Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 25 ( 1 9 8 5 ) 1 0 5 - - 1 2 4

Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., A m s t e r d a m - - P r i n t e d in T h e N e t h e r l a n d s

105

THE CINDER CONES OF MICHOAC/i~N---GUANAJUATO, CENTRAL MEXICO: THEIR AGE, VOLUME AND DISTRIBUTION, AND MAGMA DISCHARGE RATE

T O S H I A K I H A S E N A K A a n d I A N S.E. C A R M I C H A E L

Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94 720, U.S.A.
( R e c e i v e d F e b r u a r y 15, 1 9 8 4 ; revised a n d a c c e p t e d A u g u s t 16, 1 9 8 4 )

ABSTRACT
H a s e n a k a , T. a n d C a r m i c h a e l , I.S.E., 1985. T h e c i n d e r c o n e s o f M i c h o a c ~ n - - G u a n a j u a t o , c e n t r a l Mexico: t h e i r age, v o l u m e a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n , a n d m a g m a discharge rate. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 2 5 : 1 0 4 - - 1 2 4 . T h e M i c h o a c ~ i n - - G u a n a j u a t o V o l c a n i c Field ( M G V F ) in c e n t r a l Mexico c o n t a i n s over 1 0 0 0 late Q u a t e r n a r y volcanic centers, of w h i c h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 90% are c i n d e r cones. This area is d i s t i n c t f r o m o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e M e x i c a n V o l c a n i c Belt (MVB), w h e r e c o m p o site v o l c a n o e s p r e d o m i n a t e . O t h e r volcanic f o r m s in this field i n c l u d e lava cones, lava d o m e s , maars, t u f f rings, small shield volcanoes, a n d coneless lava flows. Most o f t h e shield v o l c a n o e s are e r o d e d a n d p r e d a t e t h e c u r r e n t l y o b s e r v a b l e c i n d e r cones. W i t h i n t h e M G V F , c i n d e r c o n e s are s i t u a t e d b e t w e e n 200 k m a n d 4 4 0 k m f r o m t h e Middle A m e r i c a T r e n c h . Nearly 75% o f t h e v o l c a n o e s are d i s t r i b u t e d b e t w e e n 200 k m a n d 3 0 0 k m f r o m t h e t r e n c h , a n d c o n e d e n s i t y is h i g h e s t at 250 km. Overall c o n e d e n s i t y is 2.5 c o n e s / 1 0 0 k m 2, a n d m e d i a n s e p a r a t i o n d i s t a n c e is 2 km. T h e m e d i a n c i n d e r c o n e has a h e i g h t o f 90 m, a basal d i a m e t e r of 8 0 0 m, a c r a t e r d i a m e t e r o f 2 3 0 m, a n d a volu m e o f 0 . 0 2 1 k m 3. T h e c i n d e r c o n e s t y p i c a l l y e r u p t e d olivine-basalt or basaltic a n d e s i t e ; these r o c k t y p e s are less silicic t h a n t h o s e of c o m p o s i t e v o l c a n o e s in t h e MVB. In general, samples f r o m t h e M G V F s h o w h i g h e r MgO, Cr, a n d Ni a n d l o w e r K20, P~O5, a n d Zr t h a n those farther from the trench. C i n d e r c o n e s s h o w various stages of d e g r a d a t i o n , f r o m w h i c h relative ages can be estim a t e d ; r a d i o c a r b o n d a t e s o f seven c i n d e r c o n e s were o b t a i n e d for calibration. Of several m o r p h o l o g i c a l indices of age, gully d e n s i t y a n d surface m o r p h o l o g y o f associated lava flows are t h e m o s t sensitive. T h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l classification, b a s e d o n gully d e n s i t y a n d lava flow surface features, revealed t h a t 78 v o l c a n o e s are y o u n g e r t h a n 4 0 , 0 0 0 years. All of t h e m are s i t u a t e d in t h e s o u t h , a n d s o m e have a r o u g h NE a l i g n m e n t , parallel to t h e relative m o t i o n v e c t o r b e t w e e n t h e Cocos a n d N o r t h A m e r i c a plates. Such NE a l i g n m e n t s are also f o u n d locally for o l d e r cones, a l t h o u g h in general c o n e s are r a n d o m l y spaced. Local c i n d e r c o n e a l i g n m e n t s are E--W in t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t of t h e volcanic field, w h e r e E--W n o r m a l faults also occur. Despite t h e large n u m b e r of s c a t t e r e d c i n d e r c o n e s a n d o t h e r small v o l c a n o e s in t h e M G V F , t o t a l e r u p t e d v o l u m e suggests a low m a g m a s u p p l y rate. T h e e s t i m a t e d t o t a l volu m e o f lava flows, ash, a n d c o n e s e r u p t e d d u r i n g t h e last 4 0 , 0 0 0 years for a n area of 1 5 , 0 0 0 k m : is 31 k m 3. T h e c a l c u l a t e d m a g m a e r u p t i o n r a t e o f 0.8 k m 3 / 1 0 0 0 years is small in c o m p a r i s o n to a single c o m p o s i t e v o l c a n o in t h e MVB.

0377-0273/85/$03.30

© 1 9 8 5 Elsevier Science P u b l i s h e r s B.V.

