)
x4

## (iv) 13C6 .26x7y6 and − 13C7 . 27x6y7

1 1
(v) 17C8.28 7 and 17C9.29 10
x x

b 4
(7) − 165 (8) (i) 7920 (ii) 2268 (iii) 12C4  c 98
 
(9) r = 3 (10) 7, 14
EXERCISE 4.1
3 9 21 75
(1) (i) 25, − 125, 625, − 3125 and 15625 (ii) 2 , 2 , 2 , 21, 2

2 3 4 5 6
(iii) − 1, − 12, − 23, − 34, − 45 (iv) 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7

2 2 2 1 4 1 16 25
(v) 3 , 0, 3 , 0, 3 (vi) 3 , 9 , 3 , 81 , 243

11 15 64 121
(2) (i) 5 , 7 (ii) 1, 0 (iii) 7 , 10 (iv) 64, − 512

5 17 37
(3) 0, 2 , 8, 2 , 24, 2

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(4) (i) 2, 2, 1, 0, −1 (ii) 1, 2, 3, 5, 8
(iii)1, 2, 6, 24, 120 (iv) 1, 1, 5, 13, 41

## (5) 2 1 − n

1 1 5 1
(6) 4 [5n − 1] (7) 200 (2100 − 1)
 3 2
EXERCISE 4.2
(1) (i) 4, 7, 10, 13, 16 (ii) 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 (2) (i) 10 (ii) 1 (iii) p
1
(4) 19 (6) 6, 24 (10) 2, 3, 6 (or) 6, 3, 2

EXERCISE 4.3
 x x2 7x3 
(1) (i) 5 x − 8 + x − 2 +…
1 40 160 1
(ii) 1 + 6 + 18 + 324 + … 
x  x  3  
6
11.9.7.5 12
(2) (i) 10.01 (ii) 0.2 (5) 4! x

## (r+1) (r+2) (r+3) r

(6) 1.2.3 x

EXERCISE 5.1
(1) x2 + y2 − 2x + 8y − 19 = 0 (2) 3x + y = 2
(3) (i) t = 1 (ii) P(1, 2) (4) y2 − 24x2 = 0
(7) (i) x2 + y2 + x − 3y + 2 = 0 (ii) 15x2 + 15y2 + 66x − 96y + 207 = 0
EXERCISE 5.2
(1) 4x − 7y − 10 = 0 (2) y = 3x + 4 (3) x − y = 6
(4) 11x − y = 27 (5) 2x + y = 6 ; x + 2y = 6 (6) x + 3y = 8
14
(7) 3x − 2y = 0 ; 2x − y = 0 and 5x − 3y = 0 (8) units
13
(9) 2x − 3y + 12 = 0 (10) 9x − 8y + 10 = 0 ; 2x − y = 0
6
(11) 2x − 3y = 6; 3x − 2y = 6 (12) x intercept 7 ; y intercept 2

## (13) (8, 0) and (− 2, 0) (14) 3 2 units

259
EXERCISE 5.3
π
(1) 4 (3) 3x + 2y + 1 = 0 (4) x − y − 1 = 0 (5) (1, 2)

5 5
(6) k = − 9 (7) 2 units (8) p = 1 ; p = 2 (9) 28x + 7y − 74 = 0

π π
(10) 5x + 3y + 8 = 0 (11) x + y = 1 (12) 5x + 3y + 5 = 0 (14) 4 ; 4

(19) 2 , 3
16 5
(17) a = 5 (18) a = 9 (21) (1, 12) (22) (− 4, − 3)
 
EXERCISE 5.4
(1) a = 2 ; c = − 3 (2) π/3 (4) 1 (6) 2x2 − 3xy − 2y2 = 0
(7) 3x2 + 7xy + 2y2 − 4x + 7y − 15 = 0
(8) k = − 1 ; 4x − 3y + 1=0 and 3x + 4y − 1=0 ; π/2

## (9) C = 2 ; 6x − 2y + 1 = 0 and 2x − y + 2 = 0 ; tan−1 (1/7)

(10) k = − 10 ; 3x − 2y + 1 = 0 and 4x + 5y + 3 = 0
EXERCISE 5.5
(1) (i) (0, 0) ; 1 (ii) (2, 3) ; 22 (iii) (4, 3) ; 7

(iv) − 3 , 3 ; 3
2 2 2 5
(v) (4, 4) ; 10
 
(2) a = 4 ; b = 2 ; 2x2 + 2y2 + 4x + 4y − 1 = 0
(3) x2 + y2 − 4x − 6y + 11 = 0
(4) x2 + y2 − 6x − 4y − 12 = 0
(5) x2 + y2−14x + 6y + 42 = 0
(6) x2 + y2 + 8x − 10y + 25 = 0
(7) 2 10 π unit ; 10π square units
(8) x2 + y2 − 12x + 11 = 0 ; x2 + y2 + 4x − 21 = 0
(9) x2 + y2 − 3x − 6y + 10 = 0

