I N V I T E D PA P E R

LTE-ADVANCED: NEXT-GENERATION WIRELESS BROADBAND TECHNOLOGY
AMITAVA GHOSH, RAPEEPAT RATASUK, BISHWARUP MONDAL, NITIN MANGALVEDHE, AND TIM THOMAS, MOTOROLA INC.

ABSTRACT
eNB

UE2

eNB3

LTE-Advanced (also known as LTE Release 10) significantly enhances the existing LTE Release 8 and supports much higher peak rates, higher throughput and coverage and lower latencies resulting in a better user experience.

LTE Release 8 is one of the primary broadband technologies based on OFDM, which is currently being commercialized. LTE Release 8, which is mainly deployed in a macro/microcell layout, provides improved system capacity and coverage, high peak data rates, low latency, reduced operating costs, multi-antenna support, flexible bandwidth operation and seamless integration with existing systems. LTE-Advanced (also known as LTE Release 10) significantly enhances the existing LTE Release 8 and supports much higher peak rates, higher throughput and coverage, and lower latencies, resulting in a better user experience. Additionally, LTE Release 10 will support heterogeneous deployments where low-power nodes comprising picocells, femtocells, relays, remote radio heads, and so on are placed in a macrocell layout. The LTE-Advanced features enable one to meet or exceed IMT-Advanced requirements. It may also be noted that LTE Release 9 provides some minor enhancement to LTE Release 8 with respect to the air interface, and includes features like dual-layer beamforming and time-difference-of-arrival-based location techniques. In this article an overview of the techniques being considered for LTE Release 10 (aka LTEAdvanced) is discussed. This includes bandwidth extension via carrier aggregation to support deployment bandwidths up to 100 MHz, downlink spatial multiplexing including single-cell multi-user multiple-input multiple-output transmission and coordinated multi point transmission, uplink spatial multiplexing including extension to four-layer MIMO, and heterogeneous networks with emphasis on Type 1 and Type 2 relays. Finally, the performance of LTEAdvanced using IMT-A scenarios is presented and compared against IMT-A targets for full buffer and bursty traffic model.

operation of up to 20 MHz. Currently, enhancements are being studied to provide substantial improvements to LTE Release 8, allowing it to meet or exceed International Mobile Telecommunications-Advanced (IMT-A) requirements [1]. These enhancements are being considered as part of LTE-Advanced (LTE-A, also known as LTE Release 10), which includes carrier aggregation, advanced uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) spatial multiplexing, DL coordinated multipoint (CoMP) transmission, and heterogeneous networks with special emphasis on Type 1 and Type 2 relays. This article provides an overview of the technologies being considered for LTE-A. This article is organized as follows. In the next section an overview of the LTE Release 8 physical layer (PHY) is provided. This is followed by an overview of evolved UMTS terrestrial radio access (E-UTRA) LTE-A requirements. In the following section a discussion on carrier aggregation is provided. We then provide an overview of DL and UL spatial multiplexing and fundamentals of DL CoMP design. We introduce the concept of heterogeneous networks, withy an emphasis on LTE relays. We compare the performance of LTE Release 8 and LTE-A in the context of IMT-A requirements. Finally, conclusions are drawn in the last section.

LTE RELEASE 8 PHY OVERVIEW
In LTE Release 8, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is the DL multiple access scheme, while single-carrier frequency-division multiple access (SC-FDMA) is the UL multiple access scheme. LTE Release 8 also supports scalable bandwidth up to 20 MHz, and uses DL/UL frequency selective and DL frequency diverse scheduling, respectively. The DL subframe structure is common to both time-division duplex (TDD) and frequencydivision duplex (FDD), and is shown in Fig. 1 for four transmit antennas using common reference symbols and a normal cyclic prefix. More than four transmit antennas can be supported using user-specific dedicated reference symbols. Each subframe consists of two slots of length 0.5 ms (7 OFDM symbols for normal cyclic prefix) with reference symbols located within each slot. DL control signaling is located in the first n

INTRODUCTION
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Release 8 provides high peak data rates of 300 Mb/s on the downlink and 75 Mb/s on the uplink for a 20 MHz bandwidth, and allows flexible bandwidth

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IEEE Wireless Communications • June 2010

PDCCH R2 R3 Reference signal: Ant Port 2 Reference signal: Ant Port 3 Data: PDSCH Figure 1. DFT-S-OFDM has similar numerology to the OFDM transmission scheme used on the DL. same as a mobile or a user).5 ms (7 DFT-S-OFDM symbols for normal cyclic prefix) with one reference symbol located within each slot. with the main difference being that the constellation symbols are DFT precoded before mapping to the different subcarriers. followed by data transmission. Downlink subframe structure. This can significantly lower UE power consumption and extend its battery life. Similar to the DL. single-carrier frequency-division multiplexing (SC-FDM) is implemented via discrete Fourier transform spread OFDM (DFT-SOFDM). The DL and UL scheduling assignment transmitted on the PDCCH is addressed to a specific user. The time-division multiplexing (TDM) structure between control and data enables micro-sleep to be implemented in the user equipment (UE. 3 and is common for both FDD and TDD. 2. physical hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) indicator channel (PHICH). IEEE Wireless Communications • June 2010 11 . Each element in the time and frequency resource grid is called a resource element (RE). Like the DL. and contains control information needed for data reception and demodulation. Micro-sleep allows the UE to turn off its power amplifier after determining that no data assignment is given to it in this subframe. This CM reduction may be used to improve cell edge coverage and conserve UE battery life.OFDM symbols (n ≤ 3) where n can be dynamically changed every subframe. and physical DL control channel (PDCCH). scheduling request. leading to higher maximum transmit power [2]. The following physical channels provide DL control signaling: physical control format indicator channel (PCFICH). each UL subframe consists of two slots of length 0. tion. Each DL subframe contains reference signals. A block diagram for SC-FDMA implemented via DFT-S-OFDM is shown in Fig. and feedback of DL channel quality and precoding vector Carry random access transmission Table 1. which allows the enhanced Node B (eNB. PHICH. where eNB is synonymous to base station in 3GPP lingo) the ability to efficiently manage the amount of interference seen at the base staChannel PDSCH Physical broadcast channel (PBCH) Physical multicast channel (PMCH) DL PCFICH PHICH PDCCH PUSCH UL PUCCH Physical random access channel (PRACH) Subframe (1 ms) R1 R3 R0 R1 R3 R0 R0 R2 R1 R0 R2 R1 R1 R3 R0 R1 R3 R0 R0 R2 R1 R0 R2 R1 I=6 Slot I=0 Slot R0 R1 I=6 I=0 Reference signal: Ant Port 0 Reference signal: Ant Port 1 Control: PCFICH. frequency domain orthogonality is maintained among intracell users. In the UL. control information. Users are assigned data allocation in quanta of resource blocks (RBs). Two types of reference signals are supported on the UL: the demodulation reference Purpose Carry user data (DL) Carry broadcast information Carry multicast services Indicate the size of the control region in number of OFDM symbols Carry ACK/NACK associated with UL transmission Carry DL scheduling assignments and UL scheduling grants Carry user data (UL) Carry ACK/NACK associated with DL transmission. and data transmission. The DFT precoding operation is performed to reduce the cubic metric (CM) of the signal. UL control signaling such as channel quality indication (CQI) and acknowledgment/negative acknowledgment (ACK/NACK) is located in the system bandedge. where an RB is defined as 12 REs by one slot. The UL subframe structure is shown in Fig. Table 1 provides a brief overview of the purpose of these control channels. Physical channels in LTE.

