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What is a PID Controller

# What is a PID Controller

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PID Controllers
PID Controllers

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09/06/2013

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# 1. What is a PID controller? What is the importance of a PID controller in a feedback controller in a feedback control system?

A proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID controller) is a generic control loop feedback mechanism (controller) widely used in industrial control systems. A PID controller calculates an "error" value as the difference between a measured process variable and a desired setpoint. The controller attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the process control inputs. The PID controller calculation algorithm involves three separate constant parameters, and is accordingly sometimes called three term control: the proportional, the integral and derivative values, denoted P, I, and D. Simply put, these values can be interpreted in terms of time: P depends on the present error, I on the accumulation of past errors, and D is a prediction of future errors, based on current rate of change. The weighted sum of these three actions is used to adjust the process via a control element such as the position of a control valve, a damper, or the power supplied to a heating element. In the absence of knowledge of the underlying process, a PID controller has historically been considered to be the best controller. By tuning the three parameters in the PID controller algorithm, the controller can provide control action designed for specific process requirements. The response of the controller can be described in terms of the responsiveness of the controller to an error, the degree to which the controller overshoots the setpoint, and the degree of system oscillation. Note that the use of the PID algorithm for control does not guarantee optimal control of the system or system stability. Some applications may require using only one or two actions to provide the appropriate system control. This is achieved by setting the other parameters to zero. A PID controller will be called a PI, PD, P or I controller in the absence of the respective control actions. PI controllers are fairly common, since derivative action is sensitive to measurement noise, whereas the absence of an integral term may prevent the system from reaching its target value due to the control action. 2. What are the control components of a PID controller? Proportional (Gain) The error is multiplied by a negative (for reverse action) proportional constant P, and added to the current output. P represents the band over which a controller's output is proportional to the error of the system. E.g. for a heater, a controller with a proportional band of 10 deg C and a setpoint of 100 deg C would have an output of 100% up to 90 deg C, 50% at 95 Deg C and 10% at 99 deg C. If the temperature overshoots the setpoint value, the heating power would be cut back further. Proportional only control can provide a stable process temperature but there will always be an error between the required setpoint and the actual process temperature.

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Derivative (Rate) The rate of change of the error is calculated with respect to time. the more rapidly the controller will respond to changes in the process value. Draw a block diagram of a PID controller in a feedback loop system. and added to the output. The derivative term is used to determine a controller's response to a change or disturbance of the process temperature (e. and added to the current control output. I represents the steady state error of the system and will remove setpoint / measured value errors. opening an oven door).g. 3. The larger the derivative term. multiplied by another constant D. 2 .Integral (Reset) The error is integrated (averaged) over a period of time. For many applications Proportional + Integral control will be satisfactory with good stability and at the desired setpoint. and then multiplied by a constant I.

Temperature Control using a Digital PID controller A typical PID temperature controller application could be to continuously vary a regulator which can alter a process temperature. and converts the measurement to engineering units e. PID control for injection and extrusion applications often employ additional cooling control outputs and usually require multiple controllers.e. This may be a pulsed switching device for electrical heaters or by opening and closing a gas valve. Degrees C. A PID controller (sometimes called a three term controller) reads the sensor signal.4. A heat only PID temperature controller uses a reverse output action. Give at least three applications of a PID controller. It then subtracts the measurement from a desired setpoint to determine an error.g. Water tank Simulink and Bode Plotting 3 . Describe each. i. normally from a thermocouple or RTD. more power is applied when the temperature is below the setpoint and less power when above.

4 . In the transfer function of a PID controller. Kd The eﬀects of increasing each of the controller parameters KP.5. what is the significance of the ff: a. KI and KD can be summarized as: NT: No deﬁnite trend. Minor change.Ki c.Kp b.

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