260
(10) x2 + y2 = 1
(11) x2 + y2 − 5x − y + 4 = 0
(12) x2 + y2 − 6x − 8y + 15 = 0
(13) x2 + y2 − 4x − 2y − 5 = 0
(14) 16x2 + 16y2 = 1
3 3
(15) x = 2 cosθ ; y = 2 sin θ

EXERCISE 5.6
(1) 2 5 units (3) y − 1 = 0 (4) outside
(5) (0, 0) and (4, − 3) lies inside; (− 2, 1) lies outside
(6) (0, 2) ; (2, 0) (7) 2x + y = ± 3 5 (8) 5 2 units
2 2 2 2
(9) (i) x + y − 10x − 12y + 25 = 0 (ii) x + y − 10x − 12y + 36 = 0
(10) 4x + 3y + 6 = 0 (11) (i) x + y = ± 4 2 (ii) x − y = ± 4 2

(14) − 4 ,− 4 
1 5
(12) x − 5y + 19 = 0 (13) ± 40
 
EXERCISE 5.7
(3) x2 + y2 − 2x − 6y − 39 = 0 (4) x2 + y2 − 8x + 12y − 49 = 0
(6) (i) x2 + y2 − 2x + 2y + 1 = 0 (ii) x2 + y2 − 6x − 4y − 44 = 0
(7) x2 + y2 − 16x − 18y − 4 = 0 (8) 3x2 + 3y2 − 14x + 23y − 15 = 0
EXERCISE 6.1
π 5π 10π − 16π − 17π π
(1) (i) 6 (ii) 9 (iii) 9 (iv) 9 (v) 36 (vi) 24

(2) (i) 22° 30′ (ii) 648° (iii) − 171°48′ (app.) (iv) 105°
(3) (i) Q1 (ii) Q3 (iii) Q1
EXERCISE 6.2
− 1331
(1) 276 (2) (i) − sin 60° (ii) − cos40° (iii) tan10° (iv) − tan60°
(v) cosec 60° (vi) − sin30° (vii) cos 30°

261
(5) (i) − cosec A (ii) − sec A (iii) − cotA (iv) cosA (v) tan A
1 3 3
(8) (i) − (ii) − 2 (iii) − 2 (iv) − 2
2
2 1
(v) − 1 (vi) (vii) 1 (viii)
3 3
13 2− 6 7
(10) (i) 3 (ii) 1 (iii) 04 (iv) (v) 5 (vi) 2 (vii) 3
25 149
(viii) 11 (ix) 12 (x) 120
EXERCISE 6.4
6− 2 6− 2 6+ 2
(1) (i) 4 (ii) 4 (iii) 2 + 3 (iv) 4
2+1 6+ 2 2− 3 6+ 2
(8) (i) 2 , 4 (ii) 2 , 4
15 + 2 2
(12) 2 +1 (14) 12
EXERCISE 6.5
1 9 117
(3) 2 (6) (i) 13 (ii) 125
EXERCISE 6.6
(1) (i) sin6θ + sin2θ (ii) cos 14θ + cos2θ (iii) sin10θ − sin4θ
1
(iv) cos2A − cos4 A (v) sin9A − sin3A (vi) 2 [sin13θ + sin5θ]
1 1 1
(vii) 2 [sin2A − sin A] (viii) 2 [sin6A + sin A] (ix) 2 [cos3θ+cos θ/3]
(2) (i) 2sin9A cos4A (ii) 2 cos9A sin4A (iii) 2cos9A cos4A
(iv) − 2sin 9A sin4A (v) 2 cos42° sin10° (vi) 2 cos37° cos14°
(vii) 2 cos50° sin30° (viii) 2 sin30° cos20° (ix) 2 sin30° cos10°
53° 17°
(x) 2 cos 2 cos 2

EXERCISE 6.7
π π π π π π π
(1) (i) 4 (ii) 3 (iii) 3 (iv) 6 (v) − 3 (vi) − 6 (vii) 3

262
nπ π π 2nπ π
(2) (i) 2 + (− 1)n 12 (ii) nπ − 3 (iii) 3 ± 4

π nπ π
(3) (i) nπ ± 4 , nπ (ii) 3 , (2n + 1) 2 (iii) nπ

π 2π π nπ
(4) (i) 2nπ ± 3 (ii) 2nπ ± π (iii) 2nπ ± 3 , (2n + 1) 4 (iv) 3 , 2nπ

π π π
(5) (i) 2nπ + 4 (or) nπ + (− 1)n 2 − 4

π π 2π
(ii) 2nπ − 4 (iii) 2nπ − 4 (iv) 2nπ, 2nπ + 3

EXERCISE 6.9
π π π 3π π 3π
(1) (i) 3 (ii) 3 (iii) − 2 (iv) 4 (v) 3 (vi) 4

12 4 15 3 1
(3) (i) 13 (ii) 5 (iii) 8 (iv) 2 (7) x = ±
2
1
(8) 2 − 3 (9) x = 2

263
Objective Type Questions – Answers (Key)
(1) 1 (2) 4 (3) 2 (4) 1 (5) 2 (6) 4

264