The LTE-A technology should be able to satisfy the IMT-A system requirements specified in [3]: “IMT-A systems are mobile systems that include the new capabilities of IMT that go beyond those of IMT-2000.075 0. the transition from dormant to active should be reduced from 50 ms in LTE to less than 10 ms in LTE-A.03 0.n) constellation mapping Bit to x(1. Block diagram for SC-FDMA. picocells. Table 1 summarizes the available DL and UL physical channels and their purpose.75 Indoor Microcellular Base coverage urban High speed Peak spectral efficiency Table 2. substantial reduction in latency is also targeted.4 0.n) fM-1 0 0 0 0 Figure 2. Such systems provide access to a wide range of telecommunication services including advanced mobile services. SRI Demodulation RS Figure 3. In LTE-A capacity and coverage enhancement can also be achieved using a heterogeneous network. ACK/NACK.” As shown in this article.7 Cell edge (b/s/Hz) 0.04 UL LTE-A targets Sector (b/s/Hz) 2.m1 bits Bit to x(0.n) constellation mapping f0 f1 fM / 2-1 M-point f M/2 FFT fM-2 m2 bits Incoming bitstream Serial to parallel converter mM bits 0 0 0 0 Parallel to serial converter N-point IFFT Add cyclic prefix Bit to constellation mapping x(M-1.1 15 Cell edge (b/s/Hz) 0.6 2. As such. which is a collection of low-power nodes distributed across a macrocell (homogeneous) network. DL LTE-A targets Environments Sector (b/s/Hz) 3 2.015 6. LTE-A targets for full buffer traffic. LTE-A is designed to meet and exceed these IMT-A requirements as summarized in Table 2. supported by mobile and fixed networks. only one transmit antenna is supported at the UE. including: • Carrier aggregation • DL spatial multiplexing using up to eight-layer multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) • DL intracell CoMP transmission and reception • UL Spatial Multiplexing using four-layer MIMO In addition to the improvement in spectral efficiency.1 0.25 1.07 0. There are various types of low-power nodes including microcells. These low-power nodes are deployed in various environments I=0 Slot I=6 I=0 Slot Data: PUSCH I=6 Control: CQI. Similarly. used for channel estimation and demodulation of UL data or control. Currently. femtocells.80 1. and the sounding reference signal. Subframe (1 ms) signal.05 0. The goals are to reduce the transition time from idle to connected mode from 100 ms in LTE to less than 50 ms in LTE-A.2 1. used for UL frequency selective scheduling and dedicated-reference-symbolbased beamforming on the DL. These requirements are met using a variety of techniques. and relays. LTE-A REQUIREMENTS LTE-A is the evolutionary path from LTE Release 8. all of the IMT-A requirements cannot be fulfilled by LTE Release 8 and require technology beyond Release 8. 12 IEEE Wireless Communications • June 2010 .06 0. Uplink subframe structure. which are increasingly packet-based.

Illustrative examples include: • UL: 40 MHz (20 + 20 MHz. ACKs) are necessary for FDD. FDD • UL: 100 MHz. This carrier may support advanced features such as control-less operations or the anchor-carrier concept not available to LTE UE. it can be used to effectively support different component carrier types that may be deployed in heterogeneous networks. the peak DL data rate for a 20 MHz system bandwidth is 150. enabling peak target data rates in excess of 1 Gb/s in the DL and 500 Mb/s in the UL to be achieved. It may be used. UE can only access this type of carrier as part of a carrier aggregation set. Three different types of component carriers are envisioned: • Backward-compatible carrier : All LTE UE can access this type of carrier regardless of the supported release. • Extension carrier : This type of carrier operates as an extension of another carrier. Three possible aggregation scenarios are possible: contiguous aggregation of component carriers in a single band. some carriers must be configured to support more than one counterpart.DFT Mapping IFFT CP insertion e2πf1t DAC Mixer Antenna LPA DFT Mapping IFFT CP insertion e2πf2t Figure 4.376 Mb/s is currently possible.88 Mb/s is theoretically possible. Up to five component carriers may be aggregated together. In this case all of the current LTE features must be supported. Carrier aggregation allows deployment bandwidths of up to 100 MHz. a peak UL rate of 376. and non-contiguous aggregation of component carriers over multiple bands. TDD Note that since non-contiguous multiband aggregation is possible. quality of service (QoS) management. enabling peak target data rates in excess of 1 Gb/s in the DL and 500 Mb/s in the UL to be achieved. Transmitter block diagram for uplink carrier aggregation. With carrier aggregation. In this case N DFT-inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) pairs are required to implement IEEE Wireless Communications • June 2010 13 . providing a maximum bandwidth of 100 MHz. however. With carrier aggregation. with carrier aggregation of 5 × 20 MHz carriers in the DL. N × SC-FDMA. This flexibility allows for efficient support of techniques such as load balancing. Carrier aggregation is attractive because it allows operators to deploy a system with extended bandwidth by aggregating several smaller component carriers while providing backward compatibility to legacy users. to provide services to home eNBs in the presence of high interference from the macrocell. Prioritized deployment scenarios have been defined in [4] based on preferences provided by leading network operators. CARRIER AGGREGATION Bandwidth extension in LTE-A is supported via carrier aggregation. 3.g. For example. The extension carrier is addressed using a separate PDCCH and uses a separate HARQ process. For instance. 3.552 Mb/s with four-layer spatial multiplexing. including hot spots. and low geometry locations to improve the overall capacity and coverage of the system. UE IMPLEMENTATION SC-FDMA using DFT-S-OFDM is the PHY access scheme in the UL. non-contiguous aggregation of component carriers in a single band. and power control. which is conceptually analogous to parallel SC-FDMA transmitters is used.5 GHz). Different users within the cell may be configured differently. coverage and performance can be different across the aggregated component carriers. while UE is configured to support on UL: 20 MHz. In addition. the cell may be configured to support UL: 40 MHz. a peak theoretical DL data rate of 1. these peak rates will scale linearly with the number of carri- ers. This flexibility. DL: 80 MHz.. DL: 80 MHz (2 × 20 + 2 × 20 MHz.5 Gb/s can be achieved without any additional features. with asymmetric carrier aggregation.752 Mb/s with two-layer spatial multiplexing and 299. interference coordination. DL: 40 MHz. providing great implementation flexibility. For instance. A peak UL data rate in excess of 500 Mb/s can then be achieved with additional enhancements such as UL spatial multiplexing. • Non-backward-compatible carrier: Only LTEA UEs can access this type of carrier. DL: 100 MHz (5 × 20 MHz. Bandwidth extension in LTE-A is supported via carrier aggregation. some carriers are missing their counterparts which presents a challenge because pair-wise operational support (e. Carrier aggregation allows deployment bandwidths of up to 100 MHz. In addition. As a result. homes. different UE bandwidth capability classes and heterogeneous networks can also be supported. 3. In addition. UE may be assigned different UL and DL component carrier sets that are subsets of the system configuration. enterprise environments.5 GHz). With carrier aggregation. for example.5 GHz). In the UL a peak data rate of 75. Under the current PHY specifications. requires robust control channel design to support all possible configurations.

