# Review of Algebra

we have ͑a ϩ b͒͑c ϩ d ͒ In the case where c ෇ a and d ෇ b. we get ͑a ϩ b͒͑c ϩ d ͒ ෇ ͑a ϩ b͒c ϩ ͑a ϩ b͒d ෇ ac ϩ bc ϩ ad ϩ bd This says that we multiply two factors by multiplying each term in one factor by each term in the other factor and adding the products.2 s REVIEW OF ALGEBRA Review of Algebra q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q Here we review the basic rules and procedures of algebra that you need to know in order to be successful in calculus. Arithmetic Operations The real numbers have the following properties: aϩb෇bϩa ab ෇ ba ͑a ϩ b͒ ϩ c ෇ a ϩ ͑b ϩ c͒ a͑b ϩ c͒ ෇ ab ϩ ac (Commutative Law) (Associative Law) (Distributive law) ͑ab͒c ෇ a͑bc͒ In particular. we get Ϫ͑b ϩ c͒ ෇ ͑Ϫ1͒͑b ϩ c͒ ෇ ͑Ϫ1͒b ϩ ͑Ϫ1͒c and so Ϫ͑b ϩ c͒ ෇ Ϫb Ϫ c EXAMPLE 1 (a) ͑3xy͒͑Ϫ4x͒ ෇ 3͑Ϫ4͒x 2y ෇ Ϫ12 x 2y (b) 2t͑7x ϩ 2tx Ϫ 11͒ ෇ 14tx ϩ 4t 2x Ϫ 22t (c) 4 Ϫ 3͑ x Ϫ 2͒ ෇ 4 Ϫ 3x ϩ 6 ෇ 10 Ϫ 3x If we use the Distributive Law three times. putting a ෇ Ϫ1 in the Distributive Law. we obtain 2 ͑a Ϫ b͒2 ෇ a 2 Ϫ 2ab ϩ b 2 . we have ͑a ϩ b͒2 ෇ a 2 ϩ ba ϩ ab ϩ b 2 or 1 ͑a ϩ b͒2 ෇ a 2 ϩ 2ab ϩ b 2 Similarly. Schematically.

take a ෇ b ෇ c ෇ 1 to see the error. it is true that Ϫa a a ෇Ϫ ෇ b b Ϫb To divide two fractions. we invert and multiply: a b a d ad ෇ ϫ ෇ c b c bc d .REVIEW OF ALGEBRA x 3 EXAMPLE 2 (a) ͑2 x ϩ 1͒͑3x Ϫ 5͒ ෇ 6 x 2 ϩ 3x Ϫ 10 x Ϫ 5 ෇ 6 x 2 Ϫ 7x Ϫ 5 (b) ͑ x ϩ 6͒2 ෇ x 2 ϩ 12 x ϩ 36 (c) 3͑x Ϫ 1͒͑4x ϩ 3͒ Ϫ 2͑ x ϩ 6͒ ෇ 3͑4x 2 Ϫ x Ϫ 3͒ Ϫ 2x Ϫ 12 ෇ 12 x 2 Ϫ 3x Ϫ 9 Ϫ 2 x Ϫ 12 ෇ 12 x 2 Ϫ 5x Ϫ 21 Fractions To add two fractions with the same denominator. we use the Distributive Law: a c 1 1 1 aϩc ϩ ෇ ϫ a ϩ ϫ c ෇ ͑a ϩ c͒ ෇ b b b b b b Thus.) To add two fractions with different denominators. it is true that aϩc a c ෇ ϩ b b b But remember to avoid the following common error: | a a a ෇ ϩ bϩc b c (For instance. we use a common denominator: a c ad ϩ bc ϩ ෇ b d bd We multiply such fractions as follows: a c ac ؒ ෇ b d bd In particular.