106

INTRODUCTION

The Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) (Mooser, 1969, 1972) is defined by an E--W-trending belt of composite volcanoes, rhyolitic complexes, and smaller vents (Fig. 1). Like other active continental volcanic arcs, the MVB shows a sub-parallel distribution of Quaternary volcanism, earthquake foci, and an oceanic trench (Drummond, 1981; Nixon, 1982). However, the MVB does not parallel the Middle America Trench (MAT), but rather makes an angle of approximately 15 ° to it (Fig. 1) and deep earthquakes ( > 1 5 0 km) have not been observed under the active volcanoes (Molnar and Sykes, 1969; Hanus and Venek, 1978; Nixon, 1982). Within the MVB in central Mexico is a large concentration of cinder cones, lava cones, and central volcanoes. A b o u t
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F i g . 1. I n d e x m a p o f t h e M i e h o a c ~ i n - - G u a n a j u a t o Volcanic Field. The location of the M G V F is s h o w n a s a r e c t a n g l e . T h e i n s e t e n l a r g e s t h e r e c t a n g l e a r e a . C o n t o u r s o f 1 0 0 0 m a n d 2 0 0 0 m s h o w g e n e r a l t o p o g r a p h y o f t h e a r e a . M e x i c a n V o l c a n i c B e l t ( M V B ) is s h o w n as the chain of volcanoes. Plate boundaries are drawn after Drummond (1981). Volcanoes: 1 = Sanganguey; 2 = Ceboruco; 3 = Sierra La Primavera; 4 = Nevado de Colima; 5 = Nevado de Tolflca; 6 = Popocat6petl; 7 = Pico de Orizaba; 8 = San AndrOs Tuxtla; 9 = E1 C h i c h 6 n . a = P a r i c u t i n ; b = E1 J o r u l l o ; c = E1 J a b a l i ; d = E1 M e t a t e ; e = L a T a z a ; f = E1 H u a n i l l o ; g = L a M i n a ; h = E1 P u e b l i t o ; i = L a s C a b r a s ; j = L a P i l i t a ; k = S a n t a T e r e s a ; I = T a n c i t a r o . Places: Z = Zamora; V = Valle de Santiago; S = Salvatierra; C = Celaya; U = Uruapan; H = La Huacana;M = Mexico City; LC = Lake Chapala.

(1982) reported an Early Oligocene age of the La Huacana batholith. size. 1950).. the Michoac~in-Guanajuato Volcanic Field (MGVF) has an area of 40. are found in the northern half of the state of Michoac~n and in the southern part of the state of Guanajuato. 1950) underly the MVB and outcrop as eroded hills. maars. 1981. Cinder and lava cones either occur near a large central volcano (e.. 1971. Downie and Wilkinson. Clark et al. 1981. The purpose of this study of the MGVF are: (1) to describe the spacing. Nelson and Carmichael. 1954) and other cinder cones in the southern part of the volcanic field. Bloomfield. Colton. and a few to the south in the lowlands (Fig.000 km ~ and forms a unique part of the MVB. Volc~in Paricutin. 1969.. 1972. Late . 1). and quartz diorites crop out in the southern part of the volcanic field. and morphology of cinder cones and their associated lavas. As the volcanoes described in this paper are distributed in both Michoac~in and Guanajuato. Porter. and (4) to estimate the eruption rate of magma in the region. 1956). 1984). 1975. Granites. Luhr and Carmichael. and (3) the Zamora volcanic field (Simkin et al. Singleton and Joyce.N--GUANAJUATO VOLCANIC FIELD Most of the volcanic centers of the MGVF occur on the E--W-trending plateau which corresponds to the axis of the MVB (Cordillera Neovolcanica) (Fig.g.g. 1974.. and rarely become active again. Scott and Trask. 1). perhaps a few months to t w e n t y years. 1937. (3) to calibrate these using radiometric ages. central volcanoes are fed by a single conduit or a row of closely spaced conduits which repeatedly deliver magma to the surface. 1981) depending on the perspectives of researchers. (2) the Paricutin region (Williams. This volcanic field was formerly referred to as: (1) the Michoac~in volcanic province (Foshag and Gonzalez. 1983). In general. 1972. THE MICHOAC~. The limited exposure of the basement rocks underlying the volcanic field consists mainly of felsic intrusive rocks (Williams. they may be either composite or shield. In contrast. 1950). The youngest of these. south of Uruapan and north of La Huacana (Fig.107 1000 eruptive vents. Volc~n E1 Jorullo. Martin del Pozzo. 1). some extend to the north in the Bajio de Guanajuato. we suggest the broader label of the Michoac~in--Guanajuato Volcanic Field (Fig. since it lacks the young large composite volcanoes dominant in other parts of the MVB. Walker. quartz monzonites. This region. but are sometimes accompanied by tuff rings. in 1759--1774. or cluster to form a volcanic field lacking composite volcanoes (e. erupted in 1943--1952.. the second youngest. mostly cinder cones. (2) to develop morphological age indices for cinder cones. and small shield volcanoes. Moore et al. 1976. McGetchin et al. cinder and lava cones are active for only a short period of time. Basalt or andesite lavas of the Eocene to Miocene (?) Zumpinito Formation (Williams. These basement rocks occur as partially fused inclusions in scoriae of Paricutin (Wilcox. 1).

This total includes 901 cones. probably of the Sierra Madre Occidental province. . 2. the largest being Cerro Tancitaro (3845 m) in the area SW of Volc~in Paricutin (Fig. They are also observed to the west of Lake Cuitzeo (Fig. Circles i n d i c a t e all v o l c a n i c c e n t e r s : c i n d e r c o n e s . Shield volcanoes generally are older than the cinder cone eruptions. T h e area is t h e s a m e as t h e i n s e t o f Fig. the nature of which is not easy to discern from topography.. T h e p o s i t i o n o f e s t i m a t e d v e n t s are used f o r l o c a t i n g t h e lava flows. Guanajuato (Demant. highly dissected shield volcanoes and eroded hills. They range from 4 to 13 km in diameter. 43 domes. lava d o m e s . form elongated ridges and mesas to the north and east of the volcanic field. 1978).G u a n a j u a t o V o l c a n i c F i e l d . 8). o r lava f l o w s w h i c h a r e n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n e s . and near Salvatierra. 13 young shield volcanoes with surmounting cones. t u f f rings.) Old. maars. Approximately 120 shields are distributed throughout the volcanic field. and 61 lava flows with hidden vents. scale 1:50. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f v o l c a n o e s in t h e M i c h o a c ~ i n . with a slope angle of 5 ° to 15 ° .000) in conjunction with field observations. Z_~o __ i . 22 maars or t u f f rings. are excluded from this compilation. 1. (A table of the locations of these volcanoes with their dimensions and morphological parameters is available from the authors upon request. ° ~ ~ o+ ~ ~o: i i 19 ° N " -i~)2~ ~c~ I01"W Fig. Mexico City. DISTRIBUTION OF VENTS A total of 1040 volcanic vents in the MGVF were identified from topographic maps and air photographs (published by D E T E N A L . s h i e l d v o l c a n o e s w i t h a s u m m i t c o n e . 1).108 Miocene (?) ignimbrites. ~< "% ~. -~ ' ~ ' ~ i i~ . i20ON ~Oo~ ) o ~ .