6 64-QAM 2. which should improve throughput since each data transmission can be independently matched to channel conditions on each carrier. Since separate HARQ processing is used. and the PHICH.. the increase is most significant in going from one to two simultaneous component carriers. to provide channel state feedback information. there should be no loss of coverage for those users. note that results for OFDMA are independent of modulation). DATA TRANSMISSION AND CONTROL SIGNALING At the data layer. Control signaling serves several main purposes in LTE: to provide signaling related to scheduling assignments. up to 100 MHz must be supported based on the DL bandwidth. the single carrier property in the UL is no longer preserved when transmitting on multiple carriers. thereby reducing the maximum transmit power at the UE. the cubic metric (defined in [6] as the cubic power of the signal of interest compared to a reference signal) increases. the cubic metric increases from 2. which allows many simultaneous UE-specific Table 3. used to indicate the size of the DL control region. the PCFICH. which requires a larger backoff in the power amplifier. data processing at the PHY can be thought of as independent per carrier. The ACK is transmitted on the same DL carrier as the UL scheduling assignment. used to provide acknowledgment in response to UL data transmission. One potential issue with carrier aggregation is the limitation on the UE’s transmission power. A block diagram of the UL demonstrating N × SC-FDMA for N = 2 is shown in Fig. For TDD. in general. This substantial increase in cubic metric has the effect of reducing the coverage when carrier aggregation is used. In addition. 5. Cubic metric comparison for N × SC-FDMA. Example of carrier aggregation configurations.2 3. It should be noted that. which thus allows the reuse of existing LTE scheduling grant formats with only the addition of the CIF. An illustrative comparison is shown in Table 3 for different numbers of component carriers. For example. the principle is to extend the LTE design to multiple carriers when possible. each component carrier operates independently with a separate data stream that is aggregated or segmented at the medium access control (MAC) layer. Carrier 1 DL Carrier 2 DL Carrier 1 DL Carrier 2 DL UL Carrier 1 UL Carrier 2 UL Carrier 1 UL Carrier 2 UE-specific configuration 1 UE-specific configuration 2 Figure 5. users at the cell 14 IEEE Wireless Communications • June 2010 .2 2. and coverage may actually be improved since the eNB has the ability to dynamically assign users to the best UL carrier. In the case of a PDCCHless carrier (e. For the PDCCH. carrier aggregation in the UL [5]. for FDD it is expected that two component carriers supporting aggregated bandwidth of 40 MHz may be the most practical scenario. although it can be seen that the cubic metric is generally still less than that for orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA. and to provide power control information. For the PCFICH.0 3.2 3. the channel is expected to be configured independently for each component carrier. extension carrier in a heterogeneous network). This allows separate link adaptation and MIMO support for each carrier. In this case separate HARQ processing and associated control signaling is required for each of the component carriers. As a result. A UE will therefore independently decode the PCFICH and determine the data boundary as in LTE. a separate scheduling grant has been adopted where each grant addresses one carrier.g.4 16-QAM 2.7 4.0 edge will most likely be scheduled only on a single carrier. LTE-A UE can be configured with UE-specific UL/DL carrier aggregation configurations that are a subset of the system configuration shown in Fig. As a result. the eNB has the ability to schedule different grant formats to the same UE in different component carriers. however. and perform dynamic grant load balancing and interference coordination among the component carriers on a subframe basis. It should be noted that since multicarrier transmission will usually be used for UE in good channel conditions. these functions must be extended to support multiple component carriers. 4.2 to 3. By using a separate grant structure. To support carrier aggregation. In addition. each grant will contain a carrier indication field (CIF) to indicate to which carrier the grant applies. to provide acknowledgment in response to data transmission. With carrier aggregation. In the DL three control channels are presented: the PDCCH.0 dB when the UE is transmitting using 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) on two simultaneous component carriers. this would be known to the user and no special handling is necessary. On the other hand. associated control signaling will be required for each of the component carriers. used for scheduling assignments and power control.Number of component carriers (N) 1 2 5 N × SC-FDMA OFDMA QPSK 1.3 3. and only increases gradually as more carriers are used. As a result.6 3. There is no difference in cubic metric in this case. This MAC-PHY interface provides support for carrier aggregation with minimal changes to the PHY specifications. To allow for scheduling flexibility.