where rs ෇ Ϫ4.4 s REVIEW OF ALGEBRA EXAMPLE 3 xϩ3 x 3 3 ෇ ϩ ෇1ϩ x x x x 3 x 3͑x ϩ 2͒ ϩ x ͑x Ϫ 1͒ 3x ϩ 6 ϩ x 2 Ϫ x ϩ ෇ ෇ (b) xϪ1 xϩ2 ͑x Ϫ 1͒͑x ϩ 2͒ x2 ϩ x Ϫ 2 2 x ϩ 2x ϩ 6 ෇ 2 x ϩxϪ2 s2t ut s 2 t 2u s2t 2 ؒ ෇ ෇Ϫ (c) u Ϫ2 Ϫ2u 2 x xϩy ϩ1 y y x x ͑x ϩ y͒ x 2 ϩ xy xϩy ϫ ෇ ෇ ෇ ෇ (d) xϪy y xϪy y͑x Ϫ y͒ xy Ϫ y 2 y 1Ϫ x x (a) Factoring We have used the Distributive Law to expand certain algebraic expressions. We sometimes need to reverse this process (again using the Distributive Law) by factoring an expression as a product of simpler ones. Therefore x 2 ϩ 5x Ϫ 24 ෇ ͑x Ϫ 3͒͑x ϩ 8͒ EXAMPLE 5 Factor 2 x 2 Ϫ 7x Ϫ 4. The easiest situation occurs when the expression has a common factor as follows: Expanding 3x(x-2)=3x@-6x Factoring To factor a quadratic of the form x 2 ϩ bx ϩ c we note that ͑x ϩ r͒͑x ϩ s͒ ෇ x 2 ϩ ͑r ϩ s͒x ϩ rs so we need to choose numbers r and s so that r ϩ s ෇ b and rs ෇ c. SOLUTION Even though the coefﬁcient of x 2 is not 1. Experimentation reveals that 2 x 2 Ϫ 7x Ϫ 4 ෇ ͑2 x ϩ 1͒͑x Ϫ 4͒ Some special quadratics can be factored by using Equations 1 or 2 (from right to left) or by using the formula for a difference of squares: 3 a 2 Ϫ b 2 ෇ ͑a Ϫ b͒͑a ϩ b͒ . we can still look for factors of the form 2 x ϩ r and x ϩ s. SOLUTION The two integers that add to give 5 and multiply to give Ϫ24 are Ϫ3 and 8. EXAMPLE 4 Factor x 2 ϩ 5x Ϫ 24.

Ϯ4. Completing the square means rewriting a quadratic ax 2 ϩ bx ϩ c .REVIEW OF ALGEBRA x 5 The analogous formula for a difference of cubes is 4 a 3 Ϫ b 3 ෇ ͑a Ϫ b͒͑a 2 ϩ ab ϩ b 2 ͒ which you can verify by expanding the right side. b is a factor of 24. where b is an integer. Ϯ6. P͑Ϫ1͒ ෇ 30. Ϯ12. b ෇ 5) (Equation 5. a ෇ x. x Ϫ 2 is a factor. For a sum of cubes we have 5 a 3 ϩ b 3 ෇ ͑a ϩ b͒͑a 2 Ϫ ab ϩ b 2 ͒ EXAMPLE 6 (a) x 2 Ϫ 6x ϩ 9 ෇ ͑ x Ϫ 3͒2 (b) 4x 2 Ϫ 25 ෇ ͑2 x Ϫ 5͒͑2 x ϩ 5͒ (c) x 3 ϩ 8 ෇ ͑ x ϩ 2͒͑x 2 Ϫ 2 x ϩ 4͒ x 2 Ϫ 16 . we use long division as follows: x 2 Ϫ x Ϫ 12 x Ϫ 2 ͒ x 3 Ϫ 3 x 2 Ϫ 10 x ϩ 24 x 3 Ϫ 2 x2 Ϫx 2 Ϫ 10 x Ϫx 2 ϩ 2 x Ϫ 12 x ϩ 24 Ϫ 12 x ϩ 24 Therefore x 3 Ϫ 3 x 2 Ϫ 10 x ϩ 24 ෇ ͑ x Ϫ 2͒͑ x 2 Ϫ x Ϫ 12͒ ෇ ͑ x Ϫ 2͒͑ x ϩ 3͒͑ x Ϫ 4͒ Completing the Square SOLUTION Let P͑ x͒ ෇ x 3 Ϫ 3 x 2 Ϫ 10 x ϩ 24. Ϯ3. then Completing the square is a useful technique for graphing parabolas or integrating rational functions. By the Factor Theorem. Instead of substituting further. P͑2͒ ෇ 0. If P͑b͒ ෇ 0. x 2 Ϫ 2x Ϫ 8 (Equation 2. We ﬁnd that P͑1͒ ෇ 12. then x Ϫ b is a factor of P͑ x͒. the possibilities for b are Ϯ1. 6 The Factor Theorem If P is a polynomial and P͑b͒ ෇ 0. EXAMPLE 8 Factor x 3 Ϫ 3 x 2 Ϫ 10 x ϩ 24. we have x 2 Ϫ 16 ͑ x Ϫ 4͒͑ x ϩ 4͒ xϩ4 ෇ ෇ 2 x Ϫ 2x Ϫ 8 ͑x Ϫ 4͒͑ x ϩ 2͒ xϩ2 To factor polynomials of degree 3 or more. Thus. Ϯ2. a ෇ 2 x. b ෇ 3) (Equation 3. we sometimes use the following fact. Ϯ8. a ෇ x. and Ϯ24. b ෇ 2) EXAMPLE 7 Simplify SOLUTION Factoring numerator and denominator.