3). In general. J n = Cerro J a n a m o . the cinder cones are randomly spaced and indicate no preferred orientation (Figs. A local concentration of volcanoes at 380 km corresponds to the maar cluster of Valle de Santiago (Figs.5 volcanoes/100 km 2 (1040 vents/40. show local alignments. and 1. the most distant cinder cone is 440 km from the trench.. 2). the distance from one cinder cone to its nearest neighbor. C = Cerro Capatacuiro. Town Road Railroad . 2 and 3). The overall density of volcanoes in the MGVF is 2.. Map o f t h e volcanoes and associated lava flows in the Paricutin region c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m air p h o t o g r a p h s . U R = Uruapan. 3). In any given area. 2). 19°40'N 19°35'N 19 °30' N Cinder cone ~ 19°25'N . Farther than 300 km.000 km2). these trend E--W in the northern part of the volcanic field. PR = Paracho. the number of volcanoes decreases. and NE in the southern part near the volcanic front (Fig. I and 2).109 Few volcanoes occur closer than 200 km to the Middle America Trench (Fig. A small number of closely associated cinder cones.n 102°15 ' W 102o10 . and approximately 75% of the volcanoes are found between 200 km and 300 km. 3). If cone separation distance is cal- . A representative median value is 2 km for 100 selected cinder cones from the entire field. The highest density of 11/100 km 2 is calculated for the Paricutin region (141 vents/1250 km 2 in Fig. P = Volc~in Paricutin. ENE in the middle part. J = Cerro E1 Jabali. Cone separation distance. mode < median < mean). ~-. W 102°05'W 102°OO ' W 101 °55 'W Fig. however. cinder cones are restricted to relatively low elevations as most cones formed either on alluvial plains or low on the flanks of eroded shield volcanoes (Fig.15 km for the Paricutin region (Fig. M = Cerro E1 M e t a t e . The concentration of volcanoes is greatest about 250 km from the trench.. has a Poisson distribution (thus. 3.

TABLE 1 Representative chemical analyses of scoria and lava Sample: SiO: TiO 2 AI:O 3 FeOt MnO MgO CaO Na:O K~O P:O~ Cr V Ni Sr Zr Ba DFT 663 53.33 0.79 16.a n d e s i t e ( u s u a l l y c o n t a i n i n g p h e n o c r y s t s o f olivine) a n d p y r o x e n e or h o r n b l e n d e a n d e s i t e s .a l k a l i n e .69 16.39 100 204 . FeOt = total iron as ferrous.84 7.8% K 2 0 a n d 49.14 4.12 6. are g e n e r a l l y less silicic t h a n t h o s e o f t h e c o m p o s i t e v o l c a n o e s in t h e MVB (Williams. F o r t h e same silica c o n t e n t .86 7.10 0. = not detected.96 0.46 0.75 6.61 8. Cr. P. Luhr and Carmichael.74 0.70 0.04 0. 1 9 5 0 .86 3. a n d Zr g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e w i t h d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e t r e n c h .d.91 0. 223 44 1419 240 850 401 Major element oxides in wt.17 0. 1980.a l k a l i n e b a s a l t a n d b a s a l t i c a n d e s i t e .13 7. in press).96 7. o n e o f t h e c l o s e s t c o n e s to t h e t r e n c h a n d y e t has 2.96 0. all c a l c ..2% SiO2 ( L u h r a n d C a r m i c h a e l . T h e m a i n r o c k t y p e s o f t h e r e g i o n . Analyses by X-ray fluorescence.89 17.21 1. 1 9 7 8 . G u n n a n d M o o s e r .b a s a l t a n d b a s a n i t e . o n e e x a m p l e is o f an o l d e r (ca.75 3. Robin and Cantagrel. a n d a l k a l i o l i v i n e . a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e t e n d e n c y for c o n e s t o c l u s t e r or f o r m pairs. S a m p l e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e d i v e r s i t y o f t h e 1 0 4 0 c i n d e r a n d lava c o n e s i n c l u d e olivine b a s a l t a n d b a s a l t i c .18 364 169 212 530 117 267 201 416A 53.13 4.83 0. n. e x c e p t i o n s to this g e n e r a l t r e n d are f o u n d .86 t.14 3.47 7. c a l c .12 1. 1980. the m e a n d i s t a n c e i n c r e a s e s to 3.79 17.2 Ma) c o n e n e x t t o Volcfin E1 J o r u l l o . Trace e|menets in ppm.2 k m . a n d Ni are r i c h e s t in s a m p l e s n e a r t h e t r e n c h a n d p o o r e s t in t h e m o r e a l k a l i n e v o l c a n i c s f a r t h e s t f r o m it ( T a b l e 1) ( H a s e n a k a .d.21 142 139 142 723 99 297 249 432B 52.06 0.82 1. 1982). N e l s o n .98 8.94 2.06 0.97 8. T h e r e is a p r o g r e s s i v e c h a n g e in c o m p o s i t i o n w i t h d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e t r e n c h .00 6.74 n.13 549 207 399 305 571T 54. MgO.98 17.48 t.38 3. 0. 1 9 7 1 .85 0. . DFT = distance of the cone from the Middle America Trench in km.12 8.54 4. i n c o m p a t i b l e e l e m e n t s s u c h as K. Pal et al. 1 9 8 1 ) .61 3.110 culated assuming equal cone density t h r o u g h o u t the Paricutin region. H o w e v e r .59 47 182 45 569 243 5%1 345 555A 52.%.

