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Topics: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

What is buckling? Equilibrium paths and critical states Influence of imperfections Plastic buckling Approaches to evaluate buckling Dynamic buckling

1. WHAT IS BUCKLING? A structural system is formed by a structure and the loads acting on it. There are two main properties that make a structure withstand loads: • The constitutive material, and • The geometric shape. Every structure is designed with a specific shape and it is expected that it should retain this shape during its service life. For example, a tank that is designed with a circular shape and a conical roof is expected to retain this shape under the loads considered in the design. Buckling is a process by which a structure cannot withstand loads with its original shape, so that it changes this shape in order to find a new equilibrium configuration. This is an undesired process (from the point of view of the engineer), and occurs for a welldefined value of the load. The consequences of buckling are basically geometric: There are large displacements in the structure, to such an extent that the shape changes. There may also be consequences for the material, in the sense that deflections in the tank may induce plasticity in the walls of the structure. Figure 1 shows a buckled tank.

**Figure 1. A tank that buckled in Penuelas, Puerto Rico.
**

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This chapter was prepared by Luis A. Godoy

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The state at which both paths cross is called a bifurcation point. EQUILIBRIUM PATHS AND CRITICAL STATES The sequence of equilibrium points in this diagram is known as an equilibrium path.b). which was not present at the beginning of the loading process (Figure 2. perhaps far from the original one. at which the tangent to the path is horizontal. as shown in Figure 2. but to the whole structural system. Figure 2. Here we plot the equilibrium states of the structure in terms of the load applied and the deflection obtained. Both limit and bifurcation points are called critical points or critical states. so that it is necessary to choose a convenient point and follow the process by looking at the displacements of this specific point. then the system oscillates but returns to the original state after a while. There are several ways in which this process may happen: • In snap buckling. The equilibrium path emerging from the unloaded configuration is called the fundamental or primary path. To visualize a buckling process it is necessary to consider the load-deflection diagram. At a critical point the stability changes from stable to unstable. and (b) bifurcation point. 2. A stable equilibrium state is one in which if there is a small disturbance to the system at the same load level. then the original was an unstable equilibrium state.a). the fundamental path may be linear and it crosses another equilibrium path. the fundamental path is nonlinear and reaches a maximum load. The change in the shape occurs in a violent way. If the system does not return to the original state and goes to a new state. 2 . also the prebuckling path. • In bifurcation buckling. The load level at which there is a change in the shape is called buckling load. Of course there are deflections in almost every point of the structure. and the emerging geometry is called the buckling mode. This state is called limit point (Figure 2. This path may be linear (or almost linear) or may be nonlinear.Buckling is associated not just to a structure. Buckling is associated to a property of the equilibrium states known as stability. Load deflection diagrams showing equilibrium paths (a) limit point.

The process that occurs following buckling is called postbuckling. The postbuckling path has a non-horizontal tangent at the critical point. Thus.a). This behavior is found in columns and plates. This means that the critical state is associated to just one buckling mode. Three basic types of bifurcation for isolated modes. so that the structure cannot carry further load increments (Figure 3. and this is known as a coincident critical state. and the path is stable. there is a postbuckling equilibrium path. • Unstable symmetric bifurcation. So that the structure can carry further load increments only on the stable branch. depending of the displacements (Figure 3. so that the critical load is the maximum load of the structure. This behavior is found in frames. • There are structures with a load capacity in their postbuckling behavior. Koiter showed that the critical states of bifurcation might be of the following types (see Figure 3): • Stable symmetric bifurcation. • Other structures do not have stable postbuckling equilibrium states. • Asymmetric bifurcation. and the path is stable on one side and unstable on the other. so that the structure can carry further load increments (Figure 3. This situation is shown in Figure 4. This behavior is typically found in shells. which may be stable. The postbuckling path (also called secondary path) has a horizontal tangent at the critical point. The postbuckling path has a horizontal tangent at the critical point.c). but the path is unstable. In 1945.b). also called distinct critical point. which can adjust to changes in shape and resist additional loads after buckling. The type of behavior of Figure 3 occurs whenever there is an isolated critical state. also known as a compound critical point. Figure 3. There are also cases in which there are two modes associated to the same critical load. 3 .