SOLUTION With a ෇ 5. the equation has no real root. If b 2 Ϫ 4ac Ͻ 0.6 s REVIEW OF ALGEBRA in the form a͑ x ϩ p͒2 ϩ q and can be accomplished by: 1. SOLUTION The square of half the coefﬁcient of x is 4. Adding and subtracting the square of half the coefﬁcient of x. Factoring the number a from the terms involving x. the equation has two real roots. the roots are equal. 2. b ෇ 3.) . If b 2 Ϫ 4ac ෇ 0. Thus 1 1 3 x2 ϩ x ϩ 1 ෇ x2 ϩ x ϩ 1 4 Ϫ 4 ϩ 1 ෇ (x ϩ 2 ) ϩ 4 2 1 EXAMPLE 10 2 x 2 Ϫ 12 x ϩ 11 ෇ 2͓x 2 Ϫ 6x͔ ϩ 11 ෇ 2͓x 2 Ϫ 6x ϩ 9 Ϫ 9͔ ϩ 11 ෇ 2͓͑ x Ϫ 3͒2 Ϫ 9͔ ϩ 11 ෇ 2͑ x Ϫ 3͒2 Ϫ 7 Quadratic Formula By completing the square as above we can obtain the following formula for the roots of a quadratic equation. we have ax 2 ϩ bx ϩ c ෇ a x 2 ϩ ෇ a x2 ϩ ෇a xϩ ͫ ͫ ͩ b x ϩc a b xϩ a b 2a 2 ͩ ͪ ͩ ͪͬ ͪ ͩ ͪ b 2a 2 ͬ Ϫ b 2a 2 ϩc ϩ cϪ b2 4a EXAMPLE 9 Rewrite x 2 ϩ x ϩ 1 by completing the square. (The roots are complex. In general. 2. the quadratic formula gives the solutions x෇ Ϫ3 Ϯ s32 Ϫ 4͑5͒͑Ϫ3͒ Ϫ3 Ϯ s69 ෇ 2͑5͒ 10 The quantity b 2 Ϫ 4ac that appears in the quadratic formula is called the discriminant. c ෇ Ϫ3. There are three possibilities: 1. If b 2 Ϫ 4ac Ͼ 0. 2 7 The Quadratic Formula The roots of the quadratic equation ax ϩ bx ϩ c ෇ 0 are x෇ Ϫb Ϯ sb 2 Ϫ 4ac 2a EXAMPLE 11 Solve the equation 5x 2 ϩ 3x Ϫ 3 ෇ 0. 3.