Wcr r Wco Fig. 5. t h e d i a m e t e r of a s o m e w h a t f l a t t e r s u m m i t was t a k e n as t h e c r a t e r d i a m e t e r value. (D) c o n e v o l u m e c a l c u l a t e d as a s y m m e t r i cal t r u n c a t e d c o n e shape. Fig. T h e s e p a r a m e t e r s include c o n e height (H).. 4). T h e basal e l e v a t i o n is t h e m e a n o f t h e highest a n d t h e l o w e s t basal values. b u t c o n e s t h a t e r u p t e d o n an inclined b a s e m e n t surface are o f t e n b r e a c h e d or e l o n g a t e d . T o a l l o w f o r this. F r o m t h e s e values.2 HCO 0. Where t h e c r a t e r is n o t visible o n t h e t o p o g r a p h i c m a p s . c o n e basal d i a m e t e r or w i d t h (Wco).. 0 0 0 t o p o g r a p h i c m a p s .111 C I N D E R C O N E SIZE M o r p h o m e t r i c p a r a m e t e r s o f cinder c o n e s a n d t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d lava flows w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m 1 : 5 0 . Wco a n d Wcr are d e f i n e d as t h e a r i t h m e t i c m e a n s o f t h e m a x i m u m a n d m i n i m u m values o f c o n e a n d c r a t e r widths. t h e v o l u m e o f a s y m m e t r i c a l t r u n c a t e d c o n e was calculated. (A) c o n e height. otL 60 SO M ~ I~ 4o 1 ~ M 0. S c h e m a t i c diagram illustrating t h e p a r a m e t e r s used to e s t i m a t e c i n d e r c o n e size. (B) c o n e basal d i a m e t e r . T h e c i r c u m f e r e n c e s o f c r a t e r rims a n d c o n e bases were determ i n e d w h e r e t h e generally e q u i d i s t a n t t o p o g r a p h i c c o n t o u r s a b r u p t l y widen.. . . M indicates t h e m e d i a n value. H is t h e e l e v a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s u m m i t o f t h e cinder c o n e a n d its base.0 M 20 WCO km 0.. 4.3 ~ km o ~. Most o f t h e cinder c o n e s s h o w a s y m m e t r i c a l t r u n c a t e d c o n e shape. F r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n of c i n d e r c o n e size in t h e M G V F . a n d c r a t e r d i a m e t e r or w i d t h (Wcr) (Fig. (C) c o n e c r a t e r d i a m e t e r . Wcr km .

B.B.092 0.25 H 0.057 0.e.20 0.P.069 0.190 0. 0.185 0.B.150 0.170± 430y.068 0.15 1.A t ages a r e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e w h o l e r o c k s a m p l e s o f l a v a o r s c o r i a ( a n a l y s t : G.014 0.45 0.B. 17.P~ 9. H = c o n e h e i g h t (in k i n ) .18 0.029 0.88 0.P.700± 200y.B. M e x i c o C i t y ) .290 0..410 ± 230 y.P.TABLE 2 D i m e n s i o n s a n d age o f c i n d e r c o n e s Cinder cone a b c d e f g h i j k Volc~n Parfcutin Volc~n E1Jorullo Cerro E1Jabali CerroE1Metate CerroLaTaza HoyaEIHuanillo Volc~inLaMina El P u e b l i t o Cerro Las Cabras Cerro Pelon Santa Teresa Latitude (N) 19 ° 2 9 ' 3 3 " 18 ° 58'19" 1 9 o 2 6 ' 5 6 '' 1 9 ° 3 2 ' 2 0 '' 19 ° 3 1 ' 3 3 " 1 9 ° 4 1 ' 0 1 '' 1 9 ° 4 2 ' 4 5 '' 1 9 ° 4 9 ' 2 9 '' 19°49'34" 19 ° 17' 52" 20 ° 2 9 ' 5 0 " Longitude (W) 102 ° 15'04" 1 0 1 ° 4 3 ' 0 3 '' 1 0 2 o 0 6 ' 4 6 '' 1 0 1 0 5 9 ' 3 3 '' 1 0 1 ° 4 3 ' 2 8 '' 1 0 1 ° 5 9 ' 0 4 '' 1 0 1 ° 2 6 ' 0 2 '' 1 0 1 ° 5 5 ' 2 4 '' 101 ° 53'37" 101 °54'47'' 1 0 0 ° 5 9 ' 5 3 '` Wco 0.78+_ 07 M a Sample method Historical record Historical record 7 3 7 C c h a r c o a l ~4C 761Ccharcoal~4C 759Ccharcoal~4C 411C3charcoal~4C 4 1 1 C 2 c h a r c o a l ~4C b~ 0.170 0.38 0. 0 0 0 t o p o g r a p h i c m a p s ( D E T E N A L .B.030 Volume 0.120 0. >40.95 1.35 0. 12 (W~r + W c r W c o + W~o) C o n e size is m e a s u r e d u s i n g l : 5 0 .38 0. 8. M a h o o d ) .55 0.220 0. V o l u m e o f c i n d e r c o n e (in k m 3) is c a l c u l a t e d as a s y m m e t r i c a l t r u n c a t e d c o n e .70 0.35 0. Wco = b a s a l d i a m e t e r .180± 250y.18 0.000 ± 3. i.P.219 0.B. 9.63 Wcr 0.160 0.18 0.B.k ) are t h e s a m e as in Fig.085 0.004 Age 1943--1952 AD 1759--1774 AD 3.37 ± 05 Ma 2.P.300y.P.830 ÷ 150 y.68 0.000 y.P.42 0.430-+ 330y. C h a r c o a l s a m p l e s w e r e c o l l e c t e d at t w o d i f f e r e n t s i t e s f o r H o y a Et H u a n i l l o .93 0. : ~H Volume = --. .039 0.15 622Ccharcoal~4C 4 3 5 C c h a r c o a l ~4C 6 7 4 C c h a r c o a l ~4C 4 2 6 L lava K . 29. Wcr = c r a t e r d i a m e t e r .A r 555AscoriaK-Ar S y m b o l s ( a .95 1.195 0. K . 4.00 1.075 0.190 0. ~4C a g e s are o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e c h a r c o a l in t h e soil u n d e r t h e a s h a n d lappili l a y e r s ( a n a l y s t : T e l e d y n e I s o t o p e s ) . 1.