Additionally. Although this will require the eNB to manage the PHICH. This feature can be used by a receiver to significantly suppress the interference due to MU-MIMO. In the case of asymmetric carrier aggregation. In addition to carrier aggregation. UL control signaling carries ACKs for the DL data transmission and channel state feedback (e. Codebook-based precoding is used to support closed-loop spatial multiplexing. Switching between singleand dual-layer transmission to a single UE set. As a result. This enables an eNB to transmit two layers of data to a UE set using spatial multiplexing in a closed-loop mode by constructing antenna weights using channel reciprocity. as shown in Fig. In addition. MU-MIMO in Release 8 does not provide any performance gains compared to SU-MIMO. precoding matrix indication [PMI]. The MU-MIMO enhancements in IEEE Wireless Communications • June 2010 15 . As a result. each UL control channel may be configured independently to support one DL-UL carrier pair. The performance of DL and UL transmission in LTE Releases 9 and 10 will be enhanced by the following features [7]: • Enhanced single-cell DL MU-MIMO support • Extension to eight-layer DL spatial multiplexing • DL CoMP support • Extension to four-layer UL spatial multiplexing Some of the above features are necessary to meet the IMT-A requirements as is shown later. as well as between SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO is supported in a dynamic fashion. Thus. within the same carrier. In the UL. The control signaling overhead for supporting dynamic and transparent MU-MIMO transmission is small because UE is not explicitly informed of the presence of co-scheduled UE. The shaded resources indicate common reference signals for four antenna ports present in Release 8. The two layers of UE-specific reference signals are overlaid on top of each other (separated by a length 2 orthogonal cover code) and a UE. CQI. The UE-specific reference signal enables single-layer beamforming in TDD scenarios where the DL spatial channel information may be obtained at the base station using channel reciprocity. Figure 6. This feature solves the issue with UL-heavy aggregation and also does not require an explicit DL-UL pairing relationship to be defined. Subcarriers (frequency) OFDM symbols (time) DL/UL SPATIAL MULTIPLEXING AND DL COMP The DL MIMO transmission schemes already supported in LTE Release 8 include transmitdiversity and open-loop and closed-loop spatial multiplexing with up to four layers. the simplest possible approach is to support an individual UL control channel per carrier based on the Release 8 structure. may estimate a covariance matrix representing the combined interference from a co-scheduled UE and outer cell transmissions. UE has the ability to simultaneously transmit both the physical uplink shared channel (PUSCH) and physical uplink control channel (PUCCH). In this case it is possible that some form of control information multiplexing such as ACK/NACK bundling may be used. it will be similar to the PDCCH management that will also be required. the total cumulative power the UE is allowed to transmit across all component carriers should not exceed the maximum UE power. Under a transmit power limitation. additional UL control signaling (ACK/NACK and CQI) may be configured to support multiple DL carriers on a single UL carrier. 6. Two layers of UE-specific reference signals (dark blue) separated by code in a resource block. the performance of the MUMIMO scheme is limited by coarse quantization (using codebook) and the lack of support for cross-talk suppression at the UE. These MIMO schemes are supported by common reference signals (common pilots) broadcast from an eNB. this enables an eNB to transmit two layers of data to two UE sets (one layer each) using the same time-frequency resource in MU-MIMO fashion. power reduction based on per-channel scaling is used where scaling factors are used such that power reduction is first performed on the PUSCH. A multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO) transmission scheme may also be applied based on codebook feedback. after subtracting out its channel estimate.. One concern for the UL is the limited transmission power available to the UE.g. or rank indication [RI]). as we will see.configurations to be supported. ENHANCED SINGLE CELL DL MU-MIMO SUPPORT In LTE Release 9 two layers of orthogonal UEspecific reference signals have been introduced. With carrier aggregation in addition to simultaneous PUSCH and PUCCH transmission. LTE-A will fix the MU-MIMO performance. it may not be possible to transmit feedback or acknowledgments from many component carriers simultaneously. However. a single layer of a UE-specific reference signal (also known as dedicated pilots) is available that may be used for beamforming. Fortunately. for the purposes of feedback or demodulation.

and in the case of closed-loop operation. layer 16 IEEE Wireless Communications • June 2010 . however. Since the density of UE-specific reference signals can be adapted based on the number of layers of data transmission and the size of the resource allocation. choice of frequency bands. additional reference signals will be broadcast from an eNB. the X2-interface) will not be redefined. Multiple eNBs may cooperate to determine the scheduling. codebook) for up to eight layers. Accordingly. 7. Therefore. and placement of CSI-RSs will have to be designed carefully as they may interfere with the data transmissions of a Release 8 or 9 user in the same subframe. eight layers of UE-specific reference signals will be introduced for demodulation. The power. or channel spatial information (e. density. eNB2. and eNB3 can coordinate and create a multipoint transmission to UE1 and UE2. Note that with channel reciprocity based MUMIMO. and the extension to four-layer spatial multiplexing is targeted to improve the UL peak rate in such cases. In order to support feedback of channel qual- EXTENSION TO FOUR-LAYER UL SPATIAL MULTIPLEXING It is envisioned that Release 10 compatible UE may support up to four transmit antennas. up to four layers of quasiorthogonal UE-specific reference signals is available for MU-MIMO enabling co-scheduling of up to four UE sets in the same time-frequency resource. This framework is depicted in Fig. As an example. transmission parameters. the transmission schemes in the UL are optimized to preserve the single-carrier property or reduce PAPR/cubic metric. The CSI-RS design will support up to eight transmit antennas and will potentially enable UE at the cell edge to measure CSI-RSs transmitted from adjacent cells (for CoMP support).. it is more economical to use UE-specific reference signals compared to common reference signals for supporting higher-order spatial multiplexing. will not be used for demodulation. EXTENSION TO 8-LAYER DL SPATIAL MULTIPLEXING The extension to eight-layer spatial multiplexing is aimed at improving the DL peak throughput of a Release 10 system employing eight or more transmit antennas. and will be designed to be sparse in time and frequency with an overhead of around 1 percent or less. Release 9 provide substantial gains in sector throughput when the eNB is able to form transmit beams using reciprocity-based techniques. A CoMP framework for DL transmission where eNB1. As in Release 8. Within the timeframe of Release 10 a standardized interface of direct communication between two eNBs (i. and transmit antenna weights for a particular UE. The maximum number of transport blocks transmitted over eight layers will remain two with support for separate modulation and coding schemes (MCSs) and separate HARQ ACKs. the coordination needed for CoMP will depend on proprietary interfaces that may easily be possible for intersector coordination.. Open-loop and closed-loop spatial multiplexing will be supported. the UL transmission scheme for Release 10 will be DFT-precoded OFDM that will retain the single carrier property and restrict the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) or the cubic metric [t] of the UL waveform to a low value. The interference to these UE sets may be reduced and can be predicted if there is some coordination between the interfering eNBs and the serving eNB. In Release 10 an enhancement to provide high-resolution spatial channel feedback is being considered to support MU-MIMO in cases where channel reciprocity is not reliable. Closed loop beamforming or precoding-based transmissions will be supported in CoMP.e. The control overhead. The objective of CoMP is to reduce interference for a UE set in the network that is close to multiple eNBs and therefore experiences an interference-limited environment. The motivation of the CoMP feature is to provide air interface support to enable cooperation among eNBs that may or may not be collocated. DL COMP SUPPORT eNB3 Figure 7. codebook-based precoding will be used. These channel state information reference signals (CSI-RSs). This cooperation will depend on a high-capacity backhaul link being available between eNBs. In addition. In contrast to the DL. where three eNBs may coordinate to create a multipoint transmission to UE1 (served by eNB1) and UE2 (served by eNB2).g. feedback methods. A similar framework for eNB cooperation for UL transmission is also under study.eNB2 UE2 eNB1 UE1 ity. and scheduling restrictions necessary to enable CoMP are under investigation. there is no restriction on the number of transmit antennas that can be employed at the eNB.