or 0 (see Figure 1). In case (3) the quadratic ax 2 ϩ bx ϩ c can’t be factored and is called irreducible. it is impossible to factor x 2 ϩ x ϩ 2. 1. we have the following formula. 9 The Binomial Theorem If k is a positive integer. we get ͑a ϩ b͒4 ෇ a 4 ϩ 4a 3b ϩ 6a 2b 2 ϩ 4ab 3 ϩ b 4 In general. we get the binomial expansion 8 ͑a ϩ b͒3 ෇ a 3 ϩ 3a 2b ϩ 3ab 2 ϩ b 3 Repeating this procedure. The Binomial Theorem Recall the binomial expression from Equation 1: ͑a ϩ b͒2 ෇ a 2 ϩ 2ab ϩ b 2 If we multiply both sides by ͑a ϩ b͒ and simplify.REVIEW OF ALGEBRA x 7 These three cases correspond to the fact that the number of times the parabola y ෇ ax 2 ϩ bx ϩ c crosses the x-axis is 2. then ͑a ϩ b͒k ෇ a k ϩ ka kϪ1b ϩ ϩ k͑k Ϫ 1͒ kϪ2 2 a b 1ؒ2 k͑k Ϫ 1͒͑k Ϫ 2͒ kϪ3 3 a b 1ؒ2ؒ3 k͑k Ϫ 1͒ иии ͑k Ϫ n ϩ 1͒ kϪn n a b 1 ؒ 2 ؒ 3 ؒ иии ؒ n ϩ иии ϩ ϩ иии ϩ kab kϪ1 ϩ b k . y y y 0 x 0 x 0 x FIGURE 1 Possible graphs of y=ax@+bx+c (a) b@-4ac>0 (b) b@-4ac=0 (c) b@-4ac<0 EXAMPLE 12 The quadratic x 2 ϩ x ϩ 2 is irreducible because its discriminant is negative: b 2 Ϫ 4ac ෇ 12 Ϫ 4͑1͒͑2͒ ෇ Ϫ7 Ͻ 0 Therefore.

) EXAMPLE 14 (a) s18 ෇ s2 ͱ 18 ෇ s9 ෇ 3 2 (b) sx 2 y ෇ sx 2 sy ෇ x sy Notice that sx (See Appendix A. Here are two rules for working with square roots: 10 sab ෇ sa sb ͱ a sa ෇ b sb However. take a ෇ 9 and b ෇ 16 to see the error. but s Ϫ8 and s Ϫ8 are not deﬁned. b ෇ Ϫ2. 3 4 6 Thus s Ϫ8 ෇ Ϫ2 because ͑Ϫ2͒3 ෇ Ϫ8.8 s REVIEW OF ALGEBRA EXAMPLE 13 Expand ͑ x Ϫ 2͒5. In general. The following rules are valid: n n n ab ෇ s as b s ͱ n n a a s ෇ n b sb 3 3 3 3 3 EXAMPLE 15 s x4 ෇ s x 3x ෇ s x3 s x ෇ xs x .” Thus x ෇ sa means x2 ෇ a and xജ0 Since a ෇ x 2 ജ 0. The symbol s1 means “the positive square root of. n x෇s a means xn ෇ a If n is even. k ෇ 5. then a ജ 0 and x ജ 0. In fact. SOLUTION Using the Binomial Theorem with a ෇ x. the symbol sa makes sense only when a ജ 0. we have ͑ x Ϫ 2͒5 ෇ x 5 ϩ 5x 4͑Ϫ2͒ ϩ 5ؒ4 3 5ؒ4ؒ3 2 x ͑Ϫ2͒2 ϩ x ͑Ϫ2͒3 ϩ 5x͑Ϫ2͒4 ϩ ͑Ϫ2͒5 1ؒ2 1ؒ2ؒ3 ෇ x 5 Ϫ 10 x 4 ϩ 40 x 3 Ϫ 80 x 2 ϩ 80 x Ϫ 32 Radicals The most commonly occurring radicals are square roots.) 2 Խ Խ ෇ Խ x Խ because s1 indicates the positive square root. there is no similar rule for the square root of a sum. you should remember to avoid the following common error: | sa ϩ b ෇ sa ϩ sb (For instance. if n is a positive integer.