1). and 0. Therefore. indicating that there may be some elevation (crustal thickness) influence on cinder cone size (Vogt. 240 m. and 0. The thickness. Ben-Avraham and Nur.113 For cones with discernable crater rims. and aeolian and alluvial deposits as well as erosional processes can diminish the dimensions of relatively old cinder cones. LAVA FLOW VOLUME Volumes of lava flows whose margins were clearly observable on the air photographs (scale 1:50. When the thickness was smaller than the contour interval.23 Median 30 3. fall on the least-squares line defined by cinder cones with greater size ranges (Fig.038 km 3. Mean values are 100 m. and cinder cone volume are shown in Fig. however. The data. and then averaged. Plots of lava flow volumes against the volumes of associated cinder cones for the MGVF show scatter of up to 2 orders of magnitude. Younger cinder cones dated by 14C are larger than the median (Table 2). Large cinder cones are more frequent in the southwestern part of the MGVF where cones erupted on the lowlands (Fig. 5. 230 m for the crater diameter. respectively.0 0. The thickness estimates were made at equal intervals along the margins of a flow. Lava flow area was measured with a planimeter.7 0. 800 m for the basal diameter. an arbitrary value of one-half the contour interval was assumed. Older cinder cones are often partly buried by later lava flows. The volume of each flow unit was then calculated from its average thickness and area. Median values are 90 m for the height.8 a C a l c u l a t e d for 2 7 9 lava flows. Note that the volume of lava flows hidden under later flows was not estimated and that the thickness of a lava flow may be underestimated because of the accumulation of colluvium at the foot of the flow margins and later alluvial deposition surrounding the lava flows.5 0.20 Minimum 2--3 0. b V o l u m e c a l c u l a t e d as t o t a l lava e r u p t e d for a single cone. 6).000) were estimated by tracing flow margins onto topographic maps and then calculating their thickness from the countour intervals (either 20 m or 10 m). Wco. 1974. TABLE 3 D i m e n s i o n s a n d v o l u m e s of lava flows Mean Thickness a (m) Length a (km) V o l u m e b ( k m 3) 40 3. 1980). the calculated volumes represent minimum values. length. from which Wood (1980a) concluded that in general cone . and volume of the lava flows are compiled in Table 3. Wcr. frequency histograms for H.01 Maximum 120 15 4. 830 m.021 km 3 for the volume.

6 10. 1 9 7 1 ) . 1 9 7 5 ) . b u t m o s t o f t h e surface o f Volc~n E1 Jorullo is already c o v e r e d with trees o n l y 200 years . combined with Wood's (1980a) data from San Francisco volcanic field. O t h e r semiq u a n t i t a t i v e indicators of cinder c o n e age include: the m a x i m u m c o n e slope angle ( S c o t t and Trask. 1 9 8 0 b ) . T h e largest n u m b e r o f radial l i n e a m e n t s o n the slope o f Paricutin observed in air p h o t o g r a p h s .4 A 10. the angle of repose of cinder. 2 E > 10-3 # / I 10 . in which he classified the stages o f erosion o f cones and their associated lava flows. A large n u m b e r o f rills and shallow gullies have d e v e l o p e d o n the slopes o f the y o u n g e s t cones. Their craters. Cinder cones in the M G V F also show various stages o f d e g r a d a t i o n .2 t 10 -1 ~ i f 10 -4 10 -s 10 . which is the same ratio observed at Paricutin. The line indicates the least-square fit derived by Wood (1980a). 1 9 7 5 ) . T 10 -1 ¢ 10 . Tolbachic. V e g e t a t i o n is sparse o n Paricutin w h e r e soil is absent. The y o u n g e s t cones. f r o m which the relative ages o f the cinder cones can be estimated. Reunion. h o w e v e r . like Paricutin. have little infilling o f ash o r scoriae. have a p e r f e c t c o n e shape with slope angles o f 34 °. 1953). and Eldfelt {crosses). Wood. the v o l u m e o f a cinder c o n e is r o u g h l y 1/10 t h a t o f its associated lava flow. Etna. The relationship between volume of cinder cones and associated lava flows in the MGVF {dots). GEOMORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF CINDER CONE AGE One of t h e earliest studies of cinder cones was Colton's {1937) w o r k in the San Francisco M o u n t a i n volcanic field o f Arizona. w h e r e m o r e precise m e a s u r e m e n t s exist (Fries. the ratio o f c o n e height to c o n e basal diam e t e r ( S c o t t and Trask. On t h e average in t h e M G V F . t h e t a n g e n t of the c o n e slope (Bloomfield.114 v o l u m e b e c o m e s a greater p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l e r u p t i o n as t h e e r u p t i o n volu m e increases. 1971.3 L 1 10 Ikm31 Associated lava flow volume Fig. and the change o f surface features o f lava flows associated with cinder cones (Bloomfield. are n o t gullies b u t alternating bands of scoriae and lapilli. The ratio o f c o n e t o lava v o l u m e is a f u n c t i o n of explosivity possibly reflecting the volatile c o n t e n t or viscosity of magma. 6. w h o s e rims are sharp and little modified b y erosion.