intercell interference coordination (ICIC) techniques can play a critical role in obtaining good performance within heterogeneous deployments. but suffer from the following disadvantages: they cannot distinguish between signals and interference/noise. There are two types of relays being discussed in the context of 3GPP standards. Repeaters can also offer coverage extension for eNBs by amplifying and forwarding received waveforms. where the eNB-to-relay link shares the same band with direct eNB-to-UE links within a cell. and RF isolation is a big issue. the codebook will also provide the capability to turn off certain antennas (for power saving) at the instruction of an eNB. Classification of heterogeneous deployments. Two types of backhaul connections can be supported: in-band (IB). 8. –The RN appears as a Release 8 eNB to Release 8 UE. These subframes are then used by a relay node to receive DL backhaul traffic from its donor eNB. and so on. The various types of heterogeneous deployments are summarized in Fig. home eNBs (for femtocells). reference symbols. Type of nodes Micro eNBs RRH nodes Pico eNBs Home eNBs Relays # of Tx/Rx antennas 2/2 or 4/4 2/2 or 4/4 2/2 or 4/4 2/2 or 4/4 2/2 or 4/4 Passive Active Leaky coax Simulcast Broadband RF over fiber Baseband Remote radio head Figure 8. Release 8 UE is not aware of its presence. Characteristics of low power nodes. In addition. placed indoors or outdoors Closed subscriber group. The RNs are connected to the radio access network (RAN) via a donor macrocell. In addition to CoMP. This LPA power 30 dBm–10 MHz carrier 30 dBm–10 MHz carrier 30 dBm–10 MHz carrier 20 dBm–10 MHz carrier 30 dBm–10 MHz carrier Backhaul characteristics X2 Several μs latency to macro X2 Home broadband Wireless out-of-band or in-band Comments Open to all UE. pico eNBs. and distributed antenna systems (DASs). placed outdoors Table 4. –It is transparent to Release 8 UE. These types of cells operate in low-geometry environments and produce high interference conditions. For the IB scenario. placed indoors or outdoors Open to all UE. • Type 2: –The RN does not have a separate Physical Cell ID and thus would not create any new cells. IEEE Wireless Communications • June 2010 17 . and the definitions of the various low power nodes are summarized in Table 4 [7. placed outdoors Open to all UE. Type 1 and Type 2 relays. Relays typically yield performance improvement by providing higher throughputs to UE that would otherwise be located in poor geometry locations with respect to the macrocell sites. Type 1 and Type 2 relays have the following characteristics: • Type 1: –A relay cell should have its own physical cell ID and transmit its own synchronization channels. relays. 8]. backhaul traffic is facilitated by configuring certain subframes as multicast broadcast single-frequency network (MBSFN) subframes in the relay cell.shifting is a mechanism introduced to transmit data from multiple layers through a given antenna while maintaining single-carrier properties. is discussed in detail. –It can transmit physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH) but does not transmit CRS and PDCCH. Heterogeneous nodes Pico Femto Relay Outdoor/indoor DAS Type1 Type2 HETEROGENEOUS NETWORKS In heterogeneous networks low-power nodes are distributed throughout macrocell networks. relay nodes (RNs). Layer shifting has been proposed to provide robustness to spatial multiplexing against antenna gain imbalances and CQI mismatches due to velocity. –The UE should receive scheduling information and HARQ feedback directly from the RN and send its control channels (SR/CQI/ACK) to the RN. In this article one of the components of heterogeneous networks. placed indoors Open to all UE. Such deployments enable optimization of network performance at relatively low cost. Lowpower nodes can be micro eNBs. and out-of-band (OOB). the latter of which may employ remote radio head (RRH) cells. where the eNB-to-relay link does not share the same band with direct eNB-to-UE links . and will be distinct from the donor cell. Codebook designs are also being studied to enable precoded transmission with low PAPR/cubic metric.