we raise both numerator and denominator to the power. Then. . To multiply two powers of the same number. ͑ab͒r ෇ a rb r 5. 2. ͩͪ a b r ෇ ar br b 0 In words. ratios of integers). a r ϫ a s ෇ a rϩs 2. 4. 1. To raise a quotient to a power. we add the exponents. we subtract the exponents. To raise a power to a new power. a ෇ 1 0 1 an n 4. Then we can take advantage of the formula for a difference of squares: (sa Ϫ sb )(sa ϩ sb ) ෇ (sa )2 Ϫ (sb )2 ෇ a Ϫ b EXAMPLE 16 Rationalize the numerator in the expression sx ϩ 4 Ϫ 2 . 5. To raise a product to a power. ar ෇ a rϪs as 3.REVIEW OF ALGEBRA x 9 To rationalize a numerator or denominator that contains an expression such as a s Ϫ sb. we multiply both the numerator and the denominator by the conjugate radical sa ϩ sb. To divide two powers of the same number. we multiply the exponents. these ﬁve laws can be stated as follows: 1. a1͞n ෇ s a m m ͞n n n a ෇ sa m ෇ (s a) 3. x SOLUTION We multiply the numerator and the denominator by the conjugate radical sx ϩ 4 ϩ 2: sx ϩ 4 Ϫ 2 ෇ x ෇ ͩ sx ϩ 4 Ϫ 2 x ͪͩ sx ϩ 4 ϩ 2 sx ϩ 4 ϩ 2 ͪ ෇ ͑ x ϩ 4͒ Ϫ 4 x (sx ϩ 4 ϩ 2) x 1 ෇ x (sx ϩ 4 ϩ 2) sx ϩ 4 ϩ 2 Exponents Let a be any positive number and let n be a positive integer. a n ෇ a ؒ a ؒ и и и ؒ a n factors 2. 3. ͑a r ͒ ෇ a rs s 4. Then 1. by deﬁnition. aϪn ෇ m is any integer 11 Laws of Exponents Let a and b be positive numbers and let r and s be any rational numbers (that is. we raise each factor to the power.

5ac͒ 3. Ϫ͑2 x 2 y͒͑Ϫxy 4 ͒ 4. 3b 1 1 ϩ 20. x 2 ϩ 10 x ϩ 25 40. 52. 2 x 2 ϩ 7x Ϫ 4 36. 6 x 2 Ϫ 5x Ϫ 6 39.10 s REVIEW OF ALGEBRA EXAMPLE 17 (a) 28 ϫ 82 ෇ 28 ϫ ͑23͒2 ෇ 28 ϫ 26 ෇ 214 x Ϫy xϪ1 ϩ yϪ1 Ϫ2 Ϫ2 (b) 1 1 y2 Ϫ x2 2 Ϫ 2 x y x 2y 2 y2 Ϫ x2 xy ෇ ෇ ෇ ؒ 2 2 1 1 yϩx x y yϩx ϩ x y xy ͑ y Ϫ x͒͑ y ϩ x͒ yϪx ෇ ෇ xy͑ y ϩ x͒ xy Alternative solution: 43͞2 ෇ (s4 ) ෇ 23 ෇ 8 3 (c) 43͞2 ෇ s43 ෇ s64 ෇ 8 1 1 (d) 3 4 ෇ 4 ͞3 ෇ xϪ4 ͞3 x sx (e) ͩ ͪͩ ͪ x y 3 y 2x z 4 ෇ x 3 y 8x 4 ؒ 4 ෇ x 7y 5zϪ4 y3 z Exercises q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q A Click here for answers. x 3 Ϫ 3 x 2 Ϫ 4 x ϩ 12 s s s s s s s s s s s s 7. 