and more weathered and oxidized ejecta than the youngest cones.24~ • "J° 020[. lava surfaces covered with trees and shrubs indicate the absence of arable soils and hence relative youth. La Mina. Older. and E1 Pelon (Table 2). Las Cabras. a smaller number of gullies (which are larger and deeper). The lava flows of Paricutin and E1 Jorullo are exceptional. E1 Huanillo. published by DETENAL. greater soil development. Craters of the older cones are filled by ash from other volcanoes and by debris eroded from the higher slopes of the craters themselves. vegetatative recovery after eruption is rapid compared with the age span of cinder cones. Dashed lines are fitted by eye. • J /90 ° 20/I10L ~ ~• ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ 0-* '° Age Fig. degraded cinder cones have lower slope angles. 0. Some of the oldest cones may be almost completely buried and have very shallow slope angles. El Jorullo. boundaries of individual flow units. El Pueblito. pressure ridges. in contrast. and the mean annual temperature is between 16°C and 29°C (total annual precipitation and mean annual temperature maps. 34 301-_ • 28L e Gully 40~Q. The data are from Paricutin.-_ 0"16L • • 8max 32 L 33~-0 . The data for Cerro E1 Metate are excluded because the cone shape is greatly m o d i f i e d by lava flows on the slope. El Jabali. G e o m o r p h o l o g i c a l parameters of cinder cone age p l o t t e d against ~4C age. The oldest group includes cones with flattened and rounded shapes and deeply dissected cones with breached craters. The area on the plateau has a relatively cool and wet climate.115 after its eruption. they only have sparse vegetation. and levees. Under the tropical to temperate climate of the MGVF. Holocene lava flows display well preserved original surface features. . 7. resulting in different erosional conditions. . In a densely populated area where almost all the useful land is cultivated. ~'e-. the lowland south has a relatively hot and dry climate. Lava flows lose these characteristics with time and become covered with soils which may be cultivated. such as flow margins.~-e--~ 1 . . Lava flow morphology also changes with age.~ density 30 ~.--. The total annual precipitation in the MGVF is between 500 mm and 1800 mm/year. Mexico City).

17. margins flow units Hv Pressure ridges Soil Tree shrub cover x Cultiration × × Cinder cone Paricutin El Jorullo E1 Jabali E1 Metate La Taza La Mina El Pueblito Las Cabras Plv~ Ply.830 y. This indicates a close t e m p o r a l relationship b e t w e e n charcoal f o r m a t i o n and airfalls. Pelon ? -.P. which is calculated as tan -~ (H/r). At this distance. (5) gully density. TABLE4 Geomorphological classification of lava flows Flow Indiv.B. .B. (4) the d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the m a x i m u m and the average slope angles.430 y.P. and (6) t h e g e o m o r p h o l o g i c a l classification o f lava flows.P. thus the 14C dates are used to represent the age of e r u p t i o n . × X X X Age 1943--1952 AD 1759--1774 AD 3. Charcoal was f o u n d at the c o n t a c t o f t h e soil and ash and up to 20 cm below it. 7. These indices are relatively easily o b t a i n e d f r o m t o p o g r a p h i c maps. 4. 0.P. (2) m a x i m u m slope angle (0max). . t a k e n as the average o f several field m e a s u r e m e n t s f r o m different directions. w h e r e r is given in Fig. 29.116 The m o r p h o l o g i c indicators o f age include: (1) the ratio of cinder c o n e height to basal d i a m e t e r (H/D). I m p o r t a n t m e a s u r e d variables are displayed in Fig.B. or field observations. RADIOMETRIC DATES AND CINDER CONE AGES Radiocarbon dates Carbon 14 dates were o b t a i n e d for 8 charcoal samples f r o m cinder c o n e s in the earlier stages of d e g r a d a t i o n (Table 2). Most o f the cones d a t e d are relatively large and f r o m the plateau (with a relatively cold and wet climate). = feature is obscure or scarce. as s u m m a r i z e d in Table 4.B. (3) average slope angle (0ave) . . = feature is distinctly observed or abundant.37 Ma Ply4 Plv~ : .B. '~ X × '. The charcoal was collected f r o m soil just b e n e a t h the ash and lapilli at distances of 500 m to 2 0 0 0 m f r o m a cinder cone.P.P. defined as the n u m b e r o f gullies d e t e r m i n e d f r o m air p h o t o g r a p h s n o r m a l i z e d to 90 ° o f arc.700 y. 8.B. 4. = feature is somewhat recognizable or moderately abundant. ~40.000 y. the c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e t e p h r a f r o m the c o n e is obvious. .000 y.170 y. air p h o t o g r a p h s .

t h e i r v e n t s a n d dikes. 8. gullying may play a minor role in the degradation of cones under dry climate. although there is some scatter of the data due to influence of vegetation. 0 0 0 years. Clearly. prevailing wind and weather. Conversely. During this period. 2 e x c e p t at t h e eastern margin. visibility of gullies. .000 years. gully density shows a consistent change from 30/90 ° to 10/ 90 ° over 40. and are similar to those of the San Francisco volcanic field in Arizona (mean annual precipitation. a n d n o r m a l faults in t h e M G V F .000 y.000 years. Accordingly. the difference between maximum and average slope angles will not be meaningful. ! lg°h ~C 102°W OCOS-NOAM MOTION 1 101°W 50 km Fig. show little gullying. no significant change with age occurs in the H/D ratio or in the cone slope angles. Wood. 8. A r r o w s h o w s t h e relative m o t i o n v e c t o r o f t h e Cocos a n d N o r t h A m e r i c a plates. and cinder cone size. The maximum slope angle. dikes Cinder cones & lava flows younger than 20°N ~ L ~ ~'~:~ ~- Park utin ewe % _ • i "// m A 40.B.P. Large d o t s i n d i c a t e c i n d e r c o n e s a n d lava flows y o u n g e r t h a n 4 0 . These three parameters indicate that the initial form of these cinder cones has been slow to change over a period of at least 40. Smaller cones are expected to develop fewer gullies due to their smaller area and the shorter runoff distance of rainfall water. 1950.000 years. In general. Map area same as in Fig. cinder cones in the lowland (relatively hot and dry climate) are rounded.117 Cinder cone geomorphological parameters are plotted against the '4C ages in Fig. 1980b) have yet to modify the shape of cinder cones which are largely comprised of permeable scoriae and lapilli. is the initial cone slope angle and remains constant for about 40. 1980b). Wood. Also. 1937. major erosional processes of landsliding and gullying (Segerstrom.000 years. Nocmal fault L. 33 ° to 34 ° . both m a x i m u m and minimum values are found to remain constant within the '4C span of 40. the average slope angle shows a greater but inconsistent variation. 490 mm by Ruffner. A l i g n m e n t s o f c i n d e r cones. 1980) (Colton. o % ~ =~ ~" Lake Canyon Aligned cinder cones Orientation of parasitic cones.