19-macrocell.e. The next two models assume the presence of two antenna sets at the RN. configuration is illustrated in Fig. 80 Average sector throughput (Mb/s) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 No relays Due to relays Due to macro OOB IB backhaul IB backhaul IB backhaul IB backhaul backhaul A B C D Figure 10. A set of physical RBs (PRBs) is semi-statically assigned for the trans- 18 IEEE Wireless Communications • June 2010 . our simulation study assumes that the same DL backhaul subframe configuration is maintained throughout the network. Radio links and subframe utilization at different nodes in the network. macrocell UE (UE1). and lognormal shadowing on the access and backhaul links are described in [7]. We refer to this model as backhaul A. such that the RN can complete transmission of its own PDCCH and switch to receive).. when UE in the relay cell does not receive data. The models to be used for path loss. Thus. The assignment of DL and UL backhaul resources on the R-PDCCH may be done either dynamically or semi-persistently. The relays are dropped randomly over the entire network with a uniform spatial distribution. The DL subframe boundaries for the access and backhaul links are aligned at the RN while allowing an adjustment for RN transmit/receive switching. For simplicity. One thousand four hundred twenty-five UE sets are randomly dropped with uniform spatial probability density over the entire 57-cell network. the model that combines a directional antenna with optimized relay site planning is referred to as backhaul D. RPDCCH. The actual resources used within these PRBs may vary dynamically between subframes. 9.. Four models are considered for the IB backhaul link. these resources may correspond to either the full set of OFDM symbols available for the backhaul link or a subset of them. backhaul traffic) as well as macrocell UE (access traffic). a deployment with 228 relays is considered. The backhaul model for optimized relay site planning with a single omnidirectional antenna set is referred to herein as backhaul B. DL backhaul resources may be assigned for either the same subframe and/or a later subframe.e. A new physical control channel. each operating in a 10 MHz bandwidth. that is. Average sector throughput due to macro and relay cells for DS case 3 (one backhaul SFpF for in-band backhaul). and a directional antenna set for the backhaul link (i. The backhaul model with a directional antenna and non-optimized relay site planning is called backhaul C. The arrows show the direction of transmission for radio links in each subframe. For the results presented here. and relay cell UE (UE2) is shown. The first path loss model is that of non-optimized relay site planning with a single omnidirectional antenna set at the RN. for receiving DL data from the eNB). whereas eNBs may transmit DL traffic to both RNs (i. subframes are normally used for access links. is defined for the eNB to assign backhaul resources to the RN. whereas the set of UL backhaul subframes is either semi-statically assigned or implicitly derived from the DL backhaul subframes using the HARQ timing relationship. where the utilization of subframes at eNBs.e. The set of such DL backhaul subframes is semi-statically assigned.. mission of the R-PDCCH. antennas. DL transmission from an eNB or RN to its UE except during the MBSFN subframes. three-sectored site hexagonal grid system layout is simulated with dual-port UE receiver operation and assuming TU channels using cell wrap-around for two systems. UL resources may be assigned for one or more later subframes. RNs. an omnidirectional antenna set for the relay access links. Finally. The R-PDCCH is transmitted starting from an OFDM symbol within the subframe that is late enough so that the RN can receive it (i. A two-ring. Furthermore.1 ms UE1 eNB RN UE2 Radio link M M M MBSFN subframe Figure 9. corresponding to deployment scenario (DS) cases 1 and 3.

the size of the backhaul pipe can be controlled (at the expense of the resources available for the macrocell access links). Note that this is the total number of subframes shared by all backhaul links in the sector. the scheduler of each RN is constrained to allocate resources to its UE only when the amount of data it has transferred to the UE does not exceed the amount of data the RN has received from the donor eNB. In Fig. RMa 3 2 and 4 Pair(s) of cross poles with 0. CQI 5 ms/2 ms Yes 6 RB Proportional fair.5λ. With IB backhaul. backhaul capacity. UMa. The variation of performance with the number of backhaul SFpF ( S ) is also illustrated for IB backhaul. This constraint ensures that the relay-cell throughput does not exceed the corresponding backhaul throughput. IEEE Wireless Communications • June 2010 19 . v-pol Non-ideal MMSE Dynamic SU/MU-MIMO with zero-forcing beamformer Ideal co-variance matrix. 10 and 11. Clearly. Figure 11 demonstrates cell edge (5th percentile) throughput performance for DS case 1 without and with relays. However. ideal OOB backhaul yields the best throughput performance since unlimited backhaul capacity is assumed to be freely available. Sample results are provided in Figs. For OOB backhaul simulations. For IB backhaul. being aided by both optimized relay site planning and a directional antenna. different backhaul models benefit to different extents. Main simulation assumptions. 5th percentile UE throughput for DS case 1 without and with relays (S: backhaul SFpF for in-band backhaul). fairness factor = 1. Ongoing efforts are examining the scenarios that will benefit from relays with emphasis on opti- InH. OOB backhaul exhibits the best performance. it is assumed that the backhaul is ideal and unconstrained. Again. By controlling the number of backhaul SFpF. and backhaul C exhibits marginally superior cell edge performance to that of other IB backhaul models. 10 the aggregate sector throughput for DS case 3 is shown as the sum of its two components: due to the macrocell and due to all RNs (when present) associated with a donor macrocell. The cell edge throughput increases with S for all backhaul models since relay-cell edge UE benefits from increasing Parameter Deployment scenarios Number of control symbols Base station transmit antenna Base station antenna configuration UE Rx antenna UE Rx antenna configuration Channel estimation Receiver algorithm Precoding Feedback information Feedback periodicity/delay Frequency selective scheduling Subband size Scheduling fairness Value 350 300 5th Percentile UE throughput (kb/s) S=1 S=2 S=4 S=6 250 200 150 100 50 0 No relays OOB backhaul IB backhaul A IB backhaul B IB backhaul C IB backhaul D Figure 11.The number of in-band backhaul subframes per frame (SFpF) shared among all RNs in a sector is a parameter.5λ 2 0. backhaul D performs best.6 Table 5. UMi.