53. 1–16 s Expand and simplify. x 3 ϩ 3 x 2 Ϫ x Ϫ 3 47. s Simplify the expression. 2. 8 x 2 ϩ 10 x ϩ 3 38. 50. t 3 ϩ 1 41. 9 x 2 Ϫ 36 37. 2 3 4 Ϫ ϩ 2 a2 ab b x y ͞z 2 ϩ 8x 17. ͑1 ϩ 2 x͒͑ x 2 Ϫ 3 x ϩ 1͒ s s s s s s s s s s s 29. 1 1Ϫ cϪ1 1ϩ s s s s s s s s s s 28. x2 ϩ x Ϫ 2 x 2 Ϫ 3x ϩ 2 x2 Ϫ 1 x Ϫ 9x ϩ 8 2 2x 2 Ϫ 3x Ϫ 2 x2 Ϫ 4 x 3 ϩ 5x 2 ϩ 6x x 2 Ϫ x Ϫ 12 ͩ ͪͩ ͪ Ϫ2r s s2 Ϫ6 t 26. 30. a b Ϭ bc ac 1 1 ϩ 2 xϩ3 x Ϫ9 . 25. 9b Ϫ 6 18. xϩ1 xϪ1 22. 5͑3t Ϫ 4͒ Ϫ ͑t 2 ϩ 2͒ Ϫ 2 t ͑t Ϫ 3͒ 9. 8 Ϫ ͑4 ϩ x͒ 1. x 3 ϩ 2 x 2 ϩ x 45. u ϩ 1 ϩ 23. x 2 Ϫ x Ϫ 6 34. ͑4 x Ϫ 1͒͑3x ϩ 7͒ 11. ͑t Ϫ 5͒2 Ϫ 2͑t ϩ 3͒͑8 t Ϫ 1͒ 15. x 3 Ϫ 2 x 2 Ϫ 23 x ϩ 60 48. 2 x ϩ 12 x 3 31. ͑4 Ϫ 3x͒ x 6. x ͞y z u uϩ1 49–54 49. x 3 ϩ 5 x 2 Ϫ 2 x Ϫ 24 s s s s s s s s 17–28 s Perform the indicated operations and simplify. 1 ϩ 1 1ϩ 1 1ϩx s s s s s s s s s s 29–48 s Factor the expression. ͑Ϫ6ab͒͑0. 5ab Ϫ 8abc 32. x 2 ϩ 7x ϩ 6 33. 4͑ x 2 Ϫ x ϩ 2͒ Ϫ 5͑ x 2 Ϫ 2 x ϩ 1͒ 8. 4 t 2 Ϫ 9s 2 42. xϩ5 xϪ3 21. ͑2 x Ϫ 1͒2 13. 2 1 2 ϩ 19. 51. 2 x͑ x Ϫ 5͒ 5. y 4͑6 Ϫ y͒͑5 ϩ y͒ 14. x 3 Ϫ 4 x 2 ϩ 5 x Ϫ 2 46. x ͑ x Ϫ 1͒͑ x ϩ 2͒ 12. Ϫ2͑4 Ϫ 3a͒ 1 cϪ1 27. 24. x 2 Ϫ 2 x Ϫ 8 35. x 3 Ϫ 27 44. ͑2 ϩ 3 x͒2 16. 4 t 2 Ϫ 12 t ϩ 9 s s s s 10. ͑1 ϩ x Ϫ x 2 ͒2 s s s s s 43.

78. 99. 102. 55. 3 Ϫ2 s 3 54 s s State whether or not the equation is true for all values of the variable. 3Ϫ1͞2 91. sxy sx 3 y s s s s s s s 79. x 3 ϩ 3 x 2 ϩ x Ϫ 1 ෇ 0 s s s s s s s s s s ͱ 4 s 1 (st ) 5 t 1͞2sst s 2͞ 3 s s s s s s s 98. 74. (s 8 x5 s 4 sx 3 s s s s s s s 5 y6 95. x 1 ෇ xϩy 1ϩy 2 1 2 ෇ ϩ 4ϩx 2 x 83–100 Use the Laws of Exponents to rewrite and simplify the expression. 310 ϫ 9 8 84. x 2 Ϫ 16 x ϩ 80 58. s s x 2 Ϫ 2 x2 ϩ x Ϫ 2 x Ϫ 5x ϩ 4 s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s 85. 