P.000 years.37-+ 0. thus an estimated 78 volcanoes erupted within the last 40.12. H/D ratio decreases to 0. which are y o u n g er than 10. These volcanoes include mostly cinder cones. An apparent " y o u n g " value of gully density (11/90 ° ) may be coincidentally due to a dry climate. The lava flows and associated cinder cones are classified into three groups: Holocene volcanoes (Hv). An- .3) lava flow m o r p h o l o g y represents a longer time span than that of the youngest three groups. between 200 and 300 km from the Middle America Trench in an area of 15. The lava flows associated with this cone are classified as Plv2 (Table 4). A n o t h e r K-Ar age is known for the San Nicholas maar near Valle de Santiago. 8). Cerro Pelon (0. and the surface features of lavas are correlated with radiometric dates in Table 4. These young volcanoes are situated only in the southern part of the volcanic field.2 Ma (Murphy and Carmichael. being partly buried by sediments but is recognized as such by an openpit quarry.P. and Plv3) are 16.. K-Ar dates K-Ar dates were obtained for lavas and scoriae of more degraded cinder cones (Table 2).000 years B. and the youngest two groups of Pleistocene volcanoes (Plv4. erosional processes became significant in changing the form of cinder cones.000 km 2.000 years are notable (Fig. Cerro Las Cabras and other similar lava flows are arbitrarily subgrouped into Plv~. Plv4.118 Geomorphological classification of lava flows is a n o t h e r useful age index for their associated cinder cones.07) is probably one of the oldest in the MGVF. 27. but also some lava flows not associated with cones and two shield volcanoes with summit cones. LATE PLEISTOCENE--RECENT ERUPTION HISTORY The calibrated geomorphological classification of lava flows combined with the gully density allows estimation of the relative ages of cinder cones and lava flows. respectively. One such alignment includes Paricutin and extends a bout 100 km farther to the northeast.3. since t h e y have surface features between Plv2 and Plv3. Guanajuato (2.000 years B. Plv3). Note from Table 4 Ply2 (and possibly Ply2. 1984). m a x i m u m and average slope angles decrease to 28 ° and 19 ° .78 Ma ± 0. juvenile scoriae of the maar give an age of 1. For this longer period. Structural control of eruptive vents Structural alignments of cinder cones and ot her volcanoes which have erupted within the last 40. The Santa Teresa cone west of Celaya. as discussed above. The num ber of Holocene and Late Pleistocene volcanoes (Hv. and 35 respectively.05 Ma)show s a significant difference in all parameters compared to cones younger than 40. It has an almost flat shape.

G u a n a j u a t o V o l c a n i c Field. V o l u m e of airfali ash was a s s u m e d to be 7. 1977). Each lava flow v o l u m e was c a l c u l a t e d as t h e p r o d u c t o f area a n d average thickness. . Ply4.01 0. T h e s y m b o l s . If the formation of a shallow magma reservoir is prevented by a small magma supply rate. 1979). In the southern part of the field. All v o l u m e d a t a were c o r r e c t e d for vesicularity b y a s s u m i n g t h a t lava flows have 30% p o r o s i t y (Fries. Nakamura et al. a field of cinder cones is Volume of lava + cone + ash Sum Hv I IIIII 0. older parasitic cones and closely-associated cinder cones also show NE alignments.119 other 40 km long alignment of volcanoes which includes E1 Jorullo in the south also shows a NE direction. C o n e v o l u m e was c a l c u l a t e d as a s y m m e t r i c a l t r u n c a t e d cone. 9. The direction of these younger cone alignments coincides with the relative motion vector of the Cocos and North America plates (and the direction perpendicular to the minimum horizontal compressive stress) consistent with the idea that tectonic stresses control the location of magmatic conduits. Additional tectonic information is difficult to obtain because the region is almost completely covered by young volcanic products.1 1 10 km 3 Fig. In the northeastern part of the field. w h i c h m a y a c c o u n t for t h e smaller v o l u m e s o f Ply 3 volcanoes. the vents had been active for less than 20 years. Hv. Although there is some scatter of cones. (Nakamura.3 t I 11... the relationship between tectonic stress and cinder cone alignments is more obvious.I 0. C a l c u l a t e d dense r o c k (2.1 1 I i PlY4 Inm ill I 10 9. b o t h airfall ash a n d c i n d e r c o n e s have 50% p o r o s i t y . 1 9 5 3 ) . MAGMA OUTPUT RATE Multiple vents like those in the MGVF imply an absence of long-lived shallow magma reservoirs characteristic of composite volcanoes. since on the evidence of Volc~n Paricutin and Volc~n E1 Jorullo. and it has been suggested that the magma came from a deep reservoir (Wadge. The area surrounding Lake Cuitzeo is characterized by E--W normal faults and parallel alignments of cinder cones.9-J 30.3 I 9. 1981). V o l u m e s o f d e p o s i t s were n o t a d j u s t e d for erosion a n d burial by alluvial s e d i m e n t s . An exponential decrease of effusion rate at Volcdn Paricutin indicates that no new magma batches were supplied during eruption (Scandone. These faults may be related to the E--W-trending Chapala graben structures just west of the volcanic field.5 km 3 Plvs I II I lllllll I I.7 g / c m 3) e q u i v a l e n t v o l u m e s o f t h e Late P l e i s t o c e n e t o R e c e n t v o l c a n o e s in t h e M i c h o a c ~ n . 1977.73 t i m e s t h a t o f t h e associated c o n e a f t e r Fries ( 1 9 5 3 ) . a n d Plv 3 r e p r e s e n t t h e g e o m o r p h o l o g i c a l stages o f lava flows ( T a b l e 4). these alignments suggest crustal fractures along which magmas ascended.