This is shown in Figure 5. Here it does not matter how we design the shell. 4 . and coincidence is the rule. As the amplitude of the imperfection increases. and others. For example. the paths deviate more from the path of the perfect system. Not all coincident states couple. There are two reasons explaining how two or more modes can be coincident (or almost coincident): • Due to the selection of some design parameters. could result coincident. Two or more coincident (or almost coincident) critical states may have modecoupling to form a new equilibrium path. cylindrical shells under axial load or spherical shells under uniform external pressure (two common geometries in the design of tanks) develop many coincident modes for the lowest critical state.Figure 4. INFLUENCE OF IMPERFECTIONS Many structural systems (including tanks under lateral loads) are sensitive to the influence of small imperfections. and there are several ways in which they may couple. the coupling of two modes produces a new secondary bifurcation state and a new tertiary equilibrium path. The case of almost coincident critical loads is presented in Figure 4(a). eccentricities in the loads. This is called mode-jumping. in Figure 4(a). An imperfection is usually characterized by its variation in space and its amplitude ξ. not the exception. while coincident critical loads are shown in Figure 4(b). In this case coincidence is the exception. different from the isolated equilibrium paths. 3. local changes in the properties. it will have coincident critical states. two modes that may otherwise take different values of critical load. In many cases at the critical state the structure has a critical mode. For example. and a new equilibrium path is obtained for each imperfection amplitude ξ. and as the structure follows the postcritical equilibrium path the mode of deflections change. Examples of imperfections are geometric deviations of the perfect shape. (a) Almost-coincident and (b) coincident critical states: Two or more critical modes are associated to the same critical load. not the rule. An imperfection destroys a bifurcation point. • Due to a problem of the structure and the loading considered.

Some structures have a loss of buckling-carrying capacity of 50 % or more. Thus. when an imperfection is included have a nonlinear path with a maximum in the load. leading to a maximum load (Figure 5. which have a loss of about 20-30 %. Influence of imperfections on bifurcation behavior of structural systems. and is lower than what would be computed using the perfect geometry.b). 5 . there are structures with small sensitivity. • Figure 6. like plates under in-plane loads. An example is shown in Figure 6. the maximum load that the system can reach depends on the amplitude of the imperfection. Problems with coincident (or almost coincident) critical states that have mode coupling may display high imperfection-sensitivity. after which the path descends (Figure 5. an I-column under compression) there is mode-coupling but the imperfection-sensitivity is moderate. Other structures have moderate sensitivity. Structural systems that display stable symmetric bifurcations have a nonlinear path due to imperfections. • Finally. In other cases (for example. like cylinders under lateral pressure. and the bifurcation point is not reached (Figure 5. Finally. Imperfection sensitivity plot showing how the maximum load decreases with the amplitude of an imperfection.a). including cylinders under axial load and spheres under pressure. This occurs in the cylinder and the sphere. A typical plot is made showing the maximum load versus the amplitude of the imperfection. they have high imperfection sensitivity.Figure 5. that is known as an imperfection-sensitivity plot.c). systems with asymmetric bifurcation have a maximum load on the unstable branch. • Systems with unstable symmetric bifurcation in the perfect configuration.

Taylor & Francis. This occurs in moderately thin shells. A step-by-step analysis is performed considering an initial imperfection and geometrical and material nonlinearity. The program performs first a static analysis of a linear fundamental equilibrium path. Commercial computer programs do not have this capability. Thus. 5. Thus. Computerized Buckling Analysis of Shells. like tanks. APPROACHES TO EVALUATE BUCKLING At present most structures are analyzed using a finite element model.4. Sometimes the program may fail to detect a bifurcation state. Koiter developed a theory in which the stability of the critical state provides information about the postcritical states close to the critical point. A. Dordrecht. The material properties during the buckling process are very important: • Elastic buckling: is a process that intiates at the critical states with elastic material properties. The results are the buckling load and the buckling mode. Godoy. L. ANSYS. • Elasto-plastic buckling: This occurs when plasticity and instability occur almost at the same load level. plasticity occurs before instability: when the structure reaches a buckling load it already had plastic deformations. PLASTIC BUCKLING In Figure 1 we can see a frozen image of the buckled tank. and more specifically. and then computes the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the system using the stiffness and the load-geometry matrices. and others. and it has been incorporated into many special purpose finite element programs for shells. Martinus Nijjhoff. This occurs in most thin-walled shells. (2000). • Nonlinear analysis. (1985). PA. REFERENCES Bushnell. instability occurs before plasticity: when the structure reaches plastic deformations it already experienced buckling. This occurs in thick shells. but as postcritical deflections grew the material had plastic deformations. Only limit points can be detected. a commercial computer package is employed like ABAQUS. and bifurcations are not taken into account. D. ADINA. The results are a list of load and displacement configurations. No information is provided regarding the postbuckling path or sensitivity analysis. There are basically three ways in which buckling may be evaluated using a finite element program: • Bifurcation analysis. ALGOR. 6 . A perturbation analysis is performed to compute the initial postcritical secondary path. • Plastic buckling: is a process that initiates with plastic deformations. • Initial postcritical analysis. Philadelphia. Theory of Elastic Stability: Analysis and Sensitivity. Perhaps the steel was elastic at the onset of buckling.

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