6 Ϫ 4͑ x ϩ a͒ ෇ 6 Ϫ 4 x Ϫ 4 a s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s 83. x Ϫ 2 x Ϫ 8 ෇ 0 2 61. 73. s 115. ͑a ϩ b͒7 4 105. sx 2 ϩ x Ϫ sx 2 Ϫ x s s s s s s s s s s 2 5 109–116 77–82 s Simplify the radicals. 69–72 s Which of the quadratics are irreducible? 70. ͑ xϪ5 y 3z 10 ͒Ϫ3͞ 5 4 a) 96. 77. 104. x 2 ϩ 2 x ϩ 5 57. 4 x 2 ϩ 4 x Ϫ 2 s s s s s s s s s s 89. 87. x 3 Ϫ 2 x ϩ 1 ෇ 0 s s s s s s s s s s 97. s s s s s s s s s s s 101–108 101. 62. ͑ x 3͒4 ෇ x 7 116. 961͞ 5 92. 106. ͑2 x 2 y 4 ͒3͞2 s s s 90. 16 16 113. ͑a ϩ b͒6 75. a n ϫ a 2 nϩ1 a nϪ2 xϪ1 ϩ yϪ1 ͑ x ϩ y͒Ϫ1 55–60 s Complete the square. 125 2 ͞3 93. sx 2 ϩ 4 ෇ x ϩ 2 Խ Խ a 16 ϩ a ෇1ϩ 111. 4 4 r 2nϩ1 ϫ s r Ϫ1 100. 103. ͑3 ϩ x ͒ s s s s s s s s s s 107.REVIEW OF ALGEBRA x 11 54. ͑ x Ϫ 1͒ 2 s s s s 76. s s s s 4 32 x 4 s 4 2 s 5 96 a6 s 5 s3a s s s s s 109. 2 x 2 ϩ 7x ϩ 2 ෇ 0 68. s Rationalize the expression. 56. 82. 3 x 2 ϩ 5 x ϩ 1 ෇ 0 67. x 2 Ϫ 2 x Ϫ 7 ෇ 0 66. 216 ϫ 410 ϫ 16 6 . 64Ϫ4͞3 94. 2 x 2 ϩ 3 x ϩ 4 71. s16a 4b 3 s s s s 1 ෇xϩy 112. Ϫ1 x ϩ yϪ1 114. 88. 2 x 2 ϩ 9 x ϩ 4 72. x ϩ 9 x Ϫ 10 ෇ 0 63. x 2 ϩ 3 x ϩ 1 60. s 3 61–68 2 2 s Solve the equation. x 2 Ϫ 5 x ϩ 10 59. x ϩ 9 x Ϫ 1 ෇ 0 65. sx 2 ϩ 3 x ϩ 4 Ϫ x s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s 108. sx 2 ෇ x 110. 3 x 2 Ϫ 24 x ϩ 50 x 9͑2 x͒4 x3 aϪ3b 4 aϪ5b 5 86. 3 x 2 ϩ x Ϫ 6 s s s s s s sx Ϫ 3 xϪ9 x sx Ϫ 8 xϪ4 2 3 Ϫ s5 (1͞sx ) Ϫ 1 xϪ1 s2 ϩ h ϩ s2 Ϫ h h 1 sx Ϫ sy 73–76 s Use the Binomial Theorem to expand the expression. x 2 ϩ 3 x ϩ 6 s s s s s s s s s s s s s s 69. s32 s2 80. s s 64. 81.

92. 9͑ x Ϫ 2͒͑ x ϩ 2͒ 37. xϩ2 54. yz 28. ͑ x Ϫ 1͒͑ x ϩ 1͒͑ x ϩ 3͒ 47. 3 ϩ 2x 2ϩx u 2 ϩ 3u ϩ 1 uϩ1 rs 25. xϩ1 51. Ϫ1 Ϯ s5 2 14. ͑t ϩ 1͒͑t Ϫ t ϩ 1͒ 2 a2 b 88. ͑2 x Ϫ 1͒͑ x ϩ 4͒ 36. Ϫ2. False 60. ( x ϩ ) ϩ 15 4 107. 3t 69. ͑ x ϩ y͒2 xy 1 256 1 s3 91. 3 Ϫ 2 ͞b 2x x2 Ϫ 1 x 23. ab͑5 Ϫ 8c͒ 33. a 2b 2 26. False 116. 