Deployment scenario IMT-A req. DL performance for urban microcell (UMi) and urban macrocell (UMa) are below the IMT-A requirements.430 0. all IMT-A requirements can be met using the existing Release 8 functionality and 1 × 4 antenna configuration. This is especially true for the InH environment. From the table it is seen that the performance improves substantially in all cases and that the IMT-A requirements can be met in all environments. It may be observed from the table that the mean user data rate at 50 percent resource utilization (normal operating point) is around 11 Mb/s. 2×2 4. Frequency selective scheduling based on the proportional fair metric is used together with fractional UL power control.060 1.560 0. LTE Release 8 DL performance summary.105 2.077 Table 7.040 Ant.150 0.060 1.250 0.200 0.880 0.200 0.410 0. From the results. config. Statistics are collected between 16 and 64 s. Although not shown here.031 4×2 — — 2. therefore. However. • Users are randomly created and start file transfers in the simulated network at a certain rate according to a Poisson process. and the simulation assumptions are outlined in Table 5.075 2.043 Cell spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz/cell) InH Cell edge user spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz) Cell spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz/cell) UMi Cell edge user spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz) Cell spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz/cell) UMa Cell edge user spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz) Cell spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz/cell) RMa Cell edge user spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz) Table 6. LTE-A DL performance summary.8 Mb/s. Deployment scenario Cell spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz/cell) UMi Cell edge user spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz) Cell spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz/cell) UMa Cell edge user spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz) Cell spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz/cell) RMa Cell edge user spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz) IMT-A req. more UL overhead can be accommodated. 2. In the simulation the UE arrival is random between 0 and 64 s with a total run time of 128 s.146 2. For UMi. Downlink simulation results using LTE Release 8 features are shown in Table 6 for the base station antenna configuration shown in Table 5.100 0. UPLINK Uplink simulation results using LTE Release 8 features for two antenna configurations (1 × 4 and 1 × 8 linear arrays of vertically polarized elements with 0. the cell spectral efficiency is significantly increased. it is seen that IMT-A requirements can be met for indoor (InH) and rural macrocell (RMa) environments. the number of PUCCH RBs can be increased from 4 to 18 (36 percent control overhead) while still satisfying the IMT-A requirement. and the file size used is 2 Mbytes. the number of PUCCH RBs can be similarly increased from 4 to 16 RBs (32 percent control overhead). A new metric called resource utilization is defined which is given by the fraction of the total available air interface resources utilized for user-generated traffic (except for MU-MIMO or beamforming). The bursty traffic model is important to characterize the dependency of the user data rate as a function of network load and user geometry. The shortfall is especially pronounced for the UMa environment. The DL performance using 2 × 2 SU-MIMO with closely placed cross-pole antennas is summarized in Table 8.075 2.070 2. In other words.100 0. Next. Table 7 provides DL performance results using the LTE-A MIMO technique described earlier — enhanced single-cell DL MU-MIMO. The characteristics of this model are as follows: • Model users only for the duration of the file transfer. while the 5 percent edge throughput is approximately 1. results for TDD systems are similar in terms of spectral efficiency. it equals the average number of RBs used for user traffic over the duration of the simulation.032 1.061 1.5λ separation) under FDD systems are shown in Table 9.050 0. Although the results shown in Table 5 are for an FDD deployment. divided by the number of RBs available to carry user traffic. • For the period of the file transfer the application is assumed to download as quickly as the network allows. and interference management schemes. 2.940 0. LTE-A PERFORMANCE DOWNLINK The simulations are based on the IMT-A evaluation document [9]. results for TDD 20 IEEE Wireless Communications • June 2010 . under the UMa scenario.040 4×2 linear array 2. where only a 2 × 2 antenna configuration is needed.480 0. From the results.810 0. • Data transfer users are modeled for the duration of the file transfer and then dropped from the simulation once the file data volume is transferred. For instance. the DL performance using a different workload (bursty traffic model) is summarized. Note that the interference-over-thermal-noise ratio (IoT) in each case was constrained to be in the range of approximately 9–11 dB. where approximately 70 percent of the sector and 60 percent of the cell edge requirements can be achieved.071 1. it is seen that with four receive antennas at the eNB.022 1.360 0.600 0. mization with respect to better distribution of users between macrocells and relay cells.600 0.063 2. With eight receive antennas.