Walker. 0 0 0 k m 2. 1 9 8 1 . T h e entire M G V F is a m o n g t h e smallest (Fig. yielding an overall m a g m a o u t p u t r a t e of 0. 1980). M a g m a o u t p u t rates o f 13 c o m p o s i t e v o l c a n o e s f r o m J a p a n . Crisp. 1 9 8 4 ) . 1981. 1 9 8 0 ) . 1 9 8 2 . 8 = Avachinsky. C O = Colima after the 1818 major ash flow eruption (Luhr and Carmichael. 1o3 •E102 .000 years ago) (Mahood. 5 = Oshima. Japan. 11. 2 = Kaimondake.9 = Kluychevskoy.3 and 9. 0 0 0 y e a r s in an area o f 1 5 . 1 3 = Calabozos caldera. 1 9 8 1 . 1 9 8 4 . r e s p e c t i v e l y ( L u h r a n d C a r m i c h a e l . U S S R . Japan. T h u s .5 k m 3 o f m a g m a was d i s c h a r g e d o v e r 4 0 . Costa Rica. Diagonal lines indicate equal magma output rates. 7 = Fuego. 10. USA. 0 0 5 k m 3 / k m per 1 0 0 0 years. 1982). 1983). H i l d r e t h .x x8 3 /. 1980. respectively (Fig.9 k m 3. 10). 1982. Filled circles represent the Mexican volcanoes'. this can also be r e p r e s e n t e d b y a r a t e c a l c u l a t e d f o r unit length parallel to t h e Middle A m e r i c a T r e n c h a n d is a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0 . A c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r c o m p o s i t e v o l c a n o e s at c o n v e r g e n t p l a t e b o u n d aries is m a d e in Fig. Guatemala. M G F V = MichoacAn-Guanajuato Volcanic Field (this study). 1 9 8 4 ) . Nelson. 1 2 = Hakone. C E = Ceboruco after the Plinian eruption of Jala pumice (1000 years ago) (Nelson. M a g m a e r u p t i o n v o l u m e s (dense r o c k equivalent) f o r the H o l o cene and late Pleistocene (Hv.. USSR. 1981. 10 = Fuji. 1984): 1 = Arenal.5 k m ~ / 1 0 0 0 y e a r s (Crisp.7 k m 3 / 1 0 0 0 y e a r s a n d 6 k m 3 / 1 0 0 0 years. Plv4 a n d Ply3) are 9. 0 0 0 years. Wright. Magma output volume of the Paricutin region (Fig. Magma output rates of volcanoes at convergent plate boundaries shown on a logarithmic plot of discharge volume against duration of magmatism. Overall m a g m a o u t p u t rate was c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e M G V F f o r t h e last 4 0 . 1 9 8 0 . USSR./1 = Shiveluch. 9). Japan. Fig. Japan. and A m e r i c a range f r o m 0. 1 9 8 1 ) . USSR. SP = Sierra la Primavera during and after the ash flow eruption of the Tala Tuff (95. .120 m o r e likely t o f o r m i n s t e a d o f a c o m p o s i t e v o l c a n o ( F e d o t o v . 3) is also plotted./ 10" 102 i a 103 104 10 5 DURATION OF MAGMATISM 106 [yr] I Fig.3. Wright. 1 9 8 1 . 3 = Edgecumbe. Japan. 10. In Mexico. 1980.4 to 270 k m 3 / 1 0 0 0 y e a r s (Crisp. Japan. In c o n t r a s t Sierra La P r i m a v e r a r h y o l i t i c c o m p l e x has a relatively low m a g m a o u t p u t r a t e of 0. 1 9 8 0 . Crisp. t h e o u t p u t r a t e s o f C o l i m a a n d C e b o r u c o are 2. 15. Chile. 30. 4 = Sakurajima. 6 = Asama. M a h o o d .8 k m 3 / 1 0 0 0 years. Crosses represent the volcanoes from other regions (Wadge.

As an a t t e m p t to make a reasonable basis for comparison. maars. Most of these are cinder cones but also include lava domes. and coneless lava flows. It seems that the myriad vents of the MGVF reflect a small magma discharge rate. (5) For the last 40.000 km 2.8 km3/1000 years. 8 are assumed to represent a magma batch equivalent to that of a single composite volcano. a crater diameter of 230 m and a volume of 0. the MGVF is likely to sample a larger area of magma source region than a composite volcano. Radiocarbon dates were made by Teledyne Isotopes.000 years.A. the median thickness is 40 m and the median length is 3 km. Mahood for K-Ar dates. and probably a small supply rate to the lower crust. Berkely students. Thanks are also offered to many U. t u f f rings.000 years of activity in the MGVF covers an area of 15. 3) yields a magma o u t p u t rate of 0. since composite volcanoes in most volcanic arcs have an average spacing closer than the dimensions of the MGVF (ca. Luhr for his continued guidance in volcanology and Prof. the average magma o u t p u t rate in the MGVF is 0.000 km 2. espe- . 200 km).121 Whether the magma discharge volume of the MGVF is ~equivalent to a composite volcano is difficult to estimate. (4) Some of the late Pleistocene--Recent volcanoes form NE alignments. This value is the lowest among the reported magma o u t p u t rates at convergent plate boundaries. and in the Paricutin region.12 km3/1000 years.021 km 3. which is about 1/7 of the entire MGVF. a value small in comparison to a composite volcano. These calculations indicate that the magma discharge rate for the MGVF is smaller than that of a single composite volcano despite the evidence of geographically extensive volcanic activity. 1984). which parallel the relative motion vector for the Cocos--North America plates.C. 0. For lava flows. CONCLUSIONS (1) The Michoac~in--Guanajuato Volcanic Field (MGVF) contains 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank Dr. (2) The median-sized cinder cone in the MGVF is 90 m high and has a basal diameter of 800 m. Those volcanoes whose o u t p u t rates were calculated for comparison have surface areas less than 500 km 2 (Crisp. J. G. Although the surface area of a volcano does not necessarily reflect its source.040 volcanoes within an area of 40.F.000 years. For example. the Paricutin region (Fig. shield volcanoes. high cone density areas in Fig.12 km3/1000 years. (3) Gully density normalized to a 90 ° arc and the geomorphological classifications of lava flows are sensitive indicators of cinder cone age but have only been calibrated for the last 40. whereas the last 40.

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