30 y ϩ y Ϫ y 4 5 6 66. ͑ x Ϫ 2͒͑ x ϩ 3͒͑ x ϩ 4͒ t 1͞4 s 1͞24 1 x s ϩ3 Ϫ1 x s ϩx xϩ2 49. False 2x sx 2 ϩ x ϩ sx 2 Ϫ x 112. 3͑ x Ϫ 4͒ ϩ 2 . Ϫ5 Ϯ s13 6 68. False 111. 1 x 1͞8 45. x 3 ϩ x 2 Ϫ 2 x 12. 2x ϩ 1 50. 3 26 80. True 115. Ϫ10 62. c cϪ2 zx 24. Ϫ9 Ϯ s85 2 Ϫ7 Ϯ s33 4 64. 2 s2 x 3 y 6 97. 18. 25 95. 4a 2b sb 86. 1. 96. 34. 2 60 35. Irreducible 16. x 2 y Խ Խ 85. x 4 Ϫ 2 x 3 Ϫ x 2 ϩ 2 x ϩ 1 19. 8 78. r n͞2 93. 104. True ) Ϫ5 4 2 109. sx ϩ sy xϪy 108. xϪ2 53. ͑2 t Ϫ 3͒2 43. 2 x 30. ( x Ϫ 5 2 2 105. 2 s2 ϩ h Ϫ s2 Ϫ h xϪ2 x2 Ϫ 9 3 2 2 x 2 Ϫ 6x Ϫ 4 ͑ x Ϫ 1͒͑ x ϩ 2͒͑ x Ϫ 4͒ 56. 3x ϩ 4 sx 2 ϩ 3 x ϩ 4 ϩ x 110. Ϫx ϩ 6 x ϩ 3 8. False 114. 2a 87. 84. 16 x 10 89. y 6͞5 100. a 3͞4 101. 98. ͑ x ϩ 5͒2 40. 71. a2 b2 27. 103. 67. 2 x 2 Ϫ 10 x 4. 243 ϩ 405x 2 ϩ 270 x 4 ϩ 90 x 6 ϩ 15x 8 ϩ x 10 77. x 8 Ϫ 4 x 6 ϩ 6 x 4 Ϫ 4 x 2 ϩ 1 76. Ϫ3a 2bc 2. 55. a 2 nϩ3 90. xϪ8 x ͑ x ϩ 2͒ 52. 4 Ϫ x 7. ͑ x Ϫ 8͒2 ϩ 16 59. 9 x ϩ 12 x ϩ 4 2 2 63. a 6 ϩ 6a 5b ϩ 15a 4b 2 ϩ 20 a 3b 3 ϩ 15a 2b 4 ϩ 6ab 5 ϩ b 6 74. ͑4 x ϩ 3͒͑2 x ϩ 1͒ 38. ͑3 x ϩ 2͒͑2 x Ϫ 3͒ 39. Not irreducible (two real roots) 73. ͑2 x ϩ 1͒2 Ϫ 3 61. False 113. 9͞5 6 y z 99. Ϫ3 t 2 ϩ 21t Ϫ 22 9. ͑ x Ϫ 3͒͑ x ϩ 5͒͑ x Ϫ 4͒ 48. 2 x 3 y 5 3. 1. Խ Խ 41. 4 x Ϫ 3 x 2 2 5. ͑2 t Ϫ 3s͒͑2 t ϩ 3s͒ 81. t Ϫ5͞2 102. Ϫ 15 t Ϫ 56 t ϩ 31 3x ϩ 7 x 2 ϩ 2 x Ϫ 15 15. ͑ x Ϫ 2͒͑ x Ϫ 3͒͑ x ϩ 2͒ x3 94. Ϫ 3 1 29. 2 x 3 Ϫ 5x 2 Ϫ x ϩ 1 17. ͑ x ϩ 6͒͑ x ϩ 1͒ Խ Խ 83. xϪ4 x 2 ϩ 4 x ϩ 16 x sx ϩ 8 3 ϩ s5 2 106. Irreducible 70. Ϫ1 Ϯ s2 11. ͑ x Ϫ 1͒2͑ x Ϫ 2͒ 46. Ϫ8 ϩ 6a 6. a 7 ϩ 7a 6b ϩ 21a 5b 2 ϩ 35a 4b 3 ϩ 35a 3b 4 2 b 2 Ϫ 3ab ϩ 4a 2 22. ͑ x Ϫ 3͒͑ x 2 ϩ 3 x ϩ 9͒ 44. 20. 4 x 2 Ϫ 4 x ϩ 1 13. Ϫ1. 1 ϩ 4 x 21. ͑ x Ϫ 3͒͑ x ϩ 2͒ 79. ͑ x Ϫ 4͒͑ x ϩ 2͒ 31.12 s ANSWERS Answers q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q 1. 4 57. 12 x 2 ϩ 25 x Ϫ 7 10. 2 5s3 82. 1 Ϯ 2 s2 65. Not irreducible 72. x ͑ x ϩ 1͒2 42. y ϩ 21a 2b 5 ϩ 7ab 6 ϩ b 7 75. 2 x ͑1 ϩ 6 x 2͒ 32. ͑ x ϩ 1͒2 ϩ 4 58.