17 2. Bursty traffic performance with 2 × 2 SU-MIMO.810 0.1 11.203 1.3 11.44 40.18 Resource utilization % 7. 1×4 2. config.17 5.50 11.53 30. 2.050 1.05 9.3% 1.0% 1.4 2.29 1.14 100.37 10.98 34.00 0.8 6.97 22.904 0. systems are similar in terms of spectral efficiency. while the 5 percent edge throughput is approximately 1. performance under different antenna configurations.65 44.49 17. deviation IoT dB 0.91 3. with 10λ separation and multiple pairs of cross-polarized antennas.58 0.1% 0.9 12.97 22.36 12.487 1.64 4. UMa Cell spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz/cell) Cell edge user spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz) Cell spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz/cell) RMa Cell edge user spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz) Table 9. Bursty traffic performance with 1 × 2 SIMO.42 0.2 10.0 88.93 21.61 5.30 28.015 2. In addition.00 8.28 5.364 0.057 1.32 0.413 0.79 80.15 3.00 0.26 0.23 0.71 9.59 1. It may be observed that requirements for IMT-A can be met using these advanced concepts.99 1. Finally. Offered load Mb/s 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 Full buffer Served cell throughput Mb/s 1.8 12.78 51.97 5.600 1.00 0.07 0.20 60.2% 0.1% Mean IoT dB 0.800 0.36 1.44 Resource utilization % 2.400 0.074 2.35 5% user data rate Mb/s 5.32 18.3 14.110 1.14 95% user data rate Mb/s 22.65 18.13 1.28 50% user data rate Mb/s 51.79 51.9 1.13 15.2 7.100 0. it may be noted that the work on LTE-A is still ongoing.00 0.9 98.9 63.99 3.50 6.57 Mean user data rate Mb/s 46.9 Table 10.35 2.63 9.246 2.72 46. the performance of UL for the bursty traffic model is summarized in Table 10.5 Mb/s. LTE Release 8 UL performance summary.56 0. 10 MHz. UMi.5 99.28 8.9 34.054 1×8 3.00 Table 8.02 23.970 0. UMi.46 1.35 2.86 95% user data rate Mb/s 51.7 11.9 11.700 1.070 1.19 0.99 8. and a follow-up to this article will be published at a later date. Finally.37 17.72 0.98 5.072 Cell spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz/cell) InH Cell edge user spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz) Cell spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz/cell) UMi Cell edge user spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz) CONCLUSION This article gives a brief overview and description of the concepts of the LTE-A features and the performance achievable using some of these features.25 20.00 0.28 12.5 User outage % 0.03 1. was also similar (but slightly better in this case).00 0.77 5.Offered load Mb/s 1 2 4 6 8 10 Full buffer Served cell throughput Mb/s 0. It may be noted that the mean user data rate at 50 percent resource utilization is around 10 Mb/s.8 8.11 0.4 Stand.64 12. IEEE Wireless Communications • June 2010 21 .410 0.1% 0.28 5% user data rate Mb/s 28. 10 MHz.5% 1.4% 1.45 15.76 3.11 10% user data rate Mb/s 7.8 4.00 User outage % 0. Deployment scenario IMT-A req.250 0.5 95.04 33.11 Mean user data rate Mb/s 17.88 7.015 Ant.98 3.52 5.65 9.12 3.3 8.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to acknowledge Dr.16m. 2008. MIMO communications.” v. with a focus on advanced receiver algorithms and design of next-generation wireless systems. “Prioritized Deployment Scenarios for LTE-Advanced Studies.2134. patents. Dabbagh. He is currently a Distinguished Member of Technical Staff in the Wireless Networks Systems and Technologies Department. and works in the area of current and future air interface technologies for 802. and A. LTEAdvanced. D. [2] Motorola. focusing on modeling.” v. R.D.ghosh@motorola. Sept.1. [4] NTT DoCoMo et al. HSPA. Bangalore. His current research interests lie in the analysis and design of multiple antenna wireless systems with quantized or partial channel information at the transmitter. the cell spectral efficiency is significantly increased and therefore more UL overhead can be accommodated. physical layer modeling.” IEEE 68th VTC.0. in electrical engineering from Northwestern University. 2006. ftp://ftp.2135. Sept. “Overview of UMTS Air-Interface Evolution.3gpp. Feb.3gpp. REFERENCES [1] 3GPP TR 36.16m. We dedicate this article in loving memory of our friend and colleague Dennis Schaeffer. 3GPP LTE.11a/b/g/n. M. TSG RAN WG4. His research interests are in channel measurement. 2009. Classon et al. Texas. signal processing. Blacksburg.com) is a principal staff engineer at Motorola. and IEEE 802. in 1997 and 2000. 1. ftp://ftp. TSG RAN WG4. For instance. “Requirements for Further Advancements for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (EUTRA).D. and internal technical papers. 1xEV-DV/1XTREME. he is leading the effort from Motorola’s side in defining 3GPP LTE and LTE-Advanced physical layer standards from the concept phase to the adopted baseline. Estonia.3gpp.D.com) joined Motorola in 1990 after receiving his Ph. R1-084422. Recently. degree from the University of Texas at Austin in 2006. Ratasuk.com) joined Motorola in 1999 after receiving his Ph.16m.D.3gpp.814. 1xEV-DO. mtg. “On UMTSLTE Physical Uplink Shared and Control Channels. #51.E. mtg. Between 1997 and 2003 he worked for four years at Texas Instruments and Sasken Communication Technologies in Bangalore in the area of CAD for VLSI and audio/speech signal processing.” 3GPP doc. R4060913. Enhanced EDGE. HSPA. ftp://ftp. TIM THOMAS (t. and adaptive antenna algorithms for mobile broadband communications. “Determining a Single ACLR Value for E-UTRA UE through UL Coexistence Simulation. He has extensive experience in 3G/4G cellular system design and analysis (LTE. R4060913. ftp://ftp. #55. [3] ITU-R Rep. WCDMA) including algorithm development. Evanston. Calcutta. He is an associate member of the Motorola Science Advisory Board. RAPEEPAT RATASUK (ratasuk@motorola.D. WCDMA. Ghosh. 2006.5. 2006. His interests are in wireless communications and digital signal processing. Arlington Heights. ftp://ftp. ftp://ftp. He is currently a Distinguished Member of Technical Staff in the Wireless Network Systems and Technologies Department and is working on next-generation wireless communication systems. 2009. under the UMa scenario.org [5] Motorola.0. 2006. including GSM/EDGE/GPRS.org [9] ITU-R Rep.3gpp. His research interests are in the area of digital communications. IEEE 802.org [8] 3GPP TR 25. 802.” 2008. and numerous external 22 IEEE Wireless Communications • June 2010 . for several years as part of Motorola Labs. in electrical engineering from Virginia Tech. and simulations. and over 35 journal and conference papers. channel estimation. in electrical engineering from Southern Methodist University. “Requirements for Further Advancements for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (EUTRA). He worked on various wireless access technologies.” 3GPP doc. Noble Fellowship. “DFTS-OFDM Extension for LTE-A. the number of PUCCH RBs can be increased from 4 to 18 RBs while still satisfying IMT-A requirement. CA. Motorola Networks. Illinois. development. in electrical engineering from Purdue University. ftp://ftp. He is presently with Motorola. “Guidelines for Evaluation of Radio Interface Technologies for IMT-Advanced. and wireless communications. and 3GPP LTE. He is the recipient of the 2005 IEEE Vehicular Technology Society Daniel E.3gpp. Aug. respectively.” Denver. #40.3gpp.” v. and M. May 2009.E.org [6] 3GPP doc. degrees from Jadavpur University. Currently.1. where he has been employed since 1999 after receiving a Ph. His research interests are in the areas of digital communications. 1xEV-DV. WiMAX. Mar. mtg.814. signal processing. Dec. performance analysis and validation.. Athens.org BIOGRAPHIES A MITAVA G HOSH [SM] (amitava. He has 15 issued U. 8. mtg. UMTS. Illinois. N ITIN M ANGALVEDHE (nitinm@motorola. Nov. “Coexistence Studies of Contiguous Aggregation Deployment Scenarios for LTE-A. “Further Advancements for E-UTRA. and the Indian Institute of Science. all in electrical engineering. Since joining Motorola he has worked on eight different wireless technologies starting with IS-95 and on through CDMA2000. Prague. and other broadband technologies.com) received his B. Feb. Fan Wang and the late Dennis Schaeffer for help with this article. Tallinn.” IEEE 64th VTC.” 2008. San Francisco.With eight receive antennas. 2009. Greece. M.S. and wireless communications.org [3] Motorola. and performance analysis of LTE/LTE-Advanced systems. 13–17. R1-060385. Sept. R4-090963.913. ftp://ftp. Dallas. He has 42 issued patents. ADDITIONAL READING [1] B. “Cubic Metric in 3GPP-LTE.org [2] A. “Requirements Related to Technical Performance for IMT-Advanced Radio Interface(s).” 3GPP doc. he is a Fellow of Technical Staff in Network Advance Technology. Since 2008 he has been with the Systems and Technologies group of the Networks division. CO. 7.thomas@motorola. #50.16e/WiMAX/802.2. and his Ph.. 2008.3gpp.” 3GPP doc.com) joined Motorola in 1997 after receiving a Ph. BISHWARUP MONDAL (bishwarup@motorola. Czech Republic. RAN4.org [7] 3GPP TR 36